← Number stateTable of contents4.10.8 The button element →
        1. Common input element attributes
          1. The autocomplete attribute
          2. The dirname attribute
          3. The list attribute
          4. The readonly attribute
          5. The size attribute
          6. The required attribute
          7. The multiple attribute
          8. The maxlength attribute
          9. The pattern attribute
          10. The min and max attributes
          11. The step attribute
          12. The placeholder attribute
        2. Common input element APIs Common input element attributes The autocomplete attribute

User agents sometimes have features for helping users fill forms in, for example prefilling the user's address based on earlier user input.

The autocomplete attribute is an enumerated attribute. The attribute has three states. The on keyword maps to the on state, and the off keyword maps to the off state. The attribute may also be omitted. The missing value default is the default state.

The off state indicates either that the control's input data is particularly sensitive (for example the activation code for a nuclear weapon); or that it is a value that will never be reused (for example a one-time-key for a bank login) and the user will therefore have to explicitly enter the data each time, instead of being able to rely on the UA to prefill the value for him; or that the document provides its own autocomplete mechanism and does not want the user agent to provide autocompletion values.

Conversely, the on state indicates that the value is not particularly sensitive and the user can expect to be able to rely on his user agent to remember values he has entered for that control.

The default state indicates that the user agent is to use the autocomplete attribute on the element's form owner instead. (By default, the autocomplete attribute of form elements is in the on state.)

Banks frequently do not want UAs to prefill login information:

<p><label>Account: <input type="text" name="ac" autocomplete="off"></label></p>
<p><label>PIN: <input type="password" name="pin" autocomplete="off"></label></p> The dirname attribute

The dirname attribute, when it applies, is a form control dirname attribute.

In this example, a form contains a text field and a submission button:

<form action="addcomment.cgi" method=post>
 <p><label>Comment: <input type=text name="comment" dirname="comment.dir" required></label></p>
 <p><button name="mode" type=submit value="add">Post Comment</button></p>

When the user submits the form, the user agent includes three fields, one called "comment", one called "comment.dir", and one called "mode"; so if the user types "Hello", the submission body might be something like:


If the user manually switches to a right-to-left writing direction and enters "مرحبًا", the submission body might be something like:

comment=%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AD%D8%A8%D9%8B%D8%A7&comment.dir=rtl&mode=add The list attribute

The list attribute is used to identify an element that lists predefined options suggested to the user.

If present, its value must be the ID of a datalist element in the same document.

This URL field offers some suggestions.

<label>Homepage: <input name=hp type=url list=hpurls></label>
<datalist id=hpurls>
 <option value="http://www.google.com/" label="Google">
 <option value="http://www.reddit.com/" label="Reddit">

Other URLs from the user's history might show also; this is up to the user agent.

This example demonstrates how to design a form that uses the autocompletion list feature while still degrading usefully in legacy user agents.

If the autocompletion list is merely an aid, and is not important to the content, then simply using a datalist element with children option elements is enough. To prevent the values from being rendered in legacy user agents, they should be placed inside the value attribute instead of inline.

  Enter a breed:
  <input type="text" name="breed" list="breeds">
  <datalist id="breeds">
   <option value="Abyssinian">
   <option value="Alpaca">
   <!-- ... -->

However, if the values need to be shown in legacy UAs, then fallback content can be placed inside the datalist element, as follows:

  Enter a breed:
  <input type="text" name="breed" list="breeds">
 <datalist id="breeds">
   or select one from the list:
   <select name="breed">
    <option value=""> (none selected)
    <!-- ... -->

The fallback content will only be shown in UAs that don't support datalist. The options, on the other hand, will be detected by all UAs, even though they are not direct children of the datalist element.

Note that if an option element used in a datalist is selected, it will be selected by default by legacy UAs (because it affects the select), but it will not have any effect on the input element in UAs that support datalist. The readonly attribute

The readonly attribute is a boolean attribute that controls whether or not the user can edit the form control.

In the following example, the existing product identifiers cannot be modified, but they are still displayed as part of the form, for consistency with the row representing a new product (where the identifier is not yet filled in).

<form action="products.cgi" method=post enctype="multipart/form-data">
  <tr> <th> Product ID <th> Product name <th> Price <th> Action
   <td> <input readonly name="1.pid" value="H412">
   <td> <input required name="1.pname" value="Floor lamp Ulke">
   <td> $<input required type=number min=0 step=0.01 name="1.pprice" value="49.99">
   <td> <button formnovalidate name="action" value="delete:1">Delete</button>
   <td> <input readonly name="2.pid" value="FG28">
   <td> <input required name="2.pname" value="Table lamp Ulke">
   <td> $<input required type=number min=0 step=0.01 name="2.pprice" value="24.99">
   <td> <button formnovalidate name="action" value="delete:2">Delete</button>
   <td> <input required name="3.pid" value="" pattern="[A-Z0-9]+">
   <td> <input required name="3.pname" value="">
   <td> $<input required type=number min=0 step=0.01 name="3.pprice" value="">
   <td> <button formnovalidate name="action" value="delete:3">Delete</button>
 <p> <button formnovalidate name="action" value="add">Add</button> </p>
 <p> <button name="action" value="update">Save</button> </p>
</form> The size attribute

The size attribute gives the number of characters that, in a visual rendering, the user agent is to allow the user to see while editing the element's value.

The size attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid non-negative integer greater than zero. The required attribute

The required attribute is a boolean attribute. When specified, the element is required.

The following form has two required fields, one for an e-mail address and one for a password. It also has a third field that is only considerd valid if the user types the same password in the password field and this third field.

<h1>Create new account</h1>
<form action="/newaccount" method=post
      oninput="up2.setCustomValidity(up2.value != up.value ? 'Passwords do not match.' : '')">
  <label for="username">E-mail address:</label>
  <input id="username" type=email required name=un>
  <label for="password1">Password:</label>
  <input id="password1" type=password required name=up>
  <label for="password2">Confirm password:</label>
  <input id="password2" type=password name=up2>
  <input type=submit value="Create account">
</form> The multiple attribute

The multiple attribute is a boolean attribute that indicates whether the user is to be allowed to specify more than one value.

The following extract shows how an e-mail client's "Cc" field could accept multiple e-mail addresses.

<label>Cc: <input type=email multiple name=cc></label>

If the user had, amongst many friends in his user contacts database, two friends "Arthur Dent" (with address "art@example.net") and "Adam Josh" (with address "adamjosh@example.net"), then, after the user has typed "a", the user agent might suggest these two e-mail addresses to the user.

The page could also link in the user's contacts database from the site:

<label>Cc: <input type=email multiple name=cc list=contacts></label>
<datalist id="contacts">
 <option value="hedral@damowmow.com">
 <option value="pillar@example.com">
 <option value="astrophy@cute.example">
 <option value="astronomy@science.example.org">

Suppose the user had entered "bob@example.net" into this text field, and then started typing a second e-mail address starting with "a". The user agent might show both the two friends mentioned earlier, as well as the "astrophy" and "astronomy" values given in the datalist element.

The following extract shows how an e-mail client's "Attachments" field could accept multiple files for upload.

<label>Attachments: <input type=file multiple name=att></label> The maxlength attribute

The maxlength attribute is a form control maxlength attribute.

If the input element has a maximum allowed value length, then the code-point length of the value of the element's value attribute must be equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length.

The following extract shows how a messaging client's text entry could be arbitrarily restricted to a fixed number of characters, thus forcing any conversation through this medium to be terse and discouraging intelligent discourse.

What are you doing? <input name=status maxlength=140> The pattern attribute

The pattern attribute specifies a regular expression against which the control's value, or, when the multiple attribute applies and is set, the control's values, are to be checked.

If specified, the attribute's value must match the JavaScript Pattern production. [ECMA262]

When an input element has a pattern attribute specified, authors should include a title attribute to give a description of the pattern. User agents may use the contents of this attribute, if it is present, when informing the user that the pattern is not matched, or at any other suitable time, such as in a tooltip or read out by assistive technology when the control gains focus.

For example, the following snippet:

<label> Part number:
 <input pattern="[0-9][A-Z]{3}" name="part"
        title="A part number is a digit followed by three uppercase letters."/>

...could cause the UA to display an alert such as:

A part number is a digit followed by three uppercase letters.
You cannot submit this form when the field is incorrect.

When a control has a pattern attribute, the title attribute, if used, must describe the pattern. Additional information could also be included, so long as it assists the user in filling in the control. Otherwise, assistive technology would be impaired.

For instance, if the title attribute contained the caption of the control, assistive technology could end up saying something like The text you have entered does not match the required pattern. Birthday, which is not useful.

UAs may still show the title in non-error situations (for example, as a tooltip when hovering over the control), so authors should be careful not to word titles as if an error has necessarily occurred. The min and max attributes

The min and max attributes indicate the allowed range of values for the element.

The max attribute's value (the maximum) must not be less than the min attribute's value (its minimum).

An element has range limitations if it has a defined minimum or a defined maximum.

The following date control limits input to dates that are before the 1980s:

<input name=bday type=date max="1979-12-31">

The following number control limits input to whole numbers greater than zero:

<input name=quantity required type=number min=1 value=1> The step attribute

The step attribute indicates the granularity that is expected (and required) of the value, by limiting the allowed values.

The step attribute, if specified, must either have a value that is a valid floating point number that parses to a number that is greater than zero, or must have a value that is an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "any".

The following range control only accepts values in the range 0..1, and allows 256 steps in that range:

<input name=opacity type=range min=0 max=1 step=0.00392156863>

The following control allows any time in the day to be selected, with any accuracy (e.g. thousandth-of-a-second accuracy or more):

<input name=favtime type=time step=any>

Normally, time controls are limited to an accuracy of one minute. The placeholder attribute

The placeholder attribute represents a short hint (a word or short phrase) intended to aid the user with data entry. A hint could be a sample value or a brief description of the expected format. The attribute, if specified, must have a value that contains no U+000A LINE FEED (LF) or U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) characters.

For a longer hint or other advisory text, the title attribute is more appropriate.

The placeholder attribute should not be used as an alternative to a label.

Here is an example of a mail configuration user interface that uses the placeholder attribute:

 <legend>Mail Account</legend>
 <p><label>Name: <input type="text" name="fullname" placeholder="John Ratzenberger"></label></p>
 <p><label>Address: <input type="email" name="address" placeholder="john@example.net"></label></p>
 <p><label>Password: <input type="password" name="password"></label></p>
 <p><label>Description: <input type="text" name="desc" placeholder="My Email Account"></label></p>
</fieldset> Common input element APIs
input . value [ = value ]

Returns the current value of the form control.

Can be set, to change the value.

Throws an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception if it is set to any value other than the empty string when the control is a file upload control.

input . checked [ = value ]

Returns the current checkedness of the form control.

Can be set, to change the checkedness.

input . files

Returns a FileList object listing the selected files of the form control.

Returns null if the control isn't a file control.

input . valueAsDate [ = value ]

Returns a Date object representing the form control's value, if applicable; otherwise, returns null.

Can be set, to change the value.

Throws an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception if the control isn't date- or time-based.

input . valueAsNumber [ = value ]

Returns a number representing the form control's value, if applicable; otherwise, returns null.

Can be set, to change the value.

Throws an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception if the control is neither date- or time-based nor numeric.

input . stepUp( [ n ] )
input . stepDown( [ n ] )

Changes the form control's value by the value given in the step attribute, multiplied by n. The default value for n is 1.

Throws INVALID_STATE_ERR exception if the control is neither date- or time-based nor numeric, if the step attribute's value is "any", if the current value could not be parsed, or if stepping in the given direction by the given amount would take the value out of range.

input . list

Returns the datalist element indicated by the list attribute.

input . selectedOption

Returns the option element from the datalist element indicated by the list attribute that matches the form control's value.