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Understanding SC 2.4.13:Focus Not Obscured (Enhanced) (Level AAA)

Status

This understanding document is part of the draft WCAG 2.2 content. It may change or be removed before the final WCAG 2.2 is published.

Intent

The purpose of this Success Criterion is to ensure that a component with keyboard focus is visible. This criterion is closely related to Focus Not Obscured (Minimum) but requires that the whole of the component is visible.

Benefits

  • This Success Criterion helps anyone who relies on the keyboard to operate the page by letting them visually determine the component on which keyboard operations will interact at any point in time.
  • People with attention limitations, short term memory limitations, or limitations in executive processes benefit by being able to discover where the focus is located.

Examples

  • A page has a sticky footer (attached to the bottom of the viewport). When tabbing down the page the focused item is not overlapped by the footer at all.

Techniques

Each numbered item in this section represents a technique or combination of techniques that the WCAG Working Group deems sufficient for meeting this Success Criterion. However, it is not necessary to use these particular techniques. For information on using other techniques, see Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria, particularly the "Other Techniques" section.

Sufficient Techniques

  1. CSS: Using scroll-padding to ensure a sticky header does not obscure the focused item (Potential future technique).

Failures

The following are common mistakes that are considered failures of this Success Criterion by the WCAG Working Group.

Key Terms

user interface component

a part of the content that is perceived by users as a single control for a distinct function

Note

Multiple user interface components may be implemented as a single programmatic element. "Components" here is not tied to programming techniques, but rather to what the user perceives as separate controls.

Note

User interface components include form elements and links as well as components generated by scripts.

Note

What is meant by "component" or "user interface component" here is also sometimes called "user interface element".

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