W3CW3C Internationalization (I18n) Activity: Making the World Wide Web truly world wide!

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Non-W3C Recommended technique.

Internationalization Techniques:
Authoring HTML & CSS

This page lists links to resources on the W3C Internationalization Activity site and elsewhere that help you author HTML and CSS for internationalization. It is one of several techniques pages. A dynamic version of this page is also available, to help you get an overview and drill down quickly to what you need.

Although the page title refers to 'authoring', it is also relevant to HTML that is produced by scripts and tools, and that may be derived from an authored document in a different format (such as an XML file).

On this page:
CharactersLanguageMarkup & textText directionStyling & layoutNavigation

Characters

Getting started

Background information

Choosing and applying a character encoding

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Background reading
  • What is the 'Document Character Set' for XML and HTML, and how does it relate to the encodings I use for my documents?

Other references
  • A Google blog post by Mark Davis. A graph showing the growth of Unicode encodings to over 60% of Web pages (around 80% if you include ASCII-only pages).

  • Are corporate Web sites using Unicode right now?  This article is somewhat outdated, now that Unicode accounts for around 80% of pages on the Web.

Changing to UTF-8

See also

This section is specifically about how migrate your content to the UTF-8 (Unicode) encoding. For more general advice see Choosing and applying a character encoding.

For information about how to declare the encoding so that the browser knows how to read your content see Declaring the character encoding for HTML and Declaring the character encoding for your CSS stylesheet.

How to's
Background reading
  • What is the 'Document Character Set' for XML and HTML, and how does it relate to the encodings I use for my documents?

Declaring the character encoding for HTML

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Background reading
  • Introduces doctypes, mime-types, and the influence of standards- vs. quirks-mode on character encoding declarations.

  • Tutorial style article that gathers together and organizes pointers to articles that, taken together, help you understand how to handle the essential aspects of authoring HTML and CSS related to characters and character encodings.

Other links

Declaring the character encoding for a CSS style sheet

See also

This section is specifically about how declare the character encoding of your CSS stylesheet.

For advice about which encoding to choose, see Choosing and applying a character encoding.

For further advice about setting the character encoding on the server, see Setting the HTTP charset parameter and Setting character encoding information using .htaccess.

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Other links
  • Tutorial style article that gathers together and organizes pointers to articles that, taken together, help you understand how to handle the essential aspects of authoring HTML and CSS related to characters and character encodings.

Using escapes to represent characters

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Other links
  • Tutorial style article that gathers together and organizes pointers to articles that, taken together, help you understand how to handle the essential aspects of authoring HTML and CSS related to characters and character encodings.

Checking the encoding of a document

How to's
Useful reference links

Changing the encoding of a page in an editor

How to's

Working with the byte-order mark (BOM)

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Other links
  • Tutorial style article that gathers together and organizes pointers to articles that, taken together, help you understand how to handle the essential aspects of authoring HTML and CSS related to characters and character encodings.

Handling normalization

How to's
Useful reference links

Handling encoding issues in forms

How to's
  • What is the best way to deal with encoding issues in forms that may use multiple languages and scripts?

Using Unicode control codes in text

See also

You may want to represent control codes using character escapes. See Using escapes to represent characters for more information on that.

How to's

Working around unavailable characters/glyphs

How to's

Using non-ASCII web addresses

Background reading
Useful reference links
Spec links
Other links

Language

Getting started

Background information

Declaring the overall language of a page

How to's
Spec links
Background reading
Other references
Tests

Identifying in-document language changes

How to's
Spec links
Background reading
Other references

Choosing language tags

How to's
Useful reference links
Spec links
Other references

Declaring metadata about the language(s) of the intended audience

See also

This section is specifically about setting metadata for the document as an object. For information about declaring the language of the document for text-processing purposes, see Declaring the overall language of a page.

For detailed advice about how to select the right language tags, see Choosing language values.

How to's
Spec links
Other references

Indicating the language of a link destination

How to's
Spec links
Other references

Setting & changing browser language preferences

How to's

Using Accept-Language for locale setting

How to's

Markup & text

Getting started

Background information

Working with composite strings and string re-use

How to's
  • Why you need to be very careful about splitting up and reusing text on-screen. The linguistic differences between languages can lead to real headaches for localizers and may in some cases make a reasonable translation impossible to achieve.

  • Things to be aware of if you plan to use the same text string in different places on your site or user interface.

Other references

Using ruby markup

See also

This section is specifically about how to use markup for ruby annotations. For information about styling ruby see Styling ruby text.

How to's
  • Gives examples of how ruby markup can be used per the HTML5 ruby extension spec.

  • Overview of the Ruby Annotation specification (in W3C tutorial, Ruby Markup and Styling)

Spec links
Background reading
  • Mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051.

  • Discussion about what is needed in the HTML5 specification, and possibly other markup vocabularies, to adequately support ruby markup. It looks at a number of use cases and how well they are supported by the various markup models.

  • Useful information about ruby in general (Ken Lunde's book, CJKV Information Processing, ISBN 1-56592-224-7, especially chapters 6 and 7)

Other references
  • W3C Recommendation that defines markup for ruby, in the form of an XHTML module. The HTML5 markup model should eventually replace this specification.

  • W3C Working Draft that defines how ruby elements can be styled in various different ways. This draft is likely to change significantly as it is reworked to support the HTML5 markup model. (For more about styling ruby see Styling ruby text).

  • Ruby Annotation inthe XHTML 1.1 spec (bottom of the page)

  • Sample module implementations of the Ruby Annotation Specification in several schemas (W3C Personal Note)

Working with form controls

See also

In the Characters section see Handling encoding issues in forms.

In the section Text Direction see Managing text direction in form controls.

In the section Styling & Layout see Working with names and Working with date formats.

How to's
  • As part of a form, I have a list of terms in a drop-down box. Why are they not correctly sorted when I translate the items in the list?

Indicating what should and should not be translated

How to's
Spec links

Text direction

Getting started

Background information

Setting up a right-to-left page

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Setting direction on block elements

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Managing text direction in form controls

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Mixing text direction inline

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Handling parentheses and other mirrored characters

How to's

Overriding the Unicode bidirectional algorithm

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Styling & layout

Preparing for text expansion during translation

How to's
Background reading
  • Overview of text expansion issues.

  • Do I need to worry because display capabilities (screen sizes, number of colors, etc.) of computers vary in other countries?

  • Douglas Bowman's article in A List Apart about how to layer background images, allowing them to slide over each other to create certain effects. (A note from the editors: While brilliant for its time, this article no longer reflects modern best practices.)

Styling by language

How to's
Spec links
Tests

Styling lists

How to's
  • Provides cut and paste templates for a large number of international counter styles that can be used for ordered lists and other such counters.

Spec links
Other references
  • Allows you to convert ASCII numbers into other representations that can be used for ordered list counters, headings, etc, using the algorithms described by CSS3 Counter Styles.

  • Preview of upcoming proposals for CSS3 written in 2003.

Tests

Creating vertical text

Spec links
Other references
  • Preview of upcoming proposals for CSS3. In W3C article, CSS3 and International Text.

Justifying and aligning text

Spec links
Other references

Styling ruby text

See also

This section is specifically about styling ruby text. For more information about markup for ruby see Using ruby markup.

How to's
  • Introduction to styling ruby with CSS3 Ruby Module. In W3C article, Ruby Markup and Styling.

Spec links
Background reading
  • What is 'ruby'?

  • Useful information about ruby in general (Ken Lunde's book, CJKV Information Processing, ISBN 1-56592-224-7, especially chapters 6 and 7)

Other references

Applying various script-specific typographic conventions

Other references
  • Preview of upcoming proposals for CSS3. In W3C article, CSS3 and International Text.

  • Preview of upcoming proposals for CSS3. In W3C article, CSS3 and International Text.

  • Preview of upcoming proposals for CSS3. In W3C article, CSS3 and International Text.

Working with date formats

How to's
  • How do I prepare my web pages to display varying international date formats?

Working with personal names

Recommendations
How to's
  • How do people's names differ around the world, and what are the implications of those differences on the design of forms, databases, ontologies, etc. for the Web?


Contact: Richard Ishida (ishida@w3.org).

Content last changed 2014-09-29 17:11 GMT