This page summarizes the relationships among specifications, whether they are finished standards or drafts. Below, each title links to the most recent version of a document. For related introductory information, see: Internationalization, Protocol and Meta Format Considerations, XML Essentials.
W3C Recommendations have been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and are endorsed by the Director as Web Standards. Learn more about the W3C Recommendation Track.
Group Notes are not standards and do not have the same level of W3C endorsement.
A set of recommendations for data categories that can be mapped to elements and attributes to support the internationalization and localization of marked up content. Implementations are provided for DTDs, XML Schema and Relax NG, and for existing vocabularies like XHTML, DocBook and OpenDocument.
Architectural Specification building on Unicode to provide authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers with a common reference for interoperable text handling on the World Wide Web.
Provides guidelines on the use of the Unicode Standard in conjunction with markup languages such as XML.
This document contains guidelines and best practices for working with time and time zones in applications and document formats.
This document was written as the first step towards a character model for W3C specifications. The views expressed have evolved over the intervening years, and the document was re-published purely to preserve the historical record.
For historic reasons, some formats have allowed variants of IRIs that are somewhat less restricted in syntax, for example XML system identifiers and W3C XML Schema anyURIs. This document provides a definition and a name (Legacy Extended IRI or LEIRI) for these variants for easy reference.
Provides a set of guidelines for developing XML documents and schemas that are properly internationalized, aimed at both developers of XML applications and authors of XML content.
Below are draft documents: Candidate Recommendations, other Working Drafts. Some of these may become Web Standards through the W3C Recommendation Track process. Others may be published as Group Notes or become obsolete specifications.
Architectural Specification providing authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers with a common reference for the use of resource identifiers building on Unicode.
This document defines data categories and their implementation as a set of elements and attributes called the Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0. ITS 2.0 is the successor of ITS 1.0; it is designed to foster the creation of multilingual Web content, focusing on HTML5, XML based formats in general, and to leverage localization workflows based on the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF). In addition to HTML5 and XML, algorithms to convert ITS attributes to RDFa and NIF are provided.
An overview of usage scenarios and implementations demonstrating applications of the Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) 2.0. The usage scenarios are ranging from simple machine translation or human translation quality check to training for machine translation systems or automatic text analyis.
Architectural Specification providing authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers with a common reference for normalization and string identity matching to improve interoperable text handling on the World Wide Web.
Describes mechanisms based on BCP 47 for identifying or selecting the language of content or locale preferences used to process information using Web technologies.
These specifications have either been superseded by others, or have been abandoned. They remain available for archival purposes, but are not intended to be used.
When creating schemas (XML Schema, DTD, etc.), it is important to include constructs that meet the needs of content authors dealing with international audiences, and address the needs of the localization community. This document provides a list of key requirements to achieve such a goal.
The following resources are relevant to this area of work.
RFC 3987: Internationalization Resource Identifiers defines a new protocol element, the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI), as a complement to the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).
IETF Best Current Practice 47 describes language tags and language tag matching for cases where it is desirable to indicate the language used in an information object. Comprises two IETF RFCs: RFC 4646 Tags for Identifying Languages and RFC 4647 Matching of Language Tags. The two editors of this best practice participate in the Internationalization Working Group.
Date and Time Formats is a W3C Member Submission that defines a profile of ISO 8601, the International Standard for the representation of dates and times, likely to satisfy most requirements.