Closed Community Groups

W3C has created Community and Business Groups to meet the needs of a growing community of Web stakeholders. Community Groups enable anyone to socialize their ideas for the Web at the W3C for possible future standardization. Business Groups provide companies anywhere in the world with access to the expertise and community needed to develop open Web technology. New W3C Working Groups can then build mature Web standards on top of best of the experimental work, and businesses and other organizations can make the most out of W3C's Open Web Platform in their domain of interest.

Learn more about Community and Business Groups.

There are currently 344 closed Community Groups. View current groups

3D FOSS Web Development Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-06

Our mission is to build and share 3D software that can connect and communicate in free and open ways on AR, VR, and 2D displays.

Accessibility Features Community Group

Improving the accessibility features of browsers, other user agents, and operating systems makes every app and web site they render more accessible to people with disabilities. The Accessibility Features Community Group (AFCG) promotes the development of these accessibility features.

People with disabilities will find similar features across browsers and operating systems that also work consistently for all provided content. For content creators, reliable built-in features will help to focus their accessibility efforts on addressing challenges unique to their content. These accessibility features can come in a variety of forms, such as:

  • Always-on features, such as page and app resizing
  • Toggles, such as always-visible focus indicators and high contrast modes
  • Settings, like preferred fonts and smallest text size
  • Fallback features, like automated captions and heading detection

To promote the development of new accessibility features, AFCG will develop a list of recommended accessibility features. This list will include accessibility features already available, but also ideas for new accessibility features that can be shown to work through prototypes. To encourage the implementation of recommended accessibility features, AFCG will track which of these are supported in common browsers and operating systems.

The Accessibility Features Community Group will not develop any normative specification. As such, there will not be any Essential Claims under the W3C Contributor License Agreement or Final Specification Agreement.

Accessibility in India Community Group

This group focuses on accessibility awareness in India. With India, being an IT, it is important to look at accessibility and build awareness on the web and mobile and ebooks.

This group will not publish specifications.

Accessible Infographics Community Group

The goal of the Accessible Infographics CG is to make information graphics, like bar charts and maps, as accessible as possible to all. The plan is to bring together experts and pioneers in the fields of data visualization and accessibility, to create use cases and requirements in a systematic manner, to devise and propose additions to SVG that improve accessible options for data in that and other graphics formats, and to document best practices and tutorials for making infographics accessible.

Accessible Online Learning Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-06

Accessibility is often provided through accommodations. Schools are legally obligated to provide accommodations to enrolled students with identified disabilities, based on their needs—sign language interpreters in lectures for deaf students, digital copies of textbooks for students who are blind or have reading difficulties, extended time on exams for students who need more time due to cognitive or physical disabilities.

With online learning, the obligations are less clear—for example, with MOOCs, where students around the world are taking courses but are not enrolled at the sponsoring school or organization. Also, accommodations are not well established—sign language interpreters and note takers are typically accommodations for the physical classroom. How does an organization ensure they are meeting obligations and giving online students the support they need participate fully and to be successful?

Providers of online learning are best off delivering courses that are accessible out-of-the-box, without the need for special accommodations. And many of the features that provide an accessible experience for people with disabilities benefit all learners. For example, lecture transcripts are an excellent tool for study and review. However, without deliberate attention to the technologies, standards, and guidelines that comprise the Web Platform, accessibility may be difficult to achieve, and learners with disabilities may be left behind.

The activities of the Accessible Online Learning W3C Community Group take place at the intersection of accessibility and online learning. We focus on reviewing current W3C resources and technologies to ensure the requirements for accessible online learning experiences are considered. We also identify areas where additional resources and technologies are needed to ensure full participation of people with disabilities in online learning experiences.

This group will not publish Specifications.

Accessible Playlist Community Group

The mission of this group is to develop a media playlist format, or an extension to an existing format such as XSPF, in order to ensure playlists support all resources necessary to deliver accessible HTML5 media (e.g., media files in multiple formats, captions, subtitles, descriptions, chapters, metadata, and sign language).

Accessible SVG Community Group

Scalable Vector Graphics offers both opportunities and challenges for accessibility. This group will explore the different conditions and circumstances for SVG use, propose clear use cases and requirements and specification text, and make tests so we can have consistent behavior in various user agents (including different screen readers).

ActivityPub Community Group

closed on 2019-03-13 - see also the ActivityPub W3C Recommendation and the Social Web Incubator Community Group.

A group to develop a social web API standard based on Atom Publication Protocol and ActivityStreams.

Ad Ops Speaks on DNT Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

Representatives from various publishers and advertising technology firms in ad operations roles discuss W3C's Tracking Protection Working Group's draft papers on Tracking Preference Expression and Tracking Compliance and Scope, and possibly propose alterations and amendments.

Advancing Web Platform Application Testing Community Group

This community develops test cases, requirements for testing and using the web platform.

It works with existing communities and to enhance them, not replace them.

African Developers Taking on the Web Community Group

The mission of this group is to create and support a Pan-African community of competent, internationally certified IT professionals focused on developing the IT Web and mobile based tools for African Agriculture, Business, Education, Health Care, Government and general Social needs.

Age Labels Data Model Community Group

The objective of the community group is to propose a technology-neutral data model for electronic content labels, i.e. age labels or content descriptors. The data model will include agreed categories and fields that may contain content-specific information. The proposal is planned to include a documentation, code snippet examples and probable queries to support implementing the data model in existing age classification contexts.

The data model proposal and the documentation are planned to serve as guidelines for either existing players to implement the data model in their existing schemes (and thus providing users additional information in an interoperable way) or for new players that plan to label online content and thus reduce the risk of sunk costs.

Agriculture Community Group

The initial mission of the Agriculture Community Group is to gather and categorise existing user scenarios, which use Web APIs and services, in the agriculture industry from around the world, and to serve as a portal which helps both web developers and agricultural stakeholders create smarter devices, Web applications & services, and to provide bird's eye view map of this domain which enables W3C and other SDOs to find overlaps and gaps of user scenarios and the Open Web Platform.

We'll try to collect facts and knowledge from around the world through crowd-sourcing, while, at the same time, build a scaffold for it by quickly gathering key topics from Japanese agricultural stakeholders. Smart Platform Forum supports this early stages by connecting relevant stakeholders in Japan and organising face-to-face meetings if needed to proceed faster.

This group will not publish specifications.

Algorithmic Modelling Community Group

The mission of this group is to propose foundational specifications relating to "algorithmic modelling": a "model", in this context, being a description of the composition and relative dynamic behaviour of the sub-parts of a system, as exemplified by the Object Management Group's Model Driven Architecture. The output of this group may then act as a reference point for groups requiring the use of specific types of models, conceptual and computational being two such.

Annotation UX Community Group

This group will explore annotation user interface challenges, examples, and best practices. The group will produce an informative guide to annotation user experience.

This group will not publish specifications.

AppsDesignLab Community Group

Our mission is to design & prototype ideas for mobile platforms and web apps.

Argument Representation Community Group

Argument-Representation's mission is to recommend a standardized representation for formal argument. It is not intended to augment XML in any other way.

The group does not necessarily commit to creating a novel representation. For instance, after due consideration it could endorse an existing one or recommend accepting an existing one with minor changes.

Formal argument means a formalizable set of connected statements or statement-like objects intended to establish a proposition.

Argumentation Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-06

The Argumentation Community Group will facilitate and promote the use of the Web for all forms of argumentation. The group will discuss and design both argumentation representation formats and systems.

Art & Culture (Museums) On The Web Community Group

The Art & Culture (Museums) On The Web Community Group is an open forum for collaborative discussions about making the Web a better place for the artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance in the museums worldwide. Use cases and requirements collection, gap analysis, standardization ideas incubation and technical proposal might be included in the work scale of this group.

Atomic Data Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-06

Develop a standard for exchanging type-safe data on the web.

Augmented Reality Community Group

The W3C Augmented Reality Community Group is an open forum for collaborative discussions about the intersection of Augmented Reality and the Web, or more simply the Augmented Web. This forum welcomes discussions about related standards, the standardisation process, related market developments and the broader social implications of this new generation of the web.

We believe that the Augmented Web brings a unique perspective that pushes standards, APIs, hardware technologies and the broader web platform to the edge of their performance limits. The Augmented Web embraces the changes brought about by HTML5 and other related standards including Geolocation, DeviceOrientation, DeviceMotion, WebGL, Web Audio, Media Capture & Streams and WebRTC. The Augmented Web integrates all of these disparate technologies into an integrated new vision of the web.

This group will not produce specifications.

Instead it aims to build an integrated community voice that reaches out to all of the other relevant working groups and standards bodies to ensure that the Augmented Web perspective is clearly represented and considered. Our goal is to help ensure that the disparate standards and APIs being planned and implemented by these other groups can be seamlessly integrated into this new vision for the Augmented Web.

Read more about goals and operating guidelines in the Charter:

Automated Planning and Scheduling Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

This group will discuss and advance automated planning and scheduling technologies, in particular planning domain definition languages. Using such languages, developers can define planning domains, these including types, predicates, actions, constraints, and preferences, and can define planning problems. Web technologies can be of use for designing new such languages, e.g., XML, JSON, Semantic Web technologies, and JavaScript. This group will develop a specification for a new planning domain definition language.

Automated WCAG Monitoring Community Group

This group has been replaced by the ACT Rules Community Group - it was closed on March 2, 2020.

Creating (semi-)automated tests for WCAG is key to affordable, large scale research. The tests are designed in a way that they are useable by people with a variety of skills. The results too should be informative, not just to developers, but to website managers, policy makers and disability advocates and others.

The objective of this community is to create and maintain tests that can be implemented in large scale monitoring tools for web accessibility. These tests will be either automated, or semi-automated, in which tools assist non-expert users to evaluate web accessibility. By comparing the test results with results from expert accessibility evaluators, we aim to track the accuracy of the tests we've developed. This allows for an iterative improvement and adjustment of the tests as web development practices change and evolve. It also provides the statistical bases on which large scale accessibility monitoring and benchmarking can be built.

This group will not publish specifications.

BD Comics Manga Community Group

Motion Comics, Web Comics, Visual novels, Interactive Manga, Webtoon, Turbomedia, Parallax strip, Still motion art ... all digital variants of visual narratives share a common underlying model, which must be clearly expressed before a universal publication format can be designed and released as a Web standard.

The mission of the BD Comics Manga Community Group (*) is to study and document, for all kinds of visual narratives expressed digitally, a common conceptual model and associated sets of controlled values.

(*) Bande dessinée, Comics, Manga are terms broadly used for sequential art in Europe, USA and Asia; this underlies the global scope of the study.

BDE-Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials and is led by the Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety (I.N.RA.S.T.E.S.) at NCSR Demokritos.

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Europe in a changing world - inclusive, innovative and reflective societies Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to Europe in a changing world - inclusive, innovative and reflective societies and is lead by CESSDA.

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research, and the Bioeconomy Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine research and the bioeconomy and is led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Health, Demographic Change and Wellbeing Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the Health, demographic change and wellbeing challenge and is lead by the Open Phacts Foundation.

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Secure societies - protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to secure societies - protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens, and is lead by the European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen).

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Secure, clean and efficient energy Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to secure, clean and efficient energy and is led by the Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving (CRES).

This group will not publish specifications.

BDE-Smart, green and integrated transport Community Group

This group closed in April 2016; work has moved to the Big Data Europe Community Group.

This is one of 7 Community Groups established under the BigDataEurope Project, a Coordination and Support Action under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme, each one tailored to a specific Societal Challenge. The discussions in this group will be used to design and realise the ICT infrastructure needed to benefit from big data technologies, maximising the opportunities of the latest European RTD developments, including multilingual data harvesting, data analytics, and data visualisation.

This Community Group is specifically interested in the challenge related to smart, green and integrated transport and is led by the ERTICO.

This group will not publish specifications.

Benchmarking for the Web Community Group

As web "applications" become more complex, it is felt that not only conformance but also performance of software is at issue. This is especially true for those on embedded systems such as mobile terminals. This CG will discuss how to assess performance characteristics of web browsers and web applications and how to provide a method of comparing the performance of various subsystems across different web systems. The group will deliver guidelines on these issues.

Bible Perikopes Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The bible - both as a literary work and as a religious work - has a very typical structure that doesn't always align with regular book structures. The intention of the group is to create a microdata format to allow to specify biblical passages, including perikopes built up from books, chapters, verses and occasionally subverses. There are also different possible translations of the bible.

Big Data Community Group

This group will explore emerging BIG DATA pipelines and discuss the potential for developing standard architectures, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), and languages that will improve interoperability, enable security, and lower the overall cost of BIG DATA solutions.

The BIG DATA community group will also develop tools and methods that will enable: a) trust in BIG DATA solutions; b) standard techniques for operating on BIG DATA, and c) increased education and awareness of accuracy and uncertainties associated with applying emerging techniques to BIG DATA.

Big Data Europe Community Group

The group to discuss technical issues arising from the Big Data Europe Project.

Blockchain and Decentralized Apps Community Group

The group's mission is to discuss and eventually create and propose Web Specifications for creating and using Decentralized app (Dapp) on a Blockchain.

The groups primary activities will be to start discussions with regards to use cases of Dapps on blockchains and identify the issues that we have now. Eventually, the group will publish technical thought papers on Dapps and eventually produce deliverables like sample codes, use cases, proof of concepts, etc. in order for this community group to become a W3C Working Group to propose technical specifications related to creating and using Dapps on Blockchains. The ideal members that should join this group are those who has skills in Web standards and have interests in Blockchain technologies especially in the creation Dapps on Blockchains.

Blockchain Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

The mission of the the Blockchain Community Group is to generate message format standards of Blockchain based on ISO20022 and to generate guidelines for usage of storage including torrent, public blockchain, private blockchain, side chain and CDN. This group will study and evaluate new technologies related to blockchain, and use cases such as interbank communications.

Blockchain Digital Assets Community Group

The group's mission is to discuss and eventually create and propose Web Specifications for creating and using Digital Assets on a Blockchain. The groups primary activities will be to start discussions with regards to use cases of digital assets on blockchains and identify the issues that we have now. Eventually, the group will publish technical thought papers on Digital Assets on Blockchains and eventually produce deliverables like sample codes, use cases, proof of concepts, etc. in order for this community group to become a W3C Working Group to propose technical specifications related to creating and using Digital Assets on Blockchains.

The ideal members that should join this group are those who has skills in Web standards and have interests in Blockchain technologies especially in the creation and using of digital assets on Blockchains.

Blockchain Naming System Community Group

Explore blockchain based naming system used to name wallets and other objects stored in blockchains, such as non-fungible tokens.

Blockchain elements are referred to by a long hexadecimal string. Just like IPv6 addresses, those are hard to remember. Creating human-friendly names that resolve to those strings was deemed an important step for the early adoption of blockchain technologies. Early blockchain developers did not develop DNS extensions for that purpose. They created entirely new alternative naming systems based on the particular blockchain they were working on. We are exploring all options for a unified web based solution to the problem.

Blockchain Wallet & Exchange Platform Community Group

The purpose of this community group is to establish and explore the technology challenges for blockchain wallet and exchange platforms. Working to define the current process and help to explore the options to establish a more secure and cost effective process for all blockchain applications online. We invite all interested parties to join in our community group.

Brand Identity Tokens Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

This Community Group will develop the Design Tokens Architecture: A methodology to collect, store and distribute design tokens systematically at scale, from simple, single brands, to widely complex, multi-brand organizations.

This group will also produce the Design Tokens Architecture Specification to define taxonomy conventions for design tokens and design token systems.

The Design Tokens Architecture Specification will also aim to extend the scope of design tokens from design-specific attributes to textual elements, utilities, code snippets, functions, and assets. And offer broader cross-platform applicability and reliability and cross-team understandability due to the addition of token clusters, token tiers, token categories, and token types.

Brazilian Publishing Community Group

The purpose of the Brazilian’s community group is to promote and foster the discussions around digital publications in Brazil, stimulate the adoption of the EPUB 3.1 standard by publishers and developers.

The local group will translate W3C documents, guidelines and specifications to minimize barriers with the non-native language and help in the understanding of the standards for a growing number of people. It is also the responsibility of this group, bring questions and pertinent feedback to W3C’s Publishing Working Group.

The group will organize regular meetings and events to mobilize more and more participants in local debates and also as a way to stimulate the EPUB 3.1 adoption by the Brazilian publishing industry.

This group will not publish original Specifications.

Bridging GraphQL and RDF Community Group

The aim of this group is to explore how GraphQL and RDF can be combined, and to what respect they can benefit each other.

This group explores possible combinations of GraphQL and RDF. We identify and compare existing approaches that bridge these worlds, collect use cases and requirements for such approaches, and characterize corresponding application areas. This will produce deliverables that may serve as input for one or more possible future standardization efforts.

Examples of application areas combining GraphQL and RDF are:

  • Read/Write Access (CRUD) to and from RDF data via GraphQL queries and/or interfaces
  • Validation of RDF graphs using GraphQL schemas
  • Mapping between GraphQL and RDF-based shape languages

This group aims to produce the following deliverables:

  • An overview of all known approaches that combine GraphQL and RDF. This overview will include a brief description of each approach, the company/organization that has developed it, and links to the corresponding documentation.
  • An analysis of all known approaches that combine GraphQL and RDF. This analysis will include a categorization across one or more facets that will be identified.
  • A final report on suggestions/possibilities for standardization.

Browser Extension Community Group

Problem: There is no cross browser standard for building browser extensions, which requires developers to create extensions for each browser individually.

Proposal/Mission: The Browser Extension group will attempt to standardize extension package structure, API, portability etc., across browsers.

Browser Sync Community Group

The major browsers provide users with a means of synchronizing their data across browser instances, but the services behind that synchronization process are not controlled by users, and users don't have the ability to sync the data of their choice, or sync with other browsers.

Our goal is to create a specification for a browser sync process that gives users more control over their data, gives developers the ability to sync specific data for their web applications, and allows for a diverse marketplace of sync backend providers.

Browsers and Robotics Community Group

This community group will discuss the applications of web browsers as the computer for controlling robots (robotics, in other words). And it will be also intended to feedback knowledge obtained from this discussion to standardization activity about Web of Things.

What kinds of values are contained in using a Web browser not only in drawing graphical user interface but also in controlling and manipulating robots, and what kinds of difficulties and problems are there in that case? To search their answers may become the driving force of this activity.

As an example, there may be the following questions in the discussion:

  • Is a case applying a Web browser as a simple controller of the robots which does not have UI such as screens or the pointing devices still meaningful? For example, connectivity with web services and interlocking operation between robots (Swarm Robotics via web) may be one of its values.
  • Is it possible to relate a graphical user interface of HTML to interactive and physical user interface of the robots? Is it meaningful? As an example, a relation between a physical push button and 'input' type="button" element in the HTML may deserve considering.
  • Are cases using relatively low-level interface used in many robots such as PWM of the motor, digital or analog signal interfaces, I2C, SPI, UART and GPIOs by the application on the web browsers meaningful?
  • Is real-time computing at the same level as RTOS feasible on the web browser-based general-purpose computing environments?

An initial related activity is the Mozilla Factory Open Hardware Project.

Furthermore, this group may publish specifications based on those knowledge such as webGPIO, webI2C API and so on.

Bullet Chatting Community Group

A community group to incubate work on bullet chatting.

Business Data APIs and Interchange Community Group

Today, transmission of business data between software currently happens in the EDI format. This format is confusing, unreadable, and not publicly published. Many implementations are custom and involve high maintenance costs. The goal of this group is to define standards for transmission of various business data in a public, extensible, and humanly readable manner.

Cartography Community Group

The mission of this group is to explore how open data and metadata may be realised through animated maps and games that facilitate forecasting and understanding of risk across knowledge domains. And to help create the necessary tools that are easy to use and produce multimodal accessible resources that engage.

ceddl html attribute-based markup and javascript api Community Group

A lightweigt html attribute-based markup and javascript api you used for surfacing digital data on a web application intended for web analytics, website personalization and DMP implementations. Applying lessons learnt by many implementations of Customer Experience Digital Data Layer (CEDDL) and bringing this back into a specification for the browser.

Chainpoint Community Group

The mission of this group is to establish a standard for creating a universally verifiable proof of any data, file, or series of events, by anchoring data to the blockchain and other sources. This allows anyone to prove the data existed at a point in time and has not been modified.

The group will publish and formalize the Chainpoint specification as a stable reference, maintain a test suite, and take feedback and use cases for the future evolution for the specification.

The Chainpoint Community Group will coordinate with the Blockchain Community Group for general standardization of blockchain-related technology, and will operate according to the Chainpoint CG charter. You can read more about Chainpoint, its history, and goals, on our recent blog post announcing Chainpoint 2.0.

This group invites participants who are actively developing and deploying proof-of-existence, timestamping, and data integrity solutions, who are skilled in blockchain technologies, and who can work on use cases for Chainpoint and related technologies.

Change Tracking Markup Community Group

The mission of this group is to develop a proto-spec for marking up changes to documents.

Character Description Language Community Group

This group will develop Character Description Language (CDL), an XML application for stroke-based representation of any CJK character.

For more information about this technology, see:

* Character Description Language (CDL) draft specification:

* Appendix F: “CJK Strokes Documentation” (Unicode 6.1):

Chinese Digital Publishing Community Group

Chinese Digital Publishing Community Group aims to provide a platform for the Chinese digital publishing industry to share perspectives on Chinese text layout, copyrights and other occupational standards. Also we hope to help build network of contacts within the Chinese digital publishing companies and the publishing industry.

This group will not publish specifications.

Chinese Web Accessibility Community Group

The mission of this group is to help Chinese developers and designers to build an accessible web.

This group will not produce technical specifications.

Client and Server JavaScript APIs Community Group

REST seven's rule was "Code on Demand," meaning the ability for the server to deliver code able to run on the client. Some, to use the same code everywhere, tried to do it with Java, .NET (ActiveX). Today, even Flash is fading out to let this place to JavaScript. HTML5 and offline support contributed in the creation of a bunch of APIs which only made sense on server-side in first place: File/FileSystem, Workers, Sockets, Storage/Session, Blob, ImageData. Most of those APIs, and even the already existing XMLHttpRequest (now in version 2) have been designed from the beginning to be usable via either synchronous or asynchronous APIs from the very early stages (synchronous is not blocking any more the user interface in browsers when used in workers).

Now that the Server-Side JavaScript is rising again either in synchronous and asynchronous implementations, it is time, if we really want interoperable code/libraries/modules, to make those APIs taking into account the server-side context, and then on the other end, to push Server-Side JavaScript implementations to support them. CommonJS started a great project, it is now time to make its ambitions real.

Cloud Computing Community Group

The group will examine and create specifications related to distributed computation and storage, with an XML network transport layer and possible mapping to RDF.

Collaboration on Web MCKVIEIT Community Group

The primary focus of this group is to promote regional awareness regarding web standards (W3C) and provide a platform for discussions. We may also showcase collaborative research on the Web among faculty members as well as students of engineering institutions in and around West Bengal state of India.

Collaborative Software Community Group

The mission of the Collaborative Software Community Group is to provide a forum for experts in collaborative software and groupware for technical discussions, gathering use cases and requirements to align the existing formats, software, platforms, systems and technologies (e.g. wiki technology) with those used by the Open Web Platform. The goal is to ensure that the requirements of collaborative technology and groupware can be answered, when in scope, by the Recommendations published by W3C.

This group is chartered to publish documents when doing so can enhance collaborative technology and groupware. The goal is to cooperate with relevant groups and to publish documents to ensure that the requirements of the collaborative software and groupware community are met.

Colloquial Web Community Group

Status: The group closed on 12 December 2011 due to lack of agreement on shared goals.

The Colloquial Web group evaluates existing practices amongst core web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. It aims to give users and vendors clear reports on deployment and innovation for web applications. Example problem domains include continued use of deprecated constructs, the rise in external services for hosting solutions such as Google Web Fonts or MathJax, and comparing attitudes to RDFa and Microdata. The group researches the relationship between emerging social practices as regards existing technologies and their standards. A central research goal is to study and contribute to changing perceptions of conformance. Though broadly speaking the group has a bias towards empirical and descriptivist methods, it is not constrained to these approaches. It will not for example produce languages, but may create profiles of weighted technique matrices.

Colour blindness accessibility Community Group

The aim of our project is to build new HTML5 specifications that can be used later by developers who wish to create more accessible websites for colour-blind people. The goal is that the specifications, that we are going to suggest, will one day become a standard of HTML5. According to WHO, 246 million people worldwide, whilst not being blind, suffer from moderate or severe visual impairment. This includes various forms of colour blindness and other visual deficiencies such as glaucoma and cataract. Just like everyone else, colour-blind people use the Internet for professional and private purposes. However, they often encounter accessibility problems. Our challenge is to improve their situation by providing easy-to-use HTML5 specifications to developers.

To understand, define and bring solutions to colour-blind people who interact with web interfaces, we are going to conduct user tests with them based on the eye tracking technology. This will allow us to define a corpus of usability rules, according to the level of deficiency of the colour-blind persons. These rules will help us to develop solutions, validate them with other user tests and later develop HTML5 specifications that can be used in CSS.

The challenge is not only helping developers with easy-to-use HTML5 markups, but also make them aware of the situation and together build a better Internet with more accessible websites.

Feel free to join this group if you:

* are suffering from colour-blindness * or have field experience developing accessibility solutions for the colour-blind or other visual impairment * or have experience working with a previous submission to the W3C.

Community I/O Community Group

This group will focus on applying current information technologies to create a foundation of infrastructure for organizing the flow of resources and support with services within human community. All peers (individuals or projects) can state their needs (input) and offers (output). Using Semantic Web, Federated Social Web and other related technologies people can develop various approaches of connecting those needs and offers. Including variants with and without use of currencies.

Computational Legal Decision Support Community Group

2019-07-01: Group closed.

Open access of citizens to public information is fundamental for the effective functioning of (democratic) systems. Within the judicial branch this is often guarded both at local as well as at national level.

The Computational Legal Decision Support community group (CLaDS) considers: the data sources for the system, i.e., documents describing proceedings of lawsuits; scalability of a prototype, i.e., how the data is to be meaningfully represented within the system; distinctions in regard to (semantic) judicial vocabularies; applications outside the legal domain.

The group is in incipient phase and contributions are welcome. Our current focus is: a) the exploration of availability of formal litigations b) specification of the formal means of representation of lawsuit proceedings / legal knowledge.

A extensive proposal is available at .

Consent on the Web Community Group

[closed on 2020-10-30]

The mission of this group is to improve the experience of consent on the web while ensuring it remains adherent to relevant standards and laws. For this, the group will: (i) provide a space for people and stakeholders to come together (ii) highlight and analyse issues and problems about consent on the web (iii) propose and develop solutions.

Some concrete areas for the working of this group are: (a) developing solutions using legal, or technical, or a combination of both; (b) documenting and achieving legal compliance; (c) improving the user experience; and (d) utilising existing and developing new web standards for consent.

Content Blocking Community Group

The mission of this group is to improve web standards by conveying to Working Groups use cases from a content blocking perspective (for example web technologies used in areas related to ad blocking, anti-tracking or even accessibility).

Note: The original name for this group was the Ad Blocker Community Group.

Conversational Interfaces Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

The mission of the Conversational Interfaces Community Group is to enable web developers to collaborate and share conversational experiences for a variety of domains. Most dialogue systems serve interactive experiences in their own domain specific language, causing a fragmented zoo of proprietary formats. For example, Google Home or Alexa do not share a common intermediate representation, which makes writing wide-spread content inaccessible to the mass audience. We study existing specs and design standards to harness proven techniques into common agreement. See the the Community Group's charter.

Core Mobile Web Platform Community Group

This group closed in September 2013. Work has moved to the Web and Mobile Interest Group (

The goal of the Core Mobile Web Platform Community Group (CG) is to accelerate the adoption of the Mobile Web as a compelling platform for the development of modern mobile web applications. In order to achieve this mission, the CG will bring developers, equipment manufacturers, browser vendors, operators and other relevant members of the industry together to agree on core features developers can depend on, create related conformance test suites and provide to W3C (and non-W3C) groups use cases, scenarios, and other input related to successful mobile development.

Read the full charter:

CoVid-19 Remote Meet, Work, Class Community Group

A clearinghouse for experience and guidelines for people who are suddenly called to avoid travel or meetings, work-at-home or do classes online. Focus on current capabilities and future needs.

Croatian Web Developers Community Group

The mission of this group is to create and support a community of competent, internationally certified IT professionals focused on developing the IT Web and mobile based tools for Croatian Agriculture, Business, Education, Health Care, Government and general Social needs.

Cryptoledgers Community Group

This group aims at creating an international and interdisciplinary network of researchers - academic and non-academic - interested in exploring the economic, legal, technical and societal challenges raised and faced by cryptoledger-based applications, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum. The purpose of this group is to enable peer support and collaboration for researchers across institutions and disciplines to achieve a better understanding of the opportunities and risks posed by cryptocurrencies and other cryptoledger-based applications. This group includes those doing theoretical analysis, investigating tools and applications that might hinder or support the adoption of alternative cryptocurrencies, or collaborating on the development of new tools to further promote their deployment worldwide.

This group will not publish specifications.

CSS Accessibility Community Group

Document and describe how browsers and assistive technology currently implement CSS in regards to accessibility and guidance on how they should. The documentation and guidance will be directed at both CSS implementers and developers who use CSS.

CSS Print Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

We are a community of users of CSS print, working together to gather use cases, help with specifications, and advocate for more and better implementations.

CSS Rates and Velocities Community Group

The mission of this group is to create a CSS Module to define the rate of change of CSS property values.

CSS Selectors as Fragment Identifiers Community Group

Decades after the web emerged, hypertext creators pointing to a specific place in a resource they don't control still have to hope or beg that there's a convenient link anchor placed there by the author. CSS selectors let us point anywhere in a document - let's bring them to hypertext! You can see a very rough initial plan of this at

Customer Experience Digital Data Community Group

The Customer Experience Digital Data Community Group will work on reviewing and upgrading the W3C Member Submission in Customer Experience Digital Data, starting with the Customer Experience Digital Data Acquisition submission linked here ( The group will also focus on developing connectivity between the specification and the Data Privacy efforts in the industry, including the W3C Tracking Protection workgroup. The goal is to upgrade the Member Submission specification via this Community Group and issue a Community Group Final Specification.

CV 2.0 - Global Resume Community Group

The purpose of the CV 2.0 - Global Resume group is to move the current textual data and partly chaotic graphical resumes to a well-structured and accessible CV 2.0 that supports applicants as well as recruiters.

The group will publish and update:

  1. specifications on the creation and usage of a CV 2.0,
  2. guidance on the implementation of new systems using the CV 2.0 and integration into existing professional networks or resume filtering software,
  3. templates, styleguides, and more.

See the charter for more detailed information.

CV 3.0 - Global Resume Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

Move the current textual and graphical resume to a structured, accessible, privacy-respecting resume format that benefits both applicants and recruiters while giving applicants ultimate control of their data.

Cyber Controls Ontology Community Group

The goal of this group is to develop a mechanism to organize current and future cybersecurity reference information into a knowledge graph that that conforms to a future Cyber Controls RDF Ontology. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable organizations across industries to achieve their cybersecurity asset governance goals.

Data Driven Standards Community Group

The Data Driven Standards Community Group focuses on researching, analyzing and publicly documenting current usage patterns on the Internet. Inspired by the Microformats Process, the goal of this group is to enlighten standards development with real-world data. This group will collect and report data from large Web crawls, produce detailed reports on protocol usage across the Internet, document yearly changes in usage patterns and promote findings that demonstrate that the current direction of a particular specification should be changed based on publicly available data. All data, research, and analysis will be made publicly available to ensure the scientific rigor of the findings. The group will be a collection of search engine companies, academic researchers, hobbyists, protocol designers and specification editors in search of data that will guide the Internet toward a brighter future.

Data on the Web Best Practices Community Group

This group will continue the work started by the Data on the Web Best Practices Working Group in investigating topics such as data versioning, subsetting, data access and metadata. It will promote discussions about Data on the Web challenges and best practices, evaluating its benefits and any drawbacks. In so doing, the CG will collect new evidence of the DWBP implementation around the world and offer additional material that will help the adoption of the DWBP. Needs for further standardization will be identified.

Data Pipelining Use Cases Community Group

Gathering requirements and discussing data pipelines (think XProc but for JSON, HTML, text, XML, binary, EPUB...)

Data Visualization Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-07

The mission of this group is to provide a unified data model for data visualization, data visualization API, core model of data visualization methods and category, and domain specific data visualization methods (e.g. scientific data visualization), and further, data interactive analysis method.

DataSheets Community Group

Decoupling content and data from HTML, by providing a DataSheet Language (CSS-like) to source, store and apply data to the HTML DOM. The browser will be able to take the responsibility of retrieving the data from a variety of sources and rendering it. The group will outline the language and the full specifications for making this a reality.

Decentralized Communications Community Group

The mission of this group is to specify and build a reference implementation of Decentralized Communications. Decentralized Communications enables natively inter-operable communication services that are able to trustfully use peer to peer connections without having to use central authorities or services. Decentralized Comms are inherently inter-operable without using standard protocols by using the Protocol on-the-fly concept, where the most appropriate protocol stack to be used, is selected and instantiated at run-time.

Decentralized Identity Korean Community Group

The mission of the Decentralized Identity (DID) Korean Community Group includes the following:

  • to facilitate focused discussion in Korean of the Decentralized Identity – Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs), Verifiable Credentials(VC) and of related specifications
  • to gather comments and questions in Korean about those specifications
  • to collect information about specific use cases in Korea for technologies defined in those specifications
  • to report the results of its activities as a group back to the DID Working Group, the Verifiable Credentials Working Group and to the W3C membership and community
  • to share an experience of Decentralized Identity best practice in the aspect of web app developer
  • to share up to date information for Decentralized Identity industry including browser tech, web service, hybrid apps, dapps and extra.

탈중앙 신원 대한민국 커뮤니티 그룹의 임무는 다음과 같습니다.

  • 탈중앙 신원에 관계된 표준(DIDs, VC 그리고 연관기술들)에 초점을 둔 논의를 활성화 합니다.
  • 이들 표준과 관련된 대한민국의 코멘트와 질문들을 모읍니다.
  • 이들 표준에 정의된 기술에 대한 대한민국의 특별한 유즈케이스(Use Case)를 정리합니다.
  • 그리고 이러한 활동 결과를 DIDs 작업 그룹, VC작업 그룹, 그리고 W3C 구성원 및 커뮤니티에 보고합니다.
  • 탈중앙 신원의 개발에 있어 모범사례를 공유합니다.
  • 탈중앙 신원 산업 전반의 최신 정보를 공유합니다.

Decentralized Sharing Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The goal is to work on interoperable sharing between decentralized platforms. The idea is not to design the perfect protocol but find a consensus that would lead to an interoperable data exchange with sync capabilities, access control, discovery, etc.

Decisions and Decision-Making Community Group

The group will discuss and tentatively specify a format for representing decisions, i.e. decision information, so they can be used across diverse systems. Because of the great variety of applications and decision technologies, this format should focus on the generic, core components of decisions and decision-making information. Decisions are a source of information in themselves, i.e. each decision that is made is in itself a piece of information the may need to be stored, tracked, shared, combined and compared to other decisions. The same holds for information about the decision process. In particular, this group will discuss and study how Semantic Web technologies can facilitate the representation and sharing of decision information. Ultimately, the aim of the group is to study and develop technologies and methods to support better, rapid, and agile decision making.

Declarative Dynamic Extensions to HTML Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The mission of this group is to write the specification of a set of HTML declarative extensions that allow :

  • to write factorised HTML (with help of the handlebars template engine), perform some advanced dynamic behaviors (without javascript requirements),
  • and resolve some separation of concerns problems by adding a design layer between styles and the html document itself.

This declarative design layer will provide, by external XML resources (initially called XML Design System Sheets) subset of handlebars templates to describe how user agent have to render the shadow dom of classical HTML elements.
Moreover, the dynamic behaviours will use the data representation separations allowed by integrating model instance elements from XForms to HTML itself. To complete it, an extension will propose a new way to retrieve datas as a form control replacement based on the editor attribute, inspired from XForms specification.

This group will produce reports after discussions, specification(s), and maybe a javascript experimental implementation. One or more of this skills and expertise are desired from participants : HTML, XML, Javascript, and an attention to the importance of the javascript unobstrusive recommendation (declarative HTML should be full functionnal , security reasons, stability...).

This group may publish Specifications.

Declarative Linked Data Apps Community Group

The mission of this group is to produce a specification that describes how Web and Linked Data applications can be built using declarative technologies only, minimizing the need for source code.

Current software development models involve writing source code (mostly in imperative languages) and building programs from it. Source code is prone to bugs, and managing it requires developers. The declarative approach is instead to push as much application logic from source code to data, so that the application can be managed and reused as data itself, while the software become generic and application-independent.

This approach is related to functional languages and to processing pipelines. The generic software works as a processor: it takes the incoming request and the declarative application description and runs it through a pipeline, first retrieving the state of the requested resource (or changing it) and then rendering it into the requested format, such as a Web page. This is similar to an XSLT processor transforming XML documents.

Graphity is a production-level platform for declarative end-user Linked Data applications with an RDF triplestore backend. It processes ontologies describing application structure, which seemlesly combine multiple declarative technolgies: URI templates, SPIN SPARQL templates, XSLT stylesheets (both server- and client-side), and RDF/POST encoding.

Please join this group if you're interested in any practical or theoretical aspects of Linked Data, declarative technologies, or Graphity software.

Declarative WebVR Community Group

Our mission is to define and describe a declarative method for developing VR content.

The hope is to define a new set of HTML tags and CSS properties that will allow web developers across the globe to write VR content for display in modern browsers

Decoders W3C Brasil Community Group

Este grupo pretende reunir discussões sobre os resultados dos eventos de desenvolvimento realizados pelo W3C Brasil e seus produtos resultantes, bem como incentivar reflexões sobre como melhorar, evoluir e manter os aplicativos feitos em atividades como hackdays e hackatons.

This group aims to bring together the discussion on development events conducted by the W3C Brazil and its resulting products, as well as encouraging thoughts on how to improve, evolve and maintain applications made in activities like Hackdays and Hackatons.

Development Linked Data Community Group

Data is commonly considered as a new kind of fuel powering economical, cultural and societal changes. From e-governance to smart cities, many examples can be found to argue for the value of open and connected data. By turning the Web into a data publishing platform Linked Data is a key enabling technology for this.

It has yet to be kept in mind that as of 2012 65% of the world does not have access to the Web and are thus deprived from Linked Data. Furthermore is this population sorely in need for the changes data-driven societies benefit from.

This community group is there to discuss some important questions such as:

* How can development related data be published as Linked Data? * What kind of data is out there and what is relevant to drive societal changes in underprivileged countries? * How can those without Web access can consume open data set published as Linked Open Data? * How can the Linked Data principles be revised to be applicable in Web-less contexts?

This group will not publish Specifications.

Digital Asset Management Industry Business Ontology Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The mission of Digital Asset Management Business Ontology Community Group is to propose, discuss, create and maintain extensions to related to the Digital Asset Management Industry.

Digital Identity Community Group

The mission of the W3C Digital Identity Community Group is to identify and resolve real world identity issues, to explore and build a more secure trusted digital identity ecosystem on internet for people, organizations and things fully controlling, protecting and expressing their identity. Our work focuses on the ecosystem's scalability, interoperability, mobility, security and privacy. We intend to integrate interoperable identity solutions, systems and networks in our ecosystem.

Digital Offers Community Group

This group has closed.

The mission of the Digital Offers Community Group was to improve E-Commerce on the Web by making it easier and more secure for all actors in the ecosystem to manage, distribute, use, and settle digital offers, including coupons, vouchers, rewards, and loyalty programs.

Digital Publication Community Group

This Community Group closed on 5 December 2013. For discussion on this topic, please refer to the Digital Publishing Interest Group:

The growth of the tablet and eReader market, and changes in scholarly publishing, have shown the accelerating impact of the Open Web Platform on digital publishing. For example, ePUB 3.0 no longer subsets W3C standards like HTML5, CSS, SVG, MathML, and Javascript APIs, but uses them in full. It also extends them to cover the various needs of digital publishing. These extensions, and continuing fragmentation among devices, formats, publishers, and distribution networks, suggest an opportunity for W3C to address publishing industry use cases, from novels and prose through to scientific and scholarly publishing, medical and legal publishing, interactive children's books, magazines and more.

The initial aim of the Digital Publication Community Group will be to determine if W3C should invest more heavily in digital publication, and if so, what role it should play. The CG will establish and strengthen active liaisons with existing digital publishing fora, such as the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) which oversees the ePUB specification, as well as digital publishers and distributors of all types.

The Digital Publication Community Group will also explore the idea of one or more workshop on the topic, and provide a forum for open discussions on the future of digital publishing, specifically:

* reducing market fragmentation * describing traditional and emerging publishing workflows, from the technology perspective * creating scenarios and requirements to drive future standardization in W3C Working Groups, including layout, internationalization, security, accessibility, content protection, metadata, and vocabularies.

This group will not publish Specifications.

Digital ssset standard Community Group

The primary mission of the community group is to bring together (top companies, universities, and teams involved in digital finance technology in various industries) and frontier technology in digital finance to push forward the development to digital asset standardization.

What is a digital asset? A digital asset is data with unique identity attributes that are binary coded, owned, or controlled by a company or individual. The data has various manifestations, including text content, images, multimedia, Computer programs, etc. Generally speaking, digital assets include websites and their content, domain names, application software, codes, electronic documents, image content, media content, electronic money, emails, game accounts, other accounts & their content, social network accounts & their relationships and cloud service accounts & their data, etc.

The digital asset on the blockchain owns all the general attributes of digital assets above, it also has other characteristics: the computer programs registered on blockchain ledger or distributed ledger, as well as the virtual assets existed in the form of bit structure, can be programmed. The exchange of assets is essentially the exchange of code. The digital assets on the blockchain can achieve complete disintermediation of autonomous and autonomous point-to-point transactions without the need for third-party manual intervention. Once the asset is issued on the blockchain, the subsequent circulation link can be independent of the issuer’s system. As the asset circulation is changed from single-center control to socialized communication, any channel with resources can become a catalyst for asset circulation, which greatly improve the efficiency of digital asset circulation, and truly achieve the effect of "multi-party issuance and free circulation."

To welcome the era of asset digitization, the group is formed to technically communicate and cooperate with other members, and to develop a broader market together. The problems that we are trying to solve in this group are:

  1. Digital asset operation, trading, development, and supervision standardization;
  2. Formation of industry alliances and specification of industry standards;
  3. Universal education of digital assets

The group aims to support pioneer companies that explore digital assets, encourage communication and cooperation. We are expecting deliverables such as published reports and a service platform on this basis.

Digital Verification Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see the Credentials Community Group instead.

The mission of the Digital Verification Community Group is to study, design, promote, and deploy systems that increase trust on the Web. These systems include, but are not limited to signature systems, data normalization algorithms, and computational proof systems.

Distributed Compute Protocol Community Group

This working group is for the discussion and design of the specification of a protocol for standardized distributed ECMAScript and WebGL applications.

Distributed Compute Protocol (DCP) will become the standard for distributed computing by seamlessly integrating with the internet protocol suite. DCP will be introduced on top of HTTPs/TCP/IP to transmit JSON package files for execution, transforming computational power into a public utility. The Compute Resource Allocation algorithm (CRAa) matches demand for suppliers by efficiently comparing a variety of requirements. DCP is a foundational building block for web 3.0 and is an enabler of technology including, but not limited to, allowing other distributed applications and blockchains to move to the world wide web.

Distributed Tasks Community Group

Common ground for people developing various collaboration software with notion of "tasks." Aiming for increasing interoperability across all such software and improving experience of a person contributing to big number of projects. Emphasis on interoperability, portability and extensibility!

Distributed Trace Context Community Group

Group closed 2018-08-24. This group has completed its work. People interested in this topic should join the Distributed Tracing Working Group (see the list of W3C groups).

The mission of this group was to define the standard for distributed trace context propagation. Distributed trace context is used to enable monitoring and diagnostics scenarios in micro-services environment. It consists of request identifiers and key properties that needs to be propagated from one micro-service to another. These identifiers and properties are used to analyze an end-to-end distributed traces.

The group primary objective was to publish a specification for the protocols to use for distributed trace context propagation. Protocol includes wire format and recommended scenarios to use these protocols in applications, web servers, libraries, and platforms. The group also targetted to produce reference implementation for some languages.

Standardized and universally used trace context propagation protocols enable monitoring and diagnostics scenarios that are hard to achieve otherwise. Authors of libraries, web servers, and application performance management (APM) vendors interested to improve micro-services monitoring and diagnostics story were encouraged to participate in this group.

Distributed User Interfaces Community Group

Current technology and ICT models generate configurations where the same user interface can be offered through different interactions. These new technological ecosystems appear as a result of the existence of many heterogeneous devices and interaction mechanisms. Consequently, new conditions and possibilities arise which not only affects the distribution of the user interfaces but also the distribution of the involved users’ interactions. Thus, we move the focus from addressing the distribution of user interfaces to the distribution of the users’ interactions which poses new challenges that deserve to be explored. In this context Web engineering appears as a fundamental research field since it helps to develop device-independent Web applications with user interfaces capable of being distributed and accessed through different interaction modes. This fact makes Web environments to be especially interesting within the scope of this community group. The main goal is to join people working on Distributed Interactions and share their knowledge in aspects related to new interaction paradigms and the way we can manage them in a distributed setting on the World Wide Web.

Do-Not-Track Community Group

This community group, started by Lee Tien of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, is intended as a companion to the Tracking Protection Working Group with the goal of enabling consumer and privacy groups to participate meaningfully in the WG even if they do not participate in WG conference calls, mailing lists, or in-person workshops. In the short term, this community group's major goal will be to analyze and respond to the First Public Working Draft, which is expected soon.

Document Services Community Group

Document services are client-local, on-prem, or remote services upon documents, portions of documents, or selections of document content. Examples of document services include: spellchecking, grammar checking, proofreading, fact checking, mathematical proof checking, reasoning checking, argumentation checking, and narrative checking. The Document Services Community Group intends to, in coordination with other groups, create a general-purpose architecture, API's, and protocols for both free and paid-subscription-based document services to convenience document service providers and to equip and empower end-users who will be able to make use of multiple document services simultaneously to better author and review documents.

Downloads Enhanced Community Group

The purpose of this group is to enhance the download process via advanced features such as integrity, error correction, improved user experience, fault tolerance (usage of mirrors or a CDN), peer-to-peer integration, and others that are useful.

E-learning: Evolving technologies and growing reach Community Group

This Community Group focuses on e-learning. Participants will discuss new and existing technologies for e-learning and M-learning. The group will also talk about the reach, social change and impact of e-learning.

Efficient Extensible Interchange Community Group

To complete EXI WG's EXI4JSON (EXI for JSON) work on efficient data encoding for JSON. We will also investigate compression, performance and power-reduction techniques using a variety of data representations.

Electronic Governance (eGov) Community Group

The mission of the Electronic Governance Community Group (formerly W3C e-Government Interest Group) is to build and strengthen the community of people who actively develop, use or promote the use of W3C technologies to improve the working of government (Electronic Government) and its interactions with citizens, businesses, civil society and other arms of government (Electronic Governance).

As a part of its activities, the Group will identify and discuss essential areas of technology, organizational and social change, and related policy issues. Such areas include but are not limited to: access and accessibility; cloud computing; data licensing; education and outreach; government as a platform; interoperability; information sharing; innovation and innovation transfer; impact, public value and economic evaluation; knowledge management; mobile government; open government; privacy, security and sensitive data; standardization versus adaptation; transparency and accountability; whole-of-government; and others. The discussions will occur, among other places, on the Group's mailing list, in teleconference seminars, and at face-to-face gatherings. On the topics with sufficient interest and motivated participants, the group will form task forces to produce technical documents and policy recommendations, reach out to relevant communities, and even encourage the formation of specialized EGOV-related community groups.

Electrophysiology of Vision Markup Language Community Group

Exchange of electrophysiological data for post-processing including in clinical trials is gaining increasing importance. Although manufacturers of electrophysiological devices usually provide means for exporting data, these are often restricted to either proprietary or ASCII-based formats which do not provide access to raw data or protocol details. With the need for central reading in multi-centre trials this becomes a major problem. The reading process usually requires all details of a measurement, to allow for properly monitoring compliance with study protocols. Standards for exchanging data have already been approved for other applications of electrmophysiology including EEG or ECG. However, these standards are usually focused on their specific field of application. Common standards are also available, like GDF (General Data Format for Biosignals), EDF (European Data Format), or HL7 and DICOM; however, these standards either do not match the specific requirements of ophthalmic electrophysiology or the efforts to adapt them are very high. Therefore we are proposing an open standard for the exchange of data for electrophysiology of vision based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML).

Emergency Information Community Group

The aim of the Emergency Information Community Group is to support the development of semantic vocabularies and common frameworks for information interoperability to ensure the meaningful sharing and aggregation of information to assist in emergency, crisis, and humanitarian functions. This Community Group provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences, scenarios and requirements, and the development of community specifications to drive future formal standardisation.

Enterprise Ethereum Community Group

The mission of Enterprise Ethereum is building and advancing Ethereum to enterprise grade technology. The group will build, promote and broadly support Ethereum-based technology best practices, standards and reference architectures.

ETL Markup Language Community Group

This group is to discuss requirements for an open standard for describing ETL projects, including project structure, sequencing, data flow transformations, data source connectors, for the purpose of transporting ETL projects between commercial and open source ETL tools.

Experience API (xAPI) Vocabulary & Semantic Interoperability Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

Currently Experience API (xAPI) mostly focuses on providing “structural” interoperability via JavaScript Object Notation Language (JSON). Structural interoperability defines the syntax of the data exchange and ensures the data exchanged between systems can be interpreted at the data field level. In comparison, semantic interoperability leverages the structural interoperability of the data exchange, but provides a vocabulary so other systems and consumers can also interpret the data. Analytics produced by xAPI statements would benefit from more consistent and semantic approaches to describing domain-specific verbs. The xAPI specification recommends implementers to adopt community-defined vocabularies, but the only current guidance is to provide very basic, human-readable identifier metadata (e.g., literal string name(display), description). The main objective of the Vocabulary and Semantic Interoperability Working Group (WG) is to research machine-readable, semantic technologies (e.g., RDF, JSON-LD) in order to produce guidance for Communities of Practice (CoPs) on creating, publishing, or managing controlled vocabulary datasets (e.g., verbs).

experimental protocols Community Group

The mission for this group is to propose a unified, consensual structure for representing experimental protocols in the biomedical domain. This group will start by publishing use cases, discussions on published use cases, evaluations of existing reporting structures, ontologies, minimal amounts of informations, etc applicable to the problem of representing and reporting experimental protocols. This group will address semantic and syntactic issues.

Exploration of Semantic Data Community Group

Semantic data is available widely and semantic data exploration is becoming a key activity in a range of application domains, such as government organisations, education, life science, cultural heritage, and media. Several novel interfaces and interaction means for exploration of semantic data are being proposed, for example exploratory search systems, semantic data browsers, ontology/content visualisation environments and semantic wikis.

Although on the rise, the current solutions are still maturing and need to take into account human factors to make exploration intuitive or employ necessary computational models to aid the intuitiveness and improve the effectiveness of exploration tasks. Lessons also can be learned from the commonalities and differences in exploration requirements between different domains. Hence, greater benefits can be achieved by bringing together expertise from different communities, including HCI, Semantic Web, and personalisation with the potential application domain demands. This group is an effort to bring these community together to benefit from the mutual experiences in solving some new and exciting problems.

This group will not publish specifications.

Exposing and Linking Cultural Heritage data Community Group

The wealth of data about cultural heritage collections held within archives world-wide is of great interest for humanities research and education activities. Yet this data is too often hard to find, created in isolated silos and poorly documented. Large projects such as RES ( , HuNI (, Europeana ( and CLARIAH ( express a clear need for making that data easier to find, link and consume. The mission of this community group is to discuss which standards are needed to facilitate this process. The aim is to produce recommendations for cultural heritage data exposure using the work of RES, HuNI, Europeana and CLARIAH as a starting point.

Exposing IEEE LOM metadata as Linked Data Community Group

This community recommends an approach for exposing IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM), a metadata standard for educational contents, as Linked Data. It is intended as a bridge for linkage of educational metadata into Linked Open Data (LOD). This community aims to describe a mapping of IEEE LOM elements to RDF based on Linked Data principles.

Extensible Data Model Declaration Language for Education Community Group

XDMDL is proposed as a high level schema language that will allow people to define, share, combine, reference and profile data models. The proposal has grown out of a requirement recognised within the education community working in the SCORM and xAPI traditions, and it is intended to pilot the specification by demonstrating how it can help improve data interoperability between software systems designed to manage and deliver learning activities.

Extensible Web Community Group

The Extensible Web Community Group is an incubator for web technologies enabling authors to extends the native web technologies via scripting (ie: shims & polyfills).

Federated Commerce Community Group

Decentralized e-commerce and storefront apps will more easily share and syndicate their products rather than relying on single and proprietary APIs from hosts to operate a storefront. By structuring portable commerce data stores, protocols, and semantics, this group seeks to enable marketplaces to be built more eaily and made more easily discoverable.

This group's efforts will complement existing activities such as Web Payments, Linked Data, and DID, to deliver a search, browse, configure, checkout, and payment workflow for physical and digital products with mostly existing web technologies.

At a higher-level, it would be potentially beneficial to include support for an aggregate query language, (such as SPARQL) to enable applications to query a known network of compatible applications for product information to better support web resource-to-web resource indexing and listing of products, increasing visibility without the need for central search engines. This would potentially utilize HTTP methods to register product catalogs in other web apps or request product catalogs from other web apps, enabling products to be purchased outside of the scope of the original commerce site, creating an aggregate marketing power across the web rather than depending on singular, monolithic e-commerce platforms.

Federated Identities for the Open Web Community Group

The mission of this group is to propose new APIs that allow for secure identity federation across domains on the open web.

Federated Infrastructures Community Group

The mission of this group is to create a set of upper ontologies to describe federated infrastructures and their resources. The ontologies will support a number of use cases to semantically manage the whole life cycle of a resource: discovery, selection, reservation, provisioning, monitoring, control, termination, authentication, authorization, and trustworthiness.

Federated Social Web Community Group

closed on 2019-03-13 - see also the Social Web Incubator Community Group.

This group continues the work of the W3C Federated Social Web Incubator Group (

Federated Timesheets Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

Each project has a timesheet system to track billable hours. Workers often spend time manually filling in this data multiple times.

Instead, we’ll make time tracker apps (locally or on a self-hosted server) expose machine-readable timesheet data through a query endpoint (reader pull) or through a webhook (writer push).

Timesheet data is relatively simple in terms of data format, data replication only flows in one direction, and there are not too many identities involved in the authentication / authorization of the data source connections.

This simplicity makes the “Federated Timesheets” project an ideal case study for Federated Bookkeeping in general. We want to show case how our vision of Federated Bookkeeping can make internet users “connected but sovereign”.

Film Industry Community Group

The aim of the Film Industry Community Group is to explore the implementation of Open Web Platform and Semantic Web technologies within the professional world of filmmaking.

Fixing Application Cache Community Group

This is a group for coordination between developers in the broader community, browser vendors, and specification writers about addressing the existing issues with Application Cache.

Closed on 2013-02-05; see

Follow Public Money all the Way Vocabulary Community Group

Recently, a series of important, and often overlapping, initiatives has emerged in the domains of opening and linking government data. A part of this data is related to economic data such as public budgets and spending, calls for tenders, business registries, prices and financial statements (refer for example to,,,,,

The challenge is to find ways to ask useful and real-life questions in these datasets with minimum effort. We address this issue by proposing a vocabulary to interlink open data with regards to public budgeting and spending, e-procurement and business information.

The proposed Follow Public Money All the Way Vocabulary is based on the efforts of several Semantic Web communities (e.g. Organization Ontology, Registered Organization Vocabulary and Public Contracts Ontology) and will try to incorporate existing practices, principles and standards on the related domains (e.g. IATI standard on aid, open contracting global principles and procurement open data guidelines).

The potential usages of the vocabulary ranges from crowdsourced monitoring and risk assessment of public finance to real-time integration of public budget, tendering and spending information in Business Intelligence systems for stimulating more efficient resource allocation.

Font and Text Community Group

Group closed 2023-10-16

The Font and Text Community Group gathers individuals and organizations interested in discussing and developing specifications and implementations for technologies which operate on and at the interface between text encoding and font formats. Examples of such technologies are shaping engines and text layout applications.

Functional Knowledge Graph Community Group

The mission of FKG group is to create specifications for encoding ontologies that AI Assistants can operate upon enabling them to execute functions embedded in a web page. FKGs are encoded in JSON-LD, this group defines the vocabulary. A detailed proposal can be found at:

Future of e-payments Community Group

This group was created to invent and support new and more secure methods for payments over the internet. Using one's credit card is insecure while using online pay through a third party is tedious, costly and not without legal issues. There is a huge demand for secure online paying. It is time to give the people what they want. It is time to turn the browser into a e-wallet.

Galaxy Metaverse Community Group

Galaxy Metaverse is a virtual space that will include a real estate, communication such as a use of virtual cell phone, fashion, and entertainment which includes games and money in the metaverse.

Geometry API Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see also the W3C CSS Working Group Geometry API.

This group is to explore options and features around a native geometry API for operations on points, vectors, matrices, and so forth. Some features would include finding intersection points, centroids, shape area, and other common use cases, as well as specialized case for mapping.

Geospatial Semantic Web Community Group

GeoKnow addresses a bold challenge in the area of intelligent information management: the exploitation of the Web as a platform for geospatial knowledge integration as well as for exploration of geographic information. This group will bring together scientists, GIS users, linked Data users, data consumers and providers, interested in the exploitation of linked geospatial data.

This group will not produce specifications.

Getting Math onto Web Pages Community Group

We invite you to visit the main site for this Community Group (<>)

There are many technical issues in presenting mathematics in today's Open Web Platform, which has led to the poor access to Mathematics in Web Pages. This is in spite of the existing de jure or de facto standards for authoring mathematics, like MathML, LaTeX, or asciimath, which have been around for a very long time and are widely used by the mathematical and technical communities.

While MathML was supposed to solve the problem of rendering mathematics on the web it lacks in both implementations and general interest from browser vendors. However, in the past decade, many math rendering tools have been pushing math on the web forward using HTML/CSS and SVG.

One of the identified issues is that, while browser manufacturers have continually improved and extended their HTML and CSS layout engines, the approaches to render mathematics have not been able to align with these improvements. In fact, the current approaches to math layout could be considered to be largely disjoint from the other technologies of OWP. Another key issue, is that exposing (and thus leveraging) semantic information of mathematical and scientific content on the web needs to move towards modern practices and standards instead of being limited to a single solution (MathML). Such information is critical for accessibility, machine-readability, and re-use of mathematical content.

This Community Group intends to look at the problems of math on the web in a very bottom-up manner. Experts in this group should identify how the core OWP layout engines, centered around HTML, SVG, and CSS, can be re-used for the purpose of mathematical layout by mapping mathematical entities on top of these, thereby ensuring a much more efficient result, and making use of current and future OWP optimization possibilities. Similarly, experts should work to identify best practices for semantics from the point of view of today's successful solutions.

This work should also reveal where the shortcomings are, from the mathematical layout point of view, in the details of these OWP technologies, and propose improvements and possible additions to these, with the ultimate goal of reaching out to the responsible W3C Working Groups to make these changes. This work may also reveal new technology areas that should be specified and standardized on their own right, for example in the area of Web Accessibility.

The ultimate goal is to pave the way for a standard, highly optimized implementation architecture, on top of which mathematical syntaxes, like LaTeX or MathML, may be mapped to provide an efficient display of mathematical formulae. Note that, although this community group will concentrate on mathematics, many other areas, e.g., science and engineering, will benefit from (and factor into) the approach and from the core architecture.

Handshake Protocol Community Group

The Handshake project aims to solve certificate authorities problems caused by the centralization of the DNS root zone. The goal is to replace the current DNS root zone with a decentralized blockchain database that allows everyone to own a TLD.

To learn more, see

Haptic Interaction on the Web Community Group

Haptic feedback can offer significant benefits in terms of accessibility and usability of touch-based interfaces. Many mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, incorporate built in vibration feedback. The W3C Vibration API [1] will allow Web application developers to utilize vibration effects via Javascript and some have previously proposed the addition of haptic properties to CSS [2] [3].

As new haptic technologies are expected to emerge in the near term, now is the time to bring interested parties from the research, user, and vendor communities together to examine and discuss standardization, accessibility, authoring, and user experience.




Hardware Based Secure Services Community Group

Hardware token are offering secure services in the field of cryptographic operation, citizen identity and payment to native applications. This community group will analyze use cases where browser (and web application developers) could benefit from those secure services. The expected deliverables of this community group are (1) documented use cases, (2) technical requirements for implementing those secure services in user agents, (3) draft APIs, (4) group charter - integrating suggested improvements received during the W3C Hardware Security WG charter proposal review. Note : by hardware tokens, we mean technologies such as secure chips or secure elements, trusted execution environment, TPM....

HFVRP Community Group

This mission of this group is to help re-establish platform interoperability between descendants of the original "High Fidelity Virtual Reality Platform" (HFVRP) open source project.

The group will initially host discussions and coordinate volunteer research efforts in order to identify relevant areas of common ground across HFVRP projects.

For example, it was once possible to use the "interface" client from one platform to connect to a "domain server" hosted on a similar, but different platform. As these projects have continued to evolve, the once-shared protocol version (for example) between them has fallen out of sync, inadvertently breaking the possibility of cross-connections.

By gathering together common interest across multiple projects, this group hopes to then help collectively estimate efforts and help champion neutral sub-projects that can restore specific compatibilities.

It is suggested that neutral community sub-projects emerging from this group adopt the permissive Lesser GNU Public License (LGPL) open source license. LGPL currently seems to align best with the mission at hand and for these reasons:

  • interoperability across diverse projects is likely to be an ongoing, multi-platform, community-driven effort -- adopting LGPL for these components can help ensure the collective community effort remains transparent and improvable across the entire project space
  • as degrees of interoperability are restored LGPL dependencies can be version-managed and upgraded per each projects typical dependency update schedules
  • LGPL is already an approved dependency license across HFVRP projects (ie: all known platforms critically depend on Qt by way of the LGPL) -- by not introducing a new license for these shared efforts, existing open source project audits can remain intact

This effort will hopefully span across diverse project politics, technical minds, and social circles which can come together and approach compatibility as a shared effort.

All platforms forked from the original HFVRP code base are welcome to join forces this way and in particular contributing developers, community members, and any others interested in helping broaden platform interoperability.

Some of the low-level technology skills likely needed to restore interoperability are:

  • familiarity with HFVRP networking protocols and versioning
  • "HFM" internal model formats and corresponding C++ structures
  • overall "Oven" asset baking tool and filesystem layouts
  • Baked asset structures (materials.json, ktx, modded FBX format w/draco compression, etc.)
  • Entities "models.json.gz" world persistence format and "domain server" archive formats
  • "Avatar.fst" and internal blendshape "de facto" standards
  • "Interface" client, "domain server," and "assignment client" JSON configuration formats
  • (as common sub-projects emerge) help setting up multi-project Continuous Integration systems

We think it will be easiest for volunteers in cases where interested projects have remained open source, but all HFVRP projects (including closed source ones) are welcome to join and suggest specific layers or features they would nonetheless be interested in seeing reemerged as a common open source dependency.

This group will not publish Specifications.

High-Performance Computing Community Group

This community group is focused on bringing high performance computing (HPC) to the web. In particular, we're interested in making the computing and data resources that underlie simulation science, scientific computing, and data-centric science easily accessible through web browsers. Our members are working on APIs that expose HPC resources via the web, as well as gateways and web applications that take advantage of these APIs. The major goal of this community is to accelerate the pace of development of web-based HPC applications. Recognizing that we can build on each other's work, and that a consistent approach to developing such tools can enable features that require communication across multiple computing centers, we are interested in sharing technologies and ideas.

HTML Editing APIs Community Group

A group to work on APIs and other functionality related to rich-text HTML editing, such as (1) the contenteditable and designMode attributes (2)The execCommand(), queryCommandEnabled(), queryCommandIndeterm(), queryCommandState(), queryCommandSupported(), and queryCommandValue() methods on the Document interface (3) what exact effect user actions (such as typing text or hitting Enter) should have on rich-text editable regions (4) the Selection interface (5) spellcheck for rich-text editable regions, and (6) other functionality related to the foregoing. The group is expected to work on writing high-quality, detailed technical specifications suited for implementation by major browsers. It will start work with the preliminary specification hosted at, and later add the Selection part of, both of which are currently developed entirely outside the W3C and are not close to interoperable implementation. The group's deliverables are expected to be submitted to the Recommendation track in the WebApps WG after they mature sufficiently.

HTML for email Community Group

Issues around the use of HTML in email - documenting what works, what doesn't, and considering ways to improve the situation

HTML Tidy Advocacy Community Group

The HTML Tidy Advocacy Community Group ("HTACG") is dedicated to the continued support, development, and evolution of the HTML Tidy command line application and library.

The Community in cooperation with the W3C aims to become the canonical release group for HTML Tidy, which has been without a stable, public release since 2008. The Community aspires to achieve the agreement and support of the original and current developers to this end.

The Community will continue to develop HTML Tidy to adapt it to modern standards; to implement testing systems; and to implement robust build systems. The Community will also promote the continued relevance of HTML Tidy in modern software systems.

This group will not publish Specifications.

HTML5 Japanese Community Group

The mission of the HTML5 Japanese Community Group includes the following:

* to facilitate focused discussion in Japanese of the HTML5 specification and of related specifications * to gather comments and questions in Japanese about those specifications * to collect information about specific use cases in Japan for technologies defined in those specifications * to report the results of its activities as a group back to the HTML Working Group and to the W3C membership and community

This Community Group is the successor of the HTML5 Japanese Interest Group. This group will not publish Specifications.

HTML5 Korean Community Group

The mission of the HTML5 Korean Community Group includes the following:

  • to facilitate focused discussion in Korean of the HTML5 specification and of related specifications
  • to gather comments and questions in Korean about those specifications
  • to collect information about specific use cases in Korea for technologies defined in those specifications
  • to report the results of its activities as a group back to the HTML Working Group and to the W3C membership and community
  • to share an experience of HTML5 best practice in the aspect of web app developer
  • to share up to date information for HTML5 industry including browser tech, web service, hybrid apps and extra.

This Community Group is the successor of the HTML5 Korean Interest Group. This group will not publish Specifications.

HTML5 Specifications Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

A group addresses and discusses proposed ideas for HTML5 specifications.

HTTPS in Local Network Community Group

The HTTPS in Local Network Community Group (CG) explores the manner of secure communication between browsers and server-capable devices in local network such as set-top boxes, network attached storages, etc. We propose that this Community Group clarify requirements for browsers and devices in issuing valid certificates and establishment of HTTPS and WebSocket connections over TLS and incubate relevant specifications of APIs and/or network protocols.

This work has four primary purposes:

  • Improve security and privacy of communication between browsers and server-capable devices.
  • Enable web applications in secure contexts to communicate with server-capable devices in local network via XMLHttpRequest, Fetch API, and WebSocket.
  • Enable service discovery mechanisms to advertise existence of TLS-enabled server-capable devices.
  • Encourage adoption and implementation of the specification by browser vendors and device manufacturers.

Given wider support and adequate stability, we plan to migrate the proposals generated in this Community Group to an appropriate standards track, for example the IETF Standards Track or a W3C Working Group, for further contributions and formal standardization.

Hyper Application Markup Language Community Group

Hyper Application Markup Language (HAML) will describe a structure of a web application in a similar way like HTML describe a structure of a single page. If HTML standard allows to create World Wide Web of hyperlinked documents, HAML will allow to create a World Wide Application a Web of hyperlinked reusable micro applications.

Inclusion and Diversity Community Group

This group closed on 2021-05-26.

May 2021: Please, join the Positive Work Environment Community Group with which the W3C Inclusion and Diversity Community Group (ID CG) has merged.

The mission of the group was to increase the presence of under-represented groups at W3C, and strengthen W3C culture by supporting diversity. To serve this mission, the CG determinded to:

  • provide a space to share experiences and information;
  • produce best practices and use case documents regarding gathering data, reporting/feedback mechanisms, and practical ways to support each other;
  • advise the W3C Management (W3M), Advisory Board (AB), Advisory Committee (AC), and Positive Work Environment CG about potential enhancements to our working environment to better support inclusion and diversity.

Inclusive Design for the Immersive Web Community Group

Following on the W3C Inclusive Design for the Immersive Web standards Workshop held in November 2019, the Inclusive Immersive Web Community Group tracks and promotes progress on accessibility issues identified across the many relevant W3C and Khronos groups working on aspects of XR (virtual reality and augmented reality), and ensures progress towards a consistent set of guidance, technologies and techniques to make the Immersive Web accessible to people with disabilities.

The group also acts as a liaison with the XR Access Initiative and its relevant sub-groups.

Work Mode: The primary work modes for the group will be to track and respond to accessibility issues logged in the group's repo. The group will endeavor to have a representative from each of the groups identified as relevant to the progress of the said issues and will meet a minimum of quarterly to review progress on all issues including those which have been logged but have not been actively taken up in order to ensure that there is a coordinated view of issues raised.

Instant Syndicating Standards Community Group

Note: Work has moved to the Read Write Web Community Group.

ISS/IM is an open set of standards that empowers individuals to discover and syndicate information through the help of their own personal social network. As of today, there is no existing technology that allows individuals to share information in a bottom-up manner on a global scale. ISS/IM is a proposal to create just that: a distributed worldwide recommender system perfectly tuned to output a very personalized stream of information for each individual, where information flows from the personal social network towards the whole wide world.

Interactive APIs Community Group

The goal of the Interactive API Community Group is to develop an HTML annotation approach - similar in spirit and style to micro-formats - to equip a piece of UI (e.g., parts of a web page, such as a table or a sub-area) with a programmable interface (API). That is, the goal is to equip pieces of UI with dynamic and programmable behavior, so as to foster reuse on the Web and enable a set of web-based integration scenarios that are currently more the result of hacking and less of principled software development: programmatically operating UIs, extracting data, extracting application logic, and cloning pieces of UIs.

The intuition is to design a new type of interpreted API, the so-called interactive API (iAPI), that enables (i) programmatic access to UIs and (ii) interactive, live programming. The purpose of iAPIs is not merely to provide access to static content inside a web page, but rather to bridge between the Surface Web (the UIs) and the Deep Web (common web APIs and web services).

The concrete results this Group aims to produce are therefore:

- An HTML annotation format for the specification of iAPIs; - An set of programming abstractions and code libraries for iAPI programming; and - A set of supporting browser extensions for iAPI parsing and instantiation.

The final vision is twofold: first, to found a programming paradigm based on the reuse of UIs, i.e., UI-oriented computing; second, to enable interactive, live reuse to non-programmers directly inside the web browser.

Interactive Media Community Group

The Interactive Media Community Group is interested in all forms of interactive media, e.g., interactive storytelling, digital gamebooks, motion comics, visual novels, interactive films, hypervideo, and serious games.

This Group considers and discusses how standardization can support all forms of interactive media. This Group may work on a number of deliverables, reports, and specifications.

Interlinear Text Layout Community Group

The mission of the Interlinear Text Layout Community Group is to: (1) Document use cases and requirements for interlinear text practices. (2) Develop models for the representation of interlinear text. (3) Develop recommendations for other communities working on standards that could support interlinear text presentation requirements (e.g. HTML, CSS, etc.).

The Interlinear Text Layout Community Group aims to serve a broad range of users engaging in manuscript digitization activities, linguistic annotation, multilingual annotation and related where representing interlinear text in web, ebook and related formats is either limited or not currently possible.

Internet of Kendo Secure Equipment Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

Modern Kendo Equipment has been produced based on various standards by machines or craftsmen. In the era of Internet of Things, we think International specifications of Kendo Equipment can be organized and controlled by Web technology with security and safety for usage as well as with respect to the original.

Internet Protocol Identity Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

This group is for the discussion of assigning an IPv6 address for every person on Earth, so everyone has a digital identity.

Each individual could use this to proxy or alias other identifiers, permanent or temporary, over different spans of their lifetime. Thus, a person they can manage their domain names, physical or email addresses, phone numbers, WebRTC address, and other contact info as they wish, flexibly maintaining an identity in a decentralized way not controlled by third-party commercial interests or even governments.

This system could also be used for organizations, businesses, animals, or any other entity that needs an identity.

This group may produce specifications.

Interoperability Remedies Community Group

The mission of this group is to help legal regulators understand and apply Internet and Web architectural principles -- like privacy, security, internationalisation, and accessibility -- when requiring 'big tech' companies to implement technical specifications.

See the CG GitHub page for more information, including a full charter.

This group does not publish Specifications.

JavaScript Web Framework Interoperability Community Group

The JavaScript Web Framework Interoperability Group (The JW FIG) aims to advance the JS ecosystem and promote good standards by bringing projects and people together to collaborate. It develops and disseminates specifications, informed by real-world experience as well as research and experimentation and others, to form JavaScript Web Standard Recommendations (JWSRs), JavaScript Web Evolutionary Recommendations (JWERs), and Auxiliary Resources (ARs) that best leverage what each framework offers.

Knowledge Domain Community Group

Exploring effective architectural and best practices support for publishing content on, and author content for the web effectively expressing knowledge domain specific content according to standard practices in that knowledge domain discipline. By knowledge domain we mean such human disciplines as mathematics, physics, chemistry and other STEM disciplines. We also include disciplines such as music, economics, history and linguistics. We are particularly interested in disciplines that convey knowledge using discipline specific symbology which cannot currently gain effective communication through HTML. We further include domain specific markup systems as well as graphical representation such as SVG rendering.

This group may publish Specifications.

Law and Technology Community Group

The mission of the Law and Technology Community Group is to serve as a place for legal professionals and those interested in the law to share information on how current laws affect the implementation of new web technologies as well as how those new technologies can affect the law.

LDP Next Community Group

Group closed 2023-10-16

LDP Next aims to continue the work started by the LDP Working Group.

LDP Next hopes to address the following topics that were not covered by LDP 1.0: (1) extensibility and discovery — allow clients to easily discover server affordances; (2) inlining on GET and POST — allow clients to request and create multiple resource with a single HTTP request; (3) query / search over LDPCs and LDPRs; (4) access control — provide a mechanism to control access to Linked Data Platform Resources.

Licensed Content Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

Group to discuss how to handle licensed content that is published on the web.

Propose an efficient way forward for all stakeholders.

Content involved: - (stock) photos - song lyrics - video

Currently majority of enforcement relies on identifying unlicensed content, contact publisher or hoster, followed up by DMCA's or proof of ownership/licensing.

Linked Data for Accessibility Community Group

The Linked Data for Accessibility Community Group’s mission is to make accessibility information about buildings, services and routes easier to find — everywhere where people need it. This is done (1) by creating a common and open standard vocabulary for accessibility and (2) by providing a central place for the web community to discuss issues around physical accessibility data. (3) This group may publish Specifications based on the outcome of (1) and (2).

Linked Data Query Language Community Group

Group closed on 2016-04-29.

This group will specify a Query Language for the Linked Data Platform 1.0.

eLDQL will make it possible to query LDP Containers to retrieve their members. It will feature simple/limited filtering capabilities, ordering, aggregation, built-in paging, and resource inlining.

Livestock Data Interchange Standards Community Group

A group of dairy and sheep/beef organisations in New Zealand have agreed to collaborate on standardising the interchange of data about farm animals (livestock) and the management, health, and production information that is recorded for these animals.

There are reasons why it is timely for the New Zealand dairy industry in particular to work on these problems, but we intend the work to support multiple species and to draw on previous international work and be relevant for use internationally.

Locations and Addresses Community Group

There have been several recent efforts to standardize vocabularies for describing locations, using existing geometry specifications. GeoSPARQL, NeoGeo and the EU ISA Programme's Location Core Vocabulary join's vocabulary and more. Is there a set of use cases that an usefully be served by greater collaboration in this space? What problems remain? Where are the awkward edges that need to be knocked into shape?

The mission of the Location and Addresses Community Group is to review the existing efforts in this space (notably GeoSPARQL, NeoGeo, the EU's INSPIRE Directive and and assess whether any use cases would be served by harmonization and/or new standardization work.

This group may produce specifications or use cases and requirements documents, which may be proposed for adoption by the Government Linked Data (GLD) Working Group consistent with its charter (

Machine Learning Schema Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

This group represents a collaborative, community effort with a mission to develop, maintain, and promote standard schemas for data mining and machine learning algorithms, datasets, and experiments. Our target is a community agreed schema as a basis for ontology development projects, markup languages and data exchange standards; and an extension model for the schema in the area of data mining and machine learning.

The goals of this group are:

To define a simple shared schema of data mining/ machine learning (DM/ML) algorithms, datasets, and experiments that may be used in many different formats: XML, RDF, OWL, spreadsheet tables.

Collect use cases from the academic community and industry

Use this schema as a basis to align existing DM/ML ontologies and develop more specific ontologies with specific purposes/applications

Prevent a proliferation of incompatible DM/ML ontologies

Turn machine learning algorithms and results into linked open data

Promote the use of this schema, including involving stakeholders like ML tool developers Apply for funding (e.g. EU COST, UK Research Councils, Horizon2020 Coordination and Support Actions) to organize workshops, and for dissemination

Markdown Community Group

Closed on 2019-08-13 - see the CommonMark instead.

The mission of this group is to specify a syntax and provide tests for Markdown. See

Math Protocol Handler Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

This group's aim is to discuss and agree on the use of a custom protocol handler (math:) and standard parameters for enabling the export of mathematical expressions in MathML to other applications, such as assistive technologies, graphing calculators, math notebooks and other mathematics oriented applications, such as IPython and MATLAB.

For more information, see

MathML Refresh Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

MathML first became a W3C recommendation in 1998. It has wide support in the publishing industry and with assistive technology. MathML has had several updates, but is showing its age and needs to be updated. This group will focus on changes to the MathML 3 recommendation so that it better aligns with the current web environment, eases the burden on browser implementations, and increases support for assistive technology.

The group will propose a new revision for MathML, potentially with profiles for browsers, publishers, and other subgroups such as authors or online tests. The group will also develop tests so that authors/publishers can be confident that what they see as an author is what the user will see as a reader when the same font is used.

Participation is encouraged if you are in involved in publishing, authoring, or rendering math. The group strongly encourages the participation of those involved with browser implementations, recommendations, and APIs that potentially affect the rendering of math.

Meat Products Community Group

The mission of Meat Products Community Group is to propose, discuss, create and maintain extensions to related to meat items commonly traded internationally.

Media Delivery Community Group

The mission of this group is to define several APIs that provide a standardised method of processing, optimizing and delivering images and video over the web

Media Resource In-band Tracks Community Group

This group will develop a specification defining how user agents should expose in-band tracks as HTML5 media element video, audio and text tracks so that Web applications can access the in-band track information, through the media element, in a interoperable manner across user agent implementations.

Media formats of interest are MPEG-2 transport stream, WebM and MPEG-4 file format. Other media formats containing in-band tracks may be considered.

Merchant Community Group

The mission of the Merchant Community Group (“Merchant CG”) is to improve the Web for people and organisations that sell goods or services, or accept donations online. This includes both business-to-business (B2B) merchants, business-to-consumer (B2C) merchants as well as not-for-profit donation acceptors. In this non-technical forum, participants will discuss merchant challenges, how emerging Web technologies could help address them, and what additional Web capabilities may be necessary. Likely topics include:

  • Customer interaction, capture and retention via accessible immersive Web experiences;
  • Web checkout experiences, including the value merchants should gain with W3C's Web payments standards;
  • Emerging regulatory requirements (e.g., related to privacy or accessibility) and ensuring good customer experience;
  • The evolution of Web advertising;
  • Good practices for reducing online fraud;
  • Enhancements to transaction integrity and assurance;
  • Improving mobile Web commerce experiences.


Participants will choose and prioritize discussion topics.

Activities in Scope

  • Education about Web technology trends and the impact on merchants, including through discussions with other W3C groups. These activities will include non-technical briefings.
  • Identification of current merchant challenges, best practices for addressing them, and how those practices may change for various reasons (e.g., due to evolving privacy practices).
  • Communication of merchant use cases and requirements to groups within and outside W3C.
  • Coordinating reviews of the work of other W3C groups (e.g., the Web Payments Working Group, Web Authentication Working Group or Immersive Web Working Group). It is a goal that this group enable high-bandwidth, two-way communication channels with other W3C groups.

Activities out of Scope

  • Development of technical specifications.
  • Discussion of specific products or implementations consistent with W3C's Antitrust and Competition Guidance.

Merging of Web and Mobile APP Community Group

The mission of this community is to be an incubator of optimizing Web technology for the merging of Web and mobile APP, and to develop related requirements and approaches.

Metric Spaces on the Web Community Group

Group closed on 2016-04-29.

The aim of this group is preparation for a future web standard for worldwide valid searchable metric spaces, so that these spaces can be defined by all domain name owners to all interesting topics.

MFX Media Community Group

The exploration and development of media containers that protect and serve the growing needs of the content creator. A media container with global tracking and accountability will ensure the upmost transparency and data management. The world needs a new media file that can meet the modern technological needs.

Microposts Community Group

The purpose of this group is to connect the multidisciplinary (Social Science, Semantic Web, Information Retrieval, ...) research community interested in the study and treatment of low-effort user generated content on the Web (tweets, checkins, status messages, likes,...), called microposts. The objective of this community is to develop ways to leverage this massively growing, yet informationally poor source of data on the Web for different practical use cases.

This group will not publish specifications.

MicroXML Community Group

MicroXML is a subset of XML intended for use in contexts where full XML is, or is perceived to be, too large and complex. MicroXML provides a set of rules for defining markup languages intended for use in encoding data objects, and specifies behavior for certain software modules that access them.

Mixed Reality Service Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The Mixed Reality Service Community Group will work to define an open protocol that provides a mapping between geospatial or virtual coordinates and URIs.

Mixed Reality Service has numerous applications in areas as varied as gaming, autonomous vehicles, health & safety, and affordances for the disabled. More details can be found at

This group will expand upon the work presented at WWW1, and re-introduced in a lightning talk at the initial WebVR meeting in October 2016.

Mobile Accessibility Community Group

The mission of this group is the discussion and investigation of the intersection of mobile and accessibility. A place to discuss emerging efforts, document needs and requirements and investigate emergent techniques and best practices.

This group will not be developing any specifications.

Mobile Web in Indian Languages Community Group

The W3C India Office is setting up this Community Group on Mobile Web in Indian Languages with the objective of addressing the issues concerning with the enablement of mobile, smartphones and next generation wireless devices with Indian Languages support, seamless SMS and MMS sending and receiving in Indian Language , Uniform user experience on the mobile through using Indian Languages, and access to Indian Languages websites from mobiles. The goal is to achieve seamless access and operation irrespective of the mobile manufacturers and service providers. This group will help in building the ecosystem for enhancing the penetration of mobiles in the country to the rural areas using the Indian Languages enablement. The Group will also explore and develop the Indian Language requirements in existing and future Mobile Communication standards.

Multi Markup Community Group

Web Service specifications and vocabularies are faced with the challenge of providing dual (or more) normative (or alternative) markups for their specifications or vocabularies. For example it is becoming common to require both an XML and JSON normative markup for documents and messages.

This group will discuss options and propose practices for authoring and maintaining specifications and vocabularies in multiple markups. This may include, but not limited to, authoring in a 'meta markup' or automatic translation between markup formats.

Multi-technology positioning professionals Community Group

Group closed 2016-09-14.

The MULTI-POS CG will provide use cases, requirements, and other information, to ensure that the state of the art research is recognized in the development of global standards. The MULTI-POS CG bridges the W3C community and the MULTI-POS Marie Curie Initial Training Network.

The MULTI-POS CG has the following goals: 1) Identify business and technology application scenarios based on the new positioning methods; 2) Specify the key technological, scientific, and industrial elements and their relationships in the new positioning ecosystem; and 3) Identify standardization opportunities.

The first concrete work item is a review of the current state of the art, providing a common framework of reference for future work.

What is the benefit (for you): Meet the professionals, get the big picture, have influence on use cases and requirements, get cited.

Multicast Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The mission of the Multicast web community group is to enable multicast IP transport for web traffic to efficiently solve scalability problems in networking and web operations. Please see the charter for details.

Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Community Group

The Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Community Group fosters the development of MQM for translation and localization quality assessment and its interoperability with W3C’s Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0 recommendation. Membership is open to parties interested in contributing to or implementing MQM.

Multilingual Web Sites Community Group

The objective is to produce specifications to facilitate the use and creation of multilingual web sites.

Native Web Apps Community Group

A community driven take on the concepts driving the Widgets and Device APIs. Collectively understood these technologies form the basis for installable web apps. Living in a secured context these applications give the web access to traditionally native capabilities.

Natural Language Interfaces for the Web of Data Community Group

closed on 2019-08-19

The Natural Language Interfaces for the Web of Data Community Group aims at analyzing, modelling, unifying and enhancing natural language interfaces for the Web of Data. The core goal is to improve the reusability of systems and to increase their quality and performance. The group will develop diverse modules as well as an unified data vocabulary and ontology to foster a growing interface landscape. This includes question answering, information retrieval, keyword search, answer verbalisation and so on. Furthermore, the Natural-Language Interfaces for the Web of Data CG will incubate a wide and collaborative environment for researchers, industrials and practitioners. We hope, that research as well as industry projects will support and benefit of this community group’s activity.

Network Maintenance Notifications Community Group

The objective of this community is to discuss the possibility of creating a schema to describe network maintenance notifications. This topic has received traction in the industry, and thus a standard should at least be discussed. Currently the industry is adopting embedded metadata within iCalendar attachments, as well as APIs. A standard could be used in both of these scenarios.

This group may or may not decide to create specifications.

Network-Friendly App and WebApp Best Practices Community Group

Welcome to the W3C Community Group for Network Friendly applications!

In this group, we are looking for contributions to help us reach the widest possible consensus in a critical area facing the mobile industry. Smartphones and smartphone applications have established themselves as a major success story in the industry over the past few years. As the number of smartphones and smartphone applications has increased the industry has learnt much on how to create efficient applications for smartphones. The GSMA has created a set of guidelines for application developers that will enable improvements across a number of areas including application connectivity, power consumption, network reliability and security.

By following these guidelines - Developers will be better equipped to create fit-for-purpose apps - Users will experience more responsive and reliable apps and improved battery life - Mobile operators will see a reduced strain on their networks

For a copy of these guidelines check out

GSMA intends to issue an update of the above document by end of 2012. As such, it has compiled a list of items for inclusion in the update after consulting GSMA’s members; they include network operators and device manufactures. To ensure the new update will have the widest possible support by all communities across the industry, we have created a Community Group called ‘network friendly Developer guidelines’ under auspices of W3C. The new CG is formed with a view to engage other developers or interested parties and reach a consensus as what needs to be added beyond what has already been proposed by GSMA. The proposed items for inclusion are embedded in this document. Check out to download the current suggestions as approved by GSMA.

As the update will be released by end of 2012, all changes should be agreed in time before the actual work of writing and editing the document starts in earnest and no later than 1st September 2012. That means the outcome of activities in the CG would be a list of items for inclusion beyond what has already been proposed by GSMA. The outcome would be considered by GSMA for inclusion when updating the document.

In Brief, the goal and milestones to bear in mind are as follows.


To produce a set of items for inclusion in the updated document beyond what has already been suggested (see the enclosed document)

Key milestones

19th April to 10th August 2012 to discuss the base document and the proposed updates and reach consensus in the CG on any additional proposals 11th August to 18th August is the cooling off period to take on board last minute suggestions and final touches 19th August to 31st August, GSMA will consider the final input from CG prior to commencing work on the update in September

As a rule of thumb, the entire process would be transparent and inclusive to reach agreement by discussion. In the unlikely event of not reaching consensus on burning issues, the (yet to be named) CG chair would make the final decision only as a last resort.

You are invited to actively engage with the process to make the resulting document much better than its debut version. We welcome views and contribution with an open mind.

Networked Data Community Group

The recent years have shown the need to deal with networked data in large-scale, distributed settings. Not only must the systems be scalable, elastic and performant, but also address *ability (usability, manageability, etc.). One key component is doing it the webby way. The Web is the leading concrete exemplar of RESTful design, being the result of posthumous analysis of what was already working with URIs, HTTP and HTML for a system of interlinked documents. Unfortunately the machine equivalent of HTML is still emerging. LinkedData has achieved some powerful results; automated navigation by querying the Linked Open Data cloud shows some of the potential. However many systems also need to evolve and be evolved. This can be expressed as 'service capability' and also needs to be supported with consistency. This should aim to eliminate the wide range of non-interoperable approaches muddling the current landscape of REST APIs through exploiting hypermedia concepts.

The Networked Data Community Group aims to provide a forum for collecting use cases including but not limited to the fields of science data (such as biology, astronomy, etc.), economics data (financial markets, etc.), health care, configuration and systems management, Green IT, and smart infrastructures (cities, etc.). Based on the collection of use cases the CG will derive requirements and write up best practices for dealing with the dynamics of the data.

OFF/X Community Group

[Web] Open Font Format for Exchange -- developing a list of recommendations and best practices in font development for best compatibility with web browsers

Offline URL Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

Currently a file URL (file:///) is the defined way to access a local file in a browser. For various reasons (some outdated) this is not a preferred mechanism. There have been several unsuccessful attempts to create an alternative, but these were focused on application-type functionality and not content.

For content originally created in HTML, it makes the most sense to offer a mechanism to store the file locally in the same format. While, if this is desired, that process is the responsibility of the site, the browser functionality for it must be a recognized standard.

This initiative is focused on creating an offline url standard to access HTML files and containers stored locally in a compressed format, but otherwise behave as close to possible as an online site accessed via http.

The charter for this group is currently under development on GitHub. If you are interested please follow and contribute there.

Oil, Gas and Chemicals Community Group

The Oil, Gas and Chemicals Community Group is intended to study and possibly demonstrate applications of Semantic Web technology to business issues in those industries. An example of the topics the Group could focus on is information describing the equipment used in major capital projects, with an eye to integration of that information with other major parts of the value chain such as production, maintenance and facilities engineering information systems. Another possibility is open publishing of catalog or metadata records according to published ontologies so that the published records can be queried, aggregated and analyzed in order to improve the efficiency and intelligence of searching for relevant resources.

Open and Interactive Widgets for STEM Community Group

The goal of this group is to create a library of open source JavaScript interactive widgets commonly used in STEM educational resources. The widgets will conform to WCAG guidelines and will provide interfaces to various educational technology APIs, such as Tin Can. Examples of commonly used widgets are interactive number lines used in assessments and EPUB 3 eTextbooks, physics simulations, interactive software code editors or graphing calculators that support sonification.

Open and Transparent W3C Community Group

This group closed on 2017-03-16.

Although the World Wide Web (WWW) is an open and free information system, participation in the member-based World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) typically requires paying a membership fee to participate in the Consortium's standards setting groups. As such, the W3C is often criticized as a closed organization by those that are not members of the Consortium. This group aspires to help provide non Members with simple mechanisms to provide feedback to the Consortium (the Consortium's Members and the Consortium's Staff) on topics such as (but not limited to): areas where new Web standards are needed (e.g. to help address some interoperability pain point), Consortium priorities, the evolution of the Web, aligning Consortium's activities with the Web, collaboration with other organizations, etc.

Anyone - including non-Members - is welcome and encouraged to join this group. Participants include technical contributors to Web standards, Web standards Editors and group Chairs. The group also includes participants from the Consortium's "Advisory Committee" and at least one member of the Consortium's elected Advisory Board. Additionally, the group welcomes members of the Consortium's staff.

If someone wants to communicate with this group but does not want to formally join it, that's OK; just send an email to the group's mail list: (see for the list archive and RSS feed information).

This group will not publish specifications.

Open Annotation Community Group

The purpose of the Open Annotation Community Group is to work towards a common, RDF-based, specification for annotating digital resources. The effort will start by working towards a reconciliation of two proposals that have emerged over the past two years: the Annotation Ontology [1] and the Open Annotation Model [2]. Initially, editors of these proposals will closely collaborate to devise a common draft specification that addresses requirements and use cases that were identified in the course of their respective efforts. The goal is to make this draft available for public feedback and experimentation in the second quarter of 2012. The final deliverable of the Open Annotation Community Group will be a specification, published under an appropriate open license, that is informed by the existing proposals, the common draft specification, and the community feedback.

[1] [2]

Open Data Directory Community Group

The Open Data Directory lists products, services and research projects that leverage Linked Data. Currently, the Directory serves as an aggregator of use cases and web sites using Linked Data and is expected to evolve over time in response user requirements. The Directory is a community service project to foster ease-of-use and awareness of Open Data on the Web.

The Directory has an easy to use Web interface enabling users to list: - Organization name - Contact name - Product(s) - Service(s) - Projects & Use Cases

The Open Data Directory periodically gathers Linked Data from designated sites and compiles it into a summarized view of the community. It is a purely Linked Data application and not another "walled garden." Organizations are responsible for publishing their own Linked Data for the Directory to consume.

The Open Data Directory includes some basic visualizations that are expected to expand over time. The site is built on open Web standards and an Open Source data platform hosted on the cloud. All of the data is freely available for download as RDF. The Open Data Directory is open and does not require W3C affiliation.

Open Data Nepal Community Group

A forum for the open network of open data enthusiasts, government officers, students, researchers, and a non-profit leader who are working to improve the condition of open data in Nepal. This space will help individual volunteers, groups, students to collaborate and discuss how one can help to boost the open data momentum in Nepal. This group will not have any criteria and specification, anyone can join and may reuse the group works.

This group will not publish Specifications.

Open Data Spain Community Group

Forum where Spanish public bodies, citizens and industry involved in Open Data and PSI reuse are gathered together to discuss and seize synergies among them. This Group is an evolution of the "Grupo Zaragoza", a non-profit community, composed of all-governmental-level administrations and key players in PSI reuse, which has boosted the Open Data in Spain. Future and ongoing Open Data initiatives may reuse this group's work in terms of technology, formats, ontologies, tools, guidelines, etc.

This group will not create specifications.

Open Educational Resources Schema Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

Our mission is to develop a universal RDF vocabulary to enhance open educational resources throughout the internet.

Open Government Community Group

This group's mission is to discuss and prepare data and API specifications relating to open government information, which may include:

* people, such as legislators * organizations, such as legislatures or committees * people's positions within organizations * areas, such as electoral districts * events, such as elections * documents, such as bills or agendas * speeches, such as those given by legislators in legislatures * votes

The group will base its work on existing standards as much as possible, and re-use existing terms (classes and properties) wherever appropriate.

The group may define various serializations of the specifications, including but not limited to RDF and JSON.

The group will seek consensus around, and support for, these specifications which may then be brought to an appropriate Working Group to advance a specification from draft to standard.

The group will coordinate as appropriate with the Web Schemas Task Force of the Semantic Web Interest Group and other relevant groups within the W3C.

Open knowledge-driven service-oriented system architectures and APIs (KiSS) Community Group

W3C provide a great variety of standards that can be used to build applications that use the Internet as a platform for communication and integration. The open Knowledge-driven Service-oriented System architectures and APIs (KiSS) community group is created for sharing, elaborating and evolving knowledge-driven approaches for system integration. The KiSS community group takes service-oriented architecture as a main paradigm for application creation. However, it is not enough to say that there is a set of some services that can be integrated according to the application needs. The integration is facilitated with semantic descriptions of the services. Furthermore, the special support components are required at system run time in order to allow dynamic composition of the services accordingly semantic representation of adjusted or new system goals. Thus, the community aims to categorise different possible architectures to allow knowledge-driven approach for system integration; it provides reference architectures that also point out possible technologies for the solution implementation. The community targets different application domains and industries in order to benefit from cross-domain vision on development of knowledge-driven systems.

The abbreviation of the community group highlights the integrative nature of the group (small i among K (knowledge), S (service) and S (system)).

The group is managed by 6 re-electable chairs. The roles and responsibilities of the chairs go as follows:

  • General chair: Ideologist. Overall synchronization between different pillars of the KiSS. PR with other groups and external stakeholders. Member attraction, community group development.
  • Chair for integration: Integration technologies, web service composition.
  • Chair for knowledge: Knowledge representation and reasoning standards and methodologies.
  • Chair for devices: Embedded devices, their adoption for KiSS.
  • Chair for services: Web services, standards, methodologies for service definition.
  • Chair for application domains: KiSS in different application domains. Cross-domain learning and development. Benchmarking.

Open Linked Education Community Group

As a burgeoning and emerging area, open linked data for education is currently experiencing momentum across several initiatives and organisations including Open Education, LinkedUp, LinkedUniversities or LinkedEducation., and the Open Knowledge Foundation, to name just a few.

We believe that we are now at a time when these efforts should converge, with this group representing a focus point for the community to collect, capture and adopt the practices that are going to be the foundation of the web of educational data. We therefore set the following set of goals for this group:

1. To collect from existing initiatives the practices currently used to share education-related data on the web. This includes the vocabularies that are employed as well as the ways in which common aspects of the data are being modelled with these vocabularies (e.g.course catalogues, resources, university facilities, research results). Further statistical analysis can provide sound guidance on vocabulary usage within the educational Web of data.

2. To identify common, best practices amongst those and document them (including concrete examples).

3. To facilitate the adoption of these common best practices, through direct interaction with community stakeholders, as well as through showing the benefits of the reuse of data modelling practices in application developments.

While this has some similarities with the idea of “creating an ontology of education”, it is not what we are aiming to achieve. Education is very broad, and our goal is therefore rather to provide common “patterns” that use existing vocabularies for the representation of common education-related data. We do expect this to create resources of interest whenever our efforts will contribute to filling a gap, and to refer to other of such resources (such as LRMI for learning resources) in other cases.

This group will not publish specifications.

Open Science Community Group

Open Science has considered as a alternative of the entire research cycle to improve sustainable value of science. This group's goal is to develop various resource including documents and sources based on an existing knowledge (e.g. open access, open data, open source, etc.) for motivating and smooth landing on doing the open science. As a alternative of a existing scientific paradigm, this group is to introduce a general and standard filed guide for Open Science Research Cycle, to generate a logical alternative for conflict concern for open science, to provide a framework(or IDE) to implement the open science paradigm, and to develop meta data using existing knowledge (e.g. ontology, semantic web, machine learning)

Open Source SEO Community Group

This group closed on 18 November 2014.

A group sharing related interests in the world of Open Source SEO; software, tools, tips, tricks, plugins, coding, scripting and more.

ORCA - Object-RTC API Community Group

NOTE: On 2014-03-17, this group closed in favor of the ORTC CG; please visit

A group of like-minded individuals that are interested in the Object-RTC API model for WebRTC. It's likely these individuals or organizations are also taking part in the IETF RTCWEB and W3C WebRTC working group discussions.

Organisation Profile Documents Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The aim of this group is to explore and develop a set of specifications for Organisational Profile Documents (OPDs). In particular we are interested in the usefulness of a machine readable OPD for the automatic discovery of resources in UK higher education institutions.

Possible outcomes of the project would be:

· Produce a specification for OPD · Create the documentation/supporting materials for OPDs · Promote the OPD to new organisations

There is some support/resource from a UKHE funded project,, more information on OPDs

ORTC (Object Real-time Communications) Community Group

The mission of the Object Real-Time Communications Community Group, is to define Object-centric APIs (client-side at first) to enable Real-Time Communications in Web browsers, Mobile endpoints and Servers.

OStatus Community Group

Closed on 2019-08-13 - see the Social Web Incubator Community Group instead.

OStatus is a suite of protocols that lets people on different social networks interact. This group will develop the next version of the protocol.

OWL: Experiences and Directions Community Group

Everything related to the Web Ontology Language.

PDF and Open Data Community Group

PDF has a reputation of being bad for 'open data', but there are already features of PDF that can be used for storing and retrieving data associated with parts of a PDF file, and more features coming.

A draft charter will be posted soon.

Philosophy of the Web Community Group

Group closed 2023-10-11

Many philosophical issues have arisen in the technical design of Web standards over the years. Philosophical conundrums sometimes seem out of context in the light of seemingly more pressing technical problems. Yet, the very fact that these philosophical problems are constantly raised indicates that they are not easily dispensed with, but should instead be the focus of serious and ongoing long-term discussions.

This is why this CG aims at undertaking such discussions, even outsourcing them to alleviate the task of other groups. To clarify the goal of this CG: it should not be a place to do unconstrained philosophical research but rather a forum to examine issues arising from the W3C technical community. Open discussion and precise descriptions of the minutiae of the Web will help guide the work in the CG, which should output short guides on precise topics to help case progress and discussions in other groups. The PhiloWeb Community group aims to undertake such discussions by bringing together experts from the web and the philosophical community to help the task of "philosophical engineering", a term coined by Tim Berners-Lee.

Physical Ledger Community Group

The initial mission of the Physical Ledger community group is to develop a Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) that allows physical IoT devices to create, disseminate and store transactional data using the web technologies. The group develops a technical specification and produce sample codes. The ideal members are those who has skills in Web technologies and have interests in the IoT technologies.

Places Community Group

Place data has many uses, including augmented reality browsers, gazetteers, location-based social networking games, geocaching, mapping, navigation systems, and many others. In addition, the group will explore how the geospatial industry could best use, influence and contribute to Web standards.

Portable Personal Data Preferences Community Group

A problem with terms of service agreements is that they often require an all-or-none acceptance or rejection. In addition, they may be in a form that is not accessible to persons with disabilities making it difficult to make an informed decision. The mission of this community group is to find ways that help users understand what they are being asked to commit to, and to provide a finer grain of control in terms of what they are willing to share. The overall goal is to put control of personal data into an individual’s hands.

The group's primary activity is to discuss and report on how to make terms of service agreements comprehensible to users and to provide a means by which users can express their preferences regarding their personal data. The reports may include descriptions of use cases, user interface wire frames, plain language proposals, and supports that educate users about personal data and data sharing. The group will define a way for users to express preferences regarding the collection, use, and disclosure of their personal information. These preferences will be "portable" in the sense that they are encoded once and can be used on a variety of platforms including websites, desktops, and mobile devices, among others.

People interested in educating users regarding personal data and data sharing, inclusive user interface design, and the use of plain language in policies and service agreements are welcome.

This group may publish specifications.

Charter (WIP):

Print and Page Layout Community Group

The Print & Page Layout Community Group is open to all aspects of page layout theory and practice. We can and will cover everything from the Crystal Goblet through to specifications and on to the nitty-gritty of writing stylesheets. You will find XSL-FO and CSS discussed here, but you will also find other stylesheet languages, and all are equally welcome.

Private User Agent Community Group

The Private User Agent Community Group is chartered to improve user privacy and user control by designing the User Agent to minimize fingerprinting and to improve the control the user has over information shared over the Web and to improve the security of the User Agent in these regards. The group seeks to standardize the designs necessary to achieve these goals, to develop extensions designed for privacy to mitigate inevitable losses of functionality, to foster consideration of privacy in the design of other Web standards, and to discuss and develop implementations and test suits. Mechanisms for expressing user privacy preferences to servers and content provides are outside the scope of this group.

Process Ontology Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The goal of this group is to provide a process ontology that can be used for workflow logging applications as well as for workflow execution applications. Operational semantics will be defined outside of the OWL ontology language, while the ontological commitment aims to be aligned with other W3C ontologies such as the PROV and Time Ontology. A mapping from/to established workflow languages/models such as BPMN is intended.

Product Tracing & Blockchain Community Group


This is the landing page for Web of Product Traceability Community Group. In the modern commercial society, product traceability is an important technical system to support the business credit of enterprises.Product traceability is also widely used in product quality supervision, modern logistics, financing Mortgage, commercial consumption and other fields. Therefore, many countries and organizations attach great importance to the development of Traceability Technology. Many independent traceability systems have been built by different countries and organizations. Uniform standards will help to improve the interconnection between them. With the development of technology, two-dimensional code has gradually replaced the commodity bar code, and the data contained in the RFID tag can reach 64K bytes, or even more.The article code based on URL is compatible with traditional GS. 1 commodity code and other coding systems.Therefore, an open product traceability network can be established from bottom to top based on WWW technology. Master data, transaction data and event data can be described by XML / JSON technology. Technologies such as Internet of things and blockchain will also play an important role in the network.The web of product traceability community is aims to build an open traceability network that can run on the public Internet.The original closed traceback network will not disappear, they can access to the open network as an autonomous domain.In the field of product traceability, there are also problems of data mining and information security. The community is aims to build various application models and interfaces to mine the value of traceability data.In order to ensure that the traceability data is not leaked, the community also needs to formulate corresponding information security standards to strictly control the access rights of traceability data. This will be a very promising and exciting work. We expect more enterprises and experts to join in and build an open traceability network.

Property Graphs Model and API Community Group

This group will explore the Property Graph data model and API and decide whether this area is ripe for standardization. Property Graphs are used to analyze social networks and in other Big Data applications using NoSQL databases.

The group may want to investigate several extensions to the data model. For example, should nodes be typed; what datatypes are allowed for property values; can properties have multiple values and should we add collection types such as sets and maps to the data model? At the same time, we need to bear in mind that there are several Property Graph vendors and implementations and we may not want to deviate significantly from current practice.

Existing Property Graph APIs are either navigational e.g. Tinkerpop or declarative e.g. Neo4j. For a W3C standard we may want to design a more HTTP and REST-oriented interface in the style of OData Protocol and OData URL Conventions. In this style, you construct URls for collections of nodes and edges. For example, a GET on http://server/nodes would return the collection of nodes on the server. A GET on http://server/nodes/in(type = ‘knows’ ) would return the collection of incoming arcs with type = ‘knows’ and a GET on http://server/nodes/out(type = ‘created’ ) would return the collection of outgoing arcs with type = ‘created’. Once a collection of nodes or arcs is selected with the URI, query operators can be used to add functions to select properties to be returned. Functions can also be used to return aggregate properties such as count and average.

The group will deliver a recommendation to the W3C regarding whether and how the Property Graph work should be taken forward towards standardization.

Public Alert Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The Public Alert CG aims to establish specifications for a regional or global network that can send urgent information to any connected device. PALCG will improve upon US's WEA and intends to implement a similar system globally.

Publications Object Model Community Group

The goal of this CG is to develop specs to describe an object model for Publications (think EPUB, PDF, OOXML, and other complex friends) that hides the complexity of package, metadata and resource access inside those formats. A secondary goal is the development and release of a multi-purpose framework, in at least JavaScript and if possible c++ too, implementing those specs.

PubSubHubbub Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see also the WebSub W3C Recommendation and the Social Web Incubator Community Group.

The group will promote and design a Publish-Subscribe pattern and protocol for the web. The current de-facto protocol for it, PubSubHubbub is already widely used but has a couple issues that we need to address. We hope this protocol can be used in wide range of applications, from social web, to e-commerce or even search engines.

RDF and XML Interoperability Community Group

The goal of this group is to 1) identify application areas in which the combined processing of XML and RDF data and tooling is beneficial; 2) identify issues that hinder the joint usage of the two technology stacks 3) formulate best practices to resolve the issues or propose standardization topics. The goal does not only take into account the data representation formats XML and RDF, but all related technologies (e.g. for XML: XSLT, XQuery; for RDF: RDF Schema, SPARQL) and selected XML (e.g. OData) or RDF vocabularies. The group should be driven by needs of industries that already deploy one or both technology stacks. This will also cover adjacent technologies like JSON with respect to the topics covered in this group. The outcome should focus not on a big architecture of how to work with XML and RDF, but on small building blocks (as best practices or standardization topics) that can be re-used across industries and application scenarios.

Read Write Web Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

The activity of this group is to apply Web standards to trusted read and write operations.

Real Time Interaction Ecosystem Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The Real Time Interaction Ecosystem Community Group provides a forum for global community to discuss, incubate and propose Real Time Interaction related use cases and proposals with the goal to bring more interoperability and robustness to Real Time Interaction ecosystem on the Web.

Rebase Community Group

The goal of this community group is to establish reliable Public Key Infrastructure on the Internet in a privacy-preserving way by allowing people and organizations to link their various public and semi-public accounts to cryptographic key materials at their own will.

Remote DOM Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see the Web Screens Community Group and the Second Screen Working Group instead.

Similarly to how the Shadow DOM paved the way for custom elements using web technologies, a "Remote DOM" could allow display of portions of the web app to be displayed on "remote" (i.e. "external") devices, such as screens, Smart TVs, etc.

This brings interesting capabilities to web apps, such as leveraging external screens for presentation, supplemental content or second screen experiences.

Research Object for Scholarly Communication Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

Research investigations are increasingly collaborative and require ‘‘borrowing strength’’ from the outputs of other research. Conventional digital publications are becoming less sufficient for the scientists to access, share, communicate, and enable the reuse of scientific outputs. The need to have a community-wide container data model to encapsulate the actual research data and methods with all the contextual information essential for interpreting and reusing them is becoming more and more imperative, for the science, publisher, as well as digital library communities.

A number of different community groups and projects are now creating some form of container, bundling or aggregation mechanism (particularly using ORE OAI), partially driven by the above goal. There is a clear need and benefit to facilitate a consensus among these representations. In the ROSC community group we aim to provide an open platform for gathering and discussing current development of various container models and their implementations. These data models should be driven by the need of facilitating the reuse and exchange of the actual digital knowledge and the inspection of the reproducibility of scientific investigation results. They should consider not only the data used, methods employed to produce and analyse that data, but also the people involved in the investigation and annotations about these resources, which are essential to the understanding and interpretation of the scientific outcomes.

As outcomes from the community group we aim to facilitate the establishment of a community data model and a set of community agreements that can effectively assist the establishment of a new form of scholarly communication, that is a prominent issue of today.

This group will not publish specifications.

Resilient Web Community Group

Situations of interrupted work caused by accidental loss of connectivity or by intentional offline work are very frequent. Concerned by the negative effects of interruptions in users’ activities, we are investigating a new approach for the design and development of Web applications resilient to interruptions. In order to help users to recover from interruptions whilst navigating Web sites we propose a model-based approach. With this model we are able to design web interaction and to make decisions about how web sites are going to behave when they are interrupted due to a lack of connectivity.

The aim of this group is not to create a way to make offline applications over the web, but we use the features provided by the HTML standard to make user interaction with web sites "interruption resilient”. We’ll work in defining the elements for making users interaction with the web resilient to interruptions.

Respectful Terms of Service Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

This group is emerging from a breakout session at an indiewebcamp on 3 December 2015.

Short description for now: some people/organizations want to host other people's data without infringing on their privacy or freedom, and they want to set a clear bar for this kind of TOS.

Responsive Issues Community Group

Our goal is a markup-based means of delivering alternate image sources based on device capabilities, to prevent wasted bandwidth and optimize display for both screen and print.

Note: When the group expanded its scope in November 2014, it changed the name from "Responsive Images" to "Responsive Issues."

Restaurant Ontology Community Group

The mission of this group is to create a new ontology to describe restaurants, and reservations to those restaurants. The ontology will support queries such as:

  • Find an Asian restaurant for a business meal, near my job place.
  • Schedule a meal with friends, and add it to my calendar.
  • Find a restaurant with good reviews of people I trust.
  • Find a cheap restaurant near a cinema where I can see the last movie of my favorite director (yes, we need an ontology for cinemas too!)

Restricted Media Community Group

The Restricted Media CG will discuss and analyze methods of restricting access to or use of Web media, and their implementation on the open Web.

This group will not publish specifications.

Robustness and Archiving Community Group

The goal of this community is to design web architecture and specifications to mitigate problems such as link rot, content drift, Internet censorship, and denial-of-service attacks. If, after following a hyperlink, the content is missing or not what you expected, we want it to be easier to find what you were looking for.

RSocket Protocol Specification Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

Define a binary protocol that supports streams and channels with application-level message-oriented credit-based flow control and can be used over multiple transports.

The specification should allow implementations in multiple languages with a Technical Compliance Kit (TCK) asserting compliance. It should allow layering at a minimum on top of HTTP/2, QUIC, and TCP as transports.

Schema Generator Community Group

The mission of the Schema Generator Community Group is to improve the availability, discovery and innovation of RDFa, Microdata, JSON-LD and other structured data related tooling. Schema generation tools pertaining to this group aim to ensure output can be validated with the W3C Schema validator or similar tools.

The group will assist others with discovering existing tools, updating online materials to find tools and supporting the development of new tools. The goal of this group is to foster the development of the ‘web of data’ through developer support, community engagement and advocacy. The Schema Generator Community Group will also assist by incubating support for works that include, but are not limited to, new RDF-related tools.

Scholarly HTML Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

The mission of this group is to build a common, open format for the exchange of scholarly information.

Script Library Community Group

A forum for improved communication between script library authors and users, and W3C working groups working on relevant specifications.

SDshare Community Group

SDshare is a highly RESTful protocol for synchronization of RDF (and potentially other) data, by publishing feeds of data changes as Atom feeds.

Semantic Bridge Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

No matter in research or in industrial practice, the implementation area of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has extended from ordinary buildings to infrastructure, of which obviously bridges are an indispensable component. Thus, this group gathering the experts from BIM globally aims at establishing a semantic reference standard. This standard will cover the entire aspects in the life cycle of a bridge for the purpose of representing important elements and the logic relations among them in the phases of, e.g. design, construction, structural analysis, monitoring, renovation, facility management, etc.

Semantic building data Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see also the Linked Building Data Community Group.

This group works on creating and defining a semantic, web-author-friendly representation of building data. It will deliver a specification and tooling to work with declarative, semantic building information. Besides a specification for the data format, we plan on delivering libraries and plugins for existing software, such as A-Frame. We want to work with existing communities, such as the Linked Building Data and Declarative 3D and Declarative WebVR groups.

Semantic Industries Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-12

This Community Group brings together people from research and industry who are interested in semantic modelling. Researchers are interested in understanding the actual needs of industrial partners, gathering use cases and example data, and clarifying the challenges that further research can help address, as well as refining the methodologies for developing semantic based solutions. Industrial partners are interested in having clear benefits for adopting semantic technologies in relation to the digital transformation of industry. How can these benefits be realised by average developers using higher level frameworks and better tooling. The W3C Community Group will make extensive use of the GitHub issue tracker to raise and discuss ideas, and to prepare W3C Community Group reports with our findings.

Semantic News Community Group

The Semantic News Community Group is a forum for exploring the intersection of W3C semantic technologies and news gathering, production, distribution and consumption. It will focus on a common representation for abstract ideas in the news domain such as a 'news event' or a domain ontology for news. This includes the following subject areas:

1. Review, test and comment on existing and proposed standards for semantic technologies in the news domain. 2. Encourage the reuse of well-known datasets and ontologies and propose mappings between them as required. 3. Best practices for publishing, exchanging and linking data, including use cases. 4. Development of prototypes to help build the business case for this approach. 5. Discuss design principles of schemas and ontologies.

Semantic Open Data Community Group

This group intends to explore ways to leverage OData as a contributor to the Semantic Web vision and to help achieve a common understanding of both technologies as well as their relationship to each other.

Semantic Sensor Networks Community Group

To continue the work of the Semantic Sensor Networks Incubator Group (the SSN-XG) in defining and using ontologies and mappings for querying, managing and understanding sensors, sensor networks and observations. This community group will also serve as a community and access point for ontologies (such as the group's SSN ontology) and technologies developed for semantic sensor networks.

Semantic Statistics Community Group

This community group aims to be a forum for the statistics community and the Linked Data community to examine issues arising from applying semantic technologies in the statistical production process and to report on best practises in the use of statistics on the Web of data. In particular the group will discuss use cases of the application of the Data Cube vocabulary in the production of official statistics and establish if there is a need for more standardisation of vocabularies to ensure comparability of statistics data on the Web of Data.

Potential participants in this group are members of official statistics agencies and other government bodies that produce data (e.g. administrative, geospatial, government funded research results), statisticians, researchers and anyone in the Web of Data community who is interested in the publication of statistical data that can lead to statistical analysis of the maximum rigour.

The group will coordinate as appropriate with the Government Linked Data WG and other relevant groups within the W3C Data Activity Coordination Group.

This group will not publish specifications.

Semantic Water interoperability Model Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The group will work on a controlled vocabulary describing Properties and Services for Things which from part of water and wastewater infrastructure. Context is around standardised data models used for monitoring and control purposes.

Semantic Web Interfaces Community Group

Although Interface and Interaction design typically pertain to the disciplinary domain of HCI, which can be considered a neighboring discipline to the semantic web, with this proposal we aim to bring the relevant aspects of HCI to address core technological, socio-technical and fundamental challenges for Semantic Web (and Web Science) research. Read more:

Semantic Web Programming Languages Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see also the RDF-DEV Community Group.

A community focused on the adoption of Semantic Web concepts within contemporary and new programming languages. These will incorporate W3C Semantic Web standards for Ontology, Linked data and representations as integral parts of the development tool chains. Particularly the group will aim to 1. Develop new semantically-aware programming languages, 2. Modify existing languages to be semantically-aware 3. Develop design patterns for semantically-aware programming. 4. Develop Ontologies for computer programming concepts to allow inter-lingual sharing of basic and domain-specific algorithms.

Service Discovery Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

The internet has several service discovery mechanisms, such as SRV records and mDNS which are not exposed to web clients.

The purpose of this CG will be to define a browser API allowing service discovery via these and other relevant mechanisms.

Session management functionality exposed to the browser Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The mission of this group is to define a standard way to manage web sessions directly from the web browser. The web sites must expose a set of functionalities in every page served in order to make easy to browser plugins (and the browser itself) to manage the user session.

SKOS and OWL for Interoperabilty Community Group

Based on our #SDSVoc bar camp session we would like to discuss best practices for using SKOS and OWL for interoperability

Smart Contracts Community Group

Open protocol to define the structure, terminology, and network messages required of smart contracts.

Smart Manufacturing Community Group

The mission of this community group is to extend vocabulary through introducing the necessary classes and properties for semantic description of the manufacturing capabilities of Small-to-medium sized manufacturing companies. The group members come from a variety of backgrounds from the government, academia, and industry.

Smart Phone Application Developer Community Group

This Group will help developers create Internet based Smart Phone applications. Participants will collaborate and code to make the web equally and easily accessible through Smart Phones. This group will document the new research papers created by group members regarding Internet based Phone applications.

Social Economy Community Group

In this group we work on various web technologies needed for managing all kinds of economic relationships between individuals and organizations. While recognizing nowadays dominance of commerce, we take here more general approach which gives equal attention to all kind of non-commercial approaches, including Social Economy, Sharing/Collaborative Economy, Solidarity Economy, Informal Economy etc.

Some of relevant topics (by no means an exhaustive list!)

  • mobility - public transport, carsharing, ridesharing /carpooling, hitchhiking, bikesharing
  • housing - coliving, coworking, cohousing, hospitality exchange, flatshare / Wohngemeinschaft
  • food - food hubs, food networks, producer and consumer cooperatives, community supported agriculture, gleaning, foodsharing, foodsaving, mealsharing, volksküche / langar
  • learning - skillsharing, learning groups, webinars, workshops
  • products - toolsharing, booksharing
  • services - volunteering, help exchange
  • energy - energy cooperatives
  • communication - mesh networks communities
  • manufacturing - research and development, design, assembly, 3D printing, open source hardware, worker cooperatives, open value networks
  • health, sports & recreation
  • culture & entertainment

We based our work on Linked Data technologies and assume decentralized architecture.

During first year of operation (2016) we will hold regular monthly teleconference, use github for collaboration and follow other recommendations from Modern Tooling

Relevant W3C Domains and Activities

Active Groups

Inactive Groups

Relevant non W3C Groups

SPARQL Maintenance (EXISTS) Community Group

The "SPARQL Maintenance (EXISTS)" Community Group is a forum to discuss and address problems with the "EXISTS" feature in SPARQL 1.1.

The SPARQL 1.1 suite of specifications and the SPARQL 1.1 test suite are frozen. A process exists to record errata and that will be one input to any working group chartered to revise SPARQL.

In the meantime, SPARQL is being used in real-work systems in industry and public-sector. The user community expects a high degree of conformance across implementations.

The EXISTS feature has been found to be problematic. This feature is used by the RDF Data Shapes Working Group.

This community group will create CG Notes and accompanying test suites to describe one or more improvements with an emphasis on maintaining compatibility.

This group is not producing specifications.

Any tests produced by the will submitted to the RDF Test Suite Curation CG for long-term stewardship.

SPARQL-ML Community Group

The technological advancement in computational power and the significant increase in data generation allowed the successful implementation and application of many machine learning methods that were not possible before. On the one hand side, those methods need a lot of data to succeed. On the other hand side, the Semantic Web community has successfully published a large amount of machine-readable data on the Web. RDF data is often accessible over not machine-learning-ready protocols. The purpose of this community is to discuss how to leverage machine learning methods in RDF data through the SPARQL query language and protocol.

Spec Annotation Community Group

Group closed on 2016-04-29.

The current W3C process for commenting on specifications is complicated and discouraging to users. Discovering previous comments is also challenging, and leads to lost time. It's also difficult for spec editors to matching out-of-band comments sent through email or issue-trackers to the spec itself. Having an annotation sidebar that lets users create, review, and resolve spec comments would make the workflow much easier.

For the past several months, the team has been working to integrate the Annotator project to allow spec annotations, and it is ready for experimental use for W3C working groups. The Spec Annotation Community Group will collect use cases and requirements, feature requests, and bug reports, and will help coordinate feature implementation and bug fixes as well as integration with other open annotation systems.

This group will not publish specifications.

Speech API Community Group

The goal and scope of this Community Group is to produce a JavaScript Speech API that supports the majority of use-cases in the the Speech Incubator Group's Final Report [1], but is a simplified subset API, such as this proposal [2]. For this initial specification, we believe that a simplified subset API will accelerate implementation, interoperability testing, standardization and ultimately developer adoption. This JavaScript Speech API will enable web developers to incorporate scripts into their web pages that can generate text-to-speech output and can use speech recognition as an input for forms, continuous dictation and control. Specification of HTML markup and a network speech protocol are out-of-scope of this Community Group.

[1] [2]

Stellar Turrets Protocol Community Group

This group is to work towards defining a specification for the stellar turrets reference protocol which enables the execution of smart contracts.

Stereoscopic 3D Web Community Group

The Stereoscopic 3D Web Community Group is focused on determining the requirements, available options, and use cases for the addition of stereoscopic depth into the W3C technology stack. The group also evaluates areas where S3D can be interesting to apply focusing on perception and interaction in different scenarios. The main objective is to evaluate the necessary requirements for a successful implementation of a declarative approach to stereoscopic 3D depth as part of HTML documents.

Stroke Fonts Community Group

An attempt to find ways of using stroke fonts in design workflows

A stroked font is based on the idea of describing a collection of glyphs by their center line or the movement of a pen rather than their outlines. The center line, or skeleton, would then be styled either from inside the font, either from any software that acts downstream on the text, according to parameters that are yet to be defined. But might be based on the concept of an object following a path.

This could be a very different approach than those embedded in the font formats currently in wide use. There will be a lot of issues to address for this to move forward. Drawing letters from their skeleton allow users for other styling options, but also allows the computer for a larger understanding of a glyphs shape as a whole or it's important features, regions, parts. Based on this understanding it woud be easier to algorithmically alter these glyphs' shapes -- while composing texts for example.

It would enlarge the scope of what this group aims to do. Going towards a parametric approach of designing fonts, and considering the resulting transformation of the composition process. From fonts to lettering, from typography to writing.

We aim to discover, adapt or develop a way to make these fonts usable and stylable in a variety of scenarios, such as web pages, canvas based design tools, as well as pen plotters, CNC, PCP and cartography design environments.

SVG Advanced Gradients Community Group

SVG 2 will include Coon's patch mesh gradients. This group will explore other forms of advanced gradient for inclusion in SVG. Primarily the focus will be on diffusion curves and mesh gradients.

Ultimately, the goal of the group will be to prepare a proposal for consideration by the SVG working group. This community group will work closely with the SVG working group and will report progress regularly.

SVG Community Group

The mission of this group is to gather and incubate new features and requirements for SVG — making it easier for software developers and content creators in the SVG community to engage with the SVG standardization process.

This group will complement the SVG working group, and covers the same scope of technologies. Draft proposals for new SVG features, developed in the community group, may transition to recommendation-track specifications in the working group.

This group may publish specifications.

See the SVG CG charter for more information.

SVG glyphs for OpenType Community Group

Extension of OpenType to allow multicolor, animated SVG glyphs while reusing the OpenType layout facilities.

SVG Mapping Community Group

The mission of SVG Mapping Community Group (SVGMapCG) is to build requirements for SVG based Web Mapping through a discussion of use cases regarding map services.

One of the key technologies for SVG Web Mapping is dynamic Tiling & Layering, which realizes zoom and pan display of maps in an efficient manner. The other technologies for the mapping (e.g. Shared Path, Vector Effects and etc.) are also necessary. Although these functionalities will be standardized as part of SVG 2 in SVG WG, the focus of discussion is for general use and the discussion may lack particular aspects for map services.

Therefore, our main scope is to investigate whether these generic functions are enough or not to resolve challenges inherent in mapping, and to provide WGs (e.g. SVG and Geolocation) feedback from our observation. Envisioned issues for Web Mapping are a common coordinate system for map contents and a projection. Another issue is a relationship to other GIS communities (OpenLayers, Open Street Map, WMS, and etc.) outside W3C. They have developed map-related standards and frameworks, and we need to clarify our interrelationship and consider collaboration if necessary.

This group will not create specifications.

SVG Streaming Community Group

This group will work on developing guidelines and possible extensions to the SVG language enabling the authoring of streamable SVG content, in particular for the creation of streamable cartoon animations, synchronized graphically-rich karaoke, or synchronized graphical overlays on top of video streams.

svg-zh Community Group

The mission of this group is to translate W3C SVG specifications into Chinese. Community Group

An open community group focused on the technical and production aspects of podcasting and other applications of media distributed via feeds. Current areas of interest include extending RSS to support the modern needs of producers and their content; standardizing host and client behavior; improving the availability and accuracy of metrics and analytics; establishing and publishing best practices for de facto standards that have been adopted in the industry; thinking about the future of podcasting and needs that may arise.

Synthetic Media Community Group

Our group is interested in every component of the modern architectures of artificial intelligence with which to generate or synthesize media and interactive media content.

We intend to advance the state of the art with a number of new standards. With new and improved standards, teams and organizations will be better able to explore and develop the interoperable components which comprise these modern architectures of artificial intelligence.

Technical Architecture Community Group

Group closed 2023-10-16

This group is an open forum for discussing Web architecture, such as that discussed by the W3C Technical Architecture Group (TAG). Web architecture refers to the underlying principles that should be adhered to by Web components (APIs/Markup), whether developed inside or outside W3C. The architecture captures principles that affect such things as understandability, interoperability, scalability, accessibility, and internationalization. We expect to have a strong working relationship with the W3C TAG.

Technical Documentation in the Semantic Web Community Group

The complexity of machines and software has grown dramatically in the past years. The technical documentation became a fundamental source for service technicians and professionals in their daily work. Fast and focused access methods are necessary to handle massive volumes of technical documents. Semantic technologies have proven their ability to improve accessibility of information (see Linked Open Data). However, existing corpora of technical documents are usually not semantically prepared. This group shall focus on applying semantic technologies to technical documentation. All peers (individuals or projects) can state their needs (input) and offers (output).

The Extended Web Community Group

Group closed on 2016-04-29.

The CG would deal with extensions allowing web-pages to communicate with local software as well as with devices connected with NFC/BLE.

The Hardware Pixel Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

A group for people who love pixels!

This group is in support of exposing device pixel densities to web developers and letting web developers have the ability to use 'hardware pixels' instead of 'CSS pixels' on demand. Native developers have this affordance, why can't we? Hardware pixels! We want hardware pixels!

## What we want ##

We want metrics! The hardware pixel density of a screen can live in the window.screen object as window.screen.pixelDensity, for example. The value would be the average of the vertical pixel density and the horizontal pixel density of the screen (in hardware pixels per unit). Vertical and horizontal pixel densities of the screen can be exposed in window.screen.verticalPixelDensity and window.screen.horizontalPixelDensity. Yes, the vertical and horizontal values don't always have a ratio of 1 across devices. Pixel Aspect Ratios are important for developers and designers that truly care about device-independence.

## How can it be done? ##

Easy. The EDID data in modern screens tells us the width and height of a display in millimeters, the native resolution of the screen, and other interesting information. This info allows us to calculate a screen's hardware pixel density in pixels per millimeter with floating point precision. Exposing these values in window.screen is even more trivial.

## Why do we want these values? ##

In this modern day, developers are moving towards device-independent development more than ever before. By exposing physical characteristics of a screen (when supported by the screen (just like how OpenGL is exposed through WebGL when supported by a device)) web developers will be able to make device-independent decisions on their development process.

Currently, the lack of these metrics means that a web app can only look *almost* the same across devices, but not necessarily *exactly* as intended. We're engineers; *almost* is not enough. For example, suppose I want to make a push menu that is *always* 1 physical inch wide. This is currently not possible because inches in the web are "CSS inches", not physical inches. CSS units like centimeters, millimeters, and inches are currently unreliable across devices.

You might think "why not just create a div element that is 1 cm wide, then get it's width in pixels and that's how many pixels per cm you have". Sure, that works, but those are *CSS* pixels per *CSS* centimeter. On top of that, not all operating systems operate at the same dpi, and to make matters worse not all devices have a devicePixelRatio of 1 (mines 2 by default in Mac OS X Yosemite). So the value that you'll get from this technique, if you adopt it right now, vary a *whole lot* across devices. We can't say with any confidence that something being displayed on various screens on multiple devices is 1 physical inch wide.

Giving us these screen metrics will not only help us, it will help the future generation of developers because not only will exposing these screen metrics based on EDID info (when supported by the screen) get us closer to device-independent development more often, it will also promote the use of the EDID standard by screen manufacturers so that the next generation can benefit even more from the exposed screen metrics.

## Pixel Freedom for All! May the pixel be with you! ##

The Unitive Web Community Group

Currently, there is a growing movement from the independence of the web, towards dominant companies. These companies offer organized information, but this comes at a price. We lose our independence more and more. The Unitive Web is a proposal to have both organized information and independence. It offers one generic approach closely compatible with the current web, which makes it possible to create a global open virtual space of information which is responsive and reliable. It offers open customization of user interaction, open bottom-up schema mapping, integration of (AI) algorithms, and facilitates in the protection of privacy.

The aim of this group is to discuss any aspect of it and share specifications.

For more information, see this video about Unitive Web.

Timed Text Community Group

A number of organisations are now working with the TTML specification, and a degree of parallel discussion is happening. Some of that discussion is behind closed doors. There is a need to cross fertilize such groups so that the standard does not diverge, in addition new features and errata are being developed. This group is established to act as a forum for individuals, companies and consortia that are working with the TTML specification to address such issues.

The core activities of the group will be as follows:

- To act as a central forum for technical questions and answers on TTML

- To act as a point of coordination for extensions and features being created in other organizations.

- To identify issues, gaps and errata in the specification for future standardization.

- Support the Timed Text Working Group (TTWG)) to develop a community standard which updates TTML 1.0 to address issues, gaps, and errata.

- To develop and document tutorials, examples and best practice workflows

- To host example code, templates, test data, and implementation code

TNS Blockchain Community Group

A web based blockchain project to explore the use of Digital Names within existing web applications and PaaS and IaaS platforms. The English or human language naming solution presented by Digital Names solves a big problem related to the scale-up of blockchain networks and cryptocurrency systems.

Over a hundred million consumers in the globally currently use eWallets. There are over 100 million Crypto trading accounts registered on the worlds crypto exchanges. All currently use Public Crypto Keys for transaction settlement.

New companies and individuals entering the emerging blockchain / crypto financial system for the first time frequently find it difficult to understand how to easily send and receive money from eWallets. To regular people or mainstream users the precise steps involved with sending and receiving digital money is currently limiting usage of the blockchain. It is confusing and intimidating, and creates insecurity of inputting keys wrong and losing the value of a transaction.

Digital Names simplifies the remembering, typing and everyday usage of digital wallets for crypto and kind of crypto payments or receipts into or out of a Digital Wallet.

TNS UCID Community Group

The Universal Communication Identifier is the world's first blockchain-enabled service for supply chain security, device management, software licensing, and equipment tracking.

Traffic Event Ontology Community Group

The mission of this group is to design a set of vocabularies and ontologies used to represent road/traffic event and accident data, i.e. involving Event, Vehicle, Juridiction, Accident, Persons, Environment, etc. We plan to re-use existing schema when possible.

Trust & Permissions Community Group

As the Open Web Platform expands, and apps are developed that access various sensitive resources, new ways of managing permissions to access these resources are likely to arise. This Community Group will explore and evaluate such ways based upon experience with native and hybrid platforms, and drawing upon research studies. This follows on from the Paris meeting on trust and permissions held on 3-4 September 2014, see [1].

Resources vary in sensitivity and timeliness, e.g. when and to whom a password should be disclosed is quite different from when access to the user’s webcam should be granted. Similarly, modes of obtaining user permission vary, including asking users upfront for permission when an app is installed or first run (exemplified in Android and Windows) or asking users for permission when the application is attempting to use a given capability (exemplified in iOS) and permission can even be obtained after the fact by inviting the user to continue or to cancel an action after it has occurred, i.e. asking for forgiveness rather than permission. In some cases, the user's actions can be taken as implicitly granting permission, such as the Windows file chooser dialog. A further approach is for users to delegate decisions on permissions to a trusted 3rd party.

The goal of this CG is to develop and articulate best practices for which modes of obtaining permission best match which resource types, and make these best practices available to both platform developers (browser and operating system vendors) and app developers. Ideally the APIs offered to apps to obtain permission to access resources should be consistent across platforms, while allowing platforms the flexibility to present a user experience that meets each platform’s needs.

The scope of this Community Group is limited to discussion and guidance on best practices, to review draft APIs from individual WG's, and pre-standardization work on promising ideas for better user experience obtaining permission, including trusted UI and trust delegation per Roesner et al, see [2]. Work on best practices will focus on the kinds of resources that need protection, the enumeration of good ways to obtain user permission, to dis-recommend permission models that are known to be problematic, and to recommend the preferred user experience for a given kind of resource. The main focus is on the Open Web Platform, but packaged apps are not excluded.

This group will not publish Specifications.

[1] [2]

Trustworthy AI Community Group

The purpose of this community group is to establish and explore the necessary standards, requirements, metrics, and methodologies related to understanding, building, and ensuring trustworthy AI systems.

TV Control API Community Group

The convergence of Internet-based IPTV, Video-on-Demand (VoD), Personal Video, IP multicasting video, cellular multicasting video etc. with traditional broadcasting video, satellite video and cable video is emerging on market. The technology gap between web apps and native apps is rapidly narrowing. Thus a web-based application controlling various TV channels with detailed information regarding TV programs is becoming a more and more main stream TV control application for the integrated video service. Furthermore, in many regions TV broadcasters are developing web applications that can overlay their channel in a hybrid broadcast/broadband environment.

Scope of Work

The W3C TV Control API Community Group is to define an API layer that is agnostic of any underlying video sourcing technologies to enable a web-based application to: - provide EPG information, including the list of TV programs and related information such as channel number, producers, directors, actors, synopsis, rating etc., - control and switch the TV sourcing based on channel identifier from EPG data - interact with TV platform for presenting the TV program appropriately - interact with TV platform for presenting other supplemental content appropriately The underlying video sourcing method and technologies, the presentation technology and/or presentation application of TV program and supplemental content are all out of scope.

Operating Guidelines

This group operates under the rules of the Community and Business Group Process. All matters relating to intellectual property are governed by the Community Contributor License Agreement (CLA). All participants within this group agree that their discussions will follow the General Communications Policies.

Ubiquitous Application Design Community Group

People are looking to use applications and services on a ubiquitous range of devices. For developers, this raises the challenge of tailoring the user experience according to the device and context in which it is used. Application development teams involve a wide range of roles and skills: business requirements, information systems, usability and accessibility, graphical design and brand management, as well as the expertise required for specific target platforms. This Community Group seeks to bring together developers and researchers to explore and promote techniques for context aware design that separates out different aspects of design to speed development and reduce costs. We will do this through gathering and discussing techniques, together with developing open source demonstrators.

Uncertainty, Trust and the Semantic Web Community Group

This group has closed. Work continues in the Read Write Web Community Group

Universal Images Community Group

Our goal is to provide tools and specifications for creatives and agencies to create and distribute multi-format images. These are images which contain metadata that lets them adjust to different sizes, depending of the format of the output device or the layout of the website it is used in. These images can be used to have a web-server automatically create the alternative versions needed for a responsive website.

Universal Safety Net for Online Learning Community Group

Learning to make the case for a new kind of user-learner help becoming common to the basic UI of browsers. One aspect: every html rendered word an invisible button that opens a help system able to provide anything any learner might need to recognize-read and/or understand the word (eventually) regardless of language, reading skill, vocabulary, background knowledge, or age.


Online Learning Safety Net (OLSN)

URI Specification Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The URI Specification Community Group endeavors to produce a set of coherent, maintainable artifacts for use by implementors, developers, authors, and everyday users. We will achieve this by creating a formal specification of the ad hoc URI/URL standard described by RFC 3986/3987 and the WHATWG URL Living Standard.

The deliverable is a single formal specification source document in Lem ( from which a typical standards document can be generated as well as a set of theorems over the concepts described and an executable test oracle for each specified function. Depending on community support and development of test generation tools, a test suite with proven specification coverage may also be delivered. If you think URI should work predictably and correctly and be able to be understood clearly, please join this group and give us your perspective!

User Identity on the Web Community Group

Currently, more and more services are created on the web and require information about you, me, all of us. Therefore, users have to give away a lot of information about themselves to many different services. The point is that the users lose control of their identity on the web, by filling a lot of forms (e.g., through subscriptions).

Privacy on the Internet is extremely important and must remain. Personal information is used by services we, sometimes, don't even know about, and it is a real problem.

The aim of this group would be to think about new ways to identify individuals over the internet using trusted web based identities embedded directly into the core protocols of the web. At the same time it is important to maintain equilibrium between total privacy and providing information when needed, which means, when the user wants to.

User Interaction and Experience Community Group

As the number of Web applications is exponential, the capability to link user activity from application to another is also growing. However, these connections are more or less relying on specific models and APIs and set-up of a new connected application needs a tons of one-to-one configuration. This group will try to gather from these experience in order to build a more coherent model for sharing - semantically enabled & privacy safe - interaction data in order to provide better user experience among web applications.

Veres One Community Group

The mission of the Veres One Project is to facilitate the creation of open standards, software, and provide the governance to enable anyone in the world to create and manage their own decentralized identifiers.

Video Game Schema Community Group

The purpose of this group is to discuss extending the vocabulary for improved representation of video games in structured data. Our goal is to create proposal(s) that will extend video game-related schemas to make them more expressive, and so enable video game publishers, video game vendors, video game streaming services and news outlets to provide data consumers with more precise information about video games than is possible with the current vocabulary.

Virtual Reality website and Metaverse Community Group

This group is to start a discussion on how to level up our current world wide web to 3d and virtual reality.

VIVO Open Research Networking Community Group

VIVO (, is an open source semantic web platform and ontology for representing researchers and their associated training, background, activities, organizations, and outputs including publications and research resources. VIVO publishes linked open data integrated from a variety of authoritative sources as well as from direct user input. This group will bring together developers, ontologists, adopters, outreach and policy strategists, end users, and members of closely related communities (e.g.,, for discussion on the use of semantic data for research representation and networking, related tools, and opportunities for collaboration and synergy.

Vocabularies for big data analysis Community Group

This group discusses semantic ontologies for the Big Data space. It is supported initially by the H2020 Big Data Europe project. The mission of this group is to cooperate, discuss and agree on semantic vocabularies to support applications in the domain of big data processing. It is a conscious choice to initiate one forum to discuss and agree on various new vocabularies and/or their amendments. With this one group we hope to reach a broader public. The different ontologies have a common aim: describe tools such that they can be reused in semantic empowered applications for big data processing. At launch this will include ontologies for the Docker ecosystem and for Har-files. The former is used for setting up stacks in the Big Data Europe project, the latter for analysing HTTP requests.

Voice Assistant Standardisation Community Group

Exploration and discussion of standards for voice assistants.

VoiceXML Community Group

The mission of this group is to bring together voice application developers interested in VoiceXML. This group will not produce specifications, but will discuss use cases that may be recommended to the VoiceXML Working Group. Of particular interest will be use of VoiceXML for mobile applications.

Volunteering Ontology Community Group

The Volunteering Ontology group seeks to provide the volunteering community with a shared vocabulary for the open exchange of data relating to volunteering.

Entities of interest include volunteering opportunities, the organizations hosting those opportunities, and the volunteers themselves.

Voter Decision Support Community Group

This community group discusses voter decision support systems and related topics. This community group shall advance the theory and practice of decision-making software and decision support systems for use by citizens during voting-related and civic participation activities. This community group shall advance the theory and practice of voter-centric design, empowering and equipping citizens. This community group may draft suggestions and best practices and may coordinate with other groups to support pertinent standards.

Voting system Community Group

There has been lengthy and recurrent discussions about reforming the voting system for AB/TAG elections.

The current system is allegedly broken as it is stated by various members, but the AC is not willing to work on this unless someone comes up with a comprehensive explanation and proposal.

There are many alternatives: * pick up one alternative voting system * work on a tool to create simulation * use this tool for **non official** ballot at the same time as an official ballot (which would be used with the current systen)

All of these items have been proposed in various email threads in w3c-ac-forum and public-w3process list, not repeating the links here for the sake of conciseness.

This group will not publish specifications.

W3C Developer Relations Community Group

Developers and designers form an important audience for W3C standards, but the standards process itself is not an ideal way to engage with them. W3C has made strides in terms of developer relations in recent years, through W3Conf, Web Education XG and CG, easy access to W3C through community groups, more documentation, and online training. More can be done to reach more people and better reflect their interests in W3C.

Initial ideas:

* Create a developer relations activity or domain, to coordinate and explore different ways to directly engage with developers and designers, to gain early feedback on our specifications. * Make W3C a home for more useful documentation, demos, etc. * Support developer advocacy, in which ideas, use cases, and requirements for features or specification fixes are collected in detail from developers and designers, and presented to the appropriate W3C Groups. * Liaise with Members' developer relations departments on projects of mutual benefit.

This group will not publish Specifications.

W3Québec Community Group

La volonté du W3Québec est de promouvoir les normes, standards ouverts et bonnes pratiques du Web et du multimédia au Québec.

This group will not develop specifications.

Wearable Web Community Group

User devices are getting smaller, and more of them are now wearable: smart glasses, smart watches, and smart clothing are all working their way into our lives and onto our bodies. These devices are online, web-accessible, and increasingly interconnected.

The desirable mission of this group is to investigate the technical standardization issues for web technology on wearable devices and IoWT(Internet of Wearable Things) environment.

Web App Source Code Protection Community Group

The goal of this community group is to explore solutions for protecting web app source codes. It is well-known that web page source codes are visible to the public due to the openness of the Internet and the W3C standards. With the advent of HTML5, the web apps become popular, especially the mobile web apps. Web apps can be classified as either Hosted App or Packaged App. The source code of Packaged Apps (such as the apps in Firefox OS or Tizen OS) are installed and running locally. Users can easily view the source code. Similarly front end source code of Hosted App can also be easily seen by anyone. In this case, the publicity of source codes becomes a problem. Because web developers never hope their web apps are easily copied by others. Therefore, this group intends to find mechanisms of code protection for web apps, especially for packaged apps, making the source codes (e.g. HTML, CSS, JavaScript), as well as relevant resource files (image, audio and video, etc.) cannot be seen easily. Thus, the interests of web developers will be protected.

Web Application Store Community Group

Since the launch of Apple's App Store in 2008, developers found a market delivery channel that greatly reduced time-to-market and time-to-payment and provided a direct channel to consumers. The result: users started buying more and more smartphones, accessing app stores and downloading billions upon billions of apps.

At same reason, web developers are also expressing interest in an app store model for the Web that would enable them to get paid for their efforts without having to abandon Web development in exchange for proprietary silos.

The purpose for this Web Application Store community group is to discuss about the web application store, related technologies, and various issues for Open Web Application Store.

This Web Application Store CG's activities include: * Tracking specifications and implementations related to Web Application Store. * Refining use cases to communicate specific needs of Web Application Store. * Discussing technological issues related to Web Apps & Web Application Store * Suggesting refinements or fixes to existing specifications to better meet the needs of the Web Application Development community * Evangelizing specifications to browser vendors. * Documenting how to best use open web standards for Web Application Store * Evangelizing open web standards and best practices for Web Application Store

Anyone can join the Web Application Store Community Group.

Web Archivability Community Group

Web Archivability is interested in proposing best practices that help the web developers and designers in building web site that can be easily captured, preserved, and replayed using the web archiving tools.

Web Array Math Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see the Web Assembly Community Group instead.

The purpose of this group is to develop a specification for high performance, low latency typed array processing for the Web.

The basic idea is to create an API that makes it possible to utilize hardware level parallelism, such as SIMD instructions, by providing methods that operate on whole arrays rather than single elements at a time.

Web Audio Developers Community Group

The Web Audio Developers Community Group brings together hackers and developers interested in using the emerging Web Audio API. By providing community support on using the API and surfacing issues with the draft standard, it complements the work of the W3C Audio Working Group where the specification is being developed.

This group will not create specifications.

Web Background Sync Community Group

Group closed on 2016-04-29.

This group is developing a specification to allow web apps to run tasks in the background. This includes running after the user has navigated away from the page, closed the browser, or the device has fallen asleep. We focus on preserving user privacy and resources while providing a useful and expressive API.

Web Certificate API Community Group

The goal of Web Certificate API Community Group is to provide a JavaScript API for certificate related operations in web applications, such as retrieving a list of certificates, obtaining a public key and a private key associated with a certificate.

Web Commerce Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The mission of the Web Commerce Community Group is to support the mission of the Web Commerce Interest Group by incubating technologies and specifications that may be transitioned to the W3C Standards Track.

Web Crypto API Community Group

This group discusses Web Crypto APIs for signing the message by the user certificate issuing from the certificate authority for SSL communications. It is based on

Web Currencies Community Group

Web Currencies group focuses on researching and recommending technologies to enable use of currencies which embrace Architecture of World Wide Web. It complements other efforts like Web Payments, with focus on WHAT we use in transactions rather than HOW we do transactions and transfers. Staying not opinionated about economic applicability and of particular currencies we work on technological aspects of web currencies design.

Web Dev Data Community Group

This group intends to analyse web development data from around the world and publish monthly reports. By leveraging open source tools, we hope to create an open source project to do this.

This group does not plan to publish specifications that require patent commitments.

Web Ecology Community Group

The purpose of this group should be to discuss anything that could enhance the web and reduce its impact on environment. Discussion could be about, for example:

  • Improving efficiency of apis
  • Reducing data consumption
  • Upgrading apis to make them less greedy in energy

Millions of kilowatts are wasted in the world each year because of various reasons, such as:

  • Bad algorithms
  • Data storing (ex : spams)
  • Wrong processes

Any idea that could make the web more respectful for environment is welcome to this group.

Web Education Community Group

The Web Education Community Group (CG) aims to evolve the Web and improve the overall skill set of the web industry by improving the quality of available web education resources and courses around the world. To do this, we are engaging in several activities, which are the responsibilities of different projects inside the CG:

1. Learning material: Creating a comprehensive series of tutorial articles to teach all the W3C technologies, which will constantly be updated so that it remains current and best practice. The main basis of this is currently the Web standards curriculum.

2. Curriculum: Creating a series of structured courses based on the learning material, which educators from around the world can use to teach web design and development in a consistent, effective way.

3. Outreach: Contacting educators, companies and trainers and getting them to adopt our learning material and curricula.

4. Training and certification: Training the trainers to help them teach web design and development more effectively, and formulating a plan to, and researching the feasibility of, partnering with them to provide W3C endorsed qualifications.

5. Membership and policy: Dealing with issues of membership and policy.

6. International Education: Different groups responsible for outreach and translations into specific languages to serve groups for whom English is not the primary language.

For more information, follow the relevant links in the Pages list.

Please note that the Web Education Community Group will not be developing any specifications.

Web fights covid19 Community Group

There is no doubt that the Web is demonstrating its potential in these hard times of the covid19 pandemic.

The Web is allowing us to share information quickly and globally. Also, It is enabling the quick deployment of remote-working solutions as a response to the lockdown measures imposed by a majority of Governments. But the Web goes far beyond. Lots of Web ressources have been launched in the last weeks from different parts of the World supporting tools to fight the covid19: websites implementing AI screening and detection solutions; with data visualization tools; accessing bots and humans for telemedicine services; sharing information about medical resources... all these are some of the examples, and the list grows every day. This Community Group is proposed for achieving the following objectives: (1) to create a repository of already existing Web resources related to covid19 (2) to identify other Web-based initiatives which are on-going (3) to share Web-based initiatives of CG Members in order to get on-board other Members and achieve the maximum impact

Web Hypertext Application Technology Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13 - see the WHATWG and the Memorandum of Understanding Between W3C and WHATWG.

Community group around the HTML living specification and its related Web Application technology specifications.

Web MIDI Community Group

Group closed on 2019-08-13 - see the Audio Working Group or the Audio Community Group instead.

The Web MIDI Community Group brings together folks interested in enabling MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) devices on the Web.

Some example applications include dynamically generated music for games, alternative input devices, and controlling music instruments and lighting systems.

This group will not create specifications.

Web Observatory Community Group

The sister organisation of W3C, the Web Science Trust ( proposes to create a global "Web Observatory". The Open Data movement and the Transparency Agenda are successfully advocating the release of very large institutional and commercial data sets describing social phenomena, economic indicators and geographic trends. This proliferation of data represents great opportunity for researchers and industry but this data abundance also threatens to make it ever more difficult to locate, analyse, compare and interpret useful information in a consistent and reliable way; a situation which can only get worse unless we can help stakeholders perform useful analysis rather than drowning in a sea of data. The Web Observatory will offer an institutional framework to promote the use of W3C and other standards in the development of; Semantic Catalogues to globally locate existing data sets, Collection Systems to gather new global data sets, and Analytics Tools and methodologies to analyse these data sets. This community group seeks to articulate the business and technical requirements for the Web Observatory.

Web of Sensors Community Group

This group explores how the Web platform could interact with sensors around us. For instance, how do we hook up an Arduino and interact with it through the Web platform?

The scope is to explore we can safely expose sensor data to the Web platform in way that protects user's privacy and meets the needs of developers.

Web Payments and Commerce Accessibility Community Group

This group closed on 18 December 2020. What follows is the original mission statement.

The mission of the Web Payments and Commerce Accessibility Community Group (Payments A11Y CG) is to provide an ongoing forum for the evaluation and articulation of comprehensive support for accessibility to people with disabilities in W3C web payments and commerce-related specifications and technical documents. These specifications are generally developed by the Web Payments Working Group.

The Payments and Commerce A11Y CG will track developments in, and work collaboratively with the various groups in W3C's Web Payments Activity, and most particularly with the Web Payments Interest Group The Payments and Commerce A11Y CG will develop and document use cases and requirements to support accessibility in web payments and web commerce across all known scenarios that encompass the widely varying technologies and human abilities utilized by persons living with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to be submitted to the Accessible Platform Architectures (APA) Working Group for consideration as a potential W3C Note, "Payments Accessibility User Requirements (PAUR)", as well as other relevant web commerce considerations where persons with disabilities could be impacted.

The Payments and Commerce A11Y CG shall additionally advise APA on payments-related specifications and technical documents being developed by W3C groups to assist APA in its chartered horizontal review responsibility.

Web Payments Charter Development Community Group

This group is now closed; see the Web Payments Interest Group

This group was set up as a follow-up on the W3C Web Payments Workshop that took place 23-24 March 2014. The workshop participants advocated W3C to launch a dedicated steering group (W3C Interest Group) to engage further in the development of core standard technologies to better support payments on the Web. This community group is a first step in that direction, and will host the discussions around the future charter of the interest group. The objective is to ensure that all stakeholders are able to provide inputs on the role and actions of the future group, and to ensure that a critical mass of representatives from the different stakeholder groups are ready to engage in this work.

This group will not publish specifications.

Web Payments Community Group

This group closed on 18 December 2020. What follows is the original mission statement.

The purpose of the Web Payments Community Group is to discuss, research, prototype, and create working systems that enable Universal Payment for the Web. The goal is to create a safe, decentralized system and a set of open, patent and royalty-free specifications that allow people on the Web to send each other money as easily as they exchange instant messages and e-mail today. The group will focus on transforming the way we reward each other on the Web as well as how we organize financial resources to enhance our personal lives and pursue endeavors that improve upon the human condition.

Web Performance Community Group

The goal of the Web Performance is to produce a general guideline to help people who work in the web field increasing their websites' performances. From the server abilities and rapidity to the analysis of the website's code (whatever would the markup language be), we try to help web designers making faster websites.

Web Platform Chinese Community Group

This group is closed - see the Web Chinese Interest Group instead.

To facilitate focused discussion in Web Platform specifications, to gather comments and questions in Chinese about those specifications, to collect information about specific use cases in Chinese speaking region for technologies defined in those specifications, and to report the results of its activities as a group back to the relevant W3C Working Groups, as well as to the W3C membership and community.

Web Protocols and Energy Utilization Community Group

The mission of this group is to refactor Web Protocols in order to make them less energy utilizing for those who are concerned of that aspect. Make it possible to get immediate feedback to the end user how much each dialogue step did caused in resource utilization and ensure a smooth transition. Enable a smooth transition. Mix of old and new must cooperate.

Web Skill Profiles Community Group

This group has the mission to extend the discussion and development of the Web Skill Profiles originally developed by IWA/HWG ( based on the EU Framework for education and outreach.

Web Test Automation Community Group

Closed on 2019-08-13 - see also the Browser Testing and Tools Working Group.

This group aims at developing common tools, technologies, frameworks and platforms for automating tests in Web applications.

Web We Can Afford Community Group

Most scientists now seem to agree that we've entered a new epoch dubbed the "Anthropocene", where the environmental consequences of human development have a tremendous impact on Earth's equilibrium. Those effects are already set in motion and will have far-reaching consequences in the coming years despite all the measures we could take to mitigate them (considering we simply do not fail to take action). While trying to avoid some of the consequences of the Anthropocene is an issue that is well-worth striving for, another task would be to reconsider the design of things at the time of the Anthropocene and that includes the Web. For instance, a 2008 study by the University of Dresden stated that if no measure was taken, the energy needed to power the infrastructure of the Web in 2030 would be tantamount to the energy consumed by humanity in 2008. The agendas of the stakeholders who are trying to set the Web forward in motion are mainly focused on adding new technological layers to the existing ones. Yet, the logic behind these developments remains that of tapping into unlimited resources, not limited ones. Lots of endeavors are currently focused on reshaping the Web into a "Web we want", a redecentralized open Web fit for an enlightened digital age. Those who advocate such an agenda and those who oppose it generally both share a common assumption: that enlightened or not, the future will be even more digital than the present. Yet, life at the time of the Anthropocene, at least in the coming decades, might not remain as pervasively digital as it is today. Other efforts that see the ongoing battle for the decentralization of the Web as an opportunity to “downscale” it (in particular in Africa) seem to be aware of that. Maybe it's time to take into account other perspectives on the future and concretely act towards building a sustain-able (Tony Fry) Web. In other words, a Web We Can Afford. This group would like to reconcile the development of the Web and an awareness to the environmental issues by appealing to Web architects and designers, eco-designers, activists, philosophers, social scientists, etc., so as to make the issue a public one to begin with, before devising a set of guidelines as a first step towards concrete action.

Web-Native Community Group

The Web-Native Community Group is a focused initiative to bring the current developer community overrun by frameworks back to native web technologies, so that everyone can bank more on the platform and less on abstractions. This is a targeted intervention to the now sweeping "framework-first" thinking for a new "native-first" thinking among developers. Whatever were the reasons for the former at the time, it no longer aligns with the current state of the platform and its fast-evolving future. It is now, more so than ever, a compelling problem to fix, and this community group will do just that!

We hope to build on the work of existing posts in the community, that are, at least, looking for a paradigm shift. More importantly, our key activity will be working with the developer community and other W3C community groups to: (1) implement strategies that engage the developer community to put native languages, APIs, and methodologies at the heart of their everyday work, and (2) facilitate proposals that can bring various common development paradigms to native implementation, or to say the least, provide low-level primitives to support higher-level implementations of these paradigms that represents the modern web.

WebAPI Discovery Community Group

A group to develop a mechanism for the automatic discovery of WebAPIs, by extending the vocabulary.

Increasingly, large online platforms and services provide one or more Web APIs for third-party developers. Moreover, many companies build WebAPIs as their primary product (Email API, SMS API, etc.). This has resulted in an explosion of the number of WebAPIs in recent years. Developers spend a significant amount of time searching for suitable WebAPIs to meet their needs.

Our intention is to work closely with to define a WebAPI-specific extension and promote usage of this extension among API owners. In the long run, our aim is to contribute this extension into the core vocabulary.

To achieve these goals we are seeking feedback and collaboration from API owners, DX specialists, API description language experts and maintainers of various API catalogs.

WebApps UI Community Group

Web applications employ a range of UI methods from CSS, SVG, HTML Forms, Canvas and ARIA. Our focus is to ensure that UI methods are accessible, maintainable and of high quality across vendors and specifications. We use WCAG and ATAG to examine cross-specification techniques and identify issues with implementations and associated specifications.

Webize Everything Community Group

"The web is extended in two ways - by adding new bits of technology to the existing stuff, and by 'webizing' existing applications and systems. Webizing is really important, not only as a way of bootstrapping the web using large amount of legacy information, but because the existing systems have been researched and designed over the years and it is really important we do not lose the knowledge accrued during that process."

--Tim Berners-Lee

This Group aims to webize as many existing systems and applications as possible, and is committed to producing 5 star linked data, in line with the original vision of the web.

This group will not publish specifications.

World Archives of Sciences Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The internet has been considerable development in the world has led to an exponential growth in the number of online documents by scientists. In this sector, the current trend seems to be to digitize all funds scientific libraries and sample Museums and this internationally. Many of these documents: articles, monographs, academic work, digitized specimens and videos are now available online, but remained scattered on the canvas. They do not allow quick consultations and consolidation of information. The new generation of scientists studying species biodiversity, taxonomy, protection, conservation and many other natural sciences, wants more access and use these documents remotely and for free. They suffer, however, that some problem: too wide dissemination of data and information.

To meet this expectation, we collect (for 10 years) and archive it all these documents in a single point: WAS World Archives of Sciences: : Biodiversity, Zoology, Botany, Taxonomy, Entomology, Paleontology, Geology, Natural History WAS contributes to the development of Knowledge and World Heritage. It allows the recognition of scientific organizations (Museums, Universities...). He participated in an ambitious scientific archiving, Museums becoming true mine of information as well as the Libraries or Documentation Centers. In addition to the departments of Natural History: Zoology, Botany, Taxonomy, Entomology, Paleontology, Geology and Natural History, WAS also archive the academic work of Administrations, Professional Associations, Commercial Societies, Non-Profit Foundations and Universities that become our natural partners and complete the panorama of available public sources of sciences.

XML Error Recovery Community Group

This group's purpose is the discussion of applying error recovery parsing methods inspired from HTML to XML.

XML Hypermedia Community Group

Discuss possible benefits and implications of adding hypermedia affordance components to the XML language. Specifically, but not limited to discussion of Bugzilla bug# 17659.

XML Performance Community Group

The Mission of the XML Performance Community Group is to determine the requirements, use cases to get performance measurements of the whole XML technology stack. One of the goal is to be able to understand how XML (versus other technologies) could be used as ground to make efficient processing and identifies bottlenecks and features of this XML stack. One later goal will be to compare XML implementations among them. To do so, we might give hint on defining Efficient Profiles of existing Specifications.

XPath Next Community Group

Create a place for gathering requirement from existing user of XPath, potential user of XPath and research in this area

Zakim on Web Community Group

closed on 2019-08-13

The goal of this group is to bring the functionalities of W3C Zakim Teleconference Bridge to web browsers. This group will focus on requirements and issues of open teleconference systems which contain voice communications between web browsers. We will also focus on integrating IRC service for it. This group will not create specifications but may provide feedback to relevant working groups, if necesssary.

zot protocol Community Group

Group closed 2023-12-11

To standardize the Zot protocol currently used in Hubzilla and Zap, and to push its adoption for social web.


Data available in API