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Tag(s): qa-escapes


Updated article: Using character escapes in markup and CSS

In addition to various editorial improvements, the following significant changes were made to the article:

  1. A “Quick answer” section was added
  2. Two new subsections were added to the section about CSS escapes: “Using escapes with CSS identifiers” and “Sequences and backslashes”

For a detailed list of changes, see the GitHub commit log.

See the updated article.


Updated article: Using character escapes in markup and CSS

The article was updated to using HTML5 markup, and to use HTML5 terminology for character references. Various links and parts of the content were also updated.

German, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian and Ukrainian translators are invited to update their translations.

Categories: Update, w3cWebDesign

New translations into Russian and Ukrainian


byte-order mark (BOM) в HTML (The byte-order mark (BOM) in HTML)

Нормалізація в HTML і CSS (Normalization in HTML and CSS)

Символи або розмітка? (Characters or markup?)

Заміна кодування (X)HTML сторінки на UTF-8 (Changing (X)HTML page encoding to UTF-8)

Використання екранованих символів в розмітці і CSS (Using character escapes in markup and CSS)


byte-order mark (BOM) в HTML (The byte-order mark (BOM) in HTML)

Нормализация в HTML и CSS (Normalization in HTML and CSS)

Символы или разметка? (Characters or markup?)

Замена кодировки (X)HTML страницы на UTF-8 (Changing (X)HTML page encoding to UTF-8)

Использование экранированных символов в разметке и CSS (Using character escapes in markup and CSS)

These articles were translated thanks to Alexandr Shlapak.

New translations into German

The translations of the following articles were also updated.

These articles were translated into German thanks to Gunnar Bittersmann.

Updated article: Using character escapes in markup and CSS

Numerous changes were made to this article to address feedback and also incorporate material on CSS escapes from the character encoding tutorial. This and other changes are described below. View the article.

German, Spanish, and Brazilian and Iberian Portuguese translators should consider updating it.

Description of changes:

  • various parts of the text were rewritten
  • the title and the question were changed
  • the latest template was applied, and various new style conventions that affect the markup
  • two new sections were added relating to CSS
  • substantial changes were made to the Further Reading section

Translators should retranslate the whole article.


For review: 7 new and 3 updated articles about character encoding

Comments are being sought on the following new articles prior to final publication:

  1. Handling character encodings in HTML and CSS
  2. Essential definitions related to character encodings
  3. Choosing & applying a character encoding
  4. Character encoding declarations in HTML
  5. The byte-order mark (BOM) in HTML
  6. Normalization in HTML and CSS
  7. Characters or markup?

These articles have been derived from the former tutorial, which has already undergone a review. Since then, HTML5 has been brought to the fore in the articles and various small changes have been added, including some short summary information.

The three updated articles are the result of merging the tutorial material with existing articles. They are:

The character encoding section of the techniques page relating to HTML and CSS authoring has also been overhauled, to include the new material.

Please send any comments to (subscribe). We hope to publish a final version in one to two weeks.

New translations into Spanish

Thanks to the Spanish Translation Team, Spanish Translation US, the following articles have been translated into Spanish.

New translation: Verwendung von Zeichen-Entity-Referenzen und numerischen Zeichenreferenzen

Thanks to Gunnar Bittersmann the FAQ-based article “Using character entities and NCRs” has now been translated into German (language negotiated).

Categories: Translation needed

New article: Using character entities and NCRs

Read the article

FAQ-based article: What are character entities and NCRs, and when should I use them?

By Richard Ishida, W3C.

Categories: Articles, New resource

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