Site Navigation

  • Web Architecture

Web Architecture

Web Architecture focuses on the foundation technologies and principles which sustain the Web, including URIs and HTTP.

Architecture Principles Header link

Web Architecture principles help to design technologies by providing guidance and articulating the issues around some specific choices.

Identifiers Header link

We share things by their names. URL, URI, IRI is the way to name things on the Web and manipulate them. Some additional addressing needs in the Web Services stack motivated some additional layers.

Protocols Header link

Protocols are the vehicle for exchanging our ideas. HTTP is the core protocol of the Web. W3C is also working on XML Protocols and SOAP in relation to Web Services.

Meta Formats Header link

XML, the Extensible Markup Language, is used to build new formats at low cost (due to widely available tools to manipulate content in those new formats). RDF and OWL allow people to define vocabularies (“ontologies”) of terms as part of the Semantic Web.

Protocol and Meta Format Considerations Header link

Documents on the Web are loosely joined pieces by identifiers. It creates a maze of rich interactions between protocols and formats.

Internationalization Header link

W3C has worked with the community on the internationalization of identifiers (IRIs) and a general character model for the Web.

News Atom

Securing the Web

23 January 2015

from W3C TAG Lines

Today, the TAG approved a new finding, “ Securing the Web.”

As the Web platform becomes more powerful, it also becomes more susceptible to a variety of attacks; someone who can pose as the server or modify content on its way to you can insert persistent scripts to track your activity, to modify what you see and even to access your data. These attacks affect all Web sites, not just “sensitive” ones, because the power the platform provides can be misused by attackers even if the site isn’t using it.

At the same time, the IAB has issued advice to design for confidential operation by default , due to the pervasive monitoring attacksthat have become prevalent recently.

So, after careful consideration, the TAG has found that:

* The Web platform should be designed to actively prefer secure communication — typically, by encouraging use of “https://” URLs instead of “http://” ones.
* Barriers to adopting “https://” should be removed where feasible.
* The end-to-end nature of TLS encryption must not be compromised on the Web, in order to preserve trust.

Please read the full findingfor details. It is primarily aimed at those creating W3C specifications; if Working Groups need assistance, we encourage them to engage with us.

We expect that we will continue to focus on security issues as this finding is implemented.

W3C announced today the 8th MultilingualWeb workshop in a series of eventsexploring the mechanisms and processes needed to ensure that the World Wide Web lives up to its potential around the world and across barriers of language and culture.

This workshop will be held 29 April 2015in Riga, Latvia, and is made possible by the generous support of the LIDER project . The workshop is part of the Riga Summit 2015 on the Multilingual Digital Single Market(27-29 April)

Anyone may attend all sessions at no charge and the W3C welcomes participation by both speakers and non-speaking attendees. Early registration is encouraged due to limited space.

Building on the success of seven highly regarded previous workshops, this workshop will emphasize new technology developments that lead to new opportunities for the Multilingual Web. The workshop brings together participants interested in the best practices and standards needed to help content creators, localizers, language tools developers, and others meet the challenges of the multilingual Web. It provides further opportunities for networking across communities. We are particularly interested in speakers who can demonstrate novel solutions for reaching out to a global, multilingual audience.

See the Call for Participation and register online.


17 November 2014

from W3C TAG Lines

By design , five of the participants on the TAG are elected by the members of W3C. That means that the membership of W3C have a direct influence over the composition of the TAG and therefore over its technical direction, priorities and mandate. In practice, this has meant that in the past couple of years we have had a significant shift of focus, as W3C membership has chosen to elect candidates whose area of expertise is more oriented around the browser, who have more of an interest in the intersection between JavaScript and other Web technologies, who have been signatories to the Extensible Web Manifesto and who have had a strong belief that the TAG can play a constructive role in connecting the developer community with standards. We’ve taken this mandate seriously and embarked in a program of activities these past two years that have included developer outreach events, “summits,” new findings such as the Promises Guide  and guidelines on the use of Capability URLs as well as working on API design with such efforts as Web Audio, EME, Responsive Images and the Push API.

Now an election cycle is starting and four of our seats are up for election. You now have another opportunity to shape the work of the TAG. And by “you” I do not only mean the 401 W3C members as represented by its august Advisory Committee. I mean “you” the web community at large. The nominees are put forward and the votes are cast by W3C members. So if you work for, or are associated with, one of these then you have an opportunity to influence this process via your Advisory Committee representative. If you would like to put yourself forward for the TAG election, or if you have opinions on the the slate of candidates, let that A.C. representative know. If you are not associated with a W3C member you can still get involved. Reach out to someone you know who is associated with a W3C member to let them know what you think is most important for the long-term direction of the Web or to put yourself forward for nomination. Write a blog post. Tweet and mention @w3ctag . Get involved in our discussions on our public mailing list and on Github. The W3C, as a trustee of web technologies and standards holds this position in trust of the wider web community, and the TAG, as steward of Web architecture needs to do so as well.

The nomination period ends on the 30 thof November and the election itself will take place in late December and early January. Thanks for your help and support!

[Post amended to further elaborate on how the Report Card fits into the rest of the TAG’s Work]

The TAG is chartered to work on the architecture of the web.  As the Web continues to evolves from a Web documents to a Web of distributed applications, and as Javascript programming has become such an important part of web development, it’s becoming more important than ever to focus on how we add new features to the web and how we extend existing features. Last year, some members of the TAG collaborated with others in the community in some thinking which resulted in the Extensible Web Manifesto . The ideas promoted by this vision of the future, which include exposing low-level capabilities and doing so in a layered way , have influenced a lot of the work of the TAG, particularly around our specification reviews.

We’ve had feedback at some of our developer meet-ups this year that people would like a better idea articulation from us of the design principles the TAG is employing when we review specs. We’ve also had a lot of questions about how the views in the Extensible Web Manifesto relate to the TAG’s current work. We thought one way to address these questions would be to publish a review of (what we see as) some key standards and how they measure up against the ideals of extensibility. A kind of “Report Card” on the state of the extensible web that could simultaneously provide some feedback to individual standards efforts and show the community some examples of what we’re talking about. The Extensible Web Report Card is the result and it’s a document that we hope to continue to update as new information becomes available. Have a look and please feel free to comment on our work on GitHub or to fork and send pull requests.

The Encoding specificationhas been published as a Candidate Recommendation. This is a snapshot of the WHATWG document, as of 4 September 2014, published after discussion with the WHATWG editors. No changes have been made in the body of this document other than to align with W3C house styles. The primary reason that W3C is publishing this document is so that HTML5 and other specifications may normatively refer to a stable W3C Recommendation.

Going forward, the Internationalization Working Group expects to receive more comments in the form of implementation feedback and test cases. The Working Group
believes it will have satisfied its implementation criteria no earlier than 16 March 2015. If you would like to contribute test cases or information about implementations, please send mail to www-international@w3.org.

The utf-8 encoding is the most appropriate encoding for interchange of Unicode, the universal coded character set. Therefore for new protocols and formats, as well as existing formats deployed in new contexts, this specification requires (and defines) the utf-8 encoding.

The other (legacy) encodings have been defined to some extent in the past. However, user agents have not always implemented them in the same way, have not always used the same labels, and often differ in dealing with undefined and former proprietary areas of encodings. This specification addresses those gaps so that new user agents do not have to reverse engineer encoding implementations and existing user agents can converge.

The XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF) version 2.0 has been approved as an OASIS Standard.

XLIFF is the open standard bi-text format: Bi-text keeps source language and target language data in sync during localization.

The publication of XLIFF 2.0 is of high importance for W3C since several of the main ITS 2.0data categories can be used within XLIFF 2.0 to provide content related information during the localization process. Full ITS 2.0 support is planned for the upcoming XLIFF 2.1 version.

A report summarizing the MultilingualWeb workshop in Madrid is now available from the MultilingualWeb site. It contains a summary of each session with links to presentation slides and minutes taken during the workshop in Madrid. The workshop was a huge success, with approximately 110 participants, and with the associated LIDER roadmapping workshop . The Workshop was hosted by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid , sponsored by the EU-funded LIDER project, by Verisign and by Lionbridge.
A new workshop in the MultilingualWeb series is planned for 2015.

This documentbuilds upon on the Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals to provide authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers a common reference on string matching on the World Wide Web and thereby increase interoperability. String matching is the process by which a specification or implementation defines whether two string values are the same or different from one another.

The main target audience of this specification is W3C specification developers. This specification and parts of it can be referenced from other W3C specifications and it defines conformance criteria for W3C specifications, as well as other specifications.

This version of this document represents a significant change from its previous edition. Much of the content is changed and the recommendations are significantly altered. This fact is reflected in a change to the name of the document from “Character Model: Normalization” to “Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching and Searching”.

The TAG will be holding a developer meetup along side of our next face-to-face meeting in Cambridge, Mass. The event will be in the evening of the 22nd of July, will be hosted by Akamai and organized by the BostonJS meetup group. Thanks to both Akamai and BostonJS for helping us out!

As with our previous TAG developer meet-ups, this will be a pretty simple format. We’ll get the TAG members up on stage for a panel discussion about some of the topics we’re covering. We’re going to let you know what we’re working on, answer questions and hopefully engage in some spirited discussion. The event is open to anyone interested in web architecture, web development, web standards and the future of web tech. It’s free to attend and you do not have to already be a member of BostonJS to attend (though you will have to join that meetup group if you want to register ). The event is also listed  on lanyrd (though you must register on the BostonJS meetup group to attend).

Version 7.0 of the Unicode Standardis now available, adding 2,834 new characters. This latest version adds the new currency symbols for the Russian ruble and Azerbaijani manat, approximately 250 emoji (pictographic symbols), many other symbols, and 23 new lesser-used and historic scripts, as well as character additions to many existing scripts. These additions extend support for written languages of North America, China, India, other Asian countries, and Africa. See the link above for full details.

Most of the new emoji characters derive from characters in long-standing and widespread use in Wingdings and Webdings fonts.

Major enhancements were made to the Indic script properties. New property values were added to enable a more algorithmic approach to rendering Indic scripts. These include properties for joining behavior, new classes for numbers, and a further division of the syllabic categories of viramas and rephas. With these enhancements, the default rendering for newly added Indic scripts can be significantly improved.

Unicode character properties were extended to the new characters. The old characters have enhancements to Script and Alphabetic properties, and casing and line-breaking behavior. There were also nearly 3,000 new Cantonese pronunciation entries, as well as new or clarified stability policies for promoting interoperable implementations.

Two other important Unicode specifications are maintained in synchrony with the Unicode Standard, and have updates for Version 7.0. These will be released at the same time:

UTS #10, Unicode Collation Algorithm— the standard for sorting Unicode text
UTS #46, Unicode IDNA Compatibility Processing— for processing of non-ASCII URLs (IDNs)

Events Header link

  • 2015-05-18 (18 MAY) 2015-05-22 (22 MAY)


    Florence, Italy

See full list of W3C Events.