The W3C Team includes 81 people working from locations across the globe. W3C is hosted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory [MIT/CSAIL] in the United States, at the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics [ERCIM] in Sophia-Antipolis in France, at the Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus in Japan and at the Beihang University in China. With a truly international flavor, the Team includes engineers from more than 10 different countries. Read the Team planet, the aggregation of some of the staff's blogs.
Shadi Abou-Zahra works with the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) as Activity Lead of the WAI International Program Office, which includes groups that are responsible for education and outreach, coordination with research, general discussion on web accessibility, coordination with the WAI Technical Activity, and WAI liaisons with other organizations including standards organizations and disability groups. Shadi coordinates WAI outreach in Europe, accessibility evaluation techniques, and international standards promotion and harmonization activities. He chairs the W3C/WAI Evaluation and Repair Tools Working Group (ERT WG), is the staff contact of the W3C/WAI Research and Development Working Group (RDWG), and participates in the W3C/WAI Education and Outreach Working Group (EOWG).
See W3C page for Shadi Abou-Zahra.
Phil Archer is the Data Activity Lead — working to make ever more effective use of the Web as a platform for data.
He originally joined the team to work on the Mobile Web Initiative in February 2009, specifically to work on developing and delivering training in this area. Before joining the team he'd been a participant in the Mobile Web Best Practices working group (joining at its inception in June 2005) and was an editor of, or acknowledged contributor to, 6 of its documents.
Separately, Phil also had a long involvement with the Semantic Web activity, notably as chair of the POWDER working group. As part of this role he co-edited most of the documents and created one of the two reference implementations. It was this work that lead Phil to focus on the area of linked data and, via work on eGovernment and open data, eventually to take up his current role in the Data Activity.
Phil Archer maintains an active online presence through his personal Web site.
Jérémie joined W3C in 2013 as the webmaster. Based at the MIT host in Cambridge, MA (USA), he publishes technical reports. He is also making sure that all our servers are blinking in the right order and working on various web development projects.
If you are looking for him, he is probably climbing a rock or eating Nutella somewhere.
Tim is now the overall Director of the W3C. He is the 3COM Founders Professor of Engineering in the School of Engineering, and at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT's CSAIL.
Tim founded and is on the board of the World Wide Web Foundation, whose mission is consistent with W3C's only broader. The Web Foundation will put the power of the Web into the hands of people around the world through effective, high-impact programs.
Tim invented the World Wide Web in 1989 while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. He wrote the first WWW client (a browser-editor running under NeXTStep) and the first WWW server along with most of the communications software, defining URLs, HTTP and HTML. Prior to his work at CERN, Tim was a founding director of Image Computer Systems, a consultant in hardware and software system design, real-time communications graphics and text processing, and a principal engineer with Plessey Telecommunications in Poole, England. He is a graduate of Oxford University. More...
Alan Bird is the Global Business Development Lead for W3C. In this role, Mr. Bird leads W3C staff efforts internationally to strengthen the W3C Membership program, identify business development strategies, and seek new revenue streams to support the organization. Alan joined W3C in January 2011.
Before joining W3C, Alan was a key executive in two small information security companies where he drove strategic business development. Prior to these appointments, he spent several years each with IBM, Compuware, Legent, and Cullinet in a wide variety of roles, many of which involved creating new business opportunities. Earlier in his career, he worked in the IT organization of Burlington Industries, AVX Ceramics, Family Dollar Stores, and Ingersoll-Rand. This combination of work experiences has provided Alan with a solid foundation from which to drive W3C’s business development activities.
Bert Bos completed his Ph.D. in Groningen, The Netherlands, on a prototyping language for graphical user interfaces. He then went on to develop a browser targeted at humanities scholars, before joining the W3C at INRIA/Sophia-Antipolis in October 1995. He is co-inventor of CSS and created & led W3C's Internationalization activity. After working on HTML and XML, he is now leading the CSS and Mathematics activities.
Renoir Boulanger is an application developer fascinated by technologies of the web. He has been building websites and web applications for over ten years. His experience also includes server management and he worked for several communications agencies in the province of Quebec, Canada.
Renoir's involvement to the W3C is as a member of developer relations mainly contributing on the WebPlatform project to improve features, strengthen the hosting and deployment infrastructure, and act as a technical liaison with Open-source communities.
Carine joined the Sophia Antipolis W3C team in December 2001 as XML engineer, in the Jigsaw activity.
She holds an engineer degree and a PhD in Computer Science. Her research area was distributed artificial intelligence and multi-agent systems.
Since 2002, she has been working in the Web Services Activity and the XML Activity as staff contact, in some EU-funded projects, and in the Systems Team.
Judy Brewer joined W3C in September 1997 as Director of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) International Program Office. She is Domain Leader for WAI, and coordinates five areas of work with respect to Web accessibility: ensuring that W3C technologies support accessibility; developing guidelines for Web content, browsers, and authoring tools; improving tools for evaluation and repair of Web sites; conducting education and outreach; and coordinating with research and development that can affect future Web accessibility.
Judy is W3C's chief liaison on accessibility policy and standardization internationally, promoting awareness and implementation of Web accessibility, and ensuring effective dialog among industry, the disability community, accessibility researchers, and government on the development of consensus-based accessibility solutions.
Prior to joining W3C, Judy was Project Director for the Massachusetts Assistive Technology Partnership, a U.S. federally-funded project promoting access to assistive technology for people with disabilities. She worked on several national initiatives to increase access to mainstream technology for people with disabilities and to improve dialog between industry and the disability community. Judy has a background in applied linguistics, education, technical writing, management and disability advocacy.
Laurent joined the W3C team in September 2000
to participate in the development of Amaya. He is now part of the Sytems Team.
Before joining the W3C, he worked as an engineer at INRIA Grenoble.
Laurent hold an engineering degree in computer science from the CNAM Grenoble (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers) in 1997.
Jérôme joined the W3C Team in June 2006. Prior to that, Jérôme worked as a researcher and research director at INRIA, France, in the areas of automatic VLSI design, software engineering, and knowledge-based systems. Jérôme was the main inventor and developer of the programming language Le-Lisp. Jérôme co-founded ILOG in 1987, taking on the roles of Chief Scientific Officer and Director. Up till 2000, he was a member of the French Co-ordination Committee for Science and Information Technology and Communication of the National Ministry for Education, Research and Technology. Starting in 1995, he was Chief Information Officer of the genomics company GENSET.
On May 2005, ERCIM's Board of Directors has nominated Jérôme as Manager of ERCIM.
François takes part in on-going discussions and developments around the convergence between Web and TV, with a specific focus on multi-screen scenarios. He contributes to related EU-funded projects MediaScape and Global ITV.
François initially joined W3C in November 2007 from Microsoft where he integrated an on-portal mobile search engine called MotionBridge. From 2007 to 2011, he served as staff contact for the Mobile Web Best Practices Working Group, the Web and TV Interest Group, the Web Real-Time Communications Working Group and was co-Activity Lead for the Web and TV Activity. He left W3C at the end of 2011 to develop cross-platform Web applications in a French start-up called Joshfire. François came back home on May 2014.
François holds an engineering degree from the Ecole Centrale Paris.
Daniel Dardailler joined the W3C team in July 1996 and after leading various technical projects, like the WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative) or the W3C QA activity, and serving as Europe operational manager for several years, he is now W3C Associate Chair for Europe and W3C Director of International Relations.
Prior to working for W3C, Daniel was already working for standard as a Software Architect for the X Window System Consortium, responsible for pieces of the Motif toolkit and the Common Unix Desktop.
Daniel holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Nice/Sophia-Antipolis (89) in the area of digital typography and X protocol network.
Marie-Claire Forgue now serves as Head of W3C Training and is a passionate advocate for the Web Developer community. She recently developed and launched the W3DevCampus portal where Web developers worldwide can sign up for W3C online training courses related to mobile Web and HTML5 technologies. Additionally, Marie-Claire continues to participate in the dissemination activities of European projects, such as HTML5 Apps and MediaScape. She joined W3C in 2001 and served as Head of W3C European Communications for over 10 years.
Marie-Claire received a Ph.D. degree (computer graphics and parallel processing) in Computer Science from the University of Nice and INRIA, France. After a year as a postdoctoral fellow at the Dynamic Graphics Project Lab at the University of Toronto, Canada, she worked in NTT's Human Interface Lab, Japan, for two years. Her research interests were focused on illumination algorithms and scene modeling. After that, she studied filmmaking in Vancouver, Canada. She has directed several short films and documentaries, and got interested in interactive multimedia back in 1993.
Ted joined the W3C in January of 2000. He comes to the Consortium from the corporate IT community having worked for a mortgage and investment company, a power utility, an internet service provider, and a marketing and communications company. He earned a bachelors in Russian from Hobart College. He also spent some time as an English as a Second Language and Mathematics instructor.
Harry Halpin is a W3C Fellow funded by Eduserv, working as staff contact for the RDB2RDF Working Group and co-chairing the Social Web Incubator Group. Previously he was Chair of the GRDDL Working Group that focused on combining microformats and XML with the Semantic Web. Guiding his work at the W3C is his commitment to keeping the Web an universal space of information for the development of collective intelligence. He enjoys working with diverse communities to make their data accessible on the Web.
He received his Ph.D. in Informatics from the University of Edinburgh under Henry Thompson and Andy Clark, with a thesis on theories of reference on the Web combining information retrieval and knowledge representation. Previously, he worked on the intersection of philosophy and literature with computing at Duke University and held a DAAD scholarship to Freie Universität Berlin. He enjoys studying Web phenomena empirically, such as the development of consensus in collaborative tagging.
Dominique is the Activity Lead of the Mobile Web Initiative, serves as staff contact in the Web Real-Time Communications Working Group and the Device APIs Working Group. He also develops tools and applications as part of the W3C Systems Team.
He joined initially W3C’s Communication and Systems Team as a member of the Webmaster Team in October 2000; after having joined then lead the QA Activity until September 2005, Dom took part to the Mobile Web Initiative as Staff Contact for the Best Practices Working Group and later as co-Chair of the Mobile Web Test Suites Working Group.
Dominique holds an engineering degree from the “Grande Ecole” École Centrale Paris.
Shawn joined W3C in February 2003 to lead worldwide education and outreach activities promoting web accessibility for people with disabilities through the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). [Shawn Lawton Henry at W3C WAI] Prior to joining W3C, Shawn worked as a consultant with research centers, education providers, government agencies, non-profit organizations, Fortune 500 companies, and international standards organizations to develop and implement strategies to optimize design for usability and accessibility. She holds a BSc in English with focus on computer science and technical writing, and an MSc in Digital Inclusion. [About Shawn]
Ivan graduated as mathematician at the Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest, Hungary, in 1979. After a brief scholarship at the Université Paris VI he joined the Hungarian research institute in computer science (SZTAKI) where he worked for 6 years. He left Hungary in 1986 and, after a few years in industry, he joined the Centre for Mathematics and Computer Sciences (CWI) in Amsterdam where he has held a tenure position since 1988. He received a PhD degree in Computer Science in 1990 at the Leiden University, in the Netherlands. Ivan joined the W3C team as Head of Offices in January 2001 while maintaining his position at CWI. He served as Head of Offices until June 2006, then as Semantic Web Activity Lead until December 2013. Since June of 2013 he is Digital Publishing Activity Lead.
Before joining W3C Ivan worked in quite different areas (distributed and dataflow programming, language design, system programming), but he spend most of his research years in computer graphics and visualization. He also participated in various graphics related ISO standardization activities and software developments. Between autumn 2007 and 2014 he was also member of SWSA (Semantic Web Science Association), the committee responsible for the International Semantic Web Conferences series. He was the co-chair of the 9th World Wide Web Conference, in Amsterdam, May 2000. He is member of IW3C2, the committee responsible for the World Wide Web Conference series.
Dr. Philipp Hoschka is a Deputy Director of the W3C. His current work focuses on the “Web of Things”, which is about leveraging open Web technology to overcome current silos in the "Internet of Things". In 2012, he launched W3C efforts on automotive, focusing on the use of HTML5 for in-car infotainment apps. Philipp also founded and leads W3C's Ubiquitous Web Domain which has the mission to bring the benefits of Web technology to the emerging "Post-PC" world, including mobile and television devices. In the past, Philipp created W3C's Mobile Web Initiative and pioneered work on integrating audio and video into the Web leading to the W3C Standard SMIL. Philipp has been principal investigator in six EC research projects supporting the Ubiquitous Web Vision (MWeb, 3GWeb, MobiWeb2.0, OMWeb, MobiWebApp, HTML5Apps). Philipp holds a Ph.D. degree in Computer Science, and a Master's Degree in Computer Science from the University of Karlsruhe, Germany.He was visiting scholar at MIT LCS from 1998 until 2002.
Richard joined the W3C team in July 2002 to expand the work of the Internationalization Activity. He is attached to ERCIM in France, but based in the UK.
He is Internationalization Activity Lead and staff contact of the Internationalization Core Working Group. He also coordinated the MultilingualWeb initiative, and serves on the Unicode Editorial Committee, and the Unicode Conference board.
Richard has a background in translation and interpreting, computational linguistics, software engineering, and translation tools. Prior to joining the W3C, he was an internationalization consultant, evangelizing and educating people with regard to the international design and localizability of user interfaces and documents.
As of 1 Feb 2015, Ian is the lead of W3C's Web Payments Activity.
From September 2004 through January 2015, Ian became Head of W3C Communications. He managed the Consortium's Comm activities, including press, publications, branding, marketing, and some Member relations.
Ian began at W3C in 1997 and for 7 years co-edited a number of specifications, including HTML 4.0, CSS2, DOM Level 1, three WAI Guidelines (Web Content, User Agent, Authoring Tool), the TAG's Architecture of the World Wide Web, and the W3C Process Document.
Dr. Jeffrey Jaffe became the W3C CEO on 8 March 2010.
Before joining W3C, Jeff served as the Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer for Novell. He was responsible for Novell's technology direction, as well as leading Novell's product business units.
Prior to that Jeff served as president of Bell Labs Research and Advanced Technologies, where he established new facilities in Ireland and India, and served as chairman of the board of the New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium.
Early in his career, after receiving a Ph.D. in computer science from MIT in 1979, Jeff joined IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center. During his tenure at IBM, he held a wide variety of technical and management positions, including vice president, Systems and Software Research, corporate vice president of technology, and general manager of IBM's SecureWay business unit, where he was responsible for IBM's security, directory, and networking software business.
Alexandra joined the team in September 2002 as a replacement for Caroline Baron and dealt with accountancy.
She joined the Administrative Team in September 2003 and is the primary meeting planner for European meetings.
Vivien joined W3C in May 2003 as the W3C Webmaster at the MIT/CSAIL host site in Cambridge, MA USA.
Since September 2004 Vivien is working as a Systems & Network Engineer for W3C Europe at the ERCIM host site in Sophia-Antipolis, France.
Vivien graduated in September 2003 from the Ecole Supérieure en Sciences Informatiques in Sophia-Antipolis, France.
He holds an engineering degree in Computer Science, specializing in Networks. In June 2000, he received a two year degree in Computer Programming at the University of Lyon, France.
Yves Lafon studied Mathematics and computer science at ENSEEIHT in Toulouse, France, and at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal in Montreal, Canada. His field of study was signal recognition and processing. He discovered Internet Relay Chat and the Web in Montreal in 1993 and has been making robots and games for both. He joined the W3C in October 1995 to work on W3C's experimental browser, Arena. Then he worked on Jigsaw, W3C's Java-based server, on HTTP/1.1 and started the work on SOAP 1.2.
Philippe Le Hegaret heads the W3C Interaction Domain, which produces frontend Web technologies including HTML5, CSS3, SVG, WOFF, or Web APIs. Until July 2008, Philippe lead the W3C Architecture Domain, which produced the W3C Core technologies in the area of XML, Web Services, and Internationalization. He is a former Chair of the Document Object Model (DOM) Working Group.
Prior to joining W3C, Philippe promoted the use of XML inside Bull in 1998, also focusing on the interaction between XML and object structures. He wrote the first version of the CSS validator in 1997.
Philippe holds a Master's Degree in Computer Science from the University of Nice (France).
Coralie joined the team in January 1999, as W3C Europe administrative assistant, with a degree in secretarial work and English as a foreign language.
She became W3C Europe administration manager until five years later she joined the W3C Communications Team. Her duties include Advisory Board scribe duties and meetings planning, W3C press clippings, management of Supporters Program applications, monitoring translators' list, being contact person for authorized translations. She is also involved in community development and outreach (microblogging, W3C blog). She was Incubator Activity Lead and is now involved in managing W3C Community and Business Groups.
In February 2015, she took on the role of Acting Head of W3C Marketing and Communications to develop messaging, Public, Member and internal communications.; manage the Consortium's Comm activities, including press, publications, branding, marketing, and some Member relations.
Then he has lead the XForms Activity.
Thierry holds a Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies (D.E.A) in Genetics - Statistics and Information Technology (University Paris VII).
Dean / Professor, Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University
In 1979, he enrolled in the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, of Keio University and obtained degrees of MS and Ph.D in Computer Science, specializing in Computer Science, Computer Network and Computer Communication, in 1981 and 1987 respectively, both from Keio University.
In 1984, he developed the Japan University UNIX Network (JUNET). In 1988, he established WIDE Project, of which he currently has the title of the Founder. In the 1990's, he focused on the research and development of computer networks, and worked as a member of the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) (1993-1995), and a member of the board of trustees of the Internet Society (ISOC) (1997-2000), as well as a member of the board of directors of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) (1998-2000). In the 2000's, he turned his attention also to IT governance for national government, including Prime Minister’s and global IT policy communities.
He is the recipient of many distinguished awards, including IEEE Internet Award (2011); the Okawa Publications Prize (1999); Funai Achievement Award (2007); Jonathan B. Postel Service Award (2005); the Okawa Publications Prize (1999). He was inducted in the Internet Hall of Fame in 2013.
His professional interests include: internet standards, open systems and free software, interfaces and usability, digital imaging, 3D, data visualisation, mobile computing.
Gerald joined W3C in September 1997 as a member of the Systems Team. He helps maintain W3C's system infrastructure including the web and mail servers, mailing lists and publishing tools. He created W3C's HTML Validation Service based on an earlier validation service he began as a student.
Prior to joining W3C, Gerald worked at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. He has also worked as a Web consultant for various companies in the Edmonton area, and as a technical writer for IBM Canada in Toronto.
In his free time Gerald enjoys travel, photography, and writing software.
Gerald has a Bachelor of Science with specialization in Computing Science from the University of Alberta.
Eric joined W3C again in February 1998 to provide system support and manage tool programming. He currently works on RDF and XML protocols.His primary goal is to see that information be easily and logically accessible.
Prior to joining W3C full-time, Eric worked as a contract programmer for various organizations, including W3C, where he worked on libwww and the client applications, a PEP model library, and several system-related projects.
Eric has a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and is still baffled by the futility of a college education in determining one's fate.
Liam joined the W3C in 2000; he's been working with text-based markup and digital typography since nroff days (1981) and with SGML since 1987. He worked for Yuri Rubinsky at SoftQuad Inc. in Toronto, where he was involved in the development of SoftQuad's HoTMetaL, the first commercial HTML editor for the Web, and also with SoftQuad Panorama, a browser plugin to display SGML; this in turn demonstrated a need to standardise the use of SGML on the Web, and Liam was involved in the development of the XML specification.
Liam has been involved in free software since 1983, including lq-text, a text retrieval package for Unix, the GNOME and GIMP projects, a collection of royalty-free pictures from old books, and uses and contributes to Mandriva Linux, and many other open source and free projects.
At the W3C today, Liam is XML Activity Lead and W3C technical participant for the XML Query and XSL (XSL-FO) Working Groups, and alternate contact for several other Working Groups.
Dave is the W3C Staff contact for the System Applications Working Group. He has been closely involved with the development of Web standards since 1992, contributing to work on HTML, HTTP, MathML, XForms, voice and multimodal interaction, ubiquitous web applications, financial data, privacy and identity. Dave is currently involved in two European FP7 research projects: HTML5Apps and COMPOSE, and before that webinos, Serenoa, and PrimeLife. He has a special interest in the Web of Things. In addition to work on standards, Dave is a keen programmer, and has developed experimental web browsers (e.g. Arena), a plugin for rendering math from natural language (EzMath), a tool for cleaning up HTML (Tidy), a web page library for HTML slide presentations (Slidy), a Firefox add-on for enhanced privacy (Privacy Dashboard), and most recently, work on customizable browser-based editing of HTML. He was educated in England and obtained his doctorate from the University of Oxford, and is a visiting professor at the University of the West of England. For more information see Dave's home page.
He graduated in October 2006 from Polytech'Nice-Sophia Computer Science Department (formerly known as ESSI: Ecole Supérieure en Sciences Informatiques) specialized in Networks.
In September 2003 he received a two year degree in Mathematics and Computer Science (DEUG MIAS) at the University Jean-François Champollion in Albi, France.
Doug Schepers became Developer Relations Lead in 2012. He also acts as project coordinator (staff contact) for the Audio, WebApps, and Web Events Working Groups, and Rich Web Client Activity Lead. He is also active in the SVG Working Group. He joined the W3C Team in June 2007 as a Compound Document Specialist, and was previously AC Representative for Vectoreal and has been creating Web Applications for many years.
Michael[tm] Smith is a W3C Deputy Director whose areas of expertise include pharmaceuticals transportation, cyber, and extremely compartmentalized information.
Jeanne Spellman joined the W3C in 2008 as Web Accessibility Engineer. She is the team contact for the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines Working Group and the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines Working Group. Jeanne also contributes to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group.
Prior to joining W3C, Jeanne has worked as an independent web developer and accessibility consultant. Jeanne has developed accessible web sites and has evaluated web pages for accessibility in a variety of technologies including HTML, CSS, Flash, Flex, PDF and AJAX. Jeanne has worked with major corporations to develop and train designers, developers, quality assurance engineers and project managers in accessibility techniques.
Veronica Thom is Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of the World Wide Web Consortium. In this role she has cross-W3C responsibility for finance, budget, financial plans and controls, and with her combined business/finance background, will advise W3M on future initiatives.
Before joining W3C in July 2012, Veronica served as Vice President for Nordic, Mexico and Australia markets with PartyLite, Inc. a direct selling company of Blyth, Inc. She was responsible for leading these new and emerging markets in sales and marketing, as well as driving profitability.
Prior to that Veronica held several financial management roles at The Gillette Company. She provided executive and financial leadership in various areas including the North America Supply Chain, Personal Care and Blade/Razor business units, Distribution and Manufacturing and Internal Audit. Veronica earned her degree in Economics and Finance from Simmons College and an MBA from Babson College.
Amy van der Hiel is the assistant to Tim Berners-Lee, a meeting planner and part of the administrative team.
Before joining the W3C, Amy was the Assistant to the Director and Curatorial Associate at the Exhibitions Department of the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston. She has her Bachelors in Art History from Bard College, NY and her Masters in Art Education from Mansfield University, PA.
Susan Hardy joined the W3C in September 1995. She is the head of the Administrative staff at MIT and primary organizer of W3C workshops, US Advisory Committee meetings and working group meetings. Previously, Susan worked with Bob Scheifler and the MIT X Consortium for three years, and has been a part of the Laboratory for Computer Science for nearly ten years.
Kevin joined W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) principally as part of the Education and Outreach Working Group in June 2014. He is involved in the development of resources and practical guides to help organizations implement more accessible sites and services. This is a small part of the WAI-ACT project.
Prior to joining W3C, Kevin worked for eight years as a user experience designer and researcher for small Edinburgh agency. This work ran the gamut from simple audits to long term engagements where clients were keen to improve both organisational understanding or accessibility and site implementation. Previously, Kevin worked for a variety of organisations as an internet software developer.