HTML 5.2

W3C Recommendation,


Normative References

D. Crocker, Ed.; P. Overell. Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF. January 2008. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234
A. Phillips; M. Davis. Tags for Identifying Languages. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47
Mark Davis; Aharon Lanin; Andrew Glass. Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. 14 May 2017. Unicode Standard Annex #9. URL: https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/tr9-37.html
Rik Cabanier; et al. HTML Canvas 2D Context. 19 November 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/2dcontext/
Unicode Common Locale Data Repository. URL: http://cldr.unicode.org/
A. Barth. HTTP State Management Mechanism. April 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265
Joanmarie Diggs; et al. Core Accessibility API Mappings 1.1. 21 September 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/core-aam-1.1/
Mike West. Content Security Policy Level 3. 13 September 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSP3/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad; Florian Rivoal. CSS Snapshot 2015. 13 October 2015. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-2015/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 4. 14 January 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Chris Lilley. CSS Color Module Level 4. 5 July 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-color-4/
Elika Etemad. CSS Display Module Level 3. 20 July 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Font Loading Module Level 3. 22 May 2014. LCWD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-font-loading-3/
John Daggett. CSS Fonts Module Level 3. 3 October 2013. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/
Dave Cramer; Elika Etemad; Steve Zilles. CSS Inline Layout Module Level 3. 24 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-inline-3/
Rossen Atanassov; Elika Etemad. CSS Logical Properties and Values Level 1. 18 May 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-logical-1/
Rossen Atanassov; Arron Eicholz. CSS Positioned Layout Module Level 3. 17 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-position-3/
Elika Etemad. CSS Intrinsic & Extrinsic Sizing Module Level 3. 7 February 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/
Tantek Çelik; Elika Etemad. CSS Style Attributes. 7 November 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr
Tab Atkins Jr.; Simon Sapin. CSS Syntax Module Level 3. 20 February 2014. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-syntax-3/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Text Module Level 3. 22 August 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/
Tantek Çelik; Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 3 (CSS3 UI). 2 March 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-3/
Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4. 22 September 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad. CSS Values and Units Module Level 3. 29 September 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values-3/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Writing Modes Level 3. 15 December 2015. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-3/
Bert Bos; et al. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2
Bert Bos. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 2 (CSS 2.2) Specification. 12 April 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS22/
Bert Bos; Elika Etemad; Brad Kemper. CSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3. 9 September 2014. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-background/
Elika Etemad; Dave Cramer. CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. 2 June 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-content-3/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module Level 3. 17 April 2012. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-images/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Ruby Layout Module Level 1. 5 August 2014. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ruby-1/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Transitions. 19 November 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/
Tantek Çelik; Chris Lilley; David Baron. CSS Color Module Level 3. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color
Simon Pieters; Glenn Adams. CSS Object Model (CSSOM). 17 March 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-1/
Simon Pieters. CSSOM View Module. 17 March 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-view-1/
Domenic Denicola. Custom Elements. 13 October 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/custom-elements/
Yongsheng Zhu. DOM 4.1. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/dom41/
Travis Leithead. DOM Parsing and Serialization. 17 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/
ECMAScript Language Specification. URL: https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/
Anne van Kesteren, Joshua Bell, Addison Phillips. Encoding. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/encoding/
Ian Hickson. Server-Sent Events. 3 February 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/eventsource/
Anne van Kesteren. Fetch Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/
Arun Ranganathan; Jonas Sicking. File API. 21 April 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/FileAPI/
Anne van Kesteren. Fullscreen API Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fullscreen.spec.whatwg.org/
Simon Pieters; Dirk Schulze; Rik Cabanier. Geometry Interfaces Module Level 1. 25 November 2014. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/geometry-1/
Graphics Interchange Format. 31 July 1990. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/GIF/spec-gif89a.txt
Ilya Grigorik; James Simonsen; Jatinder Mann. High Resolution Time Level 2. 3 August 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/hr-time-2/
Steve Faulkner; et al. HTML Accessibility API Mappings 1.0. 10 October 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aam-1.0/
Steve Faulkner. ARIA in HTML. 13 October 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aria/
Charles McCathieNevile; Mark Sadecki. HTML5 Image Description Extension (longdesc). 26 February 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-longdesc/
HTTP is the union of a set of RFCs:
Permanent Message Header Field Names. IANA.
Nikunj Mehta; et al. Indexed Database API. 8 January 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
Anne van Kesteren; Domenic Denicola. Infra Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://infra.spec.whatwg.org/
ISO 3166: Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.. 2013. ISO 3166-1:2013. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=63545
Currency codes - ISO 4217. 2015. International Standard. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/currency_codes.htm
Eric Hamilton. JPEG File Interchange Format. September 1992. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif3.pdf
Patrick D F Ion; Robert R Miner. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 1.01 Specification. 7 July 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/MathML/
Raphaël Troncy; et al. Media Fragments URI 1.0 (basic). 25 September 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/
Matthew Wolenetz; et al. Media Source Extensions™. 17 November 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-source/
Daniel Burnett; et al. Media Capture and Streams. 3 October 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediacapture-streams/
Florian Rivoal; et al. Media Queries. 19 June 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/
Florian Rivoal; Tab Atkins Jr.. Media Queries Level 4. 5 September 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediaqueries-4/
Microformats Wiki: existing rel values. Microformats.

As of today the Web community lacks a sufficiently complete, reliable, interoperable, and tested specification for the manner in which content sniffing takes place on the Web. We encourage implementers to exercise caution in this area as the Web community makes progress towards addressing this issue.

Gordon P. Hemsley. MIME Sniffing Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/

MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics) Format. G. Randers-Pehrson.
Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 / ISO/IEC 13818-1:2013. URL: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.222.0-201206-I
ISO/IEC 14496-12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014 Information technology -- Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1: Media presentation description and segment formats. URL: http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c065274_ISO_IEC_23009-1_2014.zip
Ogg Skeleton 4 Message Headers. 17 March 2014. URL: https://wiki.xiph.org/SkeletonHeaders
Autodiscovery in HTML/XHTML. In OpenSearch 1.1 Draft 4, Section 4.6.2. OpenSearch.org.
A. Barth. The Web Origin Concept. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6454
Jatinder Mann; Arvind Jain. Page Visibility (Second Edition). 29 October 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/page-visibility/
Adrian Bateman; et al. Payment Request API. 21 September 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/payment-request/
Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF. ISO.
Tom Lane. Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Specification (Second Edition). 10 November 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/PNG
Vincent Scheib. Pointer Lock. 27 October 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/pointerlock/
Mark Foltz; Dominik Röttsches. Presentation API. 1 June 2017. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/presentation-api/
Anne van Kesteren; Charles McCathie Nevile; Jungkee Song. Progress Events. 11 February 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/progress-events/
Public Suffix List. Mozilla Foundation.
Referrer Policy. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/referrer-policy
P.V. Mockapetris. Domain names - concepts and facilities. November 1987. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034
R. Braden, Ed.. Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support. October 1989. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1123
N. Freed; N. Borenstein. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. November 1996. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
H. Lie; B. Bos; C. Lilley. The text/css Media Type. March 1998. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2318
L. Masinter. The "data" URL scheme. August 1998. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2397
M. Mealling; R. Daniel. URI Resolution Services Necessary for URN Resolution. January 1999. Experimental. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2483
S. Josefsson. The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings. October 2006. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648
P. Resnick, Ed.. Internet Message Format. October 2008. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322
E. Wilde; A. Vaha-Sipila. URI Scheme for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Short Message Service (SMS). January 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5724
M. Nottingham. Web Linking. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5988
M. Duerst; L. Masinter; J. Zawinski. The 'mailto' URI Scheme. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6068
J. Reschke. Use of the Content-Disposition Header Field in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). June 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6266
S. Perreault. vCard Format Specification. August 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6350
R. Gellens; D. Singer; P. Frojdh. The 'Codecs' and 'Profiles' Parameters for "Bucket" Media Types. August 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6381
I. Fette; A. Melnikov. The WebSocket Protocol. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6455
S. Moonesamy, Ed.. The "about" URI Scheme. August 2012. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6694
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7230
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7232
R. Fielding, Ed.; M. Nottingham, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234
H. Thompson; C. Lilley. XML Media Types. July 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7303
L. Masinter. Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data. July 2015. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7578
D. Thaler, Ed.; T. Hansen; T. Hardie. Guidelines and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes. June 2015. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7595
Mike West. Secure Contexts. 15 September 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/secure-contexts/
Ryosuke Niwa. Selection API. 28 June 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selection-api/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. Selectors Level 4. 2 May 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selectors4/
Alex Russell; et al. Service Workers 1. 11 October 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/service-workers-1/
Amendment 1 - Multimedia systems and equipment - Colour measurement and management - Part 2-1: Colour management - Default RGB colour space - sRGB. URL: https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6168
Erik Dahlström; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition). 16 August 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/
Nikos Andronikos; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2. 15 September 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG2/
Ola Andersson; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification. 22 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVGTiny12/
Doug Schepers; et al. Touch Events. 10 October 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/touch-events/
Gary Kacmarcik; Travis Leithead. UI Events. 4 August 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/uievents/
The Unicode Standard. URL: https://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/

Note: URLs can be used in numerous different manners, in many differing contexts. For the purpose of producing strict URLs one may wish to consider [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The W3C URL specification defines the term URL, various algorithms for dealing with URLs, and an API for constructing, parsing, and resolving URLs. Developers of Web browsers are advised to keep abreast of the latest URL developments by tracking the progress of https://url.spec.whatwg.org/. We expect that the W3C URL draft will evolve along the Recommendation track as the community converges on a definition of URL processing.

Most of the URL-related terms used in the HTML specification (URL, absolute URL, relative URL, relative schemes, scheme component, scheme data, username, password, host, port, path, query, fragment, percent encode, get the base, and UTF-8 percent encode) can be straightforwardly mapped to the terminology of [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The URLUtils (formerly known as URL) collection of attributes (e.g. href and protocol) and its required definitions (input, query encoding, url, update steps, set the input) are considered common practice nowadays. Some of the URL-related terms are still being refined (e.g. URL parser, parse errors, URL serializer, default encode set, and percent decode).

As a word of caution, there are notable differences in the manner in which Web browsers and other software stacks outside the HTML context handle URLs. While no changes would be accepted to URL processing that would break existing Web content, some important parts of URL processing should therefore be considered as implementation-defined (e.g. parsing file: URLs or operating on URLs that would be syntax errors under the [RFC3986] [RFC3987] syntax).

Anne van Kesteren. URL Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/

P. Saint-Andre; J. Klensin. Uniform Resource Names (URNs). April 2017. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8141
James Craig; Michael Cooper; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0. 20 March 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
Joanmarie Diggs; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1. 27 October 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/
Dean Jackson; Jeff Gilbert. WebGL 2.0 Specification. 12 August 2017. URL: https://www.khronos.org/registry/webgl/specs/latest/2.0/
Cameron McCormack; Boris Zbarsky; Tobie Langel. Web IDL. 15 December 2016. ED. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL-1/
Cameron McCormack. WebIDL Level 1. 15 December 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/2016/REC-WebIDL-1-20161215/
WebM Container Guidelines. 26 April 2016. URL: https://www.webmproject.org/docs/container/
Ian Hickson. Web Storage (Second Edition). 19 April 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webstorage/
Ian Hickson. Web Workers. 24 September 2015. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/workers/
Steven DeRose; Eve Maler; David Orchard. XML Linking Language (XLink) Version 1.0. 27 June 2001. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/
Tim Bray; et al. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition). 26 November 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml
Tim Bray; et al. Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition). 8 December 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names
James Clark; Simon Pieters; Henry Thompson. Associating Style Sheets with XML documents 1.0 (Second Edition). 28 October 2010. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-stylesheet
Jonathan Marsh. XML Base (Second Edition). 28 January 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/
James Clark; Steven DeRose. XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xpath
Steven DeRose; et al. XPointer xmlns() Scheme. 25 March 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-xmlns/

Informative References

S. Parmenter; V. Vukicevic; A. Smith. APNG Specification. URL: https://wiki.mozilla.org/APNG_Specification
Jan Richards; Jeanne F Spellman; Jutta Treviranus. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0. 24 September 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
Anssi Kostiainen; Mounir Lamouri. Battery Status API. 7 July 2016. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/battery-status/
M. Scherer; M. Davis. UTN #6: BOCU-1: MIME-Compatible Unicode Compression. URL: https://www.unicode.org/notes/tn6/
T. Phipps. UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme For UTF-16: 8-BIT (CESU-8). URL: https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr26/
Martin Dürst; et al. Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals. 15 February 2005. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/charmod/
A. Turing. On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, series 2, volume 42,. 1937. URL: http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/12
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Lists and Counters Module Level 3. 20 March 2014. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-lists-3/
Rossen Atanassov; Elika J. Etemad. CSS Logical Properties Level 1. ED. URL: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-logical-props/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Animations. 19 February 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-animations/
The DOT Language. URL: http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language
A. Gregor. HTML Editing APIs. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/editing/raw-file/tip/editing.html
The Extensible Web Manifesto. 10 June 2013. URL: https://extensiblewebmanifesto.org/
Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in C, Second Edition, J. Foley, A. van Dam, S. Feiner, J. Hughes. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-84840-6.
Inter Gravissimas, A. Lilius, C. Clavius. Gregory XIII Papal Bull, February 1582.
Anne van Kesteren; et al. HTML Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/
Manu Sporny. HTML+RDFa 1.1 - Second Edition. 17 March 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-rdfa/
Simon Pieters. HTML5 Differences from HTML4. 9 December 2014. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html5-diff/
Silvia Pfeiffer; Bob Lund. Sourcing In-band Media Resource Tracks from Media Containers into HTML. 26 April 2015. Unofficial Draft. URL: https://dev.w3.org/html5/html-sourcing-inband-tracks/
Representation of dates and times. ISO 8601:2004.. 2004. ISO 8601:2004. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=40874
Yasuhiro Anan; et al. Requirements for Japanese Text Layout. 3 April 2012. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/jlreq/
Gecko Plugin API Reference. Mozilla.
The Properties and Promises of UTF-8, M. Dürst. University of Zürich. In Proceedings of the 11th International Unicode Conference.
Manu Sporny. RDFa Lite 1.1 - Second Edition. 17 March 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-lite/
D. Goldsmith; M. Davis. UTF-7 A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode. May 1997. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2152
R. Gellens. The Text/Plain Format and DelSp Parameters. February 2004. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3676
M. Nottingham, Ed.; R. Sayre, Ed.. The Atom Syndication Format. December 2005. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287
B. Hoehrmann. Scripting Media Types. April 2006. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329
Richard Ishida. Use Cases & Exploratory Approaches for Ruby Markup. 8 October 2013. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ruby-use-cases/
UTR #6: A Standard Compression Scheme For Unicode, M. Wolf, K. Whistler, C. Wicksteed, M. Davis, A. Freytag, M. Scherer. Unicode Consortium.
Addison Phillips; et al. Working with Time Zones. 5 July 2011. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/timezone
Time Zone Database. IANA.
James Allan; et al. User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0. 15 December 2015. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG20/
Ryosuke Niwa. UndoManager and DOM Transaction. ED. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/undomanager/raw-file/tip/undomanager.html
Mark Davis; Michel Suignard. Unicode Security Considerations. 19 September 2014. Unicode Technical Report #36. URL: https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/
A composite approach to language/encoding detection, S. Li, K. Momoi. Netscape. In Proceedings of the 19th International Unicode Conference.
Multilingual form encoding, M. Dürst. W3C.
Matthew King; et al. WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.1. 28 June 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-practices-1.1/
Ben Caldwell; et al. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. 11 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
Ian Hickson. HTML5 Web Messaging. 19 May 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webmessaging/
Simon Pieters. WebVTT: The Web Video Text Tracks Format. 8 August 2017. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webvtt1/
Anne van Kesteren. XMLHttpRequest Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://xhr.spec.whatwg.org/
Randall Munroe. Substitutions. URL: https://xkcd.com/1288/
David Carlisle; Patrick D F Ion. XML Entity Definitions for Characters (2nd Edition). 10 April 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-entity-names/
James Clark. XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xslt
DOM XSLTProcessor. URL: https://wiki.whatwg.org/wiki/DOM_XSLTProcessor