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Content Author Responsibilities Mapping

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Parent document: https://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/wiki/ARRM_Project_-_Accessibility_Roles_and_Responsibilities_Mapping

Content Authoring

Content Creation is often used in marketing, but can also be a task assigned to a role within a product team. Content creation involves defining a content strategy, the writing or creation of the content or media for a product. The person who authors the content is responsible for making sure that content is accessible to people with disabilities.

Key Deliverables

  • Body copy, managed content, scripts
  • Taxonomies
  • Writing guidelines
  • Media files, including PDF, audio and video
  • Etc.

Tasks include

  • Content authoring
  • Media and documentation creation
  • Content strategies definition
  • Etc.

Example job titles for this role

Content Strategist, Content Creator, Content Designer, Content Author, Digital Copywriter, UX Writer, Content Producer, Technical Writer, Information Developer, Content Developer

Content Authoring and Accessibility User Stories

Checkpoint:

IMG-001: Informative alternate text is provided for images (i.e. not "spacer" or image file name).

Role Assignment Scenario

UX designers, working with visual designers, typically define places where icons, informational images and decorative content are placed on the page. The UX designer should identify those that are not decorative and provide a list of these to the content author. Content author then identify the appropriate text to be used for each based upon taxonomies of terms used and writing guidelines appropriate for the project (Primary). In some cases the UX designer may need to work the content author to best describe the content for the user (Secondary).

The images and text alternatives are then provided to the front-end developer to implement.

End User Scenario: Ilya, a senior staff member who is blind

Ilya is blind. She is the chief accountant at an insurance company that uses web-based documents and forms over a corporate intranet and like many other blind computer users, she does not read Braille.

Ilya encounters problems when websites are not properly coded and do not include alt text descriptions on images.

Read Ilya's full story


Content Authoring Checkpoints - Starter List

ID WCAG SC Conformance Level Checkoint Main Role Role Ownership
Primary Secondary Contributor(s)
IMG-002 1.1.1 A Informative images are described with a clear and meaningful text equivalent (alt attribute or other equivalent means). Author Content Authoring Visual Design UX Design
IMG-008 1.1.1 A The purpose or function of complex images is accurately described in text. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
DOC-019 2.4.2 A Pages are described using unique and descriptive page title values. Author Content Authoring none none
DOC-020 2.4.1 A Iframes displaying content are provided clear, informative title attribute values. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
DOC-023 2.4.6 AA Heading text meaningfully describes the content's topic or purpose. Author Content Authoring none none
FRM-009 1.3.1 A Common group label text is informative, meaningful and provides context for the grouping. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(groupings)
none
FRM-020 3.3.3 AA Error messages returned provide clear instructions on how to fix them. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(data entry requirements)
none
FRM-026 3.3.2 A Clear instructions are provided on how to use the form controls. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(control operation)
Visual Design
(control presentation)
NAV-019 2.4.4 A Link text (and alternate text for images, when used as links) describe the destination or purpose of the link. Author Content Authoring none none
NAV-031 3.2.4 AA Objects that are used recurrently across pages are named or labeled the same way. Author Content Author UX Design none


Content Authoring Checkpoints

ID WCAG SC Conformance Level Checkoint Main Role Role Ownership
Primary Secondary Contributor(s)
IMG-001 1.1.1 A Informative alternate text is provided for images (i.e. not "spacer" or image file name). Author Content Authoring UX Design none
IMG-002 1.1.1 A Informative images are described with a clear and meaningful text equivalent (alt attribute or other equivalent means). Author Content Authoring Visual Design UX Design
IMG-006 1.1.1 A Informative alternate text used for images of text include all relevant text found in the image. Author Content Authoring UX Design
Visual Design
none
IMG-008 1.1.1 A The purpose or function of complex images is accurately described in text. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
IMG-010 1.1.1 A The full explanation of complex images is accurately described in text. Author Content Authoring none none
IMG-013 1.1.1 A Images primarily conveying function use alternative text to describe their purpose, rather than what they look like. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
IMG-014 1.1.1 A Text alternatives of static and linked images do not replicate any information that is already being conveyed by screen reader technology. Author Content Authoring Front End Development none
IMG-017 1.1.1 A Images which do not convey information are defined as decorative. Author Content Authoring Visual Design
UX Design
none
DOC-015 2.4.6 AA The main heading of the page describes the content of the page. Author Content Authoring none none
DOC-016 2.4.2 A Page title text matches the level 1 heading text. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
DOC-019 2.4.2 A Pages are described using unique and descriptive page title values. Author Content Authoring none none
DOC-020 2.4.1 A Iframes displaying content are provided clear, informative title attribute values. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
DOC-023 2.4.6 AA Heading text meaningfully describes the content's topic or purpose. Author Content Authoring none none
FRM-009 1.3.1 A Common group label text is informative, meaningful and provides context for the grouping. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(groupings)
none
FRM-020 3.3.3 AA Error messages returned provide clear instructions on how to fix them. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(data entry requirements)
none
FRM-026 3.3.2 A Clear instructions are provided on how to use the form controls. Author Content Authoring UX Design
(control operation)
Visual Design
(control presentation)
FRM-033 2.4.6 AA Label text clearly and meaningfully describes the form control's purpose. Author Content Authoring UX Design none
CSS-001 1.1.1 A Icon fonts used to convey information are provided with a text equivalent. Author UX Design Content Authoring none
NAV-019 2.4.4 A Link text (and alternate text for images, when used as links) describe the destination or purpose of the link. Author Content Authoring none none
NAV-031 3.2.4 AA Objects that are used recurrently across pages are named or labeled the same way. Author Content Author UX Design none

Design (Content Author)

Example 1

Checkpoints

  • I want informative alternate text to be provided for images (i.e. not "spacer" or image file name).
  • I want informative images to be described with a text equivalent (alt attribute or other equivalent means).
  • I want alternate text for informative images to be both clear and informative.
  • I want the alt text used for images with text in them and/or representing text to include all relevant text found in the image.
  • I want the alt text value of images and linked images not to replicate any information that is already being conveyed by screen reader technology.

Q1: Is this business-related? No

Business Analysts are not concerned with such issues.

Q2: Is this visual design? No

Though these checkpoints are about images presented it is clearly about the text describing them. It's not the Visual Designer's role to author any text.

Q3: Is this content? Yes

These checkpoints evaluate the quality of the content. Since the content author role owns all content this is who should create it and provide it to the developer.

There may be some discussion with the UX Designers as to whether that content should be part of the (visible) body copy. Regardless of implementation, it's still up to the content author to provide the text to the developer (or indicate it is decorative and should be ignored).

Example 2

Checkpoints

  • I want images primarily conveying function to use the alt text value to describe their purpose, rather than what they look like.
  • I want the alt text value of images and linked images not to replicate any information that is already being conveyed by screen reader technology.

Q1: Is this business-related? No

Business Analysts are not concerned with such issues.

Q2: Is this visual design? No

As described in Example 3, the Visual Designer may have created or chosen the images but has little influence over text describing them.

Q3: Is this content? Yes

These checkpoints are about text for functional elements (buttons, links, controls) so they belong to the Content Author. Even though they are likely short phrases or individual words they are subject to the writing standards for the site.

It will be important for the Content Author to understand how the Developer will implement the components or links to provide the best experience. This should be defined in style guides and design patterns for common elements.

Those are design documents created by the design roles. If these checkpoints were applied to them then the UX Designer would be the Primary owner since they are not specific to any content the author prepares.

If new, page-specific components are created the roles should discuss the implementation so the content author can adjust the text to avoid unwanted duplication or confusion.