UAAG 2.0 provides guidelines for designing user
agents that lower barriers to Web accessibility for people with
disabilities. User agents include browsers and other types of software that
retrieve and render Web content. A user agent that conforms to these guidelines will promote accessibility
through its own user interface and through other internal facilities, including
its ability to communicate with other technologies (especially assistive technologies).
Furthermore, all users, not just users with disabilities, should find
conforming user agents to be more usable.
In addition to helping developers of browsers and media players, this
document will benefit developers of assistive technologies because it explains
what types of information and control an assistive technology may expect from a
conforming user agent. Technologies not addressed directly by UAAG 2.0 (e.g.,
technologies for braille rendering) will be essential to ensuring Web access
for some users with disabilities.
The "User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 2.0" (UAAG 2.0) is part of
a series of accessibility guidelines published by the W3C Web Accessibility
This section describes the status of this document at the time of its
publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current
W3C publications and
the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index
Editor's Draft of UAAG
This document is the internal working draft used by the UAWG and is updated continuously and
without notice. This document has no formal standing within W3C. Please consult
the group's home page and the W3C technical reports index for information
about the latest publications by this group.
Web Accessibility Initiative
This document has been produced as part of the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). The goals
of the User Agent Working Group (UAWG) are discussed in the Working Group charter. The
UAWG is part of the WAI Technical Activity.
Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft
document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C
Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent
disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that
page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has
actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential
Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section
6 of the W3C Patent Policy.
This section is informative.
A user agent is any software that retrieves and presents Web content for end
users. User agents include Web browsers, media players, @@ Editors' Note: virtual worlds?? @@ and plug-ins
that help in retrieving, rendering and interacting with Web content. UAAG 2.0
specifies requirements that, if satisfied by user
agent developers, will lower barriers to accessibility.
Accessibility involves a wide range of disabilities. These include visual,
auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, neurological
disabilities, and disabilities related to ageing. UAAG 2.0 emphasizes the goal
of ensuring that all users, including users with disabilities, have control
over their environment for accessing the Web. Key methods for achieving that
- optional self-pacing
- device independence
- direct support for both graphical and auditory output
- adherence to published conventions.
Some users have more than one disability, and the needs of different
disabilities may contradict. Thus, many of the requirements in UAAG 2.0 use
configuration to ensure that a functionality designed to improve accessibility
for one user does not interfere with accessibility for another. A default user
agent setting may be useful for one user but interfere with accessibility for
another, therefore UAAG 2.0 prefers configuration requirements rather than
requirements for default settings. For some content, a feature required by UAAG
2.0 may be ineffective or cause content to be less accessible, making it
imperative that the user be able to turn off the feature. To avoid overwhelming
users with an abundance of configuration options, UAAG 2.0 includes
requirements that promote documentation and ease of configuration.
UAAG 2.0 acknowledges the importance of author preferences. However,
requirements are included to override certain author preferences when the user
would not otherwise be able to access that content.
Some UAAG 2.0 requirements may have security implications, such as
communication through APIs, or allowing programmatic read and write access to
content and user interface control. UAAG 2.0
assumes that features required by UAAG 2.0 will be built on top of an
underlying security architecture. Consequently, unless permitted explicitly in
a success criterion, UAAG 2.0 grants no conformance exemptions based on
The UAWG expects that software that satisfies the requirements of UAAG 2.0
will be more flexible, manageable, extensible, and beneficial for all users.
UAAG 2.0 Layers of Guidance
In order to meet the needs of different audiences using UAAG, several layers
of guidance are provided, including overall principles, general
guidelines, testable success criteria, and a explanatory
intent, examples and resource links.
Principles - At the top are five principles that
provide the foundation for accessible user agents. Principles 3, 4, and 5
are congruent to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0:
perceivable, operable, understandable. Principles 1 and 2 are
specific to user agents: comply with specifications and facilitate
Guidelines - Under the principles are guidelines. The
guidelines provide the basic goals that authors should work toward in order
to make user agents more accessible to users with different disabilities.
The guidelines are not testable, but provide the framework and overall
objectives to help authors understand the success criteria and better
implement the techniques.
Success Criteria - For each guideline, testable
success criteria are provided to allow UAAG 2.0 to be used where
requirements and conformance testing are necessary such as in design
specification, purchasing, regulation, and contractual agreements. In order
to meet the needs of different groups and different situations, three
levels of conformance are defined: A (lowest), AA, and AAA (highest).
Additional information on UAAG levels can be found in the section on Conformance.
The principles, guidelines, and success criteria work together to provide
layers of guidance on how to make user agents more accessible. Developers are
encouraged to view and apply all layers that they are able to order to best
address the needs of the widest possible range of users.
Note that even user agents that conform at the highest level (AAA) may not
be accessible to individuals with all types, degrees, or combinations of
disability, particularly in the cognitive, language, and learning areas.
Developers are encouraged to seek relevant advice about current best practice
to ensure that their user agent is accessible as possible to this community.
UAAG 2.0 Supporting Documents
A separate document, entitled "Implementing User Agent Accessibility
Guidelines 2.0" (the "Implementing document" from here on) provides
suggestions and examples of how each success criteria might be satisfied. It
also includes references to other accessibility resources (such as
platform-specific software accessibility guidelines) that provide additional
information on how a user agent may satisfy each success criteria. The
techniques in the Implementing document are informative examples only. Other strategies
may be used or required to satisfy the success criteria. The
UAWG expects to update the Implementing document more
frequently than the current guidelines. Developers, W3C Working Groups, users,
and others are encouraged to contribute examples and resources.
Components of Web
Web accessibility depends on accessible user agents and accessible content.
Accessible content availability is greatly influenced by the accessibility of
the authoring tool. For an overview of how these components of Web development
and interaction work together, see:
User Agents may claim conformance to UAAG 2.0 at one of three conformance
levels. The level achieved depends on the level of success criteria satisfied.
The conformance levels are:
- UAAG 2.0 Conformance at Level "A"
The user agent satisfies all of the Level A success criteria.
- UAAG 2.0 Conformance at Level "Double-A"
The user agent satisfies all of the Level A and Level AA success
- UAAG 2.0 Conformance at Level "Triple-A"
The user agent satisfies all of the success criteria.
A user agent is any software that retrieves, renders and facilitates
end-user interaction with Web content.
UAAG 2.0 Guidelines
PRINCIPLE 1: Comply with applicable
specifications and conventions
Guideline 1.1 Ensure that non-Web-based functionality is accessible.[Implementing
Accessible (Level A): Non-Web-based user agent user interfaces comply
with and cite the "Level A" requirements of
standards or operating environment conventions
that benefit accessibility. The "Level A" requirements
are those that are functionally equivalent to WCAG Level A success criteria.
Accessible (Level AA): Non-Web-based user agent user interfaces comply
with and cite the "Level AA" requirements of standards or operating environment conventions
that benefit accessibility. The "Level AA" requirements are those that are
functionally equivalent to WCAG Level AA success criteria. (Level AA)
Accessible (Level AAA): Non-Web-based user agent user interfaces
comply with and cite the "Level AAA" requirements of standards or operating environment conventions
that benefit accessibility. The "Level AAA" requirements are those that are
functionally equivalent to WCAG Level AAA success criteria. (Level AAA)
This guideline does not apply to Web-based user agent user interfaces, but
does include any parts of Web-based user agents that are non-Web-based @@ Editors' Note: DEFINE@@ (e.g., client-side file
Guideline 1.2 Ensure that Web-based
functionality is accessible. [Implementing
Accessible (Level A): User agent user interfaces that are rendered
using Web standard technologies conform to WCAG Level "A". (Level A)
Accessible (Level AA): User agent user interfaces that are rendered
using Web standard technologies conform to WCAG Level "AA". (Level AA)
Accessible (Level AAA): User agent user interfaces that are rendered
using Web standard technologies conform to WCAG Level "AAA". (Level AAA)
This guideline does not apply to non-Web-based user agent user interfaces,
but does include any parts of non-Web-based user agents that are Web-based
(e.g., help systems).
Features: Implement and cite in the conformance claim the
accessibility features of content and
specifications. Accessibility features are those that are either (Level A):
- identified as such in the specification or
- allow authors to satisfy a requirement of WCAG.
Specifications: Render content according to the technology specification. This includes
any accessibility features of the technology (see Guideline 1.3). (Level A)
1.4.2 Handle Unrendered
Technologies: If the user agent does not
render a technology, it allows the user to choose a way to handle content in
that technology (e.g., by launching another application or by saving it to
disk). (Level A)
1.4.3 Alternative content
handlers: The user has the ability to select content elements and
have them rendered in alternative viewers. (Level AA)
When a rendering requirement of another specification contradicts a
requirement of UAAG 2.0, the user agent may disregard the rendering requirement
of the other specification and still satisfy this guideline.
PRINCIPLE 2: Facilitate programmatic access
Guideline 2.1 Facilitate
programmatic access [Implementing
2.1.2 Name, Role, State,
Value, Description: For all user interface components including user
interface, rendered content, generated
content, and alternative content, make available the name, role, state,
value, and description via a platform accessibility architecture.
Alternative: If a component of the user agent user interface cannot be
exposed through the platform accessibility architecture, then provide an
equivalent alternative that is exposed through the platform accessibility
architecture. (Level A)
Availability of DOMs: If the user agent implements one or more DOMs, they must be made
programmatically available to assistive technologies. (Level A)
Access: If a User Agent keeps an internal representation of the user
content in terms of element structure, relationships between elements, element
meaning, or some combination thereof, it must expose this internal
representation via an appropriate means (normally by using the platform
accessibility architecture or a programmatically available DOM) (level A).
If the user can modify the state or value of a piece of
content through the user interface (e.g., by checking a box
or editing a text area), the same degree of write access is available
programmatically. (Level A)
Properties: If any of the following properties are supported by the
accessibility platform architecture, make the properties available to the
accessibility platform architecture: (Level A)
- the bounding dimensions and coordinates of rendered graphical objects
- font family of text
- font size of text
- foreground color of text
- background color of text.
- change state/value notifications
- input device focus
Communication: For APIs implemented to satisfy the requirements of
UAAG 2.0, ensure that programmatic exchanges proceed at a rate such that users
do not perceive a delay. (Level A)
PRINCIPLE 3: Ensure that the user interface and
rendered content are perceivable
Guideline 3.1 Provide access to
alternative content. [Implementing
3.1.1 Identify Presence
of Alternative Content: The user can have indicators rendered along
with rendered elements that have alternative content (e.g. visual icons
rendered in proximity of content that has short text alternatives, long
descriptions, or captions). (Level A).
Default Rendering: The user can globally specify which types of
alternative content to render by default. (Level A)
3.1.3 Browse and
Render: The user can browse the alternatives, switch between them, and
render them according to the following (Level A):
- synchronized alternatives for time-based media (e.g., captions, audio
descriptions, sign language) can be rendered at the same time as their
associated audio tracks and visual tracks, and
- non-synchronized alternatives (e.g., short text alternatives, long
descriptions) can be rendered as replacements for the original rendered
Alternative (Enhanced): The user can globally configure a cascade of
types of alternatives to render by default, in case a preferred type is
unavailable. If the alternative content has a different height or width, the
user agent will reflow the viewport. (Level AA)
Guideline 3.4 Repair missing content. [Implementing 3.4]
3.4.2 Repair Empty
Alternatives: The user has the option of receiving generated repair
text when the user agent recognizes that the author has provided empty alternative content. (Level AA)
Guideline 3.5 Provide highlighting for
selection, content focus, enabled elements, visited links. [Implementing
items: The user has the option to highlight the following
classes of information so that each is uniquely distinguished. (Level A):
- (a) selection,
- (b) content focus,
- (c) recognized
enabled elements, and
- (d) recently visited links.
options: The highlighting options (with the same configurable range as
the operating environment's
conventional selection utilities) include at least (Level A):
- (a) foreground colors,
- (b) background colors, and
- (c) input focus (with configurable color
Guideline 3.6 Provide text configuration. [Implementing 3.6]
3.6.1 Configure Text:
The user can globally set the following characteristics of visually
rendered text content, overriding any specified by the author or user agent defaults (Level A):
- (a) text scale (i.e., the general size of
- (b) font family, and
- (c) text color (i.e., foreground and
Distinctions: The user can preserve distinctions in the size of rendered text when that text is rescaled
(e.g. headers continue to be larger than body text) within absolute limitations
imposed by the platform. (Level A)
Range: The range of options for each text characteristic includes at
least (Level A):
- (a) the range offered by global
preference settings supported by the operating environment (i.e.
configured though the Control Panel or System) utility, or
- (b) if no such utility is available, the
range supported by the conventional APIs of the
operating environment for drawing text.
Guideline 3.7 Provide volume configuration. [Implementing
Volume: The user can globally set volume of all audio tracks it renders (including a "mute"
setting) through available operating environment mechanisms.
Volume: The user can adjust the volume of all audio tracks the
user agent renders, independently or relative to the volume level at the
operating environment. (Level A)
Guideline 3.8 Provide synthesized speech configuration. [Implementing
3.8.1 Speech Rate and
Volume: The user can set in synthesized speech, overriding any values specified by the author (Level A):
- speech rate and
- speech volume (independently of other
sources of audio).
3.8.2 Speech Pitch and
Range: The user can set in synthesized speech, overriding any values
specified by the author (Level AA):
- (a) pitch ("pitch" refers to the average
frequency of the speaking voice), and
- (b) pitch range ("pitch range" specifies
a variation in average frequency),
3.8.3 Advanced Speech
Characteristics: The user can set all of the speech characteristics
offered by the speech synthesizer, according to the full range of values
available, overriding any values specified by the author.
Features: The following speech features are provided (Level AA):
- (a) user-defined extensions to the
synthesized speech dictionary,
- (b) "spell-out", where text is spelled
one character at a time, or according to language-dependent pronunciation
- (c) at least two ways of speaking numerals:
one where numerals are spoken as individual digits and punctuation
(e.g. "one two zero three point five" for 1203.5 or "one comma two zero
three point five" for 1,203.5), and and one where full number are spoken
(e.g. "one thousand, two hundred and three point five").
- (d) at least two ways of speaking
punctuation: one where punctuation is spoken literally, and one
where punctuation is rendered as natural pauses.
Guideline 3.9 Provide style
- (a) select a style sheet, or
- (b) turn off style sheets.
- (a) select a style sheet, or
- (b) turn off style sheets.
Guideline 3.10 Help user to use viewports and orient within viewports. [Implementing
Viewport: The viewport with the input focus
(including nested viewports and their containers) is highlighted, and the user
is able to customize attributes of the highlighted mechanism,
including, but not limited to, shape, size, stroke width, color, and blink rate
(if any). (Level A)
3.10.2 Move Viewport to
Selection and Focus: When a viewport's selection or input focus changes, the viewport moves as
necessary to ensure that the new selection or input focus location is at least
partially in the viewport. (Level A)
3.10.3 @@ Editor's Note: Merged with 3.10.2. Renumber
The user has the option to make graphical viewports resizable, within
the limits of the display, overriding any values specified by the author. (Level A)
Graphical viewports include scrollbars if the rendered content
(including after user preferences have been applied) extends beyond the
viewport dimensions, overriding any values specified by the author.
3.10.6 Viewport History:
If the user agent maintains a viewport history mechanism (e.g., via
the "back button") that stores previous "viable" states (i.e., that have not
been negated by the content, user agent settings or user agent extensions). It
maintains information about the page and embedded controls, including viewport
scrolling, selection and keyboard focus. It restores the saved
values when the user returns to a state in the history. (Level A)
3.10.7 Open on Request:
The user has the option of having "top-level"viewports (e.g., windows) only open on explicit user request. In this
mode, instead of opening a viewport automatically, notify the user and allow the user to open it with an
explicit request (e.g., by confirming a prompt or following a link generated by
the user agent). (Level AA)
3.10.8 Do Not Take
Focus: When configured to allow top-level viewports to open without
explicit user request, the user has the option to specify that if a top-level
viewport opens, it does not take the active keyboard
focus . (Level AA)
3.10.9 Stay on
Top: The user has the option of having the viewport with the current
focus be displayed and remain on top of all other viewports with which it
overlaps. (Level AA)
3.10.10 Close Viewport:
The user can close any top-level viewport. (Level AA)
Note: Dialog boxes or other special purpose viewports that
provide limited functionality, do not have to spawn all the user-requested
features that do not apply to that special function.
3.10.11 Same UI:
The user has the option of having all top-level viewports follow the
same user interface configuration as the current or spawning viewport. (Level
Viewport Position: Indicate the viewport's position relative to rendered content (e.g., the proportion
along an audio or video timeline, the proportion of a Web page before the
current position ), and what proportion of the content is currently visible in
the viewport along either vertical or horizontal dimension. (Level AAA)
Guideline 3.11 Provide an effective focus
3.11.1 Keyboard Focus:
At least one keyboard focus is provided for each viewport (including frames), where enabled elements are part of the rendered content. (Level A)
3.11.2 Current Focus:
The user can make the keyboard
focus of each viewport the active
input focus. (Level A)
3.11.3 User Interface
Focus: An active input focus is provided.
Focusable: The keyboard focus can navigate within
extensions to the user interface. (Level A)
3.11.5 Hand-Off Focus:
The user agent programmatically notifies any nested user agent(s)
(e.g., plug-ins) when active input focus moves to a nested
agent. (Level A)
3.11.6 Retrieve Focus:
At any time, the user agent is able to retrieve input focus from a nested viewport
(including nested viewports that are user agents). (Level A)
3.11.7 Return Focus:
An embedded user agent is responsible for notifying the embedding user
agent that active input focus should move back
to it. (Level A)
The user can move the keyboard
focus forward or backward to any enabled
element in the viewport. (Level A)
Navigation: If the author has not specified a navigation order, the
default is sequential navigation, in
document order. (Level A)
3.11.10 Only on User
Request: The user can specify that the
keyboard focus of a viewport only change
on explicit user request. (Level
Focus: The user can ensure that moving
the keyboard focus to or from an enabled element does not cause the user
agent to take any further action. (Level A)
Guideline 3.12 Provide alternative views. [Implementing
View: For content authored in text formats, a view of the text source is provided. (Level A)
View: An "outline" view of rendered
content is provided, composed of labels for important structural elements
(e.g. heading text, table titles, form titles, and other labels that are part
of the content). (Level AA)
Note: What constitutes a
label is defined by each markup language specification. For example, in HTML, a
H6) is a label for the section that
follows it, a
CAPTION is a label for a table, and the
title attribute is a label for its element.
3.12.3 Configure Set of
Important Elements:The user can be presented with a hierarchical view
of the rendered content that conveys associations implied by author-specified
presentation attributes (i.e. position and appearance). (Level AA)
3.13 Provide link information. [Implementing 3.13]
3.13.1 Basic Link
Information: The following information is provided for each link
- link element content,
- new viewport (whether the author has specified that the resource will open in
a new viewport)
3.13.2 Extended Link
Information: The following information is provided for each link
- link title,
- technology type (of the linked Web resource)
- internal/external: (whether the link is
internal to the resource e.g., the link is to a target in the same Web
PRINCIPLE 4. Ensure that the user interface is
4.1.1 Keyboard Operation: All functionality
can be operated via the keyboard using sequential or direct keyboard commands
that do not require specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where
the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's
movement and not just the endpoints (e.g., free hand drawing). This does not
forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods
in addition to keyboard operation. (Level A)
Specify preferred keystrokes:: The user can
override any keyboard shortcut including recognized author supplied shortcuts
(e.g accesskeys) and user interface controls, except for conventional bindings
for the operating environment (e.g., for access to help). (Level AA)
4.1.3 No Keyboard Trap
(Minimum): The user agent prevents keyboard traps as follows (Level
- (a) in the UI: if keyboard focus can be
moved to a component using the keyboard, then focus can be moved away from
that component using standard sequential keyboard commands (e.g., TAB key)
- (b) in the rendered content: provides a
documented direct keyboard command that will always restore keyboard focus
to a known location (e.g., the address bar).
- (c) in the rendered content: provides a
documented direct keyboard command that will always move keyboard focus to
a subsequent focusable element
4.1.4 Separate Selection
from Activation: The user can specify that selection is separate from
activation (e.g., navigating through a set of radio buttons without changing
which is the active/selected option). (Level A)
4.1.5 Standard Text Area
Navigation Conventions: Views that render text support the standard
text area conventions for the operating environment, including,
but not necessarily limited to: character keys, Backspace/Delete, Insert, arrow
key navigation (e.g., caret browsing), Page Up/Page Down, navigate to
start/end, navigate by paragraph, shift-to-select mechanism. (Level A)
4.1.6 Present Direct Commands in Rendered
Content: The user can have any recognized direct commands (e.g.
accesskey) in rendered content be presented with their associated elements
(e.g. "[Ctrl+t]" displayed after a link whose accesskey value is "t", or an
audio browser reading the value or label of a form control followed by
"accesskey control plus t"). (Level A)
4.1.7 Present Direct Commands in User
Interface: The user has the option to have any direct commands (e.g.
keyboard shortcuts) in the user agent user interface be presented with their
associated user interface controls (e.g. "Ctrl+S" displayed on the "Save" menu
item and toolbar button). (Level AA)
Navigation: The user can use the keyboard to navigate from group to
group of focusable items and to traverse forwards and backwards all of the
focusable elements within each group. Groups include, but are not limited to,
toolbars, panels, and user agent extensions. (Level AA)
4.1.9 Important Command Functions: Important
command functions (e.g. related to navigation, display, content, information
management) are available using a single or sequence of keystrokes or key
combinations. (Level AA)
4.1.10 Override of UI Keyboard Commands: The
user can override any keyboard shortcut binding for the user agent user
interface except for conventional bindings for the operating environment (e.g.
access to help). The rebinding options must include single-key and
key-plus-modifier keys if available in the operating environment. (Level AA)
4.1.11 User Override of Accesskeys: The user
can override any recognized author supplied content keybinding (i.e. access
key). The user must have an option to save the override of user interface
keyboard shortcuts so that the rebinding persists beyond the current session.
4.1.12 Specify preferred keystrokes: The
user can override any keyboard shortcut including recognized author supplied shortcuts (e.g.
accesskeys) and user interface controls, except for conventional bindings for
the operating environment (e.g. access to help). (Level AA)
4.2.1 List event
handlers: The user can, through keyboard input alone, call up a list
of input device event handlers explicitly associated with
the keyboard focus element. (Level A)
4.2.2 Activate any event
handler: The user can, through keyboard input alone, activate any input device event handlers explicitly associated with
the keyboard focus element. (Level A)
4.2.3 Activate all event
handlers: The user can, through keyboard input alone, simultaneously
activate all input device event handlers explicitly associated with
the content focus element. (Level A)
Adjustable: Where time limits for user input are recognized and controllable by the user agent, the
user can extend the time limit. (Level A)
Guideline 4.4 Help users avoid flashing that could
cause seizures. [Implementing
4.4.1 Three Flashes or
Below Threshold: In its default configuration, the user agent does not
display any user interface components or recognized content that flashes more
than three times in any one-second period, unless the flash is below the
general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A)
Flashes: In its default configuration, the user agent does not display
any user interface components or recognized content that flashes more than
three times in any one-second period (regardless of whether not the flash is
below the general flash and red flash thresholds). (Level AAA) [WCAG 2.0]
4.5 Configure and store preference settings.
4.5.1 Change Preference
Settings The user can change settings that impact accessibility.
Accessibility Settings: User agent accessibility preference settings
persist between sessions. (Level A)
4.5.3 Multiple Sets of
Preference Settings: The user can save and retrieve multiple sets of
user agent preference settings. (Level AA)
4.5.4 Portable Preference
Settings:The user can transfer preference settings across locations
onto a compatible system. (Level AAA)
Wizard: A wizard helps the user to configure the accessibility-related
user agent preferences (at least). (Level AAA)
4.5.6 Restore all to
default: The user can restore all preference settings to default
values. (Level A)
4.5.7 Restore related
preferences to default: The user can restore groups of related
preference settings to default values (e.g. reset keyboard shortcuts, reset
colors and sizes of rendered content). (Level AA)
4.5.8 Change preference
setting outside the UI: The user can adjust preference settings from
outside the user agent user interface. (Level AA)
4.6.1 Find: The
user can perform a search within rendered content (e.g., not hidden with a
style), including text alternatives, for any sequence of characters from the document character set set.
Direction: The user can search forward or backward from the focused
location in content. The user is notified of changes in search direction. The
user is notified when the search reaches the upper or lower extent of the
content based on the search direction. (Level A)
Found: When there is a match, the user is alerted and the viewport
moves so that the matched text content is at least partially within it. The
user can search for the next instance of the text from the location of the
4.6.4 Alert on No Match:
The user is notified when there is no match
or after the last match in content (i.e., prior to starting the search over
from the beginning of content). (Level A)
Find: The user agent provides an accessible advanced search facility,
with a case-sensitive and case-insensitive search option, and the ability for
the user to perform a search within all content (including hidden content and
captioning) for text and text alternatives, for any sequence of characters from
the document character set. (Level AA)
4.7.1 Access to Relationships which Aid
Navigation: The user can access explicitly-defined relationships based
on the user's position in content, and the path of nodes leading from the root
of any content hierarchy to that position. (Level AA)
navigation: The user can navigate directly to important (structural and operable) elements
in rendered content. (Level A).
Relationships: The user can access explicitly-defined relationships
based on the user's position in content (e.g., show form control's label, show
label's form control, show a cell's table headers). (Level A)
4.7.4 Location in
Hierarchy: The user can view the path of
nodes leading from the root of any content hierarchy in which the structure and
semantics are implied by presentation, as opposed to an explicit logical
structure with defined semantics (such as the HTML5 Canvas Element), or as a
consequence of decentralized-extensibility (such as the HTML5 item / itemprop
microdata elements), and only if the user agent keeps an internal model of the
hierarchy that it does not expose via the DOM or some other
accessibility mechanism. (Level A).
@@ Editors' Note: Success Criteria from 3.3 have been
moved to 4.9. SC 3.3.3 has been moved to 5.1@@
activation: The user can move directly to and activate any operable
elements in rendered content. (Level AA)
4.7.6 Configure Set of
Important Elements: The user has the option to configure the set of important elements for structured
navigation, including by element type (e.g., headers, list items, images).
(Level AAA) @@ Editor's note: Review the definition
of "important elements" @@
4.7.7 Discover navigation
and activation keystrokes: Direct navigation and activation keystrokes
are discoverable both programmatically and via perceivable labels. (Level
@@ Editor's note:
Review the definition of "important elements" @@
Guideline 4.8 Provide toolbar configuration.
4.8.1 Configure Position:
When graphical user agent user interfaces
have toolbars, the user can add, remove and configure the position of user agent user interface
controls on those toolbars from a pre-defined set of controls. (Level
4.8.2 Restore Default
Toolbars: The user can restore the default toolbar configuration.
Guideline 4.9 Provide control of
content that may reduce accessibility.
4.9.1 Background Image
Toggle: The user has the global option to hide/show background images. (Level A)
4.9.2 Time-Based Media
Load-Only: The user can load time-based media content @@ Editors' Note: DEFINE@@ such that the first
frame is displayed (if video), but the content is not played until explicit user request. (Level
Placeholder: The user can render a placeholder instead of executable content that
would normally be contained within an on-screen area (e.g., Applet, Flash),
until explicit user request to execute.
Toggle: The user can turn on/off the execution of executable content
that would not normally be contained within a particular area (e.g.,
4.9.5 Playback Rate
Adjustment for Prerecorded Content: The user can adjust the playback
rate of prerecorded time-based media content, such that all of the following
are true (Level A):
- The user can adjust the playback rate of the time-based media tracks to between 50% and 250% of
- Speech whose playback rate has been adjusted by the user maintains pitch
in order to limit degradation of the speech quality.
- Audio and video tracks remain synchronized across this required range of
- The user agent provides a function that resets the playback rate to
Multimedia: The user can stop, pause, and resume rendered audio and animation content (including video and
animated images) that last three or more seconds at their default playback
rate. (Level A)
Multimedia: The user can navigate along the timebase using a
continuous scale, and by relative time units within rendered audio and
animations (including video and animated images) that last three or more
seconds at their default playback rate. (Level A)
4.9.7Semantic Navigation of Time-Based Media: The user can
navigate by semantic structure within the time-based media, such as by chapters
or scenes present in the media (AA).
4.9.8Track Enable/Disable of Time-Based Media: During
time-based media playback, the user can determine which tracks are available
and select or deselect tracks. These selections may override global default
settings for captions, audio descriptions, etc.
4.9.9Sizing Playback Viewport: User can adjust the size of
the time-based media up to the full height or width of the containing viewport.
In doing so, the user can preserve aspect ratio and to adjust the size of the
playback viewport to avoid cropping, within the scaling limitations imposed by
the media itself. (Level AA)
4.9.10Scale and position alternative media tracks: User can
scale and position alternative media tracks independent of base video. (Level
4.9.11 Adjust Playback
Contrast and Brightness: User can control the contrast and brightness
of the content within the playback viewport.
The guideline only applies to images, animations, video, audio, etc. that
the user agent can recognize.
@@ Editors' Note: If the browser is playing the video
natively, there is only 1 user agent. In that case, it falls on the browser to
meet the UAAG spec. @@
@@ Editors' Note: If an author uses windows media
player inside the video element, the browser needs to map its native controls
to the embedded wmp controls, and provide access to all the controls. @@
@@ Editors' Note: User needs to be able to define
rendering parameters of playback at render-time. @@
Principle 5: Ensure that the user interface
Guideline 5.1 Help users avoid
unnecessary messages. [Implementing
5.1.1 Option to
Ignore: The user can turn off rendering of non-essential or low
priority text messages or updating/changing information in the content based on
priority properties defined by the author (e.g.,
ignoring updating content marked "polite" ). (Level AA)
Progress: Show the progress of content retrieval. (Level A)
Guideline 5.2 Help users avoid and correct
Submission: The user can redefine keyboard shortcuts for submitting
and canceling recognized forms. (Level AA)
Guideline 5.3 Document the user agent user
interface including all accessibility features.
documentation: The product documentation is available in a format
that conforms to WCAG 2.0 Level "A" or greater.
Accessibility Features: All user
agent features that benefit accessibility @@
Editors' Note: DEFINE - as specified in the conformance claim@@ are
documented. (Level A)
5.3.3 Changes Between
Versions: Changes to features that affect accessibility since the
previous version of the user agent are documented. (Level AA)
View: There is a centralized view of
all features of the user agent that benefit accessibility, in a dedicated
section of the documentation. (Level AA)
5.3.5 Context Sensitive
Help: There is context-sensitive help
on all user agent features that benefit accessibility. (Level AAA)
Language: If characteristics of the user agent involve producing an
end user experience such as speech, the user agent reacts appropriately to
5.4 The user agent must behave in a
5.4.1 Control default
focus: The user agent provides a mechanism for setting global
configuration of default focus.
focus: The user is informed when the user agent changes focus. The
user agent provides a global option to block uninitiated focus changes.
@@ Editors' Note: Missing: Greater ease in interpreting
security messaging. Should be cross-referenced with the security working group.
This section is normative.
Conformance means that the user agent satisfies the success criteria defined
in the guidelines section. This conformance section describes conformance and
lists the conformance requirements.
In order for a Web page to conform to UAAG 2.0, one of the following levels
of conformance is met in full.
- Level A: For Level A conformance (the minimum level of conformance), the
user agent satisfies all the Level A Success Criteria.
- Level AA: For Level AA conformance, the user agent satisfies all the
Level A and Level AA Success Criteria.
- Level AAA: For Level AAA conformance, the user agent satisfies all the
Level A, Level AA and Level AAA Success Criteria.
Note 1: Although conformance can only be achieved at the stated levels,
developers are encouraged to report (in their claim) any progress toward
meeting success criteria from all levels beyond the achieved level of
If a conformance claim is made, the conformance claim must meet the
following conditions and include the following information (user agents can
conform to UAAG 2.0 without making a claim):
on Conformance Claims
- At least one version of the conformance claim must be published on the
web as a document meeting level "A" of WCAG 2.0. A suggested metadata
description for this document is "UAAG 2.0 Conformance Claim".
- Whenever the claimed conformance level is published (e.g., product
information website), the URI for the on-line published version of the
conformance claim must be included.
- The existence of a conformance claim does not imply that the W3C has
reviewed the claim or assured its validity.
- Claimants may be anyone (e.g., user agent developers, journalists, other
- Claimants are solely responsible for the accuracy of their claims
(including claims that include products for which they are not responsible)
and keeping claims up to date.
- Claimants are encouraged to claim conformance to the most recent version
of the User Agent Accessibility Guidelines Recommendation.
Required Components of an UAAG 2.0
- Claimant name and affiliation.
- Date of the claim.
- Conformance level satisfied.
- User agent information: The name of the user agent and sufficient
additional information to specify the version (e.g., vendor name, version
number (or version range), required patches or updates, human language of
the user interface or documentation).
Note: If the user agent is a collection of software components (e.g., a
browser and extentions or plugins), then the name and version information
must be provided separately for each component, although the conformance
claim will treat them as a whole. As stated above, the Claimant has sole
responsibility for the conformance claim, not the developer of any of the
- Included Technologies: A list of the web content technologies (including
version numbers) rendered by the user agent that the Claimant is including
in the conformance claim. By including a web content technology, the
Claimant is claiming that the user agent meets the requirements of UAAG 2.0
during the rendering of web content using that web content technology.
Note 1: Web content technologies may be a combination of constituent web
content technologies. For example, an image technology (e.g., PNG) might be
listed together with a markup technology (e.g., HTML) since web content in
the markup technology is used make web content in the image technology
accessible (e.g., a PNG graph is made accessible using an HTML table).
- Excluded Technologies: A list of any web content technologies produced by
the the user agent that the Claimant is excluding from the conformance
claim. The user agent is not required to meet the requirements of UAAG 2.0
during the production of the web content technologies on this list.
- Declarations: For each success criterion: A declaration of whether or not
the success criterion has been satisfied; or
A declaration that the success criterion is not applicable and a rationale
for why not.
- Platform(s): The platform(s) upon which the user agent was evaluated: For
user agent platform(s) (used to evaluate web-based user agent user
interfaces): provide the name and version information of the user agent(s).
For platforms that are not user agents (used to evaluate non-web-based user
agent user interfaces) provide: The name and version information of the
platform(s) (e.g., operating system, etc.) and the the name and version of
the platform accessibility architecture(s) employed.
Optional Components of an UAAG 2.0
A description of how the UAAG 2.0 success criteria were met where this may
not be obvious.
Towards Conformance" Statement
Developers of user agents that do not yet conform fully to a particular UAAG
2.0 conformance level are encouraged to publish a statement on progress towards
conformance. The progress statement is the same as a conformance claim except
an UAAG 2.0 conformance level that is being progressed towards, rather than one
already satisfied, and report progress on success criteria not yet met. Authors
of "Progress Towards Conformance" Statement are solely responsible for the
accuracy of their statements. Developers are encouraged to provide expected
timelines for meeting outstanding success criteria within the Statement.
Neither W3C, WAI, nor UAWG take any responsibility for any aspect or result
of any UAAG 2.0 conformance claim that has not been published under the
authority of the W3C, WAI, or UAWG.
This glossary is normative.
- accelerator key
- see keyboard command
- To carry out the behaviors associated with an enabled element in the rendered
content or a component of the user agent user
- active input focus
- see focus
- active selection
- see focus
- alternative content
- Content that can
be used in place of default content that may not be universally
accessible. Alternative content fulfills the same purpose as the original
content. Examples include text alternatives for non-text content,
captions for audio, audio descriptions for video, sign language for
audio, media alternatives for time-based media. See WCAG for more information.
- alternative content
- A set of alternative content items. The items
may be mutually exclusive (e.g., regular contrast graphic vs. high
contrast graphic) or non-exclusive (e.g., caption track that can play at
the same time as a sound track).
- Graphical content rendered to automatically change
over time, giving the user a visual perception of movement. Examples
include video, animated images, scrolling text, programmatic animation
(e.g., moving or replacing rendered objects).
programming interface (API), (conventional input/output/device
- An application programming interface (API) defines how
communication may take place between applications.
- assistive technology
- An assistive technology:
- relies on services (such as retrieving Web
resources and parsing markup) provided by one or more other
"host" user agents. Assistive technologies communicate data and
messages with host user agents by using and monitoring APIs.
- provides services beyond those offered by the host user agents to
meet the requirements of users with disabilities. Additional services
include alternative renderings (e.g., as synthesized speech or
magnified content), alternative input methods (e.g., voice),
additional navigation or orientation mechanisms, and content
transformations (e.g., to make tables more accessible).
Examples of assistive technologies that are important in the context
of UAAG 2.0 include the following:
- screen magnifiers, which are used by people with visual
disabilities to enlarge and change colors on the screen to improve
the visual readability of rendered text and images.
- screen readers, which are used by people who are blind or have
reading disabilities to read textual information through synthesized
speech or braille displays.
- voice recognition software, which are used by some people who have
physical disabilities to simulate the keyboard and mouse.
- alternative keyboards, which are used by some people with physical
disabilities to simulate the keyboard and mouse.
- alternative pointing devices, which are used by some people with
physical disabilities to simulate mouse pointing and button
- Beyond this document, assistive technologies consist
of software or hardware that has been specifically designed to assist
people with disabilities in carrying out daily activities. These
technologies include wheelchairs, reading machines, devices for grasping,
text telephones, and vibrating pagers. For example, the following very
general definition of "assistive technology device" comes from the (U.S.)
Assistive Technology Act of 1998 [AT1998]:
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired
commercially, modified, or customized, that is used to increase,
maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with
- The technology of sound reproduction. Audio can be
created synthetically (including speech synthesis), streamed from a live
source (such as a radio broadcast), or recorded from real world
- audio description - (described
video, video description or descriptive narration)
- An equivalent alternative that takes the form of narration added to the
audio to describe important visual details that
cannot be understood from the main soundtrack alone. Audio description of
video provides information about actions, characters, scene changes,
on-screen text, and other visual content. In standard audio description,
narration is added during existing pauses in dialogue. In extended audio
description, the video is paused so that there is time to add
- The people who have worked either alone or collaboratively to create
the content (e.g. content authors, designers, programmers, publishers,
- author styles
- Style property
values that are set by the author as part of the content.
- Images that are rendered on the base background.
- The background of the content as a whole, such that no
content may be layered behind it. In graphics applications, the base
background is often referred to as the canvas.).
- Text whose visual rendering alternates between visible and invisible at
any rate of change.
- captions (caption)
- An equivalent alternative that takes the form of text presented and
synchronized with time-based media to provide not only the
speech, but also non-speech information conveyed through sound, including
meaningful sound effects and identification of speakers. In some
countries, the term "subtitle" is used to refer to dialogue only and
"captions" is used as the term for dialogue plus sounds and speaker
identification. In other countries, "subtitle" (or its translation) is
used to refer to both. Open captions are captions that are
always rendered with a visual track; they cannot be turned off.
Closed captions are captions that may be turned on and off.
The captions requirements of UAAG 2.0 assume that the user agent can recognize the captions as such.
Note: Other terms that include the word "caption" may
have different meanings in UAAG 2.0. For instance, a "table caption" is a
title for the table, often positioned graphically above or below the
table. In UAAG 2.0, the intended meaning of "caption" will be clear from
- collated text transcript
- A collated text transcript is a text equivalent of a movie or
other animation. It is the combination of the text
transcript of the audio track and the text equivalent
of the visual track. For example, a
collated text transcript typically includes segments of spoken dialogue
interspersed with text descriptions of the key visual elements of a
presentation (actions, body language, graphics, and scene changes). See
also the definitions of text
transcript and audio description. Collated
text transcripts are essential for people who are deaf-blind.
- content (web
- Information and sensory experience to be communicated
to the user by means of a user agent, including code or markup that
defines the content's structure, presentation, and interactions [adapted
from WCAG 2.0]
content (which may be alternative content) is
either a null value or an empty string (e.g., one that is zero characters
long). For instance, in HTML,
alt="" sets the value of the
alt attribute to the empty string. In some markup languages,
an element may have empty content (e.g., the
HR element in
- see focus
- see properties
- document character set
- The internal representation of data in the source
content by a user agent.
- document object, (Document Object Model, DOM)
- The Document Object Model is a platform- and
language-neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to
dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of
documents. The document can be further processed and the results of that
processing can be incorporated back into the presented page. This is an
overview of DOM-related materials here at W3C and around the web: http://www.w3.org/DOM/#what.
- document source, (text source)
- Text the user agent renders upon user request to view
the source of specific viewport content (e.g. selected content, frame,
- Any information that supports the use of a user agent.
This information may be found, for example, in manuals, installation
instructions, the help system, and tutorials. Documentation may be
distributed (e.g., as files installed as part of the installation, some
parts may be delivered on CD-ROM, others on the Web). See guideline 5.3 for information about
- element, element type
- UAAG 2.0 uses the terms "element" and "element type"
primarily in the sense employed by the XML 1.0 specification ([XML], section
3): an element type is a syntactic construct of a document type
definition (DTD) for its application. This sense is also relevant to
structures defined by XML schemas. UAAG 2.0 also uses the term "element"
more generally to mean a type of content (such as video or sound) or a
logical construct (such as a header or list).
- empty content
- see content
- enabled element, disabled
- An element with associated
behaviors that can be activated through the user interface or through an
set of elements that a user agent enables is generally derived from, but
is not limited to, the set of elements defined by
implemented markup languages. A disabled element is a potentially enabled
element that is not currently available for activation (e.g., a "grayed
out" menu item).
- equivalent alternative
- Acceptable substitute content that a user may not be
able to access. An equivalent alternative fulfills essentially the same
function or purpose as the original content upon presentation:
- text alternative: text that is available via the operating environment
that is used in place of non-text content (e.g., text equivalents for
images, text transcripts for audio tracks, or collated text
transcripts for a movie). [from WCAG 2.0]
- full text alternative for synchronized media including any
interaction: document including correctly sequenced text descriptions
of all visual settings, actions, speakers, and non-speech sounds, and
transcript of all dialogue combined with a means of achieving any
outcomes that are achieved using interaction (if any) during the
synchronized media. [from WCAG
- synchronized alternatives: present essential audio information
visually (i.e., captions) and essential video information in an
auditory manner (i.e., audio descriptions). [from ATAG 2.0]
- events and
scripting, event handler, event type
- User agents often perform a task when an event having
a particular "event type" occurs, including a user interface event, a
change to content, loading of content, or a request from the operating environment. Some
markup languages allow authors to specify that a script, called an event
handler, be executed when an event of a given type occurs. An
event handler is explicitly associated with an
element through scripting, markup or the DOM.
- explicit user request
- An interaction by the user through the user agent user
interface, the focus, or the selection. User
requests are made, for example, through user
agent user interface controls and keyboard commands. Some examples
of explicit user requests include when the user selects "New viewport,"
responds "yes" to a prompt in the user agent's user interface, configures
the user agent to behave in a certain way, or changes the selection or
focus with the keyboard or pointing device. Note: Users
can make errors when interacting with the user agent. For example, a user
may inadvertently respond "yes" to a prompt instead of "no." This type of
error is considered an explicit user request.
- focus (active input focus, active selection,
cursor, focus cursor, focusable element, highlight, inactive input focus,
inactive selection, input focus, keyboard focus, pointer, pointing device
focus, selection, split focus, text cursor)
Hierarchical Summary of some focus terms
- Input Focus (active/inactive)
- Keyboard Focus (active/inactive)
- Cursor (active/inactive)
- Focus cursor (active/inactive)
- Text cursor (active/inactive)
- Pointing device focus (active/inactive)
- active input focus
- The input focus location in the active
viewport. The active focus is in the active
viewport, while the inactive input focus is the inactive viewport. The active input focus is usually visibly
indicated. In UAAG 2.0 "active input focus" generally refers to the
active keyboard input focus. @@ Editors' Note:
this term is not used in the document other than the
- active selection
- The selection that will currently be affected by a user command, as
opposed to selections in other viewports, called inactive selections,
which would not currently be affected by a user command. @@ Editors' Note: this term is not used in the
document other than the glossary.@@
- see support
- Visual indicator showing where keyboard input will occur. There are two
types of cursors: focus cursor (e.g. the
dotted line around a button) and text
cursor (e.g. the flashing vertical bar in a text field, also called a
'caret'). Cursors are active when in the active viewport, and inactive
when in an inactive viewport.
- focus cursor
- Indicator that highlights a user interface
element to show that it has keyboard
focus, e.g. a dotted line around a button, or brightened title bar on
a window. There are two types of cursors: focus cursor (e.g. the dotted
line around a button) and text cursor (e.g. the flashing
vertical bar in a text field).
- focusable element
- Any element capable of having input
focus, e.g. link, text box, or menu item. In order to be accessible
and fully usable, every focusable element should take keyboard focus, and ideally would also
take pointer focus.
- highlight, highlighted, highlighting
- Emphasis indicated through the user interface. For example, user agents
highlight content that is selected,focused, or matched by a search
operation. Graphical highlight mechanisms include dotted boxes, changed
colors or fonts, underlining, magnification, and reverse video.
Synthesized speech highlight mechanisms include alterations of voice
pitch and volume ("speech prosody"). User interface items may also be
highlighted, for example a specific set of foreground and background
colors for the title bar of the active window. Content that is
highlighted may or may not be a selection.
- inactive input focus
- An input focus location in an inactive viewport such as a background
window or pane. The inactive input focus location will become the active
input focus location when input focus returns to that viewport. An
inactive input focus may or may not be visibly indicated.
- inactive selection
- A selection that does not have the input
focus and thus does not take input events.
- input focus
- The place where input will occur if a viewport is active. Examples
include keyboard focus and pointing device focus. Input focus can also be
active (in the active viewport) or inactive (in an inactive viewport).
- keyboard focus
- The screen location where keyboard input will occur if a viewport is
active. Keyboard focus can be active (in the active viewport) or inactive
(in an inactive viewport).
- Visual indicator showing where pointing device input will occur. The
indicator can be moved with a pointing device or emulator such as a
mouse, pen tablet, keyboard-based mouse emulator, speech-based mouse
commands, or 3-D wand. A pointing device click typically moves the input focus to the pointer location. The
indicator may change to reflect different states.When touch screens are
used, the "pointing device" is a combination of the touch screen and the
user's finger or stylus. On most systems there is no pointer (on-screen
visual indication) associated with this type of pointing device.
- pointing device focus
- The screen location where pointer input will occur if a viewport is
active. There can be multiple pointing device foci for example when using
a screen sharing utility there is typically one for the user's physical
mouse and one for the remote mouse. @@
Editors' Note: this term is not used in the document other than the
- A user agent mechanism for identifying a (possibly empty) range of
content that will be the implicit source or target for subsequent
operations. The selection may be used for a variety of purposes,
including for cut-and-paste operations, to designate a specific element
in a document for the purposes of a query, and as an indication of point
of regard (e.g. the matched results of a search may be automatically
selected). The selection should be highlighted in a distinctive manner. On the
screen, the selection may be highlighted in a variety of ways, including
through colors, fonts, graphics, and magnification. When rendered using
synthesized speech, the selection may be highlighted through changes in
pitch, speed, or prosody.
- split focus
- A state when the user could be confused because the input focus is
separated from something it is usually linked to, such as being at a
different place than the selection or similar highlighting, or has been
scrolled outside of the visible portion of the viewport. @@ Editors' Note: this term is not used in the
document other than the glossary.@@
- text cursor
- Indicator showing where keyboard input will occur in text (e.g. the
flashing vertical bar in a text field, also called a caret).
- content focus, user interface focus, current focus
@@ Editor's Note: Need to find the hrefs to
these definitions and fix them. @@
- globally, global
- @@ Editors' Note: Needs to
- Information (e.g. text, colors, graphics, images, and
animations) rendered for visual consumption.
- highlight, highlighted, highlighting
- see focus
- Pictorial content that is static (i.e. not moving or
changing). See also the definition of animation.
- see support
- important elements
- This specification intentionally does not identify
which "important elements" must be navigable because this will vary by
specification. What constitutes "efficient navigation" may depend on a
number of factors as well, including the "shape" of content (e.g.,
sequential navigation of long lists is not efficient) and desired
granularity (e.g., among tables, then among the cells of a given table).
Refer to the Implementing document [Implementing UAAG 2.0] for
information about identifying and navigating important elements. @@ Editors' Note: Update links
- inactive input focus
- see focus
- inactive selection
- see focus
- informative (non-normative)
- see normative
- input configuration
- The set of bindings between user agent functionalities
and user interface input mechanisms
(e.g., menus, buttons, keyboard keys, and voice commands). The default
input configuration is the set of bindings the user finds after
installation of the software. Input configurations may be affected by
author-specified bindings (e.g., through the
attribute of HTML 4 [HTML4]).
- input focus
- see focus
- keyboard command (keyboard
binding,keyboard shortcuts or accelerator
- Commands tied to particular UI controls or application functions,
allowing the user to navigate-to or activate them without traversing any
intervening controls (e.g., "ctrl"+"S" to save a document). It is
sometimes useful to distinguish keyboard commands that are associated
with controls that are rendered in the current context (e.g., "alt"+"D"
to move focus to the address bar) from those that may be able to activate
program functionality that is not associated with any currently rendered
controls (e.g., "F1" to open the Help system). Keyboard commands help
users accelerate their selections.
- keyboard focus
- see focus
- natural language
- Natural language is spoken, written, or signed human
language such as French, Japanese, and American Sign Language. On the
Web, the natural language of content may be specified by markup or
HTTP headers. Some examples include the
attribute in HTML 4 ([HTML4] section 8.1), the
attribute in XML 1.0 ([XML], section 2.12), the
attribute for links in HTML 4 ([HTML4],
section 12.1.5), the HTTP Content-Language header ([RFC2616], section 14.12)
and the Accept-Language request header ([RFC2616], section 14.4).
See also the definition of script.
- non-text content (non-text element, non-text equivalent)
- see text
- normative, informative (non-normative) [WCAG 2.0, ATAG
- What is identified as "normative" is required for conformance (noting that one may conform in a
variety of well-defined ways to UAAG 2.0). What is identified as
"informative" (or, "non-normative") is never required for
- To make the user aware of events or status changes.
Notifications can occur within the user agent user interface (e.g., a
status bar) or within the content display. Notifications may be passive
and not require user acknowledgment, or they may be presented in the form
of a prompt requesting a user response (e.g., a confirmation dialog).
- operating environment
- The term "operating environment" refers to the
environment that governs the user agent's operation, whether it is an
operating system or a programming language environment such as Java.
- In UAAG 2.0, the term "override" means that one
configuration or behavior preference prevails over another. Generally,
the requirements of UAAG 2.0 involve user preferences prevailing over
author preferences and user agent default settings and behaviors.
Preferences may be multi-valued in general (e.g., the user prefers blue
over red or yellow), and include the special case of two values (e.g.,
turn on or off blinking text content).
- A placeholder is content generated by the user agent
to replace author-supplied content. A placeholder may be generated as the
result of a user preference (e.g., to not render images) or as repair content (e.g., when an
image cannot be found). A placeholder can be any type of content,
including text, images, and audio cues. A placeholder should identify the
technology of the replaced object. Placeholders appear in the alternative
- platform accessibility
- A programmatic interface that is engineered to enhance communication
between mainstream software applications and assistive technologies
(e.g., MSAA, UI Automation, and IAccessible2 for Windows applications,
AXAPI for MacOSX applications, Gnome Accessibility Toolkit API for Gnome
applications, Java Access for Java applications). On some platforms it
may be conventional to enhance communication further via implementing a
- plug-in [ATAG
- A plug-in is a program that runs as part of the user
agent and that is not part of content. Users
generally choose to include or exclude plug-ins from their user
- point of regard
- The point of regard is the position in rendered content that the user
is presumed to be viewing. The dimensions of the point of regard may
vary. For example, it may be a point (e.g., a moment during an audio
rendering or a cursor position in a graphical rendering), or a range of
text (e.g., focused text), or a two-dimensional area (e.g., content
rendered through a two-dimensional graphical viewport). The point of
regard is almost always within the viewport, but it may exceed the
spatial or temporal dimensions of the
viewport (see the definition of rendered content for more
information about viewport dimensions). The point of regard may also
refer to a particular moment in time for content that changes over time
(e.g., an audio-only presentation). User agents may determine the point
of regard in a number of ways, including based on viewport position in
content, keyboard focus, and selection. The stability of the point
of regard is addressed by [@@ Editors' Note:
Need reference here@@].
- see focus
- pointing device focus
- see focus
- A profile is a named and persistent representation of
user preferences that may be used to configure a user agent. Preferences
include input configurations, style preferences, and natural language
preferences. In operating environments with
distinct user accounts, profiles enable users to reconfigure software
quickly when they log on. Users may share their profiles with one
another. Platform-independent profiles are
useful for those who use the same user agent on different platforms.
[@@Editors' Note: Move this sentence to the appropriate
- prompt [ATAG
- Any user-agent-initiated request for a decision or piece of information
from a user.
- properties, values, and
- A user agent renders a document by applying formatting
algorithms and style information to the document's elements. Formatting
depends on a number of factors, including where the document is rendered
(e.g. on screen, on paper, through loudspeakers, on a braille display, on
a mobile device). Style information (e.g., fonts, colors, synthesized
speech prosody) may come from the elements themselves (e.g., certain font
and phrase elements in HTML), from style sheets, or from user agent
settings. For the purposes of these guidelines, each formatting or style
option is governed by a property and each property may take one value
from a set of legal values. Generally in UAAG 2.0, the term "property"
has the meaning defined in CSS 2 ([CSS2], section 3). A reference
to "styles" in UAAG 2.0 means a set of style-related properties. The
value given to a property by a user agent at installation is the
- Authors encode information in many ways, including in
markup languages, style sheet languages, scripting languages, and
protocols. When the information is encoded in a manner that allows the
user agent to process it with certainty, the user agent can "recognize"
the information. For instance, HTML allows authors to specify a heading
H1 element, so a user agent that implements HTML
can recognize that content as a heading. If the author creates a heading
using a visual effect alone (e.g., just by increasing the font size),
then the author has encoded the heading in a manner that does not allow
the user agent to recognize it as a heading. Some requirements of UAAG
2.0 depend on content roles, content relationships, timing relationships,
and other information supplied by the author. These requirements only
apply when the author has encoded that information in a manner that the
user agent can recognize. See the section on conformance for more information about
applicability. User agents will rely heavily on information that the
author has encoded in a markup language or style sheet language.
Behaviors, style, meaning encoded in a script, and markup in
an unfamiliar XML namespace may not be recognized by the user agent as
easily or at all.
- rendered content, rendered
- Rendered content is the part of content that the user agent makes
available to the user's senses of sight and hearing (and only those
senses for the purposes of UAAG 2.0). Any content that causes an effect
that may be perceived through these senses constitutes rendered content.
This includes text characters, images, style sheets, scripts, and any
other content that, once processed, may be perceived through sight and
- The term "rendered text" refers to text
content that is rendered in a way that communicates information about the
characters themselves, whether visually or as synthesized speech.
- In the context of UAAG 2.0, invisible
content is content that is not rendered but that may influence
the graphical rendering (i.e. layout) of other content. Similarly, silent
content is content that is not rendered but that may influence
the audio rendering of other content. Neither invisible nor silent
content is considered rendered content.
- repair content, repair text
- Content generated by the user agent to correct an
error condition. "Repair text" refers to the text portion of repair
content. Error conditions that may lead to the generation of repair
- Erroneous or incomplete content (e.g., ill-formed markup, invalid
markup, or missing alternative content that
is required by format specification);
- Missing resources for handling or rendering content (e.g., the user
agent lacks a font family to display some characters, or the user
agent does not implement a particular scripting language).
UAAG 2.0 does not require user agents to include repair content in the
document object. Repair content
inserted in the document object should conform to the Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 [WCAG10]. For more
information about repair techniques for Web content and software, refer
to "Techniques for Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.0" [ATAG10-TECHS].
- In UAAG 2.0, the term "script" almost always refers to
a scripting (programming) language used to create dynamic Web content.
However, in guidelines referring to the written (natural) language of
content, the term "script" is used as in Unicode [UNICODE] to mean "A
collection of symbols used to represent textual information in one or
more writing systems."
- Information encoded in (programming) scripts may be
difficult for a user agent to recognize. For
instance, a user agent is not expected to recognize that, when executed,
a script will calculate a factorial. The user agent will be able to
recognize some information in a script by virtue of implementing the
scripting language or a known program library (e.g., the user agent is
expected to recognize when a script will open a viewport or retrieve a
resource from the Web).
- selection, current
- see focus
- serial access, sequential navigation
access to rendered content. Some examples of serial access include
listening to an audio stream or watching a video (both of which involve
one temporal dimension), or reading a series of lines of braille one line
at a time (one spatial dimension). Many users with blindness have serial
access to content rendered as audio, synthesized speech, or lines of
The expression "sequential navigation" refers to navigation through an
ordered set of items (e.g., the enabled
elements in a document, a sequence of lines or pages, or a sequence
of menu options). Sequential navigation implies that the user cannot skip
directly from one member of the set to another, in contrast to direct or
structured navigation. Users with blindness or some users with a physical
disability may navigate content sequentially (e.g., by navigating through
links, one by one, in a graphical viewport with or without the aid of an
assistive technology). Sequential navigation is important to users who
cannot scan rendered content visually for context and also benefits users
unfamiliar with content. The increments of sequential navigation may be
determined by a number of factors, including element type (e.g., links
only), content structure (e.g., navigation from heading to heading), and
the current navigation context (e.g., having navigated to a table, allow
navigation among the table cells).
Users with serial access to content or who navigate sequentially may
require more time to access content than users who use direct or
- support, implement, conform
- Support, implement, and conform all refer to what a
developer has designed a user agent to do, but they represent different
degrees of specificity. A user agent "supports" general classes of
objects, such as "images" or "Japanese." A user agent "implements" a
specification (e.g., the PNG and SVG image format specifications or a
particular scripting language), or an API
(e.g., the DOM API) when it has been programmed to follow all or part of
a specification. A user agent "conforms to" a specification when it
implements the specification and satisfies its conformance
- The act of time-coordinating two or more presentation
components (e.g., a visual track with captions, or
several tracks in a multimedia presentation). For Web content developers,
the requirement to synchronize means to provide the data that will permit
sensible time-coordinated rendering by a user agent. For example, Web
content developers can ensure that the segments of caption text are
neither too long nor too short, and that they map to segments of the
visual track that are appropriate in length. For user agent developers,
the requirement to synchronize means to present the content in a sensible
time-coordinated fashion under a wide range of circumstances including
technology constraints (e.g., small text-only displays), user limitations
(e.g. slow reading speeds, large font sizes, high need for review or
repeat functions), and content that is sub-optimal in terms of
- technology (web content
technology) [WCAG 2.0, ATAG
- A mechanism for encoding instructions to be rendered, played or
executed by user agents. Web Content
technologies may include markup languages, data formats, or programming
languages that authors may use alone or in
combination to create end-user experiences that range from static Web
pages to multimedia presentations to dynamic Web applications. Some
common examples of Web content technologies include HTML, CSS, SVG, PNG,
- text (text
content, non-text content, text element,
non-text element, text equivalent, non-text
- Text used by itself refers to a sequence of characters
from a markup language's document character set.
Refer to the "Character Model for the World Wide Web" [CHARMOD] for more
information about text and characters. Note: This
document makes use of other terms that include the word "text" that have
highly specialized meanings: collated text
transcript, non-text content, text content, non-text element, text element, text equivalent, and text transcript.
element adds text characters to either content or the user
interface. Both in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0
[WCAG20] and in UAAG 2.0,
text elements are presumed to produce text that can be understood when
rendered visually, as synthesized speech, or as Braille. Such text
elements benefit at least these three groups of users:
- visually-displayed text benefits users who are deaf and adept in
reading visually-displayed text;
- synthesized speech benefits users who are blind and adept in use of
- braille benefits users who are blind, and possibly deaf-blind, and
adept at reading braille.
A text element may consist of both text and non-text data. For
instance, a text element may contain markup for style (e.g., font size or
color), structure (e.g., heading levels), and other semantics. The
essential function of the text element should be retained even if style
information happens to be lost in rendering. A user agent may have to
process a text element in order to have access to the text characters.
For instance, a text element may consist of markup, it may be encrypted
or compressed, or it may include embedded text in a binary format (e.g.,
content is content that is composed of one or more text
elements. A text
equivalent (whether in content or the user interface) is an equivalent composed of
one or more text elements. Authors generally provide text equivalents for
content by using the alternative content
mechanisms of a specification.
A non-text element is an element
(in content or the user interface) that does not have the qualities of a
text element. Non-text content is composed of
one or more non-text elements. A non-text equivalent (whether in
content or the user interface) is an equivalent composed of
one or more non-text elements.
- text decoration
- Any stylistic effect that the user agent may apply to
visually rendered text that does not affect
the layout of the document (i.e., does not require reformatting when
applied or removed). Text decoration mechanisms include underline,
overline, and strike-through.
- Any media object given an Internet media type of
"text" (e.g., "text/plain", "text/html", or "text/*") as defined in RFC
2046 [RFC2046], section 4.1, or
any media object identified by Internet media type to be an XML document
(as defined in [XML], section 2) or SGML
application. Refer, for example, to Internet media types defined in "XML
Media Types" [RFC3023].
- text transcript
- A text equivalent of audio information (e.g., an
audio-only presentation or the audio track
of a movie or other animation). A texr transcript provides text for both
spoken words and non-spoken sounds such as sound effects. Text
transcripts make audio information accessible to people who have hearing
disabilities and to people who cannot play the audio. Text transcripts
are usually created by hand but may be generated on the fly (e.g., by
voice-to-text converters). See also the definitions of captions and collated text
- track (audio track or visual track)
- Content rendered as sound through an
audio viewport. The audio track may be all or
part of the audio portion presentation (e.g., each instrument may have a
track, or each stereo channel may have a track). Also see definition of
- user agent
- A user agent is any software that retrieves, renders
and facilitates end user interaction with Web content.
- user agent default styles
- User agent default styles are style property
values applied in the absence of any author or user styles. Some
markup languages specify a default rendering for content in that markup
language; others do not. For example, XML 1.0 [XML] does not
specify default styles for XML documents. HTML 4
[HTML4] does not specify
default styles for HTML documents, but the CSS 2 [CSS2]
specification suggests a sample
default style sheet for HTML 4 based on current practice.
- user interface, user interface
- For the purposes of UAAG 2.0, user interface includes
The document distinguishes them only where required for clarity. For more
information, see the section on requirements for content, for user agent
features, or both @@.
- the user agent user
interface, i.e., the controls (e.g., menus, buttons,
prompts, and other components for input and output) and mechanisms
(e.g., selection and focus) provided by the user agent ("out of the
box") that are not created by content.
- the "content user interface," i.e., the enabled elements that are
part of content, such as form controls, links, and applets.
The term "user interface control" refers to a component of the user
agent user interface or the content user interface, distinguished where
- User styles are style property
values that come from user interface settings, user style sheets, or
other user interactions.
- see properties
- view, viewport
- The user agent renders
content through one or more viewports. Viewports include windows,
frames, pieces of paper, loudspeakers, and virtual magnifying glasses. A
viewport may contain another viewport (e.g., nested frames). User agent user interface
controls such as prompts, menus, and alerts are not viewports.
Graphical and tactile viewports have two spatial dimensions. A viewport may also
have temporal dimensions, for instance when audio, speech, animations,
and movies are rendered. When the dimensions (spatial or temporal) of
rendered content exceed the dimensions of the viewport, the user agent
provides mechanisms such as scroll bars and advance and rewind controls
so that the user can access the rendered content "outside" the viewport.
Examples include: when the user can only view a portion of a large
document through a small graphical viewport, or when audio content has
already been played.
When several viewports coexist, only one has the current focus at a given moment.
This viewport is highlighted to make it stand out.
User agents may render the same content in a variety of ways; each
rendering is called a view. For instance, a user agent may allow
users to view an entire document or just a list of the document's
headers. These are two different views of the document.
"top-level" viewports are viewports
that are not contained within other user agent viewports.
- visual-only presentation
- A visual-only presentation is content consisting
exclusively of one or more visual
tracks presented concurrently or in series. A silent movie is an
example of a visual-only presentation.
- visual track
- A visual object is content rendered through a
graphical viewport. Visual objects include
graphics, text, and visual portions of movies and other animations. A
visual track is a visual object that is intended as a whole or partial
presentation. A visual track does not necessarily correspond to a single
physical object or software object.
- voice browser
- From "Introduction and Overview of W3C Speech
Interface Framework" [VOICEBROWSER]: "A
voice browser is a device (hardware and software) that interprets voice
markup languages to generate voice output, interpret voice input, and
possibly accept and produce other modalities of input and output."
- web resource
- Anything that can be identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier
Appendix B: How to refer to
UAAG 2.0 from other documents
This section is informative.
There are two recommended ways to refer to the "User Agent Accessibility
Guidelines 2.0" (and to W3C documents in general):
- References to a specific version of "User Agent Accessibility Guidelines
2.0." For example, use the "this version" URI to refer
to the current document:
- References to the latest version of "User Agent Accessibility Guidelines
2.0." Use the "latest version" URI to refer to the most recently published
document in the series:
In almost all cases, references (either by name or by link) should be to a
specific version of the document. W3C will make every effort to make this
document indefinitely available at its original address in its original form.
The top of this document includes the relevant catalog metadata for specific
references (including title, publication date, "this version"
URI, editors' names, and copyright information).
An XHTML 1.0 paragraph including a reference to this specific document might
"User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 2.0,"</a></cite>
J. Allan, K. Ford, J. Spellman, eds.,
W3C Recommendation, http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/.
The <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/">latest version</a> of
this document is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG20/.</p>
For very general references to this document (where stability of content and
anchors is not required), it may be appropriate to refer to the latest version
of this document. Other sections of this document explain how to build a conformance claim.
Appendix C: References
This section is informative.
For the latest version of any W3C specification please
consult the list of W3C Technical Reports at
http://www.w3.org/TR/. Some documents listed below may have been superseded
since the publication of UAAG 2.0.
Note: In UAAG 2.0, bracketed labels such as "[WCAG20]" link
to the corresponding entries in this section. These labels are also identified
as references through markup.
Style Sheets (CSS1) Level 1 Specification," B. Bos, H. Wium
Lie, eds., 17 December 1996, revised 11 January 1999. This W3C
Recommendation is http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-CSS1-19990111.
Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification," B. Bos, H. Wium
Lie, C. Lilley, and I. Jacobs, eds., 12 May 1998. This W3C Recommendation
Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification," A. Le Hors, P.
Le Hégaret, L. Wood, G. Nicol, J. Robie, M. Champion, S. Byrne, eds., 13
November 2000. This W3C Recommendation is
Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Style Specification," V. Apparao,
P. Le Hégaret, C. Wilson, eds., 13 November 2000. This W3C
Information Set," J. Cowan and R. Tobin, eds., 24 October
2001. This W3C Recommendation is
Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types," N.
Freed, N. Borenstein, November 1996.
Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," W. Chisholm, G.
Vanderheiden, and I. Jacobs, eds., 5 May 1999. This W3C Recommendation is
Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition)," T. Bray, J.
Paoli, C.M. Sperberg-McQueen, eds., 6 October 2000. This W3C
Recommendation is http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xml-20001006.
- The Assistive Technology
Act of 1998.
- "Authoring Tool
Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," J. Treviranus, C.
McCathieNevile, I. Jacobs, and J. Richards, eds., 3 February 2000. This
W3C Recommendation is http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-ATAG10-20000203/.
for Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," J.
Treviranus, C. McCathieNevile, J. Richards, eds., 29 Oct 2002. This W3C
Note is http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/NOTE-ATAG10-TECHS-20021029/.
- "Character Model
for the World Wide Web," M. Dürst and F. Yergeau, eds., 30
April 2002. This W3C Working Draft is
http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-charmod-20020430/. The latest version is available at
Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification," J. Stenback,
P. Le Hégaret, A. Le Hors, eds., 8 November 2002. This W3C Proposed
http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/PR-DOM-Level-2-HTML-20021108/. The latest version is
available at http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-HTML/.
4.01 Recommendation," D. Raggett, A. Le Hors, and I. Jacobs,
eds., 24 December 1999. This W3C Recommendation is
- "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol — HTTP/1.1," J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L.
Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee, June 1999.
- "XML Media
Types," M. Murata, S. St. Laurent, D. Kohn, January 2001.
Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) 1.0 Specification," P.
Hoschka, ed., 15 June 1998. This W3C Recommendation is
Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 2.0) Specification," J.
Ayars, et al., eds., 7 August 2001. This W3C Recommendation is
Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.0 Specification," J. Ferraiolo, ed., 4
September 2001. This W3C Recommendation is
- "User Agent
Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," I. Jacobs, J. Gunderson, E. Hansen,
eds.17 December 2002. This W3C Recommendation is available at
- An appendix to UAAG 2.0 lists all of the checkpoints, sorted by
priority. The checklist is available in either tabular
form or list
- Information about UAAG 1.0 conformance
icons and their usage is available at
- An appendix to UAAG 2.0 provides a summary of the goals and structure of User Agent
Accessibility Guidelines 1.0.
- "Techniques for User
Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," I. Jacobs, J. Gunderson,
E. Hansen, eds. The latest draft of the techniques document is available
- "The Unicode
Standard, Version 3.2." This technical report of the Unicode Consortium is available at
http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr28/. This is a revision of "The Unicode
Standard, Version 3.0," The Unicode Consortium, Addison-Wesley Developers
Press, 2000. ISBN 0-201-61633-5. Refer also to http://www.unicode.org/standard/versions/.
For information about character encodings, refer to Unicode Technical Report #17
"Character Encoding Model".
and Overview of W3C Speech Interface Framework," J. Larson, 4
December 2000. This W3C Working Draft is
http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-voice-intro-20001204/. The latest version is available
at http://www.w3.org/TR/voice-intro/. UAAG 2.0 includes references to
additional W3C specifications about voice browser technology.
Wide Web Consortium Process Document," I. Jacobs ed. The 19
July 2001 version of the Process Document is
http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process-20010719/. The latest version is
available at http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Process/.
- "Techniques for Web
Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," W. Chisholm, G.
Vanderheiden, and I. Jacobs, eds., 6 November 2000. This W3C Note is
http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/NOTE-WCAG10-TECHS-20001106/. The latest version is available
at http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10-TECHS/. Additional format-specific
techniques documents are available from this Note.
Characterization Terminology and Definitions Sheet," B.
Lavoie, H. F. Nielsen, eds., 24 May 1999. This is a W3C Working Draft
that defines some terms to establish a common understanding about key Web
concepts. This W3C Working Draft is
Accessibility Guidelines 1.0," D. Dardailler, S. Palmer, C.
McCathieNevile, eds., 3 October 2001. This W3C Working Draft is
http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-xag-20021003. The latest version is available at
- "XHTML[tm] 1.0: The
Extensible HyperText Markup Language," S. Pemberton, et al.,
26 January 2000. This W3C Recommendation is
Syntax and Processing," D. Eastlake, J. Reagle, D. Solo, eds.,
12 February 2002. This W3C Recommendation is
Encryption Syntax and Processing," D. Eastlake, J. Reagle,
eds., 10 December 2002. This W3C Recommendation is
active in the UAWG prior publication:
- Jim Allan (Co-Chair, Texas School for the Blind and Visually
- Alan Cantor (Invited Expert)
- Bim Egan (Royal National Institute of Blind People)
- Kelly Ford (Co-Chair, Microsoft)
- Mark Hakkinen (Invited Expert)
- Simon Harper (University of Manchester)
- Patrick Lauke (Opera Software)
- Greg Lowney (Invited Expert)
- Kimberly Patch (Invited Expert)
- Jan Richards (Adaptive Technology Resource Centre, University of
- Jeanne Spellman (W3C Staff Contact)
previously active UAWG participants and other contributors to UAAG 2.0:
- Judy Brewer (W3C)
- Sean Hayes, Microsoft
- Dean Hudson, Apple
- Cathy Laws (IBM)
- Peter Parente (IBM)
- David Poehlman (Invited Expert)
- Simon Pieters, Opera Software
- Henny Swan (Opera)
- Gregory Rosmaita (Invited Expert)
- David Tseng (Apple)
UAAG 2.0 would not have been possible without the work of those who
contributed to UAAG 1.0.
This publication has been funded in part with Federal funds from the U.S.
Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation
Research (NIDRR) under contract number ED-OSE-10-C-0067. The content of this
publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S.
Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products,
or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Appendix E: Checklist
@@ Editors' Note: This section is still under
Comparison of UAAG 1.0 guidelines to UAAG 2.0
@@ Editors' Note: This section is still under