Understanding Success Criterion 3.3.9: Redundant Entry

Success Criterion 3.3.9 Redundant Entry (Level A): Information previously entered by or provided to the user that is required to be entered again in the same process is either:

Except when:


This understanding document is part of the draft WCAG 2.2 content. It may change or be removed before the final WCAG 2.2 is published.


The intent of this Success Criterion is to ensure that users can successfully navigate multi-step processes. It reduces cognitive effort where information is asked for more than once during steps in a process. It also reduces the need to recall information provided in a previous step.

Information that is required to be remembered for input can pose a significant barrier to users with cognitive or memory difficulties. All users experience a natural gradual mental fatigue as they proceed through steps in a process. This fatigue is accelerated by the stress of recalling information from short-term working memory. Users with learning, and cognitive disabilities are highly susceptible to mental fatigue.

Requiring people to recall information already entered in the previous steps can cause them to give up or enter incorrect information. The autocomplete feature of browsers is not considered sufficient because it is the content (the web site) that needs to provide the stored information for a redundant entry, or avoid asking for the same information again.

This Success Criterion does not add a requirement to remember information between sessions. A process is defined on the basis of an activity and is not applicable when a user returns after closing a session or navigating away. However, a process can run across different domains, so if a check-out process includes a 3rd party payment provider, that would be in scope.

The term "available to select" is not prescriptive. The term allows authors to develop techniques where auto-population is not possible. It can include allowing the user to:

This Success Criterion does not apply if data is provided by the user with a different method, such as uploading a resume in a document format.

This Success Criterion does not impact Accessible Authentication, for which allowing auto-filling of passwords is a sufficient technique. In that case the filling is performed by the user's browser. Redundant Entry is asking for the website content to make the previous entry available, but not between sessions or for essential purposes such as asking for a password.

There are exceptions for:




Each numbered item in this section represents a technique or combination of techniques that the WCAG Working Group deems sufficient for meeting this Success Criterion. However, it is not necessary to use these particular techniques. For information on using other techniques, see Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria, particularly the "Other Techniques" section.

Sufficient Techniques

Key Terms


if removed, would fundamentally change the information or functionality of the content, and information and functionality cannot be achieved in another way that would conform


series of user actions where each action is required in order to complete an activity

Successful use of a series of Web pages on a shopping site requires users to view alternative products, prices and offers, select products, submit an order, provide shipping information and provide payment information.

An account registration page requires successful completion of a Turing test before the registration form can be accessed.