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Internationalization Working Group
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Key information: Mission - News - Work in progress - Publications - Other resources - Charter - Meetings - Archives - Participants - How to join - Patent policy


Provide internationalization advice to other groups developing Web standards, and review their specifications (mostly W3C groups, but we also get involved in Unicode, IDN, IETF and other work).

Develop education and outreach materials to make the internationalization aspects of W3C technology better understood and more widely and consistently used by content authors and implementers.


The main point of entry for information and news related to the work of the Internationalization Working Group is the

The news is sent to various RSS feeds, and also a Twitter channel, @webi18n.

The chair of the Working Group is Addison Phillips (Amazon).

Electronic communication

Much of the technical discussion takes place in various github issues lists. If you want to raise an issue with a document, this is the place to raise it. See a list of open issues.

Technical topics for which no GitHub issue list is appropriate can be discussed on the www-international mailing list, however, we recommend that you start technical threads on w3c/i18n-discuss rather than here, to leverage the significant benefits that GitHub issues bring. This is the main list for the Internationalization Interest Group. The list receives i18n WG minutes, and daily digests of activity on i18n GitHub issues, including review comments sent to other groups. The list is public and anyone can subscribe.

public-i18n-core is used mostly for group-restricted discussions, and for notification of proposed review comments. The archive is public. This list also receives weekly digests of activity on i18n GitHub issues.

There is also a member-only list [archive] which is used for group administravia and any member-confidential topics.

There is also a related, very low traffic list, public-iri, for discussions of IRIs and related topics. The list is public and anyone can subscribe.



The working group holds a weekly Webex teleconference to discuss work items for about one hour.

Day: Thursday
Time: 16.00 UTC/GMT (Convert to your timezone)

Meeting agenda are published before each teleconference on the member-i18n-core mailing list. They include Webex links and telephone numbers, and also include information about how to connect to IRC, which is used during meetings to record minutes and also to share URIs, examples, and so forth. We also use it outside of meetings for quick contacts.

To request an agenda item, send an email to the member list with "agenda+" at the start of the subject.

Minutes and summaries of all teleconferences and face-to-face meetings can be found in the www-international mail archive.

Next face-to-face meeting

Useful Links

Useful links

You can find a list of current projects below. The project radar lists current objectives for those work items.


To get information about script requirements and related issues, see the

For typographic samples, see the

And for a list of task forces and work in related to requirements, see the page

Review and discussion

You can see what reviews are coming up, and link to comments from previous reviews using the

You can see a list of currently open comments using the

Spec developers will find the following useful for guidance and self-review

See also the section below entitled What does reviewing a spec involve?

Documents we create

You can find a list of Rec-track docs, Notes and drafts at

We use Github to develop our technical reports. You can find links to the github repositories in the project radar.

You can also see a list of open issues for all our github repos using the list of

You can find a list of articles and other documents that are currently in development using the

To access the educational material created by the Working Group, use the

There is also a list of Articles and tutorials which may provide a useful shortcut to the articles and tutorials.

Test suite

The Working Group develops test pages relating to support of international features on the Web, and summaries of test results.

The tests in the test suite are ported to the Web Platform and CSS test suites.

Miscellaneous documents

The internationalization wiki is used for collaborative development of i18n articles and for gathering information about feature requirements.

Other useful links:

How to participate

The Working Group (WG) is always looking for additional participants, to work on a very varied range of topics and interests. The group needs a variety of people with different skills, from technical authoring to specialised knowledge of particular technologies.

See a list of participation benefits for you and your organization.

See some examples of what WG members do within the group.

Working group members are responsible for the development of the group's deliverables, so some minimum commitment is preferred, but we are flexible about this.

We would expect you to keep up to date with the discussions on the public-i18n-core and www-international lists and respond in a timely manner when required.

We would like you to participate in weekly teleconferences and in face to face meetings as scheduled or send regrets to list.

We would like you participate in reviews and discussions of documents or specifications where you have an interest or expertise.

The Working Group has fingers in so many pies that it can be a little disorienting or confusing for new people at first. Your participation in the WG will be driven mostly by your interests, so please look for areas where you are interested in contributing and feel free to volunteer or champion an area that is particularly interesting to you.

Participants in the working group are expected to observe the requirements of the W3C Process for Working Groups.

If you are unable to make the required commitment to join the working group, you can still contribute in a number of ways. You can also simply follow the work by accessing the Internationalization Web site, the public mailing lists and archives, and all public documents.

You are also encouraged to join the Internationalization Interest Group.

Current WG participants

What WG members do

Working Group members contribute in one or more of the following ways.

Current work

The following table summarises key lines of activity in the Working Group, or other groups with which it liaises.

Requirements development Developer guidelines Reviews, discussion, advice Implement­ation support Education & outreach

index & repo

index, type-samples

  • Maintain a typography index that points to typographic information relevant to the Open Web Platform for scripts and writing systems around the world.
  • Build the type-samples repository as a collection of images that illustrate typographic features in scripts from around the world.

text layout

Develop text layout and typographic requirements for languages using the following scripts.








GH, list


GH, list


ED, GH, list





  • Monitor and contribute to developments in the Digipub group's document about text layout requirements for the Latin script.



  • Capture guidelines for spec developers, to help them address internationalization needs.
  • Shape the guidelines so that they can be used for self-review.



  • Create guidelines for spec developers and implementers about string matching in an internationalization-sensitive way



  • Advance a snapshot of the Encoding specification by the WhatWG to W3C Recommendation.

locales and locale-affected formats

ED, GH, wiki

  • Produce guidelines for working with locale-specific features in the Open Web Platform.

I18N for data structures & JSON


  • Develop requirements and best practices for handling plain text and JSON content with natural language.

time zones, etc.

tz wiki, ftwiki

  • Produce guidelines about handling timezones and time-related features.


radar, issue tracker

  • Review specifications for W3C and other working group for internationalization issues.

adhoc topics

issue tracker

  • Respond to topics arising from emails or other communications on an adhoc basis.


home, implementations


  • Support implementation of features for bidirectional text.

vertical text

article, tests

  • Support implementation of features for vertical text.


markup, styling, html tests, css tests

  • Support implementation of ruby features.
  • Derive a content model for ruby that can be used by spec developers.

mongolian variants

summary, list

  • Support efforts to standardise mongolian variant forms.


test suite

  • Produce tests for i18n features of browsers, especially for upcoming CSS features.
  • Produce summaries of the results on latest UA versions.
  • Develop notes on current implementation status


article pipeline, issue tracker, article list

  • Develop articles and tutorials to assist content authors and others to apply internationalization features in W3C standards.



  • Maintain counter-style templates for content authors, reflecting scripts around the world.

unicode in xml


  • Update advice for content developers about when to use Unicode code points and when to use markup.

edx courses

  • Provide support for i18n content and questions.

Contact: Richard


  • Represent W3C internationalization work at industry events and conferences.

i18n checker


  • Maintain the Internationalization Checker as part of the W3C validation suite.
Track industry



  • track developments

idn/iri/uri and eai


  • track developments in this area
  • revamp the article on IDN & IRI
  • consider ways to contribute to raising awareness
  • review the URL spec

Contact: Dennis



  • track developments



  • track the Intl extension
Related community groups

ontolex cg

home, spec

  • Define an ontology lexicon model for the Web

sentiment cg


  • Define a representation of sentiment information

ld4lt cg

home, wiki

  • Define metadata for linguistic resources and (future) potential standardization of NIF


home, reports

  • Create best practices for working with linguistic linked data.

What does reviewing a spec involve?

Choose specs you have an interest in or that you think may widen your awareness, and don't worry about revisiting recently reviewed specs and raising new issues if you spot any. See the review radar for suggestions.

There is a page How to review specs and raise issues that describes, step-by-step, how to raise issues as you review a spec.

We are currently developing a checklist to help you with suggestions of things to look for. It's by no means exhaustive, and it's still in development, so don't expect it to be perfect either. However, as you drill down in that page you reach a list of "Recommendations" which will give you ideas. If there is a 'more' link at the end of the recommendation, click on it to better understand the topic.

Historical information

Previous locations of minutes:

Since May 2012, see the www-international archive, and search for 'minutes' in the subject.

Apr 2011 - May 2012, see the public-i18n-core mail archive.

Aug 2008 - Apr 2011, see the Agenda builder wiki page.

Before Aug 2008, see the public-i18n-core mail archive.

For earlier minutes, see this archiveMO.

Past FTF meetings

Old process documents

Chair: Addison Phillips (addison at amazon dot com)
Staff contact: Richard Ishida (ishida at w3 dot org)
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