RDF Best Practices Current Status

This page summarizes the relationships among specifications, whether they are finished standards or drafts. Below, each title links to the most recent version of a document.

Completed Work

W3C Recommendations have been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and are endorsed by the Director as Web Standards. Learn more about the W3C Recommendation Track.

Group Notes are not standards and do not have the same level of W3C endorsement.

Group Notes


Linked Data Glossary

The Linked Data Glossary contains terms defined and used to describe Linked Data, and its associated vocabularies and best practices related to publishing structured data on the Web using open Web standards.


Best Practice Recipes for Publishing RDF Vocabularies

This document describes best practice recipes for publishing vocabularies or ontologies on the Web (in RDF Schema or OWL). The features of each recipe are described in detail, so that vocabulary designers may choose the recipe best suited to their needs. Each recipe introduces general principles and an example configuration for use with an Apache HTTP server (which may be adapted to other environments). The recipes are all designed to be consistent with the architecture of the Web as currently specified, although the associated example configurations have been kept intentionally simple.


Defining N-ary Relations on the Semantic Web

In Semantic Web languages, such as RDF and OWL, a property is a binary relation: it is used to link two individuals or an individual and a value. However, in some cases, the natural and convenient way to represent certain concepts is to use relations to link an individual to more than just one individual or value. These relations are called n-ary relations. For example, we may want to represent properties of a relation, such as our certainty about it, severity or strength of a relation, relevance of a relation, and so on. Another example is representing relations among multiple individuals, such as a buyer, a seller, and an object that was bought when describing a purchase of a book. This document presents ontology patterns for representing n-ary relations in RDF and OWL and discusses what users must consider when choosing these patterns.


A Semantic Web Primer for Object-Oriented Software Developers

Domain models play a central role throughout the software development cycle, from requirements analysis to design, through implementation and beyond. As such, great progress has been made in the consistent use of models throughout this process. Modern software development tools with support for the UML and code generation as well as Model-Driven Architectures allow for developers to synchronize and verify technical implementation with user requirements using models. However, the reusability of domain models is often limited because they are, by definition, domain specific and only take into consideration abstractions needed to make possible a solution within the confines of their own individual problem space. But the Web is broader than that and provides a multidimensional solution space capable of referencing an almost limitless set of domains. While much of our software becomes increasingly embedded in the Web, our development processes do not fully exploit the potential of model reuse from the Web yet. This note therefore introduces Semantic Web languages such as RDF Schema and OWL, and shows how they can be used in tandem with mainstream object-oriented languages. We show that the Semantic Web can serve as a platform on which domain models can be created, shared and reused.

Obsolete Specifications

These specifications have either been superseded by others, or have been abandoned. They remain available for archival purposes, but are not intended to be used.



Image Annotation on the Semantic Web

Many applications that involve multimedia content make use of some form of metadata that describe this content. The goals of this document are (i) to explain what the advantages are of using Semantic Web languages and technologies for the creation, storage, manipulation, interchange and processing of image metadata, and (ii) to provide guidelines for doing so. The document gives a number of use cases that illustrate ways to exploit Semantic Web technologies for image annotation, an overview of RDF and OWL vocabularies developed for this task and an overview of relevant tools.

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