About WCAG Techniques

About WCAG

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) provides requirements for making websites, applications, and other digital content accessible to people with disabilities. For an introduction to WCAG, supporting technical documents, and educational material, see WCAG 2 Overview.

There are additional resources that help you understand and implement WCAG. These Techniques are one type of resource. Others are explained in the WCAG 2 Documents.

About Techniques

The techniques provide guidance for web content authors and evaluators on meeting WCAG success criteria. Techniques are examples of ways to meet WCAG.

Updated periodically

WCAG 2 itself is a stable document that does not change. The techniques for WCAG are updated periodically to cover more current best practices and changes in technologies and tools.

Techniques are not required

Techniques are informative—that means they are not required. The basis for determining conformance to WCAG 2 is the success criteria from the WCAG 2 standard—not the techniques.


W3C cautions against requiring W3C's sufficient techniques. The only thing that should be required is meeting the WCAG 2 success criteria. To learn more, see: What would be the negative consequences of allowing only W3C's published techniques to be used for conformance to WCAG 2? in the WCAG 2 FAQ

WCAG Quick Reference

Techniques for WCAG 2 is not intended to be used as a stand-alone document. Instead, it is expected that content authors will usually use How to Meet WCAG 2: A customizable quick reference to read the WCAG success criteria, and follow links from there to specific topics in Understanding WCAG 2 and to specific techniques.

Techniques for specific technologies

Publication of techniques for a specific technology does not imply that the technology can be used in all situations to create content that meets WCAG 2 success criteria and conformance requirements. Developers need to be aware of the limitations of specific technologies and provide content in a way that is accessible to people with disabilities.

Important Additional Information

For important information about techniques, please see the Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria section of Understanding WCAG 2.

Change Log

A list of new, removed or significantly updated techniques:

  1. : Removed Flash techniques.
  2. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 2.5.1 due to providing functionality via a path-based gesture without simple pointer alternative
  3. : Added Failure due to inability to deactivate motion actuation
  4. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.12 due to clipped or overlapped content when text spacing is adjusted
  5. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 4.1.3 due to providing status messages that cannot be programmatically determined through role or properties
  6. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.10 due to content disappearing and not being available when content has reflowed
  7. : Added Providing single point activation for a control slider
  8. : Added Providing controls to achieve the same result as path based or multipoint gestures
  9. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.4 due to showing a message asking to reorient device
  10. : Added Using a control to allow access to content in different orientations which is otherwise restricted
  11. : Added Creating a two-color focus indicator to ensure sufficient contrast
  12. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 2.1.4 due to implementing character key shortcuts that cannot be turned off or remapped
  13. : Added Making content on focus or hover hoverable, dismissible, and persistent
  14. : Added Using native controls to ensure functionality is triggered on the up-event
  15. : Added Failure of Success Criterion 2.5.6 due to interactions being limited to touch-only on touchscreen devices
  16. : Added Provide conventional controls and an application setting for motion activated input
  17. : Added Semantically identifying a font icon with role="img"
  18. : Added Failure due to locking the orientation to landscape or portrait view
  19. : Removed F52 from SC 3.2.1 (still attached to SC 3.2.5)
  20. : Added Provide sufficient contrast at the boundaries between adjoining colors
  21. : Added Using the CSS reduce-motion query to prevent motion
  22. : Added Ensuring that a contrast ratio of 3:1 is provided for icons
  23. : Added Using CSS width, max-width and flexbox to fit labels and inputs
  24. : Added F95 of 1.4.13 due to content shown on hover not being hoverable
  25. : Added C34 Using media queries to un-fixing sticky headers / footers
  26. : Added C36 Allowing for text spacing override
  27. : Added C37 Using CSS max-width and height to fit images
  28. : Added G207 Ensuring that drag-and-drop actions can be cancelled
  29. : Added F95 Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.13 due to content shown on hover not being hoverable
  30. : Added F96 Failure of Success Criterion 2.5.3 due to "accessible name" not containing the visible label text
  31. : Added C38 Using CSS width, max-width and flexbox to fit labels and inputs
  32. : Added G207 Ensuring that a contrast ratio of 3:1 is provided for icons

For a more detailed view of recent changes to the informative documents see the github updates.


Participants of the AG WG active in the development of this document:

  • Jake Abma (Invited Expert)
  • Shadi Abou-Zahra (W3C)
  • Chuck Adams (Oracle Corporation)
  • Amani Ali (Nomensa)
  • Jim Allan (Invited Expert)
  • Paul Adam (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Christopher Auclair (VitalSource | Ingram Content Group)
  • Jon Avila (Level Access)
  • Tom Babinszki (IBM Corporation)
  • Bruce Bailey (U.S. Access Board)
  • Renaldo Bernard (University of Southampton)
  • Chris Blouch (Level Access)
  • Denis Boudreau (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Judy Brewer (W3C)
  • Shari Butler (Pearson plc)
  • Thaddeus Cambron (Invited Expert)
  • Alastair Campbell (Nomensa)
  • Laura Carlson (Invited Expert)
  • Louis Cheng (Google)
  • Pietro Cirrincione (Invited Expert)
  • Vivienne Conway (Web Key IT Pty Ltd)
  • Michael Cooper (W3C)
  • Jennifer Delisi (Invited Expert)
  • Romain Deltour (DAISY Consortium)
  • Wayne Dick (Knowbility, Inc)
  • Chaohai Ding (University of Southampton)
  • Kim Dirks (Thomson Reuters)
  • Shwetank Dixit (BarrierBreak Technologies)
  • Anthony Doran (TextHelp)
  • E.A. Draffan (University of Southampton)
  • Eric Eggert (W3C)
  • Michael Elledge (Invited Expert)
  • David Fazio (Invited Expert)
  • Wilco Fiers (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Detlev Fischer (Invited Expert)
  • John Foliot (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Matt Garrish (DAISY Consortium)
  • Alistair Garrison (Level Access)
  • Michael Gower (IBM Corporation)
  • Jon Gunderson
  • Markku Hakkinen (Educational Testing Service)
  • Katie Haritos-Shea (Knowbility, Inc)
  • Andy Heath (Invited Expert)
  • Shawn Henry (W3C)
  • Thomas Hoffman (Educational Testing Service)
  • Sarah Horton (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Stefan Johansson (Invited Expert)
  • Marc Johlic (IBM Corporation)
  • Rick Johnson (VitalSource | Ingram Content Group)
  • Crystal Jones (Microsoft Corporation)
  • Andrew Kirkpatrick (Adobe)
  • John Kirkwood (Invited Expert)
  • Jason Kiss (Department of Internal Affairs, New Zealand Government)
  • Maureen Kraft (IBM Corporation)
  • JaEun Ku (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
  • Patrick Lauke (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Shawn Lauriat (Google, Inc.)
  • Steve Lee (Invited Expert)
  • Alex Li (Microsoft Corporation)
  • Chris Loiselle (Invited Expert)
  • Greg Lowney (Invited Expert)
  • Adam Lund (Thomson Reuters)
  • David MacDonald (Invited Expert)
  • Erich Manser (IBM Corporation)
  • Kurt Mattes (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Scott McCormack (Level Access)
  • Chris McMeeking (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Jan McSorley (Pearson plc)
  • Neil Milliken (Unify Software and Solutions)
  • Rachael Montgomery (Invited Expert)
  • Mary Jo Mueller (IBM Corporation)
  • Brooks Newton (Thomson Reuters)
  • James Nurthen (Oracle Corporation)
  • Joshue O Connor (Invited Expert)
  • Sailesh Panchang (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Charu Pandhi (IBM Corporation)
  • Kim Patch (Invited Expert)
  • Melanie Philipp (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Mike Pluke (Invited Expert)
  • Ian Pouncey (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Ruoxi Ran (W3C)
  • Stephen Repsher (Invited Expert)
  • Jan Richards (Invited Expert)
  • John Rochford (Invited Expert)
  • Marla Runyan (Invited Expert)
  • Stefan Schnabel (SAP SE)
  • Ayelet Seeman (Invited Expert)
  • Lisa Seeman-Kestenbaum (Invited Expert)
  • Glenda Sims (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Avneesh Singh (DAISY Consortium)
  • David Sloan (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Alan Smith (Invited Expert)
  • Jim Smith (Unify Software and Solutions)
  • Andrew Somers (Invited Expert)
  • Adam Solomon (Invited Expert)
  • Jaeil Song (National Information Society Agency (NIA))
  • Jeanne Spellman (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Makoto Ueki (Invited Expert)
  • Jatin Vaishnav (Deque Systems, Inc.)
  • Gregg Vanderheiden (Raising the Floor)
  • Evangelos Vlachogiannis (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft)
  • Kathleen Wahlbin (Invited Expert)
  • Can Wang (Zhejiang University)
  • Léonie Watson (The Paciello Group, LLC)
  • Jason White (Educational Testing Service)
  • Mark Wilcock (Unify Software and Solutions)

Other previously active WCAG WG participants and other contributors to WCAG 2.0, WCAG 2.1, or supporting resources

Paul Adam, Jenae Andershonis, Wilhelm Joys Andersen, Andrew Arch, Avi Arditti, Aries Arditi, Mark Barratt, Mike Barta, Sandy Bartell, Kynn Bartlett, Chris Beer, Charles Belov, Marco Bertoni, Harvey Bingham, Chris Blouch, Paul Bohman, Frederick Boland, Denis Boudreau, Patrice Bourlon, Andy Brown, Dick Brown, Doyle Burnett, Raven Calais, Ben Caldwell, Tomas Caspers, Roberto Castaldo, Sofia Celic-Li, Sambhavi Chandrashekar, Mike Cherim, Jonathan Chetwynd, Wendy Chisholm, Alan Chuter, David M Clark, Joe Clark, Darcy Clarke, James Coltham, Earl Cousins, James Craig, Tom Croucher, Pierce Crowell, Nir Dagan, Daniel Dardailler, Geoff Deering, Sébastien Delorme, Pete DeVasto, Iyad Abu Doush, Sylvie Duchateau, Cherie Eckholm, Roberto Ellero, Don Evans, Gavin Evans, Neal Ewers, Steve Faulkner, Bengt Farre, Lainey Feingold, Wilco Fiers, Michel Fitos, Alan J. Flavell, Nikolaos Floratos, Kentarou Fukuda, Miguel Garcia, P.J. Gardner, Alistair Garrison, Greg Gay, Becky Gibson, Al Gilman, Kerstin Goldsmith, Michael Grade, Karl Groves, Loretta Guarino Reid, Jon Gunderson, Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Brian Hardy, Eric Hansen, Benjamin Hawkes-Lewis, Sean Hayes, Shawn Henry, Hans Hillen, Donovan Hipke, Bjoern Hoehrmann, Allen Hoffman, Chris Hofstader, Yvette Hoitink, Martijn Houtepen, Carlos Iglesias, Richard Ishida, Jonas Jacek, Ian Jacobs, Phill Jenkins, Barry Johnson, Duff Johnson, Jyotsna Kaki, Shilpi Kapoor, Leonard R. Kasday, Kazuhito Kidachi, Ken Kipness, Johannes Koch, Marja-Riitta Koivunen, Preety Kumar, Kristjan Kure, Andrew LaHart, Gez Lemon, Chuck Letourneau, Aurélien Levy, Harry Loots, Scott Luebking, Tim Lacy, Jim Ley, Alex Li, William Loughborough, N Maffeo, Mark Magennis, Kapsi Maria, Luca Mascaro, Matt May, Sheena McCullagh, Liam McGee, Jens Oliver Meiert, Niqui Merret, Jonathan Metz, Alessandro Miele, Steven Miller, Mathew J Mirabella, Matt May, Marti McCuller, Sorcha Moore, Charles F. Munat, Robert Neff, Charles Nevile, Liddy Nevile, Dylan Nicholson, Bruno von Niman, Tim Noonan, Sebastiano Nutarelli, Graham Oliver, Sean B. Palmer, Devarshi Pant, Nigel Peck, Anne Pemberton, David Poehlman, Ian Pouncey, Charles Pritchard, Kerstin Probiesch, W Reagan, Adam Victor Reed, Chris Reeve, Chris Ridpath, Lee Roberts, Mark Rogers, Raph de Rooij, Gregory J. Rosmaita, Matthew Ross, Sharron Rush, Joel Sanda, Janina Sajka, Roberto Scano, Gordon Schantz, Tim van Schie, Wolf Schmidt, Stefan Schnabel, Cynthia Shelly, Glenda Sims, John Slatin, Becky Smith, Jared Smith, Andi Snow-Weaver, Neil Soiffer, Mike Squillace, Michael Stenitzer, Diane Stottlemyer, Christophe Strobbe, Sarah J Swierenga, Jim Thatcher, Terry Thompson, Justin Thorp, David Todd, Mary Utt, Jean Vanderdonckt, Carlos A Velasco, Eric Velleman, Gijs Veyfeyken, Dena Wainwright, Paul Walsch, Daman Wandke, Richard Warren, Elle Waters, Takayuki Watanabe, Gian Wild, David Wooley, Wu Wei, Kenny Zhang, Leona Zumbo.

Enabling funders

This publication has been funded in part with U.S. Federal funds from the Health and Human Services, National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), initially under contract number ED-OSE-10-C-0067 and now under contract number HHSP23301500054C. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.