🔙 WCAG 3.0 (Silver) Guidelines


DRAFT Functional Needs

This is draft content published for review alongside W3C Accessibility Guidelines 3.0.


  1. Use without harm or risk 


Vision & Visual

  1. Use without vision

    1. Use as blind (born without vision)

    2. Use with blindness (acquired blindness during lifetime)

  2. Use with limited vision

    1. Use with limited central vision

    2. Use with limited peripheral vision ·XR·

    3. Use with limited interocular acuity or monocular input

  3. Use without color perception

  4. Use with limited color perception

  5. Use with limited depth perception ·XR·

  6. Use with limited orientation or spatial tracking ·XR·

  7. Use with photosensitivity (too much or too little)

Hearing & Auditory

  1. Use without hearing

    1. Use as Deaf (born with congenital deafness and/or to a deaf family)

    2. Use as deaf (acquired deafness during lifetime after a language was learned)

  2. Use with limited hearing

  3. Use with limited auditory processing (speech)

  4. Use with (age and Presbycusis related) sensorineural hearing loss (limited frequency range)

Sensory Intersections

  1. Use without vision and hearing

    1. Use without vision from birth then without hearing as acquired 

    2. Use without hearing from birth then without vision as acquired 

  2. Use with vestibular issues

  3. Use without spatial auditory awareness or perception (needs diegetic sound) ·XR·



  1. Use without mobility

  2. Use with limited mobility ·XR·

    1. Use with limited ambulation

    2. Use with temporary or partial paralysis

  3. Use with limited reach or range ·XR·


  1. Use without hands

  2. Use without multiple touchpoint gesture

  3. Use with limited strength

  4. Use without fine point control

  5. Use without physical tracking speed

  6. Use with tremors

Physical & Sensory Intersections

  1. Use with limited tactile perception, sensory processing, or touch pressure sensitivity

  2. Use with chronic pain impacting input or interaction modality


  1. Use without vocalization

  2. Use with limited vocalization or volume



  1. Use with limited ability to focus attention 

  2. Use with limited ability to direct attention

  3. Use with limited ability to shift attention 

Language & Literacy

  1. Use without ability to read 

  2. Use with limited ability to recognize written language

  3. Use with limited ability to comprehend written language 

  4. Use without ability to write 

  5. Use with limited ability to correctly write (or type) words and use punctuation

  6. Use without understanding symbols

  7. Use without understanding metaphors, idioms, euphemisms, or specific dialect of culture or location


  1. Use with limited ability of math and numeric concepts

  2. Use with limited compositional skill (simultaneous thinking and input)

  3. Use with limited coordinational skill (motoric skills, visual-spatial organizational memory, and social)


  1. Use with limited short-term or working memory 

  2. Use with limited medium or long-term memory

  3. Use with limited sensory memory

    1. Visual

    2. Visuo-spatial

    3. Auditory


  1. Use with limited planning, organization, sequencing, and execution ability

  2. Use with limited emotional control and self monitoring

  3. Use with limited judgement

Mental Health

  1. Use with debilitating fear or anxiety

Cognitive & Sensory Intersections

  1. Use with interocular transfer of visual memory (retrieval based on limited acuity in a single eye)

  2. Use with limited phonological or phonemic awareness


  1. Use without autonomy or agency

  2. Use without privacy

Working Resources

  1. EN 301 549 Mandate 376 Functional Performance Statements - EN 301 549 (updated version available)

  2. US Access Board - Bruce put a link in the minutes of May 7

  3. US CVAA Performance Objectives

  4. JIS X 8341-6: Software Accessibility

  5. Cognitive Functions from COGA TF and ETSI - this doc belongs to the COGA TF where they are working on how the breadth of disabilities grouped under COGA can be more granular

  6. FAST - Framework for Accessible Specification of Technologies

  7. ISO/IEC 29138-1:2018(en) Information technology — User interface accessibility — Part 1: User accessibility needs

  8. ISO/IEC Guide 71:2014(en) Guide for addressing accessibility in standards

Back to Top