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Topics for Web Accessibility Presentations and Training

Introduction

This page provides material for web accessibility topics that you can use as building blocks to create presentations and training sessions. These are examples that you can adapt and combine for your specific audience and goals.

List of Topics

See also: How to Make Your Presentations Accessible to All for guidance on ensuring that your training is accessible to all of your audience, including participants with disabilities.

1. Introducing Web Accessibility

Goal: Communicate the basic principles of web accessibility, why it is important, and who is affected.

Audience: Anyone with an interest in the web, disability, or related topics.

Description

This topic introduces the importance of the Web as an essential communication tool and the fact that people with disabilities and older people should have equal, barrier-free access.

What this topic covers

  • Access to the Web is an essential requirement for full participation in the information society
  • Effect of accessibility barriers on people's access to web based information systems and services
  • Meaning and importance of web accessibility for people with disabilities and older people
  • WAI guidelines and resources as the international standard for web accessibility
  • How to get involved and where to get more information about web accessibility

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

  • WCAG 2 at a Glance - a paraphrased summary of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG 2.0

Suggestions for speakers

  • Discussion: Discuss scenarios from How People with Disabilities use the Web to illustrate the importance of web accessibility.
  • Demonstration: Show some videos of people with disabilities using the Web - external page.
  • Demonstration: Show examples of accessible and inaccessible websites, and the effect they have on access with assistive technologies. Consider using the Before and After Demonstration.
  • Activity: Ask attendees what kind of accessibility accommodations in buildings, transport, or every day life are they aware of? When they answer ramps, curb cuts, captions, automatic doors, elevators, etc., ask if anyone uses those accommodations other than people with disabilities. Discuss how accessibility features benefit everyone. Draw the analogy with web accessibility.

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2. How People with Disabilities Use the Web

Goal: Provide an understanding of how people with disabilities and older people access the Web, and the type of barriers they can encounter. Highlight the importance of web accessibility in an information society.

Audience: Anyone with an interest in the web, disability, ageing, or related topics.

Description

This topic explores accessibility barriers for people with disabilities and older people using the Web. It also gives an introduction to the principles of accessible web design, and an overview on assistive technologies and adaptive browsing strategies.

What this topic covers

  • Broad diversity of people, abilities, skills, and preferences
  • Impact of web accessibility on people with disabilities, including people with age-related impairments
  • Accessibility needs and examples of common barriers that affect millions of people
  • Assistive technologies and adaptive strategies used by people with disabilities
  • Accessibility requirements and technical standards for web accessibility
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Demonstration: Show examples of using assistive technologies and adaptive strategies, and/or show videos of people with disabilities using the Web - external page.
  • Activity/Demonstration: Explore the usage of accessible versus inaccessible websites, while using the keyboard only to navigate; wearing mittens or gardening gloves; very fast mouse pointer; onscreen keyboard (no physical keyboard); blurred glasses; very high browser zoom; no sound; etc. Discuss the difficulties with inaccessible websites and the solutions used in accessible websites.
  • Tip: Give accessibility a human face, for example by relating it to older relatives, such as grandparents, who may be encountering accessibility barriers as they go online.
  • Tip: Suggest participants repeat the activity/demonstration on other websites after the session.

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3. Components of Web Accessibility

Goal: Introduction to the WAI standards and guidelines for web accessibility.

Audience: Web developers and others responsible for creating accessible online content and applications, accessibility advocates, ICT departments

Description

This topic explores the components of web accessibility, in particular the WAI Guidelines for:

  • user agents (browsers and media players)
  • authoring tools (tools used by content authors and web developers)
  • web content

It covers how these components work together to improve web accessibility.

What this topic covers

  • Three related sets of WAI guidelines working together:
    • User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG)
    • Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)
    • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
  • Understand the role of each guideline in creating and maintaining an accessible Web
  • Role of underlying technologies (HTML, XML, CSS, SVG, SMIL, etc.) to enable accessibility
  • WAI-ARIA for dynamic web pages and applications
  • Understand how various guidelines and specifications interact to deliver accessibility
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Question: Ask audience if they have ever used velcro, and think about how it works. Each side of the velcro must do a job, one can't work without the other. Draw an analogy to assistive technologies, adaptive strategies, and accessible web design.
  • Tip: Remind participants that even if they are not browser or authoring tool developers, they can help improve such tools by requesting accessibility features, especially during procurement.

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4. Promoting Web Accessibility

Goal: Encourage web accessibility advocates and support their efforts to promote inclusive design practices.

Audience: Accessibility advocates

Description

This topic provides support for speakers who are promoting and furthering web accessibility within groups of all sizes and in any situation, from formal talks to personal conversations.

What this topic covers

  • Web accessibility is an ongoing challenge that needs a high level of awareness
  • WAI resources to help you reach your audience
  • Opportunities to promote web accessibility
  • Participation opportunities in WAI and other W3C projects

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Handouts

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5. Introducing WCAG 2.0

Goal: Provide basic familiarity with WCAG 2.0 and its benefits.

Audience: Anyone requiring an introduction to WCAG 2.0 and familiarization with the WCAG 2.0 documents.

Description

This topic presents the use of WCAG 2.0 when developing websites (especially techniques to use and techniques to avoid) that will improve accessibility for people with disabilities and older people.

What this topic covers

  • The four basic principles (Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust) under which WCAG 2.0 is organized
  • Relationship of the organizing principles to the supporting Guidelines, Success Criteria and associated techniques
  • Structure of WCAG 2.0 success criteria and associated techniques (Sufficient, Advisory, Failure)
  • Benefits of WCAG 2.0 in relation to internationalization, interoperability, adaptability to emerging technologies, etc.
  • Tools and documents provided to support practical implementation and testing
  • How to locate supporting resources through the "How to Meet WCAG 2.0" gateway

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Demonstration: Show how to effectively access WCAG 2.0 Guidelines, Success Criteria and associated techniques using How to Meet WCAG 2.0.

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6. Migrating to WCAG 2

Goal: Help people wanting to transition to WCAG 2.0.

Audience: Web developers, policy makers, and accessibility advocates

Description

This topic provides support for those who have previously incorporated older accessibility standards and are interested in WCAG 2. Guidance to help prioritize, analyze, and document technical and organizational requirements.

What this topic covers

  • Acknowledgement that the basic goals of web accessibility have not changed
  • Advantages of WCAG 2.0 as a common target for accessibility
  • Identification of priority areas for revision based on impact and effort
  • The need to analyze and relate those priorities to WCAG 2.0 Principles, Guidelines and Success Criteria
  • Methods to document the process and update organizational policies and supporting materials
  • Where to get more information, including WCAG 2.0 translations

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Handouts

  • WCAG 2 at a Glance - a paraphrased summary of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG 2.0

Suggestions for speakers

  • Tip: Explain to participants that communicating migration plans in accessibility statements helps manage expectations.

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7. Designing and Developing Accessible Websites with WCAG 2

Goal: Teach web developers how to create accessible web content and applications.

Audience: Web designers and developers

Description

This topic presents the use of WCAG 2.0 when developing websites (especially techniques to use, and techniques to avoid) that will improve accessibility for people with disabilities and older people.

Note: This topic could be presented as an introduction (such as part of a lecture to web design students) or as a multi-day workshop for developers. See also the related Topic 9: Accessibility of Authoring Tools.

What this topic covers

  • Applicability of WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria to all web technologies, including dynamic content, multimedia, and other formats
  • Application of techniques to meet WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria
  • Distinguishing between the different categories of techniques (sufficient, advisory, and failure)
  • Using advisory techniques to optimize accessibility beyond the minimum requirements
  • Using How to Meet WCAG 2.0 to effectively access WCAG 2.0 Guidelines, Success Criteria and associated techniques
  • Role of WAI-ARIA for dynamic applications using JavaScript, AJAX, and other technologies
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Demonstration: Show how to effectively access WCAG 2.0 Guidelines, Success Criteria and associated techniques using How to Meet WCAG 2.0.
  • Activity/Demonstration: Explore the failures and repairs in the Before and After Demonstration. Consider carrying out evaluations on the inaccessible pages of the Demo and comparing with the reports provided, or carrying out repairs and comparing with the accessible pages of the Demo.
  • Tip: Show examples of accessible websites with advanced features, such as multimedia or scripting, to illustrate how accessible web design can be applied to a wide range of websites.
  • Tip: Suggest participants repeat the activity/demonstration on other websites after the session.

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8. Browser Accessibility and UAAG

Goal: Help people understand the importance of browsers and media players in enabling web accessibility.

Audience: Web browser and media player developers, plug-in developers, assistive technology developers, ICT and procurement departments, web developers, accessibility advocates

Description

This topic explains the relationship between user agents (browsers, media players, and other tools that access content), web content, assistive technologies and adaptive strategies. It introduces the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG), and explains their importance for people with disabilities and older people.

Note: See also the related Topic 3: Components of Web Accessibility.

What this topic covers

  • Understanding how UAAG relates to other WAI guidelines
  • Understanding user agents as one of the key components for web accessibility
  • Principles and checkpoints for accessibility of user agents
  • How user agents interface with assistive technologies
  • Adaptive strategies used by people with disabilities in using user agents

Note: UAAG 2.0 is a mature draft and we expect that it will not change significantly. We recommend that you use the UAAG 2.0 draft in most cases, understanding that it might change. (For more information on the status of UAAG 2.0, see the UAAG Versions section of the UAAG Overview.)

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Tip: Emphasize the important role of browser accessibility, such as increasing text size or supporting keyboard navigation, especially for people who do not use assistive technologies such as many older people.
  • Activity/Demonstration: Explore how browsers and media players support adjusting text size or colors, navigating content using keyboard only, displaying captions, and other strategies from Better Web Browsing: Tips for Configuring Your Computer. Discuss the importance of user agents as the point of contact between people and the Web.
  • Tip: Suggest participants repeat the activity/demonstration with different user agents and websites after the session.

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9. Authoring Tool Accessibility and ATAG

Goal: Help people understand the importance of authoring tools in achieving web accessibility.

Audience: Authoring tool developers, web developers, ICT and procurement departments, web developers, accessibility advocates

Description

This topic explains the relationship between authoring tools (editors, content management systems, blogging tools, and other tools that produce content) and web content. It introduces the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG), and explains the importance of authoring tools to achieve and maintain accessible websites.

Note: See also the related Topic 3: Components of Web Accessibility.

What this topic covers

  • Understanding how ATAG relates to other WAI guidelines
  • Understanding authoring tools as one of the key components for web accessibility
  • Principles and checkpoints for accessibility of authoring tools
  • Role of authoring tools to manage the accessibility of web content, including user generated content
  • Considerations for selecting and using authoring tools that support accessibility
  • Ensuring that authoring tools are themselves accessible to people with disabilities

Note: ATAG 2.0 is a mature draft and we expect that it will not change significantly. We recommend that you use the ATAG 2.0 draft in most cases, understanding that it might change. (For more information on the status of ATAG 2.0, see the ATAG Versions section of the ATAG Overview.)

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Tip: Ensure that audience understand the wide range of authoring tools, including WYSIWYG HTML editor, word processor, text editor, content management systems (CMS), blogging tools, social media applications, and websites that enable user generated content such as comments and reviews.
  • Tip: Emphasize the importance of training for content authors and publishers in using the accessibility features of authoring tools to produce accessible web content.
  • Activity/Demonstration: Explore how accessible authoring tools are, and how well the produce web content. For instance, can the authoring tool be used without a mouse, and does the generated content meet accessibility standards? Discuss the significant role of authoring tools to achieve and maintain accessibility, and the importance that authoring tools are themselves accessible to people with disabilities. Remind participants that there are people with disabilities among developers too.
  • Tip: Suggest participants repeat the activity/demonstration with other authoring tools after the session.

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10. Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA)

Goal: Provide an understanding of the requirements for accessible rich internet applications.

Audience: Web developers, framework/library developers, assistive technology developers, ICT and procurement departments

Description

This topic presents the use of WAI-ARIA resources and other accessibility techniques to develop rich internet applications that are accessible to people with disabilities.

Note: See also the related Topic 3: Components of Web Accessibility.

What this topic covers

  • Accessibility barriers of rich internet applications
  • Basic steps to make rich internet applications accessible
  • Relationship between WAI-ARIA and WCAG 2.0
  • Technical solutions provided by WAI-ARIA, including:
    • WAI-ARIA features that help make Ajax, DHTML, etc accessible
    • WAI-ARIA Roles, States, Properties, plus relationships and live regions
    • WAI-ARIA keyboard navigation and focus handling
  • Reminder that HTML 5 does not make WAI ARIA redundant
  • Know where to get more information, including JavaScript toolkits and widget libraries

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Demonstration: Show examples of making rich internet applications accessible using WAI-ARIA. Discuss some of the current issues, including incomplete support and other open issues that will be resolved when WAI-ARIA is completed.

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11. Business Case for Web Accessibility

Goal: Provide an appreciation of the business case for web accessibility.

Audience: Managers and decision makers, ICT and procurement departments, marketing and legal departments, accessibility advocates and others who inform decisions and policies

Description

This topic explores the social, technical, financial and legal factors that influence an organization's decision about web accessibility. It also provides an introduction to the development of web accessibility policies.

What this topic covers

  • Benefits for people with and without disabilities, including the increasing ageing population
  • Reduction of development and operational costs, including server load, bandwidth, and maintenance
  • Improved cross-device browsing, including mobile phones, interactive television, and other delivery channels
  • The legal and policy landscape, and liabilities associated with not implementing web accessibility
  • Developing policies, including procurement practices, relating to web accessibility
  • Case studies, statistic, and figures covering return on investment from web accessibility

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Additional resources

Suggestions for speakers

  • Discussion: Explore how accessibility solutions are becoming increasing available in mainstream products and services. For example, text-to-speech (speech synthesis), voice recognition (speech input), touch screens, motion sensors, and others in mobile devices, car navigation systems, interactive television, game consoles, and many more. Discuss how accessibility features benefit everyone, including people with and without disabilities.
  • Question: Ask if anyone has experienced problems browsing the Web with a mobile phone. Discuss the barriers common to mobile device users and people with disabilities, and how accessible web design benefits mobile web users.
  • Discussion: Explore the international, national, or organizational policies that are applicable to the participants. Discuss relevant policies relating to web accessibility, legal and policy factors in a web accessibility business case, and cautionary tales of inaccessibility.
  • Discussion: Explore effective ways to increase the adoption of web accessibility within organizations. Discuss the role of key players, such as management, procurement, and local advocates.
  • Tip: Refer to your local disability organizations for further background on statistics, local policies, and examples of good and bad practices.
  • Tip: Give accessibility a human face, for example by relating it to older relatives, such as grandparents, who may be encountering accessibility barriers as they go online.

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12. Improving the Accessibility of Existing Websites

Goal: Assistance for organizations taking the initial steps towards implementing web accessibility.

Audience: Web developers, website owners, decision makers

Description

This topic introduces the process of embracing web accessibility by improving existing websites. The topic also covers how to maintain the website's accessibility over time.

What this topic covers

  • Considerations for setting appropriate web accessibility targets
  • Identifying scope and nature of existing accessibility problems
  • Creating an implementation plan to achieve the accessibility targets
  • Ideas for prioritizing repairs according to different strategies
  • Planning for ongoing monitoring and maintenance of accessibility

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Suggestions for speakers

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13. Involving Users in Web Projects

Goal: Encourage all web projects to involve users from the start.

Audience: Managers, development teams, quality assurance and usability departments

Description

This topic covers benefits involving people with disabilities and older people from the beginning of any web development project. It demonstrates how users can identify usability aspects of accessibility that are not always discovered by conformance evaluation alone.

What this topic covers

  • Benefits of involving users with disabilities and older users in development and evaluation of web sites
  • How and when to engage users with disabilities and older users
  • How testing with users can complement the technical conformance to guidelines
  • Involving users is not an add-on at the end but needs to be part of the workflow throughout development process
  • Care required when drawing conclusions from observing users
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Discussion: Ask participants to share experiences of involving users in their projects. Discuss the benefits of involving users throughout design processes. Help participants identify opportunities to involve users in their own projects.

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14. Web Accessibility and Older People

Goal: Help people understand the importance of web accessibility for older people.

Audience: Managers and decision makers, web developers, ICT and procurement departments, marketing and legal departments, accessibility advocates and others who inform decisions and policies

Description

This topic explores the importance of the adoption of WAI guidelines to meet the needs of people with ageing-related impairments. It provides some statistics highlighting the demographic changes.

What this topic covers

  • Facts about the ageing world population and the increasing numbers of older users online
  • Relationship between ageing-related impairments and web accessibility
  • Importance of conforming to WAI Guidelines to meet the accessibility needs of older people
  • Scope and deliverables of the WAI-AGE Project, and resources for industry and users
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Sample presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

  • WCAG 2 at a Glance - a paraphrased summary of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG 2.

Suggestions for speakers

  • Demonstration: Show some videos with older people using the Web - external page.
  • Activity: Show some simulations of low vision; get participants to experience some impairments, e.g. using the mouse with other hand and browsing some sites with text enlarged.

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15. Accessibility and the Mobile Web

Goal: Provide an understanding of the overlapping issues between web accessibility and mobile web use.

Audience: Managers and decision makers, web developers, ICT and procurement departments, accessibility advocates and others who inform decisions and policies

Description

This topic encourages concurrent development of websites for both accessibility and mobile use through understanding the common needs of both groups. It covers the overlapping solutions available to developers, and the efficacy of meeting the needs of both groups simultaneously.

What this topic covers

  • Similar experiences of web users with disabilities and users of mobile devices
  • W3C standards and guidelines for web accessibility and mobile web
  • Overlapping technical requirements for web accessibility and mobile friendly websites
  • Benefits of a combined approach for making accessible and mobile friendly websites
  • Meeting one set of requirements if the other set of requirements has already been met

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Discussion: Explore some of the overlapping issues for mobile web users and people with disabilities. For example, explore issues with websites that do not provide keyboard support, resizable text, sufficient color contrast, and such. Discuss how accessibility benefit mobile web users and many more.
  • Tip: Use Independent User Interfaces (IndieUI) to attract advanced web developers to leading edge accessibility work and how it is relevant to many others.

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16. Web Accessibility Policy and Legislation

Goal: Provide an appreciation of local web accessibility policy and legislation, the need for international harmonization, and the essential elements of an organizational policy.

Audience: Managers and decision makers, ICT and procurement departments, marketing and legal departments, accessibility advocates and others who inform decisions and policies

Description

This topic examines global policy and legal requirements that companies and organizations face as they meet local nondiscrimination and web accessibility laws. It also explores the move towards international standards harmonization, and covers the development and implementation of organizational accessibility policies.

What this topic covers

  • Web accessibility laws and policies specific to the local audience
  • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and local implications
  • Importance and benefits of international standards harmonization for organizations and for users
  • Developing policies, including procurement practices, relating to web accessibility

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Suggestions for speakers

  • Discussion: Explore the impact of fragmented technical standards on sharing resources, expertise, know how, and tools. Discuss the benefits of internationally harmonized standards for web accessibility.
  • Discussion: Explore the international, national, or organizational policies that are applicable to the participants. Discuss relevant policies relating to web accessibility, legal and policy factors in a web accessibility business case, and cautionary tales of inaccessibility.
  • Discussion: Explore effective ways to increase the adoption of web accessibility within organizations. Discuss the role of key players, such as management, procurement, and local advocates.
  • Tip: Refer to your local disability organizations for further background on statistics, local policies, and examples of good and bad practices.
  • Tip: Give accessibility a human face, for example by relating it to older relatives, such as grandparents, who may be encountering accessibility barriers as they go online.

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17. Quick Check for Web Accessibility

Goal: Introduce the concept of a quick website accessibility check, including benefits, techniques, and limitations.

Audience: Anyone wanting to learn how to do a quick website accessibility check

Description

This topic explores some easy evaluation techniques that will provide participants with the ability to perform initial reviews and present the results. It includes an explanation of the difference between a quick preliminary website accessibility check and a thorough conformance evaluation review.

What this topic covers

  • What is meant by a quick website accessibility check, and its limitations
  • Basic techniques for performing a preliminary review
  • Difference between a quick check and a full conformance review
  • Evaluation tools and their limitations
  • Summarizing the results of the quick check
  • Where to get more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Suggestions for speakers

topics list

18. Conformance Evaluation for Web Accessibility

Goal: Provide an understanding of how to undertake a conformance review for website accessibility.

Audience: Web developers and quality assurers, accessibility experts, researchers

Description

This topic provides an introduction to the approach, tools, and techniques for performing a thorough website accessibility conformance evaluation review. It also discussed the importance of testing with users.

Note: This topic assumes familiarity with WCAG 2. See Topic 5: Introducing WCAG 2.0.

What this topic covers

  • Selecting a representative sample of web pages to evaluate, including samples from large or dynamically generated websites
  • Selecting and using evaluation tools to support evaluation approaches and processes
  • Benefits of involving users to achieve a more complete evaluation
  • Reporting findings in a comprehensive and understandable way
  • When and where to get more help and more information

Resources for developing a presentation

Primary resources

Handouts

Suggestions for speakers

  • Activity/Demonstration: Evaluate accessible and inaccessible web pages from the Before and After Demonstration. Compare results among the participants and with the reports provided.
  • Activity: Have participants recommend improvements for inaccessible web pages from the Before and After Demonstration. Compare with the accessible web pages from the Demo and discuss different types of solutions to meet accessibility requirements.
  • Tip: Suggest participants repeat the activity/demonstration with other websites, including their own, after the session.

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