REC-CSS2-19980512Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 CSS2revision 1
CSS 2.1 Specification

W3C Recommendation 12-May-1998Working Draft 15 September 2003

This version:
Latest version:
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Bert Bos < bbos@w3.org ><bert @w3.org>
Tantek Çelik <tantekc @microsoft.com>
Ian Hickson <ian @hixie.ch>
Håkon Wium Lie < howcome@w3.org > Chris Lilley < chris@w3.org > Ian Jacobs < ij@w3.org ><howcome @opera.com>

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: plain text, gzip'ed tar file, zip file, gzip'ed PostScript, PDF. See also translations.


This specification defines Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2). CSS2level 2 revision 1 (CSS 2.1). CSS 2.1 is a style sheet language that allows authors and users to attach style (e.g., fonts, spacing,fonts and aural cues)spacing) to structured documents (e.g., HTML documents and XML applications). By separating the presentation style of documents from the content of documents, CSS2CSS 2.1 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance.

CSS 2.1 builds on CSS2 [CSS2] which builds on CSS1 (see[CSS1] ) and, with very few exceptions, all valid CSS1 style sheets are valid CSS2 style sheets. CSS2. It supports media-specific style sheets so that authors may tailor the presentation of their documents to visual browsers, aural devices, printers, braille devices, handheld devices, etc. This specificationIt also supports content positioning, downloadable fonts,table layout, features for internationalization, automatic counters and numbering,internationalization and some properties related to user interface.

StatusCSS 2.1 corrects a few errors in CSS2 (the most important being a new definition of this document This document has been reviewed by W3C Membersthe height/width of absolutely positioned elements, more influence for HTML's "style" attribute and other interested partiesa new calculation of the 'clip' property), and hasadds a few highly requested features which have already been endorsed by the Director aswidely implemented. But most of all CSS 2.1 represents a W3C Recommendation."snapshot" of CSS usage: it consists of all CSS features that are implemented interoperably at the date of publication of the Recommendation.

Status of this document

This is a stable documentW3C Last Call Working Draft. "Last call" means that the working group believes that this specification is ready and maytherefore wishes this to be used as reference material or citedthe last call for comments. If the feedback is positive, the working group plans to submit it for consideration as a normative reference from another document. W3C's role in making theW3C Candidate Recommendation. Comments can be sent until 10 October 2003.

This document is to draw attention toproduced by the specificationCSS working group (part of the Style Activity, see summary).

The (archived) public mailing list www-style@w3.org (see instructions) is preferred for discussion of this and to promote its widespread deployment.other drafts in the Style area. When commenting on this enhancesdraft, please put the functionality and interoperabilitytext "CSS21" in the subject, preferably like this: "[CSS21] <summary of comment>"

This section describes the status of this document at the Web.time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C Recommendationspublications and otherthe latest revision of this technical documentsreport can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR . Public discussion of CSS features takes place on www-style@w3.org . Available formatsin the CSS2 specificationW3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. It is availableinappropriate to use W3C Working Drafts as reference material or to cite them as other than "work in progress."

For this specification to exit the CR stage, the following formats: HTML: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512 a plain text file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.txt , HTML as a gzip'ed tar file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.tgz , HTML asconditions shall be met:

  1. There must be at least two interoperable implementations implementing 'all' the features. An implementation can implement a zip file (thissuperset of the features and claim conformance to the profile. For the purposes of this criterion, we define the following terms:


    An individual test case in the test suite.


    passing the respective test case(s) in the CSS test suite, or, if the implementation is a '.zip' filenot a web browser, an '.exe'): http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.zip , as well asequivalent test. Every relevant test in the test suite should have an equivalent test created if such a gzip'ed PostScript file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.ps.gz , andUA is to be used to claim interoperability. In addition if such a PDF file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.pdf .UA is to be used to claim interoperability, then there must one or more additional UAs which can also pass those equivalent tests in casethe same way for the purpose of a discrepancy betweeninteroperability. The equivalent tests must be made publicly available for the various formspurposes of peer review.


    a user agent which:

    1. implements the specification, http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512feature.
    2. is considered the definitive version.available languages The English version(i.e. publicly downloadable or available through some other public point of sale mechanism). This specificationis the only normative version. However,"show me" requirement.
    3. is shipping (i.e. development, private or unofficial versions are insufficient).
    4. is not experimental (i.e. is intended for translations in other languages see http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/translations.html . Errata The lista wide audience and could be used on a daily basis.)
  2. A minimum of known errors insixth months of the CR period must have elapsed. This specificationis available at http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html . Please reportto ensure that enough time is given for any remaining major errors in this documentto css2-editors@w3.org .be caught.

  3. Features may/will be dropped if two or more interoperable implementations are not found by the end of the CR period.

  4. Features may/will also be dropped if adequate/sufficient (by judgment of CSS WG) tests have not been produced for those feature(s) by the end of the CR period.

Patent disclosures relevant to CSS may be found on the Working Group's public patent disclosure page.

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