HTML 5.2

W3C Working Draft,


Normative References

D. Crocker, Ed.; P. Overell. Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF. January 2008. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5234
S. Parmenter; V. Vukicevic; A. Smith. APNG Specification. URL: https://wiki.mozilla.org/APNG_Specification
A. Phillips; M. Davis. Tags for Identifying Languages. September 2009. IETF Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/bcp47
Mark Davis; Aharon Lanin; Andrew Glass. Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm. 18 May 2016. Unicode Standard Annex #9. URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/tr9-35.html
Rik Cabanier; et al. HTML Canvas 2D Context. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/2dcontext/
Unicode Common Locale Data Repository. URL: http://cldr.unicode.org/
A. Barth. HTTP State Management Mechanism. April 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6265
Joseph Scheuhammer; et al. Core Accessibility API Mappings 1.1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/core-aam-1.1/
Mike West. Content Security Policy Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSP3/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad; Florian Rivoal. CSS Snapshot 2015. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-2015/
CSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-background/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-3/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Cascading and Inheritance Level 4. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-cascade-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Chris Lilley. CSS Color Module Level 4. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-color-4/
Elika Etemad. CSS Display Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-display-3/
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Font Loading Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-font-loading-3/
John Daggett. CSS Fonts Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-fonts-3/
Dave Cramer; Elika Etemad; Steve Zilles. CSS Inline Layout Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-inline-3/
Rossen Atanassov; Elika J. Etemad. CSS Logical Properties Level 1. ED. URL: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-logical-props/
CSS Overflow Module Level 4 URL: https://drafts.csswg.org/css-overflow-4/
Rossen Atanassov; Arron Eicholz. CSS Positioned Layout Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-position-3/
Elika Etemad. CSS Intrinsic & Extrinsic Sizing Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-sizing-3/
Tantek Çelik; Elika Etemad. CSS Style Attributes. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-style-attr
Tab Atkins Jr.; Simon Sapin. CSS Syntax Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-syntax-3/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Text Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-text-3/
CSS Transitions Module Level 1 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/
Tantek Çelik; Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 3 (CSS3 UI). URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-3/
Florian Rivoal. CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ui-4/
Tab Atkins Jr.; Elika Etemad. CSS Values and Units Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-values-3/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Writing Modes Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-3/
CSS Writing Modes Module Level 4 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-writing-modes-4/
Bert Bos; et al. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS2
Bert Bos. Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 2 (CSS 2.2) Specification. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/CSS22/
Elika Etemad; Dave Cramer. CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-content-3/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module Level 3. 17 April 2012. CR. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-images/
Elika Etemad; Koji Ishii. CSS Ruby Layout Module Level 1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-ruby-1/
Tantek Çelik; Chris Lilley; David Baron. CSS Color Module Level 3. 7 June 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-color
Simon Pieters; Glenn Adams. CSS Object Model (CSSOM). URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-1/
Simon Pieters. CSSOM View Module. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-view-1/
Tantek Çelik. User Interface for CSS3. 2 August 2002. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-userint
Domenic Denicola. Custom Elements. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/custom-elements/
Anne van Kesteren. DOM Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/
Travis Leithead. DOM Parsing and Serialization. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/
ECMAScript Language Specification. URL: https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/
A. Gregor. HTML Editing APIs. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/editing/raw-file/tip/editing.html
Anne van Kesteren. Encoding Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://encoding.spec.whatwg.org/
Ian Hickson. Server-Sent Events. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/eventsource/
Anne van Kesteren. Fetch Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/
Arun Ranganathan; Jonas Sicking. File API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/FileAPI/
Anne van Kesteren. Fullscreen API Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fullscreen.spec.whatwg.org/
Simon Pieters; Dirk Schulze; Rik Cabanier. Geometry Interfaces Module Level 1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/geometry-1/
Graphics Interchange Format. 31 July 1990. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/GIF/spec-gif89a.txt
Ilya Grigorik; James Simonsen; Jatinder Mann. High Resolution Time Level 2. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/hr-time-2/
Steve Faulkner; et al. HTML Accessibility API Mappings 1.0. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aam-1.0/
Steve Faulkner. ARIA in HTML. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-aria/
Charles McCathieNevile; Mark Sadecki. HTML5 Image Description Extension (longdesc). URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-longdesc/
HTTP is the union of a set of RFCs:
Permanent Message Header Field Names. IANA.
Nikunj Mehta; et al. Indexed Database API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
Anne van Kesteren; Domenic Denicola. Infra Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://infra.spec.whatwg.org/
ISO 3166: Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.. 2013. ISO 3166-1:2013. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=63545
Currency codes - ISO 4217. 2015. International Standard. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/currency_codes.htm
Yasuhiro Anan; et al. Requirements for Japanese Text Layout. 3 April 2012. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/jlreq/
Eric Hamilton. JPEG File Interchange Format. September 1992. URL: https://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif3.pdf
Patrick D F Ion; Robert R Miner. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 1.01 Specification. 7 July 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/MathML/
Raphaël Troncy; et al. Media Fragments URI 1.0 (basic). 25 September 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/
Matthew Wolenetz; et al. Media Source Extensions™. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/media-source/
Daniel Burnett; et al. Media Capture and Streams. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediacapture-streams/
Florian Rivoal; et al. Media Queries. 19 June 2012. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-mediaqueries/
Florian Rivoal; Tab Atkins Jr.. Media Queries Level 4. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/mediaqueries-4/
Microformats Wiki: existing rel values. Microformats.

As of today the Web community lacks a sufficiently complete, reliable, interoperable, and tested specification for the manner in which content sniffing takes place on the Web. We encourage implementers to exercise caution in this area as the Web community makes progress towards addressing this issue.

Gordon P. Hemsley. MIME Sniffing Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://mimesniff.spec.whatwg.org/

MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics) Format. G. Randers-Pehrson.
Information technology -- Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 / ISO/IEC 13818-1:2013. URL: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.222.0-201206-I
ISO/IEC 14496-12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014 Information technology -- Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1: Media presentation description and segment formats. URL: http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c065274_ISO_IEC_23009-1_2014.zip
Ogg Skeleton 4 Message Headers. 17 March 2014. URL: https://wiki.xiph.org/SkeletonHeaders
Autodiscovery in HTML/XHTML. In OpenSearch 1.1 Draft 4, Section 4.6.2. OpenSearch.org.
A. Barth. The Web Origin Concept. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6454
Jatinder Mann; Arvind Jain. Page Visibility (Second Edition). 29 October 2013. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/page-visibility/
Adrian Bateman; et al. Payment Request API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/payment-request/
Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF. ISO.
Tom Lane. Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Specification (Second Edition). 10 November 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/PNG
Vincent Scheib. Pointer Lock. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/pointerlock/
Mark Foltz; Dominik Röttsches. Presentation API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/presentation-api/
Anne van Kesteren; Charles McCathie Nevile; Jungkee Song. Progress Events. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/progress-events/
Public Suffix List. Mozilla Foundation.
Referrer Policy. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/referrer-policy
P.V. Mockapetris. Domain names - concepts and facilities. November 1987. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034
R. Braden, Ed.. Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support. October 1989. Internet Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1123
N. Freed; N. Borenstein. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. November 1996. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2046
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
H. Lie; B. Bos; C. Lilley. The text/css Media Type. March 1998. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2318
L. Masinter. The "data" URL scheme. August 1998. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2397
M. Mealling; R. Daniel. URI Resolution Services Necessary for URN Resolution. January 1999. Experimental. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2483
S. Josefsson. The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings. October 2006. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648
P. Resnick, Ed.. Internet Message Format. October 2008. Draft Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5322
E. Wilde; A. Vaha-Sipila. URI Scheme for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Short Message Service (SMS). January 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5724
M. Nottingham. Web Linking. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5988
M. Duerst; L. Masinter; J. Zawinski. The 'mailto' URI Scheme. October 2010. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6068
J. Reschke. Use of the Content-Disposition Header Field in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). June 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6266
S. Perreault. vCard Format Specification. August 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6350
R. Gellens; D. Singer; P. Frojdh. The 'Codecs' and 'Profiles' Parameters for "Bucket" Media Types. August 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6381
I. Fette; A. Melnikov. The WebSocket Protocol. December 2011. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6455
S. Moonesamy, Ed.. The "about" URI Scheme. August 2012. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6694
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7230
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231
R. Fielding, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7232
R. Fielding, Ed.; M. Nottingham, Ed.; J. Reschke, Ed.. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching. June 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234
H. Thompson; C. Lilley. XML Media Types. July 2014. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7303
L. Masinter. Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data. July 2015. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7578
D. Thaler, Ed.; T. Hansen; T. Hardie. Guidelines and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes. June 2015. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7595
Mike West. Secure Contexts. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/secure-contexts/
Ryosuke Niwa. Selection API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selection-api/
Selectors Level 4 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selectors4/
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. Selectors Level 4. 2 May 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selectors4/
Alex Russell; et al. Service Workers 1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/service-workers-1/
Amendment 1 - Multimedia systems and equipment - Colour measurement and management - Part 2-1: Colour management - Default RGB colour space - sRGB. URL: https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/6168
Jon Ferraiolo. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.0 Specification. 4 September 2001. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/
Erik Dahlström; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 (Second Edition). 16 August 2011. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/
Nikos Andronikos; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVG2/
Ola Andersson; et al. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification. 22 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/SVGTiny12/
Doug Schepers; et al. Touch Events. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/touch-events/
Gary Kacmarcik; Travis Leithead. UI Events. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/uievents/
Ryosuke Niwa. UndoManager and DOM Transaction. ED. URL: https://dvcs.w3.org/hg/undomanager/raw-file/tip/undomanager.html
The Unicode Standard. URL: http://www.unicode.org/versions/latest/

Note: URLs can be used in numerous different manners, in many differing contexts. For the purpose of producing strict URLs one may wish to consider [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The W3C URL specification defines the term URL, various algorithms for dealing with URLs, and an API for constructing, parsing, and resolving URLs. Developers of Web browsers are advised to keep abreast of the latest URL developments by tracking the progress of https://url.spec.whatwg.org/. We expect that the W3C URL draft will evolve along the Recommendation track as the community converges on a definition of URL processing.

Most of the URL-related terms used in the HTML specification (URL, absolute URL, relative URL, relative schemes, scheme component, scheme data, username, password, host, port, path, query, fragment, percent encode, get the base, and UTF-8 percent encode) can be straightforwardly mapped to the terminology of [RFC3986] [RFC3987]. The URLUtils (formerly known as URL) collection of attributes (e.g. href and protocol) and its required definitions (input, query encoding, url, update steps, set the input) are considered common practice nowadays. Some of the URL-related terms are still being refined (e.g. URL parser, parse errors, URL serializer, default encode set, and percent decode).

As a word of caution, there are notable differences in the manner in which Web browsers and other software stacks outside the HTML context handle URLs. While no changes would be accepted to URL processing that would break existing Web content, some important parts of URL processing should therefore be considered as implementation-defined (e.g. parsing file: URLs or operating on URLs that would be syntax errors under the [RFC3986] [RFC3987] syntax).

Anne van Kesteren. URL Standard. Continually Updated Specification. URL: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/

R. Moats. URN Syntax. May 1997. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2141
James Craig; Michael Cooper; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0. 20 March 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria/
Joanmarie Diggs; et al. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-1.1/
Chris Marrin (Apple Inc.). WebGL Specification, Version 1.0. 10 February 2011. URL: https://www.khronos.org/registry/webgl/specs/1.0/
Cameron McCormack; Boris Zbarsky; Tobie Langel. Web IDL. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WebIDL-1/
Cameron McCormack. WebIDL Level 1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/2016/REC-WebIDL-1-20161215/
WebM Container Guidelines. 26 April 2016. URL: https://www.webmproject.org/docs/container/
Ian Hickson. Web Storage (Second Edition). URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webstorage/
Ian Hickson. Web Workers. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/workers/
Anne van Kesteren. XMLHttpRequest Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://xhr.spec.whatwg.org/
Steven DeRose; Eve Maler; David Orchard. XML Linking Language (XLink) Version 1.0. 27 June 2001. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/
Tim Bray; et al. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition). 26 November 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml
Tim Bray; et al. Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition). 8 December 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names
James Clark; Simon Pieters; Henry Thompson. Associating Style Sheets with XML documents 1.0 (Second Edition). 28 October 2010. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-stylesheet
Jonathan Marsh. XML Base (Second Edition). 28 January 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlbase/
James Clark; Steven DeRose. XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xpath
Steven DeRose; et al. XPointer xmlns() Scheme. 25 March 2003. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-xmlns/

Informative References

Jan Richards; Jeanne F Spellman; Jutta Treviranus. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/
Anssi Kostiainen; Mounir Lamouri. Battery Status API. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/battery-status/
M. Scherer; M. Davis. UTN #6: BOCU-1: MIME-Compatible Unicode Compression. URL: http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn6/
T. Phipps. UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme For UTF-16: 8-BIT (CESU-8). URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr26/
Martin Dürst; et al. Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals. 15 February 2005. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/charmod/
A. Turing. On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, series 2, volume 42,. 1937. URL: http://www.turingarchive.org/browse.php/B/12
CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module Level 4 URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css4-images/
Tab Atkins Jr.. CSS Lists and Counters Module Level 3. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css-lists-3/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Animations. 19 February 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-animations/
Dean Jackson; et al. CSS Transitions. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/css3-transitions/
The DOT Language. URL: http://www.graphviz.org/content/dot-language
The Extensible Web Manifesto. 10 June 2013. URL: https://extensiblewebmanifesto.org/
Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in C, Second Edition, J. Foley, A. van Dam, S. Feiner, J. Hughes. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-84840-6.
Inter Gravissimas, A. Lilius, C. Clavius. Gregory XIII Papal Bull, February 1582.
Manu Sporny. HTML+RDFa 1.1 - Second Edition. 17 March 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html-rdfa/
Simon Pieters. HTML5 Differences from HTML4. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html5-diff/
Sourcing In-band Media Resource Tracks from Media Containers into HTML (URL: http://dev.w3.org/html5/html-sourcing-inband-tracks/), S. Pfeiffer, B. Lund. W3C.
Representation of dates and times. ISO 8601:2004.. 2004. ISO 8601:2004. URL: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=40874
Gecko Plugin API Reference. Mozilla.
The Properties and Promises of UTF-8, M. Dürst. University of Zürich. In Proceedings of the 11th International Unicode Conference.
Manu Sporny. RDFa Lite 1.1 - Second Edition. 17 March 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/rdfa-lite/
D. Goldsmith; M. Davis. UTF-7 A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode. May 1997. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2152
R. Gellens. The Text/Plain Format and DelSp Parameters. February 2004. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3676
M. Nottingham, Ed.; R. Sayre, Ed.. The Atom Syndication Format. December 2005. Proposed Standard. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4287
B. Hoehrmann. Scripting Media Types. April 2006. Informational. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4329
Richard Ishida. Use Cases & Exploratory Approaches for Ruby Markup. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/ruby-use-cases/
UTR #6: A Standard Compression Scheme For Unicode, M. Wolf, K. Whistler, C. Wicksteed, M. Davis, A. Freytag, M. Scherer. Unicode Consortium.
Addison Phillips; et al. Working with Time Zones. 5 July 2011. NOTE. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/timezone
Time Zone Database. IANA.
James Allan; et al. User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG20/
Mark Davis; Michel Suignard. Unicode Security Considerations. URL: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/
A composite approach to language/encoding detection, S. Li, K. Momoi. Netscape. In Proceedings of the 19th International Unicode Conference.
Multilingual form encoding, M. Dürst. W3C.
Matthew King; et al. WAI-ARIA Authoring Practices 1.1. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/wai-aria-practices-1.1/
Ben Caldwell; et al. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. 11 December 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/
Simon Pieters. WebVTT: The Web Video Text Tracks Format. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webvtt1/
Randall Munroe. Substitutions. URL: https://xkcd.com/1288/
David Carlisle; Patrick D F Ion. XML Entity Definitions for Characters (2nd Edition). 10 April 2014. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-entity-names/
James Clark. XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0. 16 November 1999. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xslt
DOM XSLTProcessor. URL: https://wiki.whatwg.org/wiki/DOM_XSLTProcessor