Many organizations in addition to W3C develop standards for the Internet or the Web. In order to coordinate the development of the Web, W3C engages in liaisons with numerous organizations after careful consideration of the costs and benefits.

As defined in the W3C Process Document, the term "liaison" is used to refer to coordination of activities with a variety of organizations, through a number of mechanisms ranging from very informal to mutual membership, or even more formal agreements. Liaisons are not meant to substitute for W3C membership.

W3C is a broad community which covers standardization work in W3C Working Groups and incubation work in W3C Community Groups (CGs). Listing a formal liaison with W3C on behalf of a CG on this page is generally discouraged because CG output does not represent the consensus of the W3C Community (of course informal liaison is always encouraged). If an external group outside of W3C would like a Liaison with a CG, they must write up their rationale and be explicit that they understand that the CG work is not normative. If there is such a request, it should be sent to for approval.

While this page is public, some links may be W3C member-only.

Contact W3C about a new or existing liaison.


Liaison index:            
3 • A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • M • N • O • P • S • T • U • V • W

OrganizationMOUW3C activities affectedW3C contactLiaison contact
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project Media and Entertainment, SVG, Timed TextKazuyuki Ashimura, Chris Lilley, François Daoust, Philippe Le Hégaret3GPPLiaison alias,            
Paolo Usai,            
SVG: Tolga Capin
Accord Project Verifiable claims, BlockchainTBDPeter Hunn
ACM The Web Conference Steering Committee CommunicationsPierre-Antoine ChampinDick Bulterman
Annotating All Knowledge Coalition (Steering Committee) Digital PublishingIvan HermanMaryann Martone, Dan Whaley
Access Board (US) WAIShawn Lawton HenrySachin Pavithran, Ph.D.
Assistive Technology Industry Association (ATIA) WAIShawn Lawton HenryDavid Dikter
Alliance for Internet of Things Innovation (AIOTI) Web of ThingsDave RaggettPatrick Guillemin
Apache The Apache Software Foundation Open SourceTBDApache board
Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) Media and EntertainmentTimed TextPhilippe Le Hégaret            
Kazuyuki Ashimura
Hisayuki Oomata (Timed Text)            
Joji Urano (Media and Entertainment)
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) Media and EntertainmentTimed TextKazuyuki Ashimura,            
Philippe Le Hégaret
Madeleine Noland            
Michael Dolan
Automotive ISAC AutomotiveCarine BournezAutoISAC Analyst
Blissymbolics Communication International Accessible Platform Architectures WGRoy RanRussell Galvin
CableLabs (W3C Member) Media and EntertainmentPhilippe Le HégaretAC Rep
CEN (ELSSI EMD) Semantic WebTBDDavid Leal
CESI China Electronics Standardization Institute Generic Liaisons, WAIRoy RanMs. Yuan Yuan
Consumer Technologies Association (CTA)MOU (2023-2028)Media and EntertainmentFrançois DaoustMichael Bergman
Continua Health Alliance Device API, Mobile, HCLSDominique Hazaël-MassieuxChuck Parker            
Jose Manrique Lopez de la Fuente
COVESA (previously known as GENIVI)MOU (2020-2024)AutomotiveCarine BournezSteve Crumb
DASH Industry Forum (DASH-IF) Media and Entertainment, HTML,            
Michael[tm] Smith (HTML)            
Kazuyuki Ashimura (Media and Entertainment)            
Atsushi Shimono (TTML)
Iraj Sodagar
Digital TV Group HTML, CSS, Canvas Element, Media extensions, Media and Entertainment, Testing.Kazuyuki Ashimura,            
François Daoust
Simon Gauntlett [DTG Technology Director], Chris Collis [Chair Security Group], George Robertson [Chair IP Delivery Group] , Ali Teffahi
DCMI Dublin Core Semantic WebIvan HermanAC Rep
DDI Alliance Data, Semantic WebPierre-Antoine ChampinDarren S Bell
DAISY Consortium WAIShawn Lawton HenryGeorge Kerscher
ECHONET Consortium Web of ThingsKazuyuki AshimuraMorio Hirahara
ECLASS Web of ThingsKazuyuki AshimuraChristian Block
Ecma International HTML, Web Apps, I18n, Security, TestingMike SmithSamina Husain

European Commission            


DG Enterprise

Multistakeholder Platform


 Generic LiaisonsRigo Wenning, Daniel Montalvo, Kevin WhiteFrom Commissioner level to PO.
European Disability Forum (EDF) WAIDaniel MontalvoAlejandro Moledo
EMVCo Web PaymentsIan JacobsBastien Latge
European Standards Organizations (ESO) Joint Working Group (JWG) on eAccessibility WAIDaniel Montalvo, Kevin WhiteFernando Machicado
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Generic Liaisons (Sophia Antipolis, ERCIM, WAI)Rigo Wenning, Kevin White, Daniel Montalvo

Margot Dor,

Xavier Piednoir

Mike Pluke, and Mathias Schneider for M376

Federal Communications Commission (USA FCC) WAIShawn Lawton HenrySuzy Rosen Singleton
FIDO Alliance Web Payments, SecurityIan JacobsTony Nadalin
Financial Services Technology Consortium (FSTC) Generic LiaisonsRalph SwickDan Schutzer, Executive Director (and AC Rep)
Global Initiative for Inclusive ICTs (G3ICT) WAIKevin WhiteAxel Leblois
GlobalPlatform Security, Ubiquitous Web ApplicationIan JacobsGil Bernabeu (Technical Director),            
Kevin Gillick
GSM Association (GSMA) Mobile, Network Friendly CGDominique Hazaël-MassieuxDavid Hutton (GSMA), Paul Gosden (GSMA TSG), Natasha Rooney (Overall Relationship)
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) Media and EntertainmentFrançois DaoustPeter MacAvock. Co-Chair HbbTV Requirements Group
International Imaging Industry Association (I3A) Semantic Web, GraphicsChris LilleyJames A. Peyton


(through Technical Liaison Group)

 URI, IDN, Generic Liaisons, AuctionsTBDCEO, Chairman, board members, staff
International Color Consortium (ICC) Graphics, CSSChris LilleyWilliam Li
IEEE Standards Generic LiaisonsTBDKaren McCabe (OpenStand)
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 

Security, Privacy, WebRTC, Web of Things.

Generic Liaisons

Philippe Le Hégaret (for media types) IETF Liaisons
IIFAA (International Internet Finance Authentication Alliance) Web Payments, SecurityAn Qi (Angel) LiSophia Wu
The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) Generic LiaisonsTBDIGF UN Secretary, chair
IGF Dynamic Coalition on Accessibility and Disability (DCAD) WAIShawn Lawton HenryAndrea Saks
IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. WAIShawn Lawton HenryJutta Treviranus
Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) Web of ThingsDave RaggettSkyler Lew Stephen Mellor
Industry 4.0 Web of ThingsDave RaggettProf Diedrich (Universität Magdeburg)
IPTV Forum Japan Media and Entertainment, HTML, DAP, WebAppsKazuyuki Ashimura (Media and Entertainment, HTML), Dominique Hazaël-Massieux (DAP)Shozo Fukui
International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC) Semantic WebIvan Herman

Misha Wolf

Michael Steidl

ISO JTC 1 PAS status, ARO Generic LiaisonsPhilippe Le Hégaret, Daniel Montalvo, Kevin WhiteNorbert Bensalem, PAS Mentor, IBM

ISO JTC1/SC2 and its WG2

(Class C Liaison)

 I18NRichard IshidaMichel Suignard
ISO JTC1/ SC 34 XML, EPUB            
(Class C Liaison)
 XML, Digital PublishingIvan HermanMakoto Murata
ISO JTC1 SC35 WG6 WAIDaniel Montalvo, Kevin WhiteJanina Sajka


(Class C Liaison)

 GraphicsChris Lilley

David Singer

Ms. Mayumi Koike

ISO JTC1/SC 29/WG3 (MPEG Systems)

(Class C Liaison)

 Graphics, Media and Entertainment, Fonts, Timed Text

Atsushi Shimono (Timed Text)            
Chris Lilley (Fonts)

Kazuyuki Ashimura (Media and Entertainment)

Dr. Jean-Claude Dufourd

See the XG liaison statement

Ms. Mayumi Koike

Secretary, SC 29

Vladimir Levantovsky

ISO TC 68/ WG 4

(Class D Liaison)

 Web Services (on ISO side: Financial services)Yves LafonMatthew Rawlings

ISO 20022 Registration Management Group.

(Class D Liaison)

 Web PaymentsIan JacobsKris Ketels
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 41 Web of ThingsDave RaggettSangkeun YOO
ISO TC 204 Intelligent Transportation Systems/WG 1, 3, 9, 10, 14 AutomotiveCarine BournezAdrian Guan
ISO TC 211 Geographic information Spatial Data on the WebBert BosMats Åhlin
ISO TC 22/SC 31/WG 5,6,8,10 Extended Vehicle AutomotiveCarine BournezEric Wern
ISOC Generic LiaisonsTBDKathy Brown
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Generic LiaisonsDaniel MontalvoVarious ITU staff
ITU-T Focus Group on Driver Distraction TBD (was MMI)Kazuyuki AshimuraScott Pennock ITU-T
ITU-T Group 13 TBD (was MMI)Kazuyuki AshimuraGyu Myoung Lee
ITU-T SG13 Focus Group on AI for autonomous and assisted driving (FG-AI4AD) AutomotiveCarine BournezBryn Balcombe
ITU-T Group 16 IPTV Media and Entertainment, Web-based SignageKazuyuki AshimuraSG16 Secretariat (Simão Campos, Rosa Angeles-León de Vivero)
ITU-T Group 20 Web of ThingsKazuyuki AshimuraGyu Myoung Lee, Cristina Bueti
ITU Joint Coordination Activity for Identity Management (JCA-IdM) Decentralized IdentityPierre-Antoine ChampinJace Park
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, X 8341-3 Working Group 2 WAIRoy RanMakoto Ueki (InfoAxia)
Khronos Group Immersive Web, WebGPU Working Group, Web Machine Learning Working Group, Accessible Platform Architecture Working GroupDominique Hazaël-MassieuxNeil Trevett
Metaverse Standards Forum Immersive Web Working GroupDominique Hazaël-Massieux, François DaoustNeil Trevett
MovieLabs Media and EntertainmentFrançois DaoustAC Rep
Multi Stakeholder Platform for ICT standardisation (MSP)  Rigo Wenning, Dominique Hazaël-MassieuxCarlos Lopez-Rodriguez and Paul Killeen from the European Commission
National Information Society Agency (NIA) WAIRoy RanJoon-Ho Hyun
OpenID Foundation Digital Credentials APISimone OnofriJohn Bradley (Yubico)
OpenSSF SecurityTBDBennett Pursell
Open Wallet Foundation (OWF) Web Payments, Verifiable Credentials, SecurityIan JacobsBrian Behlendorf

Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)

(W3C Member)

 Generic Liaisons, HTML, Security, SVG (ODF liaison)TBDAC Rep
OW2 MiniAppsFuqiao XuePierre-Yves Gibello and Christian Paterson
Open Connectivity Foundation (OCF) Media and Entertainment, Testing, Web of ThingsKazuyuki Ashimura, Dave RaggettMichael Richmond,            
Clarke Stevens,            
David McCall,            
Scott Lofgren,            
Daniel Park
OECD ITAC (charter) Generic Liaisons, Privacy, Open StandardRigo Wenning (TBC)Christine Runnegar, ISOC
Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)MOU (2017-2022)Spatial Data on the WebBert BosScott Simmons, Ingo Simonis
OMA Open Mobile Allianceexpired MoU with OMACSS, Graphics HTML, Federated Social WebChris Lilley,Dominique Hazaël-Massieux

Kieran McAleese

Kimmo Halonen

Mobile Web Initiative: Jari Alvinen

Federated Social Web: Goix Laurent Walter

Victoria Gray.

Object Management Group (OMG) Web Services, DOMPhilippe Le HégaretJames Nemiah
OneM2M Web of ThingsDave RaggettYongjing Zhang
OpenMath Society MathMLBert BosDavid Carlisle
OPC Foundation Web of ThingsDave RaggettStefan Hoppe
Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Security, Privacy, TAGTBDSebastien Deleersnyder
The Open Group Generic Liaisons, Web of ThingsDave Raggett Scott Hansen; Chris Harding
PCI Security Council Web PaymentsIan JacobsUpdating as of May 2022
SMPTE Media and Entertainment, Timed TextPhilippe Le Hégaret, Atsushi ShimonoMike Dolan
Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) Media and EntertainmentKazuyuki AshimuraDongHoon Lee
Trillium-II DataTBDHarold Solbrig
Unicode I18NFuqiao XueMark Davis
UNESCO I18N, WAI, Generic LiaisonsRichard Ishida, Shawn Lawton HenryAxel Plathe, Claudio Menezes, Irmgarda Kasinskaite
US Payments Forum Web PaymentsIan JacobsRandy Vanderhoof
Vendorcom Forum Web PaymentsTBDPaul Rogers
VoiceXML ForumMoU with VoiceXML ForumVoice Browser, MMIKazuyuki AshimuraMichelle Hunt

Web3D Consortium

(W3C Member)

 Graphics, Generic LiaisonsChris LilleyDon Brutzman
WHATWGMOUHTML, DOM, Web IDL, HTML Media Capture, Worklets, Resource Hints, Preload, Media Playback Quality, FetchPhilippe Le HégaretWHATWG Steering Group

Mission of W3C international liaisons

W3C is determined to improve W3C's liaisons with international organizations in the areas of policy and standardization and to reinforce W3C's commitment to developing one Web for all.

International Relations focuses on spreading W3C's messages and technologies beyond the Consortium's usual geographical and Web community frontiers. We pursue the vision and plan outlined in the white paper Worldwide Participation in the World Wide Web Consortium with the goal of making it easier for new stakeholders to discover and participate in W3C's work and values.

Contacting W3C to establish a liaison

To inquire about W3C liaisons and partnerships, or to ask for review of documents in case of existing liaisons, please send email to which will reach various W3C staff members active in the liaisons area and end up in the right technical staff. Please see the public International Relations page for background. We have additional specific information about participation in W3C by EU-funded projects.

For relationships between W3C and government driven organizations like ISO, ITU, EU normalization (ETSI, CEN), UN efforts like IGF/WSIS, national bodies (ANSI, AFNOR, etc.), and for Internet Governance liaison activities with other Internet organizations like IETF, ICANN, ISOC, also use

About the liaison table

Each entry in the table above includes:

  • the name of the organization, linked to its homepage. In addition, formal agreements, like MoU, should be listed here
  • the W3C activities or technologies affected by the liaison
  • one or several contact names within W3C
  • one or several liaison contact names (preferably using an http URL, rather than a mailto)

For more information about a particular liaison, please refer to the contact page for the listed individual(s).

When an external organization wants to send an ingoing liaison statement to W3C, it should send it to, CCing the W3C staff in contact indicated the table above, and assume that this statement will potentially be shared with the entire W3C membership.

When an internal W3C group (usually via its Chair) wants to send an outgoing liaison statement from W3C, it should CC it to and to the W3C staff contact for the group, and assume that this statement will potentially be shared with the entire W3C membership.

Considerations when establishing a liaison

W3C finds its liaisons fall into two categories:

We list both types of liaisons in the table above. Per the W3C Process Document, all liaisons, of any kind, must be coordinated by the W3C Team due to requirements for public communication, IPR or confidentiality policies. Mutual membership agreements are also possible.

W3C may choose not to pursue a liaison with an organization that has selective or arbitrary membership policies that serve only to benefit pre-existing or dominant members.

Simple liaisons

In general, the goal of a simple liaison is for both parties to gain a better understanding of their respective activities and look for opportunities to work together. For example, W3C appreciates understanding how other organizations use W3C technology, whether they require extensions, the proper way to manage those extensions, how to bring extensions back into W3C, and so on. Other organizations may find a simple liaison valuable for soliciting W3C input on a web-related question.

Most often, W3C establishes simple liaisons with peer organizations, other standards bodies, or any other non-profit entity that may wish to build consensus around an emerging web technology. Simple liaisons are active as soon as both partie agree to make the information public in this page. Note that being in simple liaison with W3C on a given topic doesn't mean that W3C endorses or agrees to the other party work in any way.

Formal agreements for joint work

In some cases, W3C is asked to establish a formal liaison that has a contractual framework, either because there are joint deliverables, or an agreed share of technical responsibilities with coordination, with considerations for confidentiality, shared press coverage, or IPR.

While W3C supports all liaisons with other groups, the organization and development of these formal liaisons requires time and resources, and the agreement of the W3C membership at large. W3C's decision to pursue a liaison with a Partner is ultimately based on the perceived costs and benefits.

For a historical record of how Formal Liaisons are created, please see the 2003 Process Document, which used to described the details (no longer the case in the current Process).

W3C and De Jure standards

This section describes some of W3C's relationships with de jure bodies such as ISO, in addition to the direct technical activity liaisons mentioned above.

W3C is an "ISO/IEC JTC 1 PAS" Submitter

At the end of October 2010, W3C was approved as a JTC 1 Recognized PAS Submitter for an overall scope defined as "any stable core web technologies produced by W3C that are also in scope of JTC 1". The PAS process is standard transposition procedure whereby organizations accredited as valid PAS Submitters can send their specifications directly for country voting, to become ISO/IEC standards. See the W3C PAS Submission FAQ.

W3C Approved RS Originator Organization (ARO) status for ISO/JTC1

In January 2007, W3C became an Approved RS Originator Organization (ARO) for ISO/JTC1. This means that ISO/JTC1 standards may refer to W3C Recommendations "as-is." That process is described in the Letter Ballot on the JTC 1 Standing Document on Normative References.

W3C in the EU Multi Stakeholders Platform for ICT (MSP)

The Reform of the European standardisation system by the Council of the European Union (2012) allows civil servants to use and refer to specifications from open standardization fora and consortia such as W3C, in situations involving public funds. The Multistakeholder Platform (MSP) was set up as part of the reform to advise the Commission on its ICT Standardization work program, and W3C is part of it.

For more information about W3C's ARO or PAS status, please contact