Techniques for WCAG 2.0

Techniques and Failures for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0

Editor's Draft 14 March 2013

This version:
Latest version:
Previous version:
Michael Cooper, W3C
Loretta Guarino Reid, Google, Inc.
Gregg Vanderheiden, Trace R&D Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Previous Editors:
Ben Caldwell (until September 2010 while at Trace R&D Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Wendy Chisholm (until July 2006 while at W3C)
John Slatin (until June 2006 while at Accessibility Institute, University of Texas at Austin)

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"Techniques for WCAG 2.0" provides information to Web content developers who wish to satisfy the success criteria of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 [WCAG20]. Techniques are specific authoring practices that may be used in support of the WCAG 2.0 success criteria. This document provides "General Techniques" that describe basic practices that are applicable to any technology, and technology-specific techniques that provide information applicable to specific technologies. Technology-specific techniques do not supplant the general techniques: content developers should consider both general techniques and technology-specific techniques as they work toward conformance. Use of the techniques provided in this document makes it easier for Web content to demonstrate conformance to WCAG 2.0 success criteria than if these techniques are not used.

In addition to techniques for addressing the success criteria, "Common Failures" are also documented. These "Common Failures" are authoring practices that are known to cause Web content to fail to conform to WCAG 2.0. Authors must avoid those practices in order to meet the WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria.

Besides the techniques provided in this document, there may be other techniques that can be used to implement conformance to WCAG 2.0. The WCAG WG encourages submission of such techniques so they can be considered for inclusion in this document, in order to make the set of techniques maintained by the WCAG WG as comprehensive as possible. Please submit techniques for consideration using the "Techniques Submission Form."

Some techniques contain User Agent and Assistive Technology Support Notes. As time passes, these versions of user agents or assistive technologies may no longer be current, and there is no commitment to update the notes as new versions are released. Authors should test techniques against the user agents and assistive technologies currently available to their users. See also Understanding Accessibility Support.

This document is part of a series of documents published by the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) to support WCAG 2.0. This document was published as a Working Group Note at the same time WCAG 2.0 was published as a W3C Recommendation. Unlike WCAG 2.0, it is expected that the information in Understanding WCAG 2.0 will be updated from time to time. See Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview for an introduction to WCAG, supporting technical documents, and educational material.

Status of This Document

This document is the internal working draft used by the WCAG WG and is updated continuously and without notice. This document has no formal standing within W3C. Please consult the group's home page and the W3C technical reports index for information about the latest publications by this group.

This draft includes revisions that have been made since the 30 April 2008 Candidate Recommendation was published. Please refer to the latest public version of WCAG 2.0 for information about the status of WCAG 2.0 as well as information about submitting comments to the working group.

History of Changes to WCAG 2.0 Working Drafts

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