HTML 5.1 2nd Edition

W3C Proposed Recommendation,


Normative References

D. Crocker, Ed.; P. Overell. Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF. January 2008. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234
A. Phillips; M. Davis. Tags for Identifying Languages. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47
Mark Davis; Aharon Lanin; Andrew Glass. Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. 5 June 2014. Unicode Standard Annex #9. URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/
Rik Cabanier; et al. HTML Canvas 2D Context. 19 November 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/2dcontext/
Unicode Common Locale Data Repository. URL: http://cldr.unicode.org/
A. Barth. HTTP State Management Mechanism. April 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265
Mike West. Content Security Policy Level 3. 1 September 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSP3/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad; Florian Rivoal. CSS Snapshot 2015. 13 October 2015. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-2015/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Chris Lilley. CSS Color Module Level 4. 5 July 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-color-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad. CSS Display Module Level 3. 15 October 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Font Loading Module Level 3. 22 May 2014. LCWD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-font-loading-3/
John Daggett. CSS Fonts Module Level 3. 3 October 2013. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/
David Baron; Florian Rivoal. CSS Overflow Module Level 3. 31 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-overflow-3/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad. CSS Intrinsic & Extrinsic Sizing Module Level 3. 12 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/
Tantek Çelik; Elika Etemad. CSS Style Attributes. 7 November 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr
Tab Atkins Jr.; Simon Sapin. CSS Syntax Module Level 3. 20 February 2014. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-syntax-3/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Text Module Level 3. 10 October 2013. LCWD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/
CSS Transitions Module Level 1 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/
Tantek Çelik; Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 3 (CSS3 UI). 7 July 2015. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-3/
Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4. 22 September 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad. CSS Values and Units Module Level 3. 11 June 2015. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Writing Modes Level 3. 15 December 2015. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-3/
Bert Bos; et al. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2
Bert Bos. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 2 (CSS 2.2) Specification. 12 April 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS22/
Elika Etemad; Dave Cramer. CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. 2 June 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-content-3/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module Level 3. 17 April 2012. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-images/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Ruby Layout Module Level 1. 5 August 2014. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ruby-1/
Tantek Çelik; et al. Selectors Level 3. 29 September 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-selectors/
Tantek Çelik; Chris Lilley; David Baron. CSS Color Module Level 3. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color
Simon Pieters; Glenn Adams. CSS Object Model (CSSOM). 17 March 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-1/
Simon Pieters. CSSOM View Module. 17 March 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-view-1/
Anne van Kesteren; et al. W3C DOM4. 19 November 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/dom/
Travis Leithead. DOM Parsing and Serialization. 17 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/
ECMAScript Language Specification. URL: https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/
Anne van Kesteren; Joshua Bell; Addison Phillips. Encoding. 20 October 2015. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/encoding/
Ian Hickson. Server-Sent Events. 3 February 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/eventsource/
Anne van Kesteren. Fetch Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/
Arun Ranganathan; Jonas Sicking. File API. 21 April 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/FileAPI/
Anne van Kesteren; Tantek Çelik. Fullscreen. 18 November 2014. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/fullscreen/
Simon Pieters; Dirk Schulze; Rik Cabanier. Geometry Interfaces Module Level 1. 25 November 2014. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/geometry-1/
Ilya Grigorik; James Simonsen; Jatinder Mann. High Resolution Time Level 2. 20 July 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/hr-time-2/
Steve Faulkner; et al. HTML Accessibility API Mappings 1.0. 3 December 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aam-1.0/
Steve Faulkner. ARIA in HTML. 2 September 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aria/
HTTP is the union of a set of RFCs:
Permanent Message Header Field Names. IANA.
ISO 3166: Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. ISO.
ISO 4217: Codes for the representation of currencies and funds. ISO.
Eric Hamilton. JPEG File Interchange Format. September 1992. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif3.pdf
Patrick D F Ion; Robert R Miner. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 1.01 Specification. 7 July 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/MathML/
Raphaël Troncy; et al. Media Fragments URI 1.0 (basic). 25 September 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/
Matthew Wolenetz; et al. Media Source Extensions. 5 July 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-source/
Daniel Burnett; et al. Media Capture and Streams. 19 May 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediacapture-streams/
Florian Rivoal; et al. Media Queries. 19 June 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/
Florian Rivoal; Tab Atkins Jr.. Media Queries Level 4. 6 July 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediaqueries-4/
Microformats Wiki: existing rel values. Microformats.

As of today the Web community lacks a sufficiently complete, reliable, interoperable, and tested specification for the manner in which content sniffing takes place on the Web. We encourage implementers to exercise caution in this area as the Web community makes progress towards addressing this issue.

Gordon P. Hemsley. MIME Sniffing Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/

Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 / ISO/IEC 13818-1:2013. URL: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.222.0-201206-I
ISO/IEC 14496-12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014 Information technology -- Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1: Media presentation description and segment formats. URL: http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c065274_ISO_IEC_23009-1_2014.zip
Ogg Skeleton 4 Message Headers. 17 March 2014. URL: http://wiki.xiph.org/SkeletonHeaders
A. Barth. The Web Origin Concept. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6454
Jatinder Mann; Arvind Jain. Page Visibility (Second Edition). 29 October 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/page-visibility/
Tom Lane. Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Specification (Second Edition). 10 November 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/PNG
Vincent Scheib. Pointer Lock. 30 August 2016. PR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/pointerlock/
Anne van Kesteren; Charles McCathie Nevile; Jungkee Song. Progress Events. 11 February 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/progress-events/
Domenic Denicola. Writing Promise-Using Specifications. 16 February 2016. Finding of the W3C TAG. URL: https://www.w3.org/2001/tag/doc/promises-guide
Public Suffix List. Mozilla Foundation.
Ilya Grigorik. Resource Hints. 27 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/resource-hints/
P.V. Mockapetris. Domain names - concepts and facilities. November 1987. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034
R. Braden, Ed.. Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support. October 1989. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1123
N. Freed; N. Borenstein. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. November 1996. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
H. Lie; B. Bos; C. Lilley. The text/css Media Type. March 1998. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2318
L. Masinter. The "data" URL scheme. August 1998. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2397
M. Mealling; R. Daniel. URI Resolution Services Necessary for URN Resolution. January 1999. Experimental. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2483
L. Bassham; W. Polk; R. Housley. Algorithms and Identifiers for the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile. April 2002. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3279
J. Jonsson; B. Kaliski. Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.1. February 2003. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447
S. Josefsson. The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings. October 2006. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648
D. Cooper; et al. Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile. May 2008. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280
P. Resnick, Ed.. Internet Message Format. October 2008. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322
E. Wilde; A. Vaha-Sipila. URI Scheme for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Short Message Service (SMS). January 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5724
M. Nottingham. Web Linking. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5988
M. Duerst; L. Masinter; J. Zawinski. The 'mailto' URI Scheme. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6068
J. Reschke. Use of the Content-Disposition Header Field in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). June 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6266
R. Gellens; D. Singer; P. Frojdh. The 'Codecs' and 'Profiles' Parameters for "Bucket" Media Types. August 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6381
I. Fette; A. Melnikov. The WebSocket Protocol. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6455
S. Moonesamy, Ed.. The "about" URI Scheme. August 2012. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6694
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7230
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7232
R. Fielding, Ed.; M. Nottingham, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234
H. Thompson; C. Lilley. XML Media Types. July 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7303
L. Masinter. Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data. July 2015. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7578
D. Thaler, Ed.; T. Hansen; T. Hardie. Guidelines and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes. June 2015. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7595
Ryosuke Niwa. Selection API. 21 April 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selection-api/
Selectors Level 4 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selectors4/
Alex Russell; Jungkee Song; Jake Archibald. Service Workers. 25 June 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/service-workers/
Amendment 1 - Multimedia systems and equipment - Colour measurement and management - Part 2-1: Colour management - Default RGB colour space - sRGB. URL: https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6168
Jon Ferraiolo. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.0 Specification. 4 September 2001. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/
Erik Dahlström; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition). 16 August 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/
Nikos Andronikos; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2. 15 September 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG2/
Ola Andersson; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification. 22 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVGTiny12/
Doug Schepers; et al. Touch Events. 10 October 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/touch-events/
Gary Kacmarcik; Travis Leithead. UI Events. 4 August 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/uievents/
The Unicode Standard. URL: http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/

Note: URLs can be used in numerous different manners, in many differing contexts. For the purpose of producing strict URLs one may wish to consider [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The W3C URL specification defines the term URL, various algorithms for dealing with URLs, and an API for constructing, parsing, and resolving URLs. Developers of Web browsers are advised to keep abreast of the latest URL developments by tracking the progress of https://url.spec.whatwg.org/. We expect that the W3C URL draft will evolve along the Recommendation track as the community converges on a definition of URL processing.

Most of the URL-related terms used in the HTML specification (URL, absolute URL, relative URL, relative schemes, scheme component, scheme data, username, password, host, port, path, query, fragment, percent encode, get the base, and UTF-8 percent encode) can be straightforwardly mapped to the terminology of [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The URLUtils (formerly known as URL) collection of attributes (e.g. href and protocol) and its required definitions (input, query encoding, url, update steps, set the input) are considered common practice nowadays. Some of the URL-related terms are still being refined (e.g. URL parser, parse errors, URL serializer, default encode set, and percent decode).

As a word of caution, there are notable differences in the manner in which Web browsers and other software stacks outside the HTML context handle URLs. While no changes would be accepted to URL processing that would break existing Web content, some important parts of URL processing should therefore be considered as implementation-defined (e.g. parsing file: URLs or operating on URLs that would be syntax errors under the [RFC3986] [RFC3987] syntax).

Anne van Kesteren. URL Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/

R. Moats. URN Syntax. May 1997. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2141
James Craig; Michael Cooper; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0. 20 March 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
Chris Marrin (Apple Inc.). WebGL Specification, Version 1.0. 10 February 2011. URL: https://www.khronos.org/registry/webgl/specs/1.0/
Cameron McCormack; Boris Zbarsky. WebIDL Level 1. 8 March 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL-1/
WebM Container Guidelines. 26 April 2016. URL: https://www.webmproject.org/docs/container/
Ian Hickson. Web Storage (Second Edition). 19 April 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webstorage/
Ian Hickson. Web Workers. 24 September 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/workers/
Recommendation X.690 — Information Technology — ASN.1 Encoding Rules — Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER). International Telecommunication Union.
Tim Bray; et al. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition). 26 November 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml
Tim Bray; et al. Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition). 8 December 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names
James Clark; Simon Pieters; Henry Thompson. Associating Style Sheets with XML documents 1.0 (Second Edition). 28 October 2010. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-stylesheet
Jonathan Marsh. XML Base (Second Edition). 28 January 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/
James Clark; Steven DeRose. XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xpath
Steven DeRose; et al. XPointer xmlns() Scheme. 25 March 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-xmlns/

Informative References

S. Parmenter; V. Vukicevic; A. Smith. APNG Specification. URL: https://wiki.mozilla.org/APNG_Specification
Jan Richards; Jeanne F Spellman; Jutta Treviranus. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0. 24 September 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
Anssi Kostiainen; Mounir Lamouri. Battery Status API. 7 July 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/battery-status/
M. Scherer; M. Davis. UTN #6: BOCU-1: MIME-Compatible Unicode Compression. URL: http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn6/
T. Phipps. UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme For UTF-16: 8-BIT (CESU-8). URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr26/
Martin Dürst; et al. Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals. 15 February 2005. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/charmod/
A. Turing. On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, series 2, volume 42,. 1937. URL: http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/12
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 3. 19 May 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-3/
CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module Level 4 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css4-images/
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Lists and Counters Module Level 3. 20 March 2014. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-lists-3/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Animations. 19 February 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-animations/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Transitions. 19 November 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/
The DOT Language. URL: http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language
A. Gregor. HTML Editing APIs. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/editing/raw-file/tip/editing.html
Graphics Interchange Format. 31 July 1990. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/GIF/spec-gif89a.txt
Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in C, Second Edition, J. Foley, A. van Dam, S. Feiner, J. Hughes. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-84840-6.
Inter Gravissimas, A. Lilius, C. Clavius. Gregory XIII Papal Bull, February 1582.
Eliot Graff; Leif Halvard Silli. Polyglot Markup: A robust profile of the HTML5 vocabulary. 29 September 2015. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-polyglot/
Simon Pieters. HTML5 Differences from HTML4. 9 December 2014. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html5-diff/
Sourcing In-band Media Resource Tracks from Media Containers into HTML (URL: http://dev.w3.org/html5/html-sourcing-inband-tracks/), S. Pfeiffer, B. Lund. W3C.
Nikunj Mehta; et al. Indexed Database API. 8 January 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
Representation of dates and times. International Organization for Standardization. 2004. ISO 8601:2004. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=40874
Yasuhiro Anan; et al. Requirements for Japanese Text Layout. 3 April 2012. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/jlreq/
MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics) Format. G. Randers-Pehrson.
Gecko Plugin API Reference. Mozilla.
Autodiscovery in HTML/XHTML. In OpenSearch 1.1 Draft 4, Section 4.6.2. OpenSearch.org.
Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF. ISO.
The Properties and Promises of UTF-8, M. Dürst. University of Zürich. In Proceedings of the 11th International Unicode Conference.
D. Goldsmith; M. Davis. UTF-7 A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode. May 1997. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2152
R. Gellens. The Text/Plain Format and DelSp Parameters. February 2004. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3676
M. Nottingham, Ed.; R. Sayre, Ed.. The Atom Syndication Format. December 2005. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287
B. Hoehrmann. Scripting Media Types. April 2006. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329
Richard Ishida. Use Cases & Exploratory Approaches for Ruby Markup. 8 October 2013. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ruby-use-cases/
UTR #6: A Standard Compression Scheme For Unicode, M. Wolf, K. Whistler, C. Wicksteed, M. Davis, A. Freytag, M. Scherer. Unicode Consortium.
Addison Phillips; et al. Working with Time Zones. 5 July 2011. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/timezone
Time Zone Database. IANA.
James Allan; et al. User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0. 15 December 2015. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG20/
Ryosuke Niwa. UndoManager and DOM Transaction. ED. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/undomanager/raw-file/tip/undomanager.html
Mark Davis; Michel Suignard. Unicode Security Considerations. URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/
A composite approach to language/encoding detection, S. Li, K. Momoi. Netscape. In Proceedings of the 19th International Unicode Conference.
Multilingual form encoding, M. Dürst. W3C.
Joanmarie Diggs; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1. 21 July 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/
Ben Caldwell; et al. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. 11 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
Simon Pieters. WebVTT: The Web Video Text Tracks Format. 8 December 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webvtt1/
Anne van Kesteren. XMLHttpRequest Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://xhr.spec.whatwg.org/
David Carlisle; Patrick D F Ion. XML Entity Definitions for Characters (2nd Edition). 10 April 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-entity-names/
James Clark. XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xslt