W3C

Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) Version 1.1

W3C Working Draft 28 July 2005

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-xsl11-20050728/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/xsl11/
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-xsl11-20041216/
Editor:
Anders Berglund, IBM <alrb@us.ibm.com>

Abstract

This specification defines the features and syntax for the Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL), a language for expressing stylesheets. It consists of two parts:

  1. a language for transforming XML documents (XSLT), and

  2. an XML vocabulary for specifying formatting semantics.

An XSL stylesheet specifies the presentation of a class of XML documents by describing how an instance of the class is transformed into an XML document that uses the formatting vocabulary.

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is a Last Call Working Draft for review by W3C Members and other interested parties. Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

Public Last Call comments on this document are invited. Comments on this document are due by 16 September 2005. Comments should be sent to xsl-editors@w3.org which is an automatically archived public email list.

This document is a revised version of the XSL 1.0 Recommendation [XSL 1.0] published on 15 October 2001. New functionality has been added to support change marks, indexes, multiple flows, and bookmarks. Existing functionality has been extended in the areas of graphics scaling, "markers" and their retrieval in tables to support e.g. partial sums, and page number referencing. The changes made in this document are intended to meet the requirements for XSL 1.1 described in [XSL 1.1 Requirements]. A number of errata have been incorporated into the text. See F Changes from XSL 1.0. This document is expected to be taken through the W3C Recommendation track process.

This document has been produced as part of the W3C XML Activity by the XSL Working Group.

General public discussion of XSL takes place on the XSL-List and on the www-xsl-fo mailing lists.

This specification was produced under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy. Please consult the Working Group disclosures page for more information about how to disclose a patent for the list of disclosed patents.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Overview
    1.1 Processing a Stylesheet
        1.1.1 Tree Transformations
        1.1.2 Formatting
    1.2 Benefits of XSL
        1.2.1 Paging and Scrolling
        1.2.2 Selectors and Tree Construction
        1.2.3 An Extended Page Layout Model
        1.2.4 A Comprehensive Area Model
        1.2.5 Internationalization and Writing-Modes
        1.2.6 Linking
2 XSL Transformation
    2.1 Tree Construction
    2.2 XSL Namespace
3 Introduction to Formatting
    3.1 Conceptual Procedure
4 Area Model
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Rectangular Areas
        4.2.1 Area Types
        4.2.2 Common Traits
        4.2.3 Geometric Definitions
        4.2.4 Tree Ordering
        4.2.5 Stacking Constraints
        4.2.6 Font Baseline Tables
    4.3 Spaces and Conditionality
        4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules
        4.3.2 Overconstrained space-specifiers
    4.4 Block-areas
        4.4.1 Stacked Block-areas
        4.4.2 Intrusion Adjustments
    4.5 Line-areas
    4.6 Inline-areas
        4.6.1 Stacked Inline-areas
        4.6.2 Glyph-areas
    4.7 Ordering Constraints
        4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints
        4.7.2 Line-building
        4.7.3 Inline-building
    4.8 Keeps and Breaks
    4.9 Rendering Model
        4.9.1 Geometry
        4.9.2 Viewport Geometry
        4.9.3 Visibility
        4.9.4 Border, Padding, and Background
        4.9.5 Intrinsic Marks
        4.9.6 Layering and Conflict of Marks
    4.10 Sample Area Tree
5 Property Refinement / Resolution
    5.1 Specified, Computed, and Actual Values, and Inheritance
        5.1.1 Specified Values
        5.1.2 Computed Values
        5.1.3 Actual Values
        5.1.4 Inheritance
    5.2 Shorthand Expansion
    5.3 Computing the Values of Corresponding Properties
        5.3.1 Border and Padding Properties
        5.3.2 Margin, Space, and Indent Properties
        5.3.3 Height, and Width Properties
        5.3.4 Overconstrained Geometry
    5.4 Simple Property to Trait Mapping
        5.4.1 Background-position-horizontal and background-position-vertical Properties
        5.4.2 Column-number Property
        5.4.3 Text-align Property
        5.4.4 Text-align-last Property
        5.4.5 z-index Property
        5.4.6 Language Property
    5.5 Complex Property to Trait Mapping
        5.5.1 Word spacing and Letter spacing Properties
        5.5.2 Reference-orientation Property
        5.5.3 Writing-mode and Direction Properties
        5.5.4 Absolute-position Property
        5.5.5 Relative-position Property
        5.5.6 Text-decoration Property
        5.5.7 Font Properties
    5.6 Non-property Based Trait Generation
    5.7 Property Based Transformations
        5.7.1 Text-transform Property
    5.8 Unicode BIDI Processing
    5.9 Expressions
        5.9.1 Property Context
        5.9.2 Evaluation Order
        5.9.3 Basics
        5.9.4 Function Calls
        5.9.5 Numerics
        5.9.6 Absolute Numerics
        5.9.7 Relative Numerics
            5.9.7.1 Percents
            5.9.7.2 Relative Lengths
        5.9.8 Strings
        5.9.9 Colors
        5.9.10 Keywords
            5.9.10.1 inherit
        5.9.11 Lexical Structure
        5.9.12 Expression Value Conversions
        5.9.13 Definitions of Units of Measure
            5.9.13.1 Pixels
    5.10 Core Function Library
        5.10.1 Number Functions
        5.10.2 Color Functions
        5.10.3 Font Functions
        5.10.4 Property Value Functions
    5.11 Property Datatypes
6 Formatting Objects
    6.1 Introduction to Formatting Objects
        6.1.1 Definitions Common to Many Formatting Objects
    6.2 Formatting Object Content
    6.3 Formatting Objects Summary
    6.4 Declarations and Pagination and Layout Formatting Objects
        6.4.1 Introduction
            6.4.1.1 Page-sequence-masters
            6.4.1.2 Page-masters
            6.4.1.3 Page Generation
            6.4.1.4 Flows and Flow Mapping
            6.4.1.5 Constraints on Page Generation
            6.4.1.6 Pagination Tree Structure
        6.4.2 fo:root
        6.4.3 fo:declarations
        6.4.4 fo:color-profile
        6.4.5 fo:page-sequence
        6.4.6 fo:page-sequence-wrapper
        6.4.7 fo:layout-master-set
        6.4.8 fo:page-sequence-master
        6.4.9 fo:single-page-master-reference
        6.4.10 fo:repeatable-page-master-reference
        6.4.11 fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives
        6.4.12 fo:conditional-page-master-reference
        6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master
        6.4.14 fo:region-body
        6.4.15 fo:region-before
        6.4.16 fo:region-after
        6.4.17 fo:region-start
        6.4.18 fo:region-end
        6.4.19 fo:flow
        6.4.20 fo:static-content
        6.4.21 fo:title
        6.4.22 fo:flow-map
        6.4.23 fo:flow-assignment
        6.4.24 fo:flow-source-list
        6.4.25 fo:flow-name-specifier
        6.4.26 fo:flow-target-list
        6.4.27 fo:region-name-specifier
    6.5 Block-level Formatting Objects
        6.5.1 Introduction
            6.5.1.1 Example
        6.5.2 fo:block
        6.5.3 fo:block-container
    6.6 Inline-level Formatting Objects
        6.6.1 Introduction
            6.6.1.1 Examples
                6.6.1.1.1 First Line of Paragraph in Small-caps
                6.6.1.1.2 Figure with a Photograph
                6.6.1.1.3 Page numbering and page number reference
                6.6.1.1.4 Table of Contents with Leaders
        6.6.2 fo:bidi-override
        6.6.3 fo:character
        6.6.4 fo:initial-property-set
        6.6.5 fo:external-graphic
        6.6.6 fo:instream-foreign-object
        6.6.7 fo:inline
        6.6.8 fo:inline-container
        6.6.9 fo:leader
        6.6.10 fo:page-number
        6.6.11 fo:page-number-citation
        6.6.12 fo:page-number-citation-last
        6.6.13 fo:folio-prefix
        6.6.14 fo:folio-suffix
        6.6.15 fo:scaling-value-citation
    6.7 Formatting Objects for Tables
        6.7.1 Introduction
            6.7.1.1 Examples
                6.7.1.1.1 Simple Table, Centered and Indented
                6.7.1.1.2 Simple Table with Relative Column-width Specifications
        6.7.2 fo:table-and-caption
        6.7.3 fo:table
        6.7.4 fo:table-column
        6.7.5 fo:table-caption
        6.7.6 fo:table-header
        6.7.7 fo:table-footer
        6.7.8 fo:table-body
        6.7.9 fo:table-row
        6.7.10 fo:table-cell
    6.8 Formatting Objects for Lists
        6.8.1 Introduction
            6.8.1.1 Examples
                6.8.1.1.1 Enumerated List
                6.8.1.1.2 HTML-style "dl" lists
        6.8.2 fo:list-block
        6.8.3 fo:list-item
        6.8.4 fo:list-item-body
        6.8.5 fo:list-item-label
    6.9 Dynamic Effects: Link and Multi Formatting Objects
        6.9.1 Introduction
            6.9.1.1 Examples
                6.9.1.1.1 Expandable/Collapsible Table of Contents
                6.9.1.1.2 Styling an XLink Based on the Active State
        6.9.2 fo:basic-link
        6.9.3 fo:multi-switch
        6.9.4 fo:multi-case
        6.9.5 fo:multi-toggle
        6.9.6 fo:multi-properties
        6.9.7 fo:multi-property-set
    6.10 Formatting Objects for Indexing
        6.10.1 Introduction
            6.10.1.1 Example
                6.10.1.1.1 Associating Index Keys with Formatting Objects
                6.10.1.1.2 Building the Index
            6.10.1.2 Processing the Example Index
                6.10.1.2.1 merge-pages-across-index-key-references="leave-separate"
                6.10.1.2.2 merge-pages-across-index-key-references="merge"
            6.10.1.3 Example Index
        6.10.2 fo:index-page-number-prefix
        6.10.3 fo:index-page-number-suffix
        6.10.4 fo:index-range-begin
        6.10.5 fo:index-range-end
        6.10.6 fo:index-key-reference
        6.10.7 fo:index-page-citation-list
        6.10.8 fo:index-page-citation-list-separator
        6.10.9 fo:index-page-citation-range-separator
    6.11 Formatting Objects for Bookmarks
        6.11.1 fo:bookmark-tree
        6.11.2 fo:bookmark
        6.11.3 fo:bookmark-title
    6.12 Out-of-Line Formatting Objects
        6.12.1 Introduction
            6.12.1.1 Floats
            6.12.1.2 Footnotes
            6.12.1.3 Conditional Sub-Regions
            6.12.1.4 Examples
                6.12.1.4.1 Floating Figure
                6.12.1.4.2 Footnote
        6.12.2 fo:float
        6.12.3 fo:footnote
        6.12.4 fo:footnote-body
    6.13 Other Formatting Objects
        6.13.1 Introduction
            6.13.1.1 Examples
                6.13.1.1.1 Wrapper
                6.13.1.1.2 Table Markers
        6.13.2 fo:change-bar-begin
        6.13.3 fo:change-bar-end
        6.13.4 fo:wrapper
        6.13.5 fo:marker
        6.13.6 fo:retrieve-marker
        6.13.7 fo:retrieve-table-marker
7 Formatting Properties
    7.1 Description of Property Groups
    7.2 XSL Areas and the CSS Box Model
    7.3 Reference Rectangle for Percentage Computations
    7.4 Additional CSS Datatypes
    7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
        7.5.1 source-document
        7.5.2 role
    7.6 Common Absolute Position Properties
        7.6.1 absolute-position
        7.6.2 top
        7.6.3 right
        7.6.4 bottom
        7.6.5 left
    7.7 Common Aural Properties
        7.7.1 azimuth
        7.7.2 cue-after
        7.7.3 cue-before
        7.7.4 elevation
        7.7.5 pause-after
        7.7.6 pause-before
        7.7.7 pitch
        7.7.8 pitch-range
        7.7.9 play-during
        7.7.10 richness
        7.7.11 speak
        7.7.12 speak-header
        7.7.13 speak-numeral
        7.7.14 speak-punctuation
        7.7.15 speech-rate
        7.7.16 stress
        7.7.17 voice-family
        7.7.18 volume
    7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
        7.8.1 background-attachment
        7.8.2 background-color
        7.8.3 background-image
        7.8.4 background-repeat
        7.8.5 background-position-horizontal
        7.8.6 background-position-vertical
        7.8.7 border-before-color
        7.8.8 border-before-style
        7.8.9 border-before-width
        7.8.10 border-after-color
        7.8.11 border-after-style
        7.8.12 border-after-width
        7.8.13 border-start-color
        7.8.14 border-start-style
        7.8.15 border-start-width
        7.8.16 border-end-color
        7.8.17 border-end-style
        7.8.18 border-end-width
        7.8.19 border-top-color
        7.8.20 border-top-style
        7.8.21 border-top-width
        7.8.22 border-bottom-color
        7.8.23 border-bottom-style
        7.8.24 border-bottom-width
        7.8.25 border-left-color
        7.8.26 border-left-style
        7.8.27 border-left-width
        7.8.28 border-right-color
        7.8.29 border-right-style
        7.8.30 border-right-width
        7.8.31 padding-before
        7.8.32 padding-after
        7.8.33 padding-start
        7.8.34 padding-end
        7.8.35 padding-top
        7.8.36 padding-bottom
        7.8.37 padding-left
        7.8.38 padding-right
    7.9 Common Font Properties
        7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data
        7.9.2 font-family
        7.9.3 font-selection-strategy
        7.9.4 font-size
        7.9.5 font-stretch
        7.9.6 font-size-adjust
        7.9.7 font-style
        7.9.8 font-variant
        7.9.9 font-weight
    7.10 Common Hyphenation Properties
        7.10.1 country
        7.10.2 language
        7.10.3 script
        7.10.4 hyphenate
        7.10.5 hyphenation-character
        7.10.6 hyphenation-push-character-count
        7.10.7 hyphenation-remain-character-count
    7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
        7.11.1 margin-top
        7.11.2 margin-bottom
        7.11.3 margin-left
        7.11.4 margin-right
        7.11.5 space-before
        7.11.6 space-after
        7.11.7 start-indent
        7.11.8 end-indent
    7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
        7.12.1 margin-top
        7.12.2 margin-bottom
        7.12.3 margin-left
        7.12.4 margin-right
        7.12.5 space-end
        7.12.6 space-start
    7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
        7.13.1 top
        7.13.2 right
        7.13.3 bottom
        7.13.4 left
        7.13.5 relative-position
    7.14 Area Alignment Properties
        7.14.1 alignment-adjust
        7.14.2 alignment-baseline
        7.14.3 baseline-shift
        7.14.4 display-align
        7.14.5 dominant-baseline
        7.14.6 relative-align
    7.15 Area Dimension Properties
        7.15.1 allowed-height-scale
        7.15.2 allowed-width-scale
        7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
        7.15.4 content-height
        7.15.5 content-width
        7.15.6 height
        7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
        7.15.8 max-height
        7.15.9 max-width
        7.15.10 min-height
        7.15.11 min-width
        7.15.12 scaling
        7.15.13 scaling-method
        7.15.14 width
    7.16 Block and Line-related Properties
        7.16.1 hyphenation-keep
        7.16.2 hyphenation-ladder-count
        7.16.3 last-line-end-indent
        7.16.4 line-height
        7.16.5 line-height-shift-adjustment
        7.16.6 line-stacking-strategy
        7.16.7 linefeed-treatment
        7.16.8 white-space-treatment
        7.16.9 text-align
        7.16.10 text-align-last
        7.16.11 text-indent
        7.16.12 white-space-collapse
        7.16.13 wrap-option
    7.17 Character Properties
        7.17.1 character
        7.17.2 letter-spacing
        7.17.3 suppress-at-line-break
        7.17.4 text-decoration
        7.17.5 text-shadow
        7.17.6 text-transform
        7.17.7 treat-as-word-space
        7.17.8 word-spacing
    7.18 Color-related Properties
        7.18.1 color
        7.18.2 color-profile-name
        7.18.3 rendering-intent
    7.19 Float-related Properties
        7.19.1 clear
        7.19.2 float
        7.19.3 intrusion-displace
    7.20 Keeps and Breaks Properties
        7.20.1 break-after
        7.20.2 break-before
        7.20.3 keep-together
        7.20.4 keep-with-next
        7.20.5 keep-with-previous
        7.20.6 orphans
        7.20.7 widows
    7.21 Layout-related Properties
        7.21.1 clip
        7.21.2 overflow
        7.21.3 reference-orientation
        7.21.4 span
    7.22 Leader and Rule Properties
        7.22.1 leader-alignment
        7.22.2 leader-pattern
        7.22.3 leader-pattern-width
        7.22.4 leader-length
        7.22.5 rule-style
        7.22.6 rule-thickness
    7.23 Properties for Dynamic Effects Formatting Objects
        7.23.1 active-state
        7.23.2 auto-restore
        7.23.3 case-name
        7.23.4 case-title
        7.23.5 destination-placement-offset
        7.23.6 external-destination
        7.23.7 indicate-destination
        7.23.8 internal-destination
        7.23.9 show-destination
        7.23.10 starting-state
        7.23.11 switch-to
        7.23.12 target-presentation-context
        7.23.13 target-processing-context
        7.23.14 target-stylesheet
    7.24 Properties for Indexing
        7.24.1 index-class
        7.24.2 index-key
        7.24.3 page-number-treatment
        7.24.4 merge-ranges-across-index-key-references
        7.24.5 merge-sequential-page-numbers
        7.24.6 merge-pages-across-index-key-references
        7.24.7 ref-index-key
    7.25 Properties for Markers
        7.25.1 marker-class-name
        7.25.2 retrieve-boundary-within-table
        7.25.3 retrieve-class-name
        7.25.4 retrieve-position
        7.25.5 retrieve-boundary
        7.25.6 retrieve-position-within-table
    7.26 Properties for Number to String Conversion
        7.26.1 format
        7.26.2 grouping-separator
        7.26.3 grouping-size
        7.26.4 letter-value
    7.27 Pagination and Layout Properties
        7.27.1 blank-or-not-blank
        7.27.2 column-count
        7.27.3 column-gap
        7.27.4 extent
        7.27.5 flow-name
        7.27.6 force-page-count
        7.27.7 initial-page-number
        7.27.8 master-name
        7.27.9 master-reference
        7.27.10 maximum-repeats
        7.27.11 media-usage
        7.27.12 odd-or-even
        7.27.13 page-height
        7.27.14 page-position
        7.27.15 page-width
        7.27.16 precedence
        7.27.17 region-name
        7.27.18 flow-map-name
        7.27.19 flow-map-reference
        7.27.20 flow-name-reference
        7.27.21 region-name-reference
    7.28 Table Properties
        7.28.1 border-after-precedence
        7.28.2 border-before-precedence
        7.28.3 border-collapse
        7.28.4 border-end-precedence
        7.28.5 border-separation
        7.28.6 border-start-precedence
        7.28.7 caption-side
        7.28.8 column-number
        7.28.9 column-width
        7.28.10 empty-cells
        7.28.11 ends-row
        7.28.12 number-columns-repeated
        7.28.13 number-columns-spanned
        7.28.14 number-rows-spanned
        7.28.15 starts-row
        7.28.16 table-layout
        7.28.17 table-omit-footer-at-break
        7.28.18 table-omit-header-at-break
    7.29 Writing-mode-related Properties
        7.29.1 direction
        7.29.2 glyph-orientation-horizontal
        7.29.3 glyph-orientation-vertical
        7.29.4 text-altitude
        7.29.5 text-depth
        7.29.6 unicode-bidi
        7.29.7 writing-mode
    7.30 Miscellaneous Properties
        7.30.1 change-bar-class
        7.30.2 change-bar-color
        7.30.3 change-bar-offset
        7.30.4 change-bar-placement
        7.30.5 change-bar-style
        7.30.6 change-bar-width
        7.30.7 content-type
        7.30.8 id
        7.30.9 intrinsic-scale-value
        7.30.10 page-citation-strategy
        7.30.11 provisional-label-separation
        7.30.12 provisional-distance-between-starts
        7.30.13 ref-id
        7.30.14 scale-option
        7.30.15 score-spaces
        7.30.16 src
        7.30.17 visibility
        7.30.18 z-index
    7.31 Shorthand Properties
        7.31.1 background
        7.31.2 background-position
        7.31.3 border
        7.31.4 border-bottom
        7.31.5 border-color
        7.31.6 border-left
        7.31.7 border-right
        7.31.8 border-style
        7.31.9 border-spacing
        7.31.10 border-top
        7.31.11 border-width
        7.31.12 cue
        7.31.13 font
        7.31.14 margin
        7.31.15 padding
        7.31.16 page-break-after
        7.31.17 page-break-before
        7.31.18 page-break-inside
        7.31.19 pause
        7.31.20 position
        7.31.21 size
        7.31.22 vertical-align
        7.31.23 white-space
        7.31.24 xml:lang
8 Conformance

Appendices

A Internationalization
    A.1 Additional writing-mode values
B Formatting Object Summary
    B.1 Declaration and Pagination and Layout Formatting Objects
    B.2 Block Formatting Objects
    B.3 Inline Formatting Objects
    B.4 Table Formatting Objects
    B.5 List Formatting Objects
    B.6 Link and Multi Formatting Objects
    B.7 Out-of-line Formatting Objects
    B.8 Formatting Objects for Indexing
    B.9 Formatting Objects for Bookmarks
    B.10 Other Formatting Objects
C Property Summary
    C.1 Explanation of Trait Mapping Values
    C.2 Property Table: Part I
    C.3 Property Table: Part II
    C.4 Properties and the FOs they apply to
D References
    D.1 Normative References
    D.2 Other References
E Property Index
F Changes from XSL 1.0 (Non-Normative)
G Acknowledgements (Non-Normative)


1 Introduction and Overview

This specification defines the Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). XSL is a language for expressing stylesheets. Given a class of arbitrarily structured XML [XML] documents or data files, designers use an XSL stylesheet to express their intentions about how that structured content should be presented; that is, how the source content should be styled, laid out, and paginated onto some presentation medium, such as a window in a Web browser or a hand-held device, or a set of physical pages in a catalog, report, pamphlet, or book.

1.1 Processing a Stylesheet

An XSL stylesheet processor accepts a document or data in XML and an XSL stylesheet and produces the presentation of that XML source content that was intended by the designer of that stylesheet. There are two aspects of this presentation process: first, constructing a result tree from the XML source tree and second, interpreting the result tree to produce formatted results suitable for presentation on a display, on paper, in speech, or onto other media. The first aspect is called tree transformation and the second is called formatting. The process of formatting is performed by the formatter. This formatter may simply be a rendering engine inside a browser.

Tree transformation allows the structure of the result tree to be significantly different from the structure of the source tree. For example, one could add a table-of-contents as a filtered selection of an original source document, or one could rearrange source data into a sorted tabular presentation. In constructing the result tree, the tree transformation process also adds the information necessary to format that result tree.

Formatting is enabled by including formatting semantics in the result tree. Formatting semantics are expressed in terms of a catalog of classes of formatting objects. The nodes of the result tree are formatting objects. The classes of formatting objects denote typographic abstractions such as page, paragraph, table, and so forth. Finer control over the presentation of these abstractions is provided by a set of formatting properties, such as those controlling indents, word- and letter spacing, and widow, orphan, and hyphenation control. In XSL, the classes of formatting objects and formatting properties provide the vocabulary for expressing presentation intent.

The XSL processing model is intended to be conceptual only. An implementation is not mandated to provide these as separate processes. Furthermore, implementations are free to process the source document in any way that produces the same result as if it were processed using the conceptual XSL processing model. A diagram depicting the detailed conceptual model is shown below.

The XSL two processes: transformation and formatting   [D]

XSL Two Processes: Transformation & Formatting

1.1.1 Tree Transformations

Tree transformation constructs the result tree. In XSL, this tree is called the element and attribute tree, with objects primarily in the "formatting object" namespace. In this tree, a formatting object is represented as an XML element, with the properties represented by a set of XML attribute-value pairs. The content of the formatting object is the content of the XML element. Tree transformation is defined in the XSLT Recommendation [XSLT]. A diagram depicting this conceptual process is shown below.

The XSL Transformation process   [D]

Transform to Another Vocabulary

The XSL stylesheet is used in tree transformation. A stylesheet contains a set of tree construction rules. The tree construction rules have two parts: a pattern that is matched against elements in the source tree and a template that constructs a portion of the result tree. This allows a stylesheet to be applicable to a wide class of documents that have similar source tree structures.

In some implementations of XSL/XSLT, the result of tree construction can be output as an XML document. This would allow an XML document which contains formatting objects and formatting properties to be output. This capability is neither necessary for an XSL processor nor is it encouraged. There are, however, cases where this is important, such as a server preparing input for a known client; for example, the way that a WAP (http://www.wapforum.org/faqs/index.htm) server prepares specialized input for a WAP capable hand held device. To preserve accessibility, designers of Web systems should not develop architectures that require (or use) the transmission of documents containing formatting objects and properties unless either the transmitter knows that the client can accept formatting objects and properties or the transmitted document contains a reference to the source document(s) used in the construction of the document with the formatting objects and properties.

1.1.2 Formatting

Formatting interprets the result tree in its formatting object tree form to produce the presentation intended by the designer of the stylesheet from which the XML element and attribute tree in the "fo" namespace was constructed.

The vocabulary of formatting objects supported by XSL - the set of fo: element types - represents the set of typographic abstractions available to the designer. Semantically, each formatting object represents a specification for a part of the pagination, layout, and styling information that will be applied to the content of that formatting object as a result of formatting the whole result tree. Each formatting object class represents a particular kind of formatting behavior. For example, the block formatting object class represents the breaking of the content of a paragraph into lines. Other parts of the specification may come from other formatting objects; for example, the formatting of a paragraph (block formatting object) depends on both the specification of properties on the block formatting object and the specification of the layout structure into which the block is placed by the formatter.

The properties associated with an instance of a formatting object control the formatting of that object. Some of the properties, for example "color", directly specify the formatted result. Other properties, for example 'space-before', only constrain the set of possible formatted results without specifying any particular formatted result. The formatter may make choices among other possible considerations such as esthetics.

Formatting consists of the generation of a tree of geometric areas, called the area tree. The geometric areas are positioned on a sequence of one or more pages (a browser typically uses a single page). Each geometric area has a position on the page, a specification of what to display in that area and may have a background, padding, and borders. For example, formatting a single character generates an area sufficiently large enough to hold the glyph that is used to present the character visually and the glyph is what is displayed in this area. These areas may be nested. For example, the glyph may be positioned within a line, within a block, within a page.

Rendering takes the area tree, the abstract model of the presentation (in terms of pages and their collections of areas), and causes a presentation to appear on the relevant medium, such as a browser window on a computer display screen or sheets of paper. The semantics of rendering are not described in detail in this specification.

The first step in formatting is to "objectify" the element and attribute tree obtained via an XSLT transformation. Objectifying the tree basically consists of turning the elements in the tree into formatting object nodes and the attributes into property specifications. The result of this step is the formatting object tree.

Objectification of the FO tree   [D]

Build the XSL Formatting Object Tree

As part of the step of objectifying, the characters that occur in the result tree are replaced by fo:character nodes. Characters in text nodes which consist solely of white space characters and which are children of elements whose corresponding formatting objects do not permit fo:character nodes as children are ignored. Other characters within elements whose corresponding formatting objects do not permit fo:character nodes as children are errors.

The content of the fo:instream-foreign-object is not objectified; instead the object representing the fo:instream-foreign-object element points to the appropriate node in the element and attribute tree. Similarly any non-XSL namespace child element of fo:declarations is not objectified; instead the object representing the fo:declarations element points to the appropriate node in the element and attribute tree.

The second phase in formatting is to refine the formatting object tree to produce the refined formatting object tree. The refinement process handles the mapping from properties to traits. This consists of: (1) shorthand expansion into individual properties, (2) mapping of corresponding properties, (3) determining computed values (may include expression evaluation), (4) handling white-space-treatment and linefeed-treatment property effects, and (5) inheritance. Details on refinement are found in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

The refinement step is depicted in the diagram below.

Refinement of the FO tree   [D]

Refine the Formatting Object Tree

The third step in formatting is the construction of the area tree. The area tree is generated as described in the semantics of each formatting object. The traits applicable to each formatting object class control how the areas are generated. Although every formatting property may be specified on every formatting object, for each formatting object class, only a subset of the formatting properties are used to determine the traits for objects of that class.

Area generation is depicted in the diagram below.

Area tree generation   [D]

Generate the Area Tree

FO-to-area process summary   [D]

Summary of the Process

1.2 Benefits of XSL

Unlike the case of HTML, element names in XML have no intrinsic presentation semantics. Absent a stylesheet, a processor could not possibly know how to render the content of an XML document other than as an undifferentiated string of characters. XSL provides a comprehensive model and a vocabulary for writing such stylesheets using XML syntax.

This document is intended for implementors of such XSL processors. Although it can be used as a reference manual for writers of XSL stylesheets, it is not tutorial in nature.

XSL builds on the prior work on Cascading Style Sheets [CSS2] and the Document Style Semantics and Specification Language [DSSSL]. While many of XSL's formatting objects and properties correspond to the common set of properties, this would not be sufficient by itself to accomplish all the goals of XSL. In particular, XSL introduces a model for pagination and layout that extends what is currently available and that can in turn be extended, in a straightforward way, to page structures beyond the simple page models described in this specification.

1.2.1 Paging and Scrolling

Doing both scrollable document windows and pagination introduces new complexities to the styling (and pagination) of XML content. Because pagination introduces arbitrary boundaries (pages or regions on pages) on the content, concepts such as the control of spacing at page, region, and block boundaries become extremely important. There are also concepts related to adjusting the spaces between lines (to adjust the page vertically) and between words and letters (to justify the lines of text). These do not always arise with simple scrollable document windows, such as those found in today's browsers. However, there is a correspondence between a page with multiple regions, such as a body, header, footer, and left and right sidebars, and a Web presentation using "frames". The distribution of content into the regions is basically the same in both cases, and XSL handles both cases in an analogous fashion.

XSL was developed to give designers control over the features needed when documents are paginated as well as to provide an equivalent "frame" based structure for browsing on the Web. To achieve this control, XSL has extended the set of formatting objects and formatting properties beyond those available in either CSS2 or DSSSL. In addition, the selection of XML source components that can be styled (elements, attributes, text nodes, comments, and processing instructions) is based on XSLT and XPath [XPath], thus providing the user with an extremely powerful selection mechanism.

The design of the formatting objects and properties extensions was first inspired by DSSSL. The actual extensions, however, do not always look like the DSSSL constructs on which they were based. To either conform more closely with the CSS2 specification or to handle cases more simply than in DSSSL, some extensions have diverged from DSSSL.

There are several ways in which extensions were made. In some cases, it sufficed to add new values, as in the case of those added to reflect a variety of writing-modes, such as top-to-bottom and bottom-to-top, rather than just left-to-right and right-to-left.

In other cases, common properties that are expressed in CSS2 as one property with multiple simultaneous values, were split into several new properties to provide independent control over independent aspects of the property. For example, the "white-space" property was split into four properties: a "white-space-treatment" property that controls how white space is processed, a "linefeed-treatment" property that controls how line feeds are processed, a "white-space-collapse" property that controls how multiple consecutive spaces are collapsed, and a "wrap-option" property that controls whether lines are automatically wrapped when they encounter a boundary, such as the edge of a column. The effect of splitting a property into two or more (sub-)properties is to make the equivalent existing CSS2 property a "shorthand" for the set of sub-properties it subsumes.

In still other cases, it was necessary to create new properties. For example, there are a number of new properties that control how hyphenation is done. These include identifying the script and country the text is from as well as such properties as "hyphenation-character" (which varies from script to script).

Some of the formatting objects and many of the properties in XSL come from the CSS2 specification, ensuring compatibility between the two.

There are four classes of XSL properties that can be identified as:

  1. CSS properties by copy (unchanged from their CSS2 semantics)

  2. CSS properties with extended values

  3. CSS properties broken apart and/or extended

  4. XSL-only properties

1.2.2 Selectors and Tree Construction

As mentioned above, XSL uses XSLT and XPath for tree construction and pattern selection, thus providing a high degree of control over how portions of the source content are presented, and what properties are associated with those content portions, even where mixed namespaces are involved.

For example, the patterns of XPath allow the selection of a portion of a string or the Nth text node in a paragraph. This allows users to have a rule that makes all third paragraphs in procedural steps appear in bold, for instance. In addition, properties can be associated with a content portion based on the numeric value of that content portion or attributes on the containing element. This allows one to have a style rule that makes negative values appear in "red" and positive values appear in "black". Also, text can be generated depending on a particular context in the source tree, or portions of the source tree may be presented multiple times with different styles.

1.2.3 An Extended Page Layout Model

There is a set of formatting objects in XSL to describe both the layout structure of a page or "frame" (how big is the body; are there multiple columns; are there headers, footers, or sidebars; how big are these) and the rules by which the XML source content is placed into these "containers".

The layout structure is defined in terms of one or more instances of a "simple-page-master" formatting object. This formatting object allows one to define independently filled regions for the body (with multiple columns), a header, a footer, and sidebars on a page. These simple-page-masters can be used in page sequences that specify in which order the various simple-page-masters shall be used. The page sequence also specifies how styled content is to fill those pages. This model allows one to specify a sequence of simple-page-masters for a book chapter where the page instances are automatically generated by the formatter or an explicit sequence of pages such as used in a magazine layout. Styled content is assigned to the various regions on a page by associating the name of the region with names attached to styled content in the result tree.

In addition to these layout formatting objects and properties, there are properties designed to provide the level of control over formatting that is typical of paginated documents. This includes control over hyphenation, and expanding the control over text that is kept with other text in the same line, column, or on the same page.

1.2.4 A Comprehensive Area Model

The extension of the properties and formatting objects, particularly in the area on control over the spacing of blocks, lines, and page regions and within lines, necessitated an extension of the CSS2 box formatting model. This extended model is described in 4 Area Model of this specification. The CSS2 box model is a subset of this model. See the mapping of the CSS2 box model terminology to the XSL Area Model terminology in 7.2 XSL Areas and the CSS Box Model. The area model provides a vocabulary for describing the relationships and space-adjustment between letters, words, lines, and blocks.

1.2.5 Internationalization and Writing-Modes

There are some scripts, in particular in the Far East, that are typically set with words proceeding from top-to-bottom and lines proceeding either from right-to-left (most common) or from left-to-right. Other directions are also used. Properties expressed in terms of a fixed, absolute frame of reference (using top, bottom, left, and right) and which apply only to a notion of words proceeding from left to right or right to left do not generalize well to text written in those scripts.

For this reason XSL (and before it DSSSL) uses a relative frame of reference for the formatting object and property descriptions. Just as the CSS2 frame of reference has four directions (top, bottom, left and right), so does the XSL relative frame of reference have four directions (before, after, start, and end), but these are relative to the "writing-mode". The "writing-mode" property is a way of controlling the directions needed by a formatter to correctly place glyphs, words, lines, blocks, etc. on the page or screen. The "writing-mode" expresses the basic directions noted above. There are writing-modes for "left-to-right - top-to-bottom" (denoted as "lr-tb"), "right-to-left - top-to-bottom" (denoted as "rl-tb"), "top-to-bottom - right-to-left" (denoted as "tb-rl") and more. See 7.29.7 writing-mode for the description of the "writing-mode" property. Typically, the writing-mode value specifies two directions: the first is the inline-progression-direction which determines the direction in which words will be placed and the second is the block-progression-direction which determines the direction in which blocks (and lines) are placed one after another. In addition, the inline-progression-direction for a sequence of characters may be implicitly determined using bidirectional character types for those characters from the Unicode Character Database [UNICODE Character Database] for those characters and the Unicode bidirectional (BIDI) algorithm [UNICODE UAX #9].

Besides the directions that are explicit in the name of the value of the "writing-mode" property, the writing-mode determines other directions needed by the formatter, such as the shift-direction (used for subscripts and superscripts), etc.

1.2.6 Linking

Because XML, unlike HTML, has no built-in semantics, there is no built-in notion of a hypertext link. In this context, "link" refers to "hypertext link" as defined in http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/struct/links.html#h-12.1 as well as some of the aspects of "link" as defined in http://www.w3.org/TR/xlink/#intro, where "link is a relationship between two or more resources or portions of resources, made explicit by an XLink linking element". Therefore, XSL has a formatting object that expresses the dual semantics of formatting the content of the link reference and the semantics of following the link.

XSL provides a few mechanisms for changing the presentation of a link target that is being visited. One of these mechanisms permits indicating the link target as such; another allows for control over the placement of the link target in the viewing area; still another permits some degree of control over the way the link target is displayed in relationship to the originating link anchor.

XSL also provides a general mechanism for changing the way elements are formatted depending on their active state. This is particularly useful in relation to links, to indicate whether a given link reference has already been visited, or to apply a given style depending on whether the mouse, for instance, is hovering over the link reference or not.

2 XSL Transformation

2.1 Tree Construction

The Tree Construction is described in "XSL Transformations" [XSLT].

The provisions in "XSL Transformations" form an integral part of this Recommendation and are considered normative.

2.2 XSL Namespace

The XSL namespace has the URI http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format.

Note:

The 1999 in the URI indicates the year in which the URI was allocated by the W3C. It does not indicate the version of XSL being used.

XSL processors must use the XML namespaces mechanism [XML Names] to recognize elements and attributes from this namespace. Elements from the XSL namespace are recognized only in the stylesheet, not in the source document. Implementors must not extend the XSL namespace with additional elements or attributes. Instead, any extension must be in a separate namespace. The expanded-name of extension elements must have a non-null namespace URI.

This specification uses the prefix fo: for referring to elements in the XSL namespace. However, XSL stylesheets are free to use any prefix, provided that there is a namespace declaration that binds the prefix to the URI of the XSL namespace.

An element from the XSL namespace may have any attribute not from the XSL namespace, provided that the expanded-name of the attribute has a non-null namespace URI. The presence of such attributes must not change the behavior of XSL elements and functions defined in this document. Thus, an XSL processor is always free to ignore such attributes, and must ignore such attributes without giving an error if it does not recognize the namespace URI. Such attributes can provide, for example, unique identifiers, optimization hints, or documentation.

It is an error for an element from the XSL namespace to have attributes with expanded-names that have null namespace URIs (i.e., attributes with unprefixed names) other than attributes defined for the element in this document.

Note:

The conventions used for the names of XSL elements, attributes, and functions are as follows: names are all lowercase, hyphens are used to separate words, dots are used to separate names for the components of complex datatypes, and abbreviations are used only if they already appear in the syntax of a related language such as XML or HTML.

3 Introduction to Formatting

The aim of this section is to describe the general process of formatting, enough to read the area model and the formatting object descriptions and properties and to understand the process of refinement.

Formatting is the process of turning the result of an XSL transformation into a tangible form for the reader or listener. This process comprises several steps, some of which depend on others in a non-sequential way. Our model for formatting will be the construction of an area tree, which is an ordered tree containing geometric information for the placement of every glyph, shape, and image in the document, together with information embodying spacing constraints and other rendering information; this information is referred to under the rubric of traits, which are to areas what properties are to formatting objects and attributes are to XML elements. 4 Area Model will describe the area tree and define the default placement constraints on stacked areas. However, this is an abstract model which need not be actually implemented in this way in a formatter, so long as the resulting tangible form obeys the implied constraints. Constraints might conflict to the point where it is impossible to satisfy them all. In that case, it is implementation-defined which constraints should be relaxed and in what order to satisfy the others.

Formatting objects are elements in the formatting object tree, whose names are from the XSL namespace; a formatting object belongs to a class of formatting objects identified by its element name. The formatting behavior of each class of formatting objects is described in terms of what areas are created by a formatting object of that class, how the traits of the areas are established, and how the areas are structured hierarchically with respect to areas created by other formatting objects. 6 Formatting Objects and 7 Formatting Properties describe formatting objects and their properties.

Some formatting objects are block-level and others are inline-level. This refers to the types of areas which they generate, which in turn refer to their default placement method. Inline-areas (for example, glyph-areas) are collected into lines and the direction in which they are stacked is the inline-progression-direction. Lines are a type of block-area and these are stacked in a direction perpendicular to the inline-progression-direction, called the block-progression-direction. See 4 Area Model for detailed decriptions of these area types and directions.

In Western writing systems, the block-progression-direction is "top-to-bottom" and the inline-progression-direction is "left-to-right". This specification treats other writing systems as well and introduces the terms "block" and "inline" instead of using absolute indicators like "vertical" and "horizontal". Similarly this specification tries to give relatively-specified directions ("before" and "after" in the block-progression-direction, "start" and "end" in the inline-progression-direction) where appropriate, either in addition to or in place of absolutely-specified directions such as "top", "bottom", "left", and "right". These are interpreted according to the value of the writing-mode property.

Central to this model of formatting is refinement. This is a computational process which finalizes the specification of properties based on the attribute values in the XML result tree. Though the XML result tree and the formatting object tree have very similar structure, it is helpful to think of them as separate conceptual entities. Refinement involves

Some of these operations (particularly evaluating expressions) depend on knowledge of the area tree. Thus refinement is not necessarily a straightforward, sequential procedure, but may involve look-ahead, back-tracking, or control-splicing with other processes in the formatter. Refinement is described more fully in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

To summarize, formatting proceeds by constructing an area tree (containing areas and their traits) which satisfies constraints based on information contained in the XML result tree (containing element nodes and their attributes). Conceptually, there are intermediate steps of constructing a formatting object tree (containing formatting objects and their properties) and refinement; these steps may proceed in an interleaved fashion during the construction of the area tree.

3.1 Conceptual Procedure

This subsection contains a conceptual description of how formatting could work. This conceptual procedure does not mandate any particular algorithms or data structures as long as the result obeys the implied constraints.

The procedure works by processing formatting objects. Each object, while being processed, may initiate processing of other objects. While the objects are hierarchically structured, the processing is not; processing of a given object is rather like a co-routine which may pass control to other processes, but pick up again later where it left off. The procedure starts by initiating the processing of the fo:root formatting object.

Unless otherwise specified, processing a formatting object creates areas and returns them to its parent to be placed in the area tree. Like a co-routine, when given control, it initiates, then continues formatting of its own children (if any), or some subset of them. The formatting object supplies parameters to its children based on the traits of areas already in the area tree, possibly including areas generated by the formatting object or its ancestors. It then disposes of the areas returned by its formatting object children. It might simply return such an area to its parent (and will always do this if it does not generate areas itself), or alternatively it might arrange the area in the area tree according to the semantics of the formatting object; this may involve changing its geometric position. It terminates processing when all its children have terminated processing (if initiated) and it is finished generating areas.

Some formatting objects do not themselves generate areas; instead these formatting objects simply return the areas returned to them by their children. Alternatively, a formatting object may continue to generate (and return) areas based on information discovered while formatting its own children; for example, the fo:page-sequence formatting object will continue generating pages as long as it contains a flow with unprocessed descendants.

Areas returned to an fo:root formatting object are page-viewport-areas, and are simply placed as children of the area tree root in the order in which they are returned, with no geometrical implications.

As a general rule, the order of the area tree parallels the order of the formatting object tree. That is, if one formatting object precedes another in the depth-first traversal of the formatting object tree, with neither containing the other, then all the areas generated by the first will precede all the areas generated by the second in the depth-first traversal of the area tree, unless otherwise specified. Typical exceptions to this rule would be things like side floats, before floats, and footnotes.

At the end of the procedure, the areas and their traits have been constructed, and they are required to satisfy constraints described in the definitions of their associated formatting objects, and in the area model section. In particular, size and position of the areas will be subject to the placement and spacing constraints described in the area model, unless the formatting object definition indicates otherwise.

The formatting object definitions, property descriptions, and area model are not algorithms. Thus, the formatting object semantics do not specify how the line-breaking algorithm must work in collecting characters into words, positioning words within lines, shifting lines within a container, etc. Rather this specification assumes that the formatter has done these things and describes the constraints which the result is supposed to satisfy. Thus, the constraints do not specify at what time an implementation makes use of that information; the constraints only specify what must be true after processing has been completed. An actual implementation may well make use of some constraints at a time other than when formatting the formatting object for which the constraint applies. For example, the constraint given by the "hyphenate" property on an fo:character would typically be used during line-building, rather than when progessing the fo:character. Other examples include constraints for keeps and breaks.

4 Area Model

In XSL, one creates a tree of formatting objects that serve as inputs or specifications to a formatter. The formatter generates a hierarchical arrangement of areas which comprise the formatted result. This section defines the general model of these areas and how they interact. The purpose is to present an abstract framework which is used in describing the semantics of formatting objects. It should be seen as describing a series of constraints for conforming implementations, and not as prescribing particular algorithms.

4.1 Introduction

The formatter generates an ordered tree, the area tree, which describes a geometric structuring of the output medium. The terms child, sibling, parent, descendant, and ancestor refer to this tree structure. The tree has a root node.

Each area tree node other than the root is called an area and is associated to a rectangular portion of the output medium. Areas are not formatting objects; rather, a formatting object generates zero or more rectangular areas, and normally each area is generated by a unique object in the formatting object tree.

Note:

The only exceptions to this rule are when several leaf nodes of the formatting object tree are combined to generate a single area, for example when several characters in sequence generate a single ligature glyph. In all such cases, relevant properties such as font-family and font-size must be the same for all the generating formatting objects (see section 4.7.2 Line-building).

An area has a content-rectangle, the portion in which its child areas are assigned, and optional padding and border. The diagram shows how these portions are related to one another. The outer bound of the border is called the border-rectangle, and the outer bound of the padding is called the padding-rectangle.

Elements of an area   [D]

Each area has a set of traits, a mapping of names to values, in the way elements have attributes and formatting objects have properties. Individual traits are used either for rendering the area or for defining constraints on the result of formatting, or both. Traits used strictly for formatting purposes or for defining constraints may be called formatting traits, and traits used for rendering may be called rendering traits. Traits whose values are copied or derived from a property of the same or a corresponding name are listed in C Property Summary and 5 Property Refinement / Resolution; other traits are listed below.

Note:

Traits are also associated with FOs during the process of refinement. Some traits are assigned during formatting, while others are already present after refinement.

The semantics of each type of formatting object that generates areas are given in terms of which areas it generates and their place in the area-tree hierarchy. This may be further modified by interactions between the various types of formatting objects. The properties of the formatting object determine what areas are generated and how the formatting object's content is distributed among them. (For example, a word that is not to be hyphenated may not have its glyphs distributed into areas on two separate line-areas.)

The traits of an area are either:

directly-derived: the values of directly-derived traits are the computed value of a property of the same or a corresponding name on the generating formatting object, or

indirectly-derived: the values of indirectly-derived traits are the result of a computation involving the computed values of one or more properties on the generating formatting object, other traits on this area or other interacting areas (ancestors, parent, siblings, and/or children) and/or one or more values constructed by the formatter. The calculation formula may depend on the type of the formatting object.

This description assumes that refined values have been computed for all properties of formatting objects in the result tree, i.e., all relative and corresponding values have been computed and the inheritable values have been propagated as described in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution. This allows the process of inheritance to be described once and avoids a need to repeat information on computing values in this description.

The indirectly-derived traits are: block-progression-direction, inline-progression-direction, shift-direction, glyph-orientation, is-reference-area, is-viewport-area, left-position, right-position, top-position, bottom-position, left-offset, top-offset, is-first, is-last, alignment-point, area-class, start-intrusion-adjustment, end-intrusion-adjustment, generated-by, returned-by, folio-number, blink, underline-score, overline-score, through-score, underline-score-color, overline-score-color, through-score-color, alignment-baseline, baseline-shift, nominal-font, dominant-baseline-identifier, actual-baseline-table, and script.

4.2 Rectangular Areas

4.2.1 Area Types

There are two types of areas: block-areas and inline-areas. These differ according to how they are typically stacked by the formatter. An area can have block-area children or inline-area children as determined by the generating formatting object, but a given area's children must all be of one type. Although block-areas and inline-areas are typically stacked, some areas can be explicitly positioned.

A line-area is a special kind of block-area whose children are all inline-areas. A glyph-area is a special kind of inline-area which has no child areas, and has a single glyph image as its content.

Typical examples of areas are: a paragraph rendered by using an fo:block formatting object, which generates block-areas, and a character rendered by using an fo:character formatting object, which generates an inline-area (in fact, a glyph-area).

4.2.2 Common Traits

Associated with any area are two directions, which are derived from the generating formatting object's writing-mode and reference-orientation properties: the block-progression-direction is the direction for stacking block-area descendants of the area, and the inline-progression-direction is the direction for stacking inline-area descendants of the area. Another trait, the shift-direction, is present on inline-areas and refers to the direction in which baseline shifts are applied. Also the glyph-orientation defines the orientation of glyph-images in the rendered result.

If the reference-orientation for an area is 0, then the top, bottom, left, and right edges of the content are parallel to those of the area's parent and consistent with them. Otherwise the edges are rotated from those of the area's parent as described in 7.21.3 reference-orientation. The inline-progression-direction and block-progression-direction are determined by the location of these edges as described in 7.29.7 writing-mode.

The Boolean trait is-reference-area determines whether or not an area establishes a coordinate system for specifying indents. An area for which this trait is true is called a reference-area. Only a reference-area may have a block-progression-direction which is different from that of its parent. A reference-area may be either a block-area or an inline-area. Only specific formatting objects generate reference areas.

The Boolean trait is-viewport-area determines whether or not an area establishes an opening through which its descendant areas can be viewed, and can be used to present clipped or scrolled material; for example, in printing applications where bleed and trim is desired. An area for which this trait is true is called a viewport-area. A viewport-area also has the value true for the is-reference-area trait.

A common construct is a viewport/reference pair. This is a viewport-area V and a block-area reference-area R, where R is the sole child of V and where the start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of R are parallel to the start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of V.

Each area has the traits top-position, bottom-position, left-position, and right-position which represent the distance from the edges of its content-rectangle to the like-named edges of the nearest ancestor reference-area (or the page-viewport-area in the case of areas generated by descendants of formatting objects whose absolute-position is fixed); the left-offset and top-offset determine the amount by which a relatively-positioned area is shifted for rendering. These traits receive their values during the formatting process, or in the case of absolutely positioned areas, during refinement.

The block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension of an area represent the extent of the content-rectangle of that area in each of the two relative directions.

Other traits include:

  • the is-first and is-last traits, which are Boolean traits indicating the order in which areas are generated and returned (See 6.1.1 Definitions Common to Many Formatting Objects) by a given formatting object. is-first is true for the first area (or only area) generated and returned by a formatting object, and is-last is true for the last area (or only area);

  • the amount of space outside the border-rectangle: space-before, space-after, space-start, and space-end (though some of these may be required to be zero on certain classes of area);

    Note:

    "Before", "after", "start", and "end" refer to relative directions and are defined below.

  • the thickness of each of the four sides of the padding: padding-before, padding-after, padding-start, and padding-end;

  • the style, thickness, and color of each of the four sides of the border: border-before, etc.;

  • the background rendering of the area: background-color, background-image, and other background traits; and

  • the nominal-font for an area, as determined by the font properties and the character descendants of the area's generating formatting object. (see 5.5.7 Font Properties)

Unless otherwise specified, the traits of a formatting object are present on each of its generated areas, and with the same value. (However, see sections 4.7.2 Line-building and 4.9.4 Border, Padding, and Background.) The id trait is computed for formatting objects but is not present on areas.

4.2.3 Geometric Definitions

As described above, the content-rectangle is the rectangle bounding the inside of the padding and is used to describe the constraints on the positions of descendant areas. It is possible that marks from descendant glyphs or other areas may appear outside the content-rectangle.

Related to this is the allocation-rectangle of an area, which is used to describe the constraints on the position of the area within its parent area. For an inline-area this is either the normal-allocation-rectangle or the large-allocation-rectangle. The normal-allocation-rectangle extends to the content-rectangle in the block-progression-direction and to the border-rectangle in the inline-progression-direction. The large-allocation-rectangle is the border-rectangle. Unless otherwise specified, the allocation-rectangle for an area is the normal-allocation-rectangle.

Normal-allocation-rectangle of an inline-area   [D]

Normal-allocation-rectangle of an inline-area

Large-allocation-rectangle of an inline-area   [D]

Large-allocation-rectangle of an inline-area

For a block-area, the allocation-rectangle extends to the border-rectangle in the block-progression-direction and outside the content-rectangle in the inline-progression-direction by an amount equal to the end-indent, and in the opposite direction by an amount equal to the start-indent.

Note:

The inclusion of space outside the border-rectangle of a block-area in the inline-progression-direction does not affect placement constraints, and is intended to promote compatibility with the CSS box model.

Allocation- and content-rectangles of a block-area   [D]

Allocation- and content-rectangles of a block-area

The edges of a rectangle are designated as follows:

  • the before-edge is the edge occurring first in the block-progression-direction and perpendicular to it;

  • the after-edge is the edge opposite the before-edge;

  • the start-edge is the edge occurring first in the inline-progression-direction and perpendicular to it,

  • the end-edge is the edge opposite the start-edge.

For purposes of this definition, the content-rectangle of an area uses the inline-progression-direction and block-progression-direction of that area; but the border-rectangle, padding-rectangle, and allocation-rectangle use the directions of its parent area. Thus the edges designated for the content-rectangle may not correspond to the same-named edges on the padding-, border-, and allocation-rectangles. This is important in the case of nested areas with different writing-modes or reference-orientation.

The following diagram shows the correspondence between the various edge names for a mixed writing-mode example:

Embedded areas with different writing-modes   [D]

Each inline-area has an alignment-point determined by the formatter, on the start-edge of its allocation-rectangle; for a glyph-area, this is a point on the start-edge of the glyph on its alignment baseline (see below). This is script-dependent and does not necessarily correspond to the (0,0) coordinate point used for the data describing the glyph shape.

4.2.4 Tree Ordering

In the area tree, the set of areas with a given parent is ordered. The terms initial, final, preceding, and following refer to this ordering.

In any ordered tree, this sibling order extends to an ordering of the entire tree in at least two ways.

  • In the pre-order traversal order of a tree, the children of each node (their order unchanged relative to one another) follow the node, but precede any following siblings of the node or of its ancestors.

  • In the post-order traversal order of a tree, the children of each node precede the node, but follow any preceding siblings of the node or of its ancestors.

"Preceding" and "following", when applied to non-siblings, will depend on the extension order used, which must be specified. However, in either of these given orders, the leaves of the tree (nodes without children) are unambiguously ordered.

4.2.5 Stacking Constraints

This section defines the notion of block-stacking constraints and inline-stacking constraints involving areas. These are defined as ordered relations, i.e., if A and B have a stacking constraint it does not necessarily mean that B and A have a stacking constraint. These definitions are recursive in nature and some cases may depend upon simpler cases of the same definition. This is not circularity but rather a consequence of recursion. The intention of the definitions is to identify areas at any level of the tree which may have only space between them.

The area-class trait is an enumerated value which is xsl-normal for an area which is stacked with other areas in sequence. A normal area is an area for which this trait is xsl-normal. A page-level-out-of-line area is an area with area-class xsl-footnote, xsl-before-float, or xsl-fixed; placement of these areas is controlled by the fo:page-sequence ancestor of its generating formatting object. A reference-level-out-of-line area is an area with area-class xsl-side-float or xsl-absolute; placement of these areas is controlled by the formatting object generating the relevant reference-area. An anchor area is an area with area-class xsl-anchor; placement of these areas is arbitrary and does not affect stacking. Areas with area-class equal to one of xsl-normal, xsl-footnote, or xsl-before-float are defined to be stackable, indicating that they are supposed to be properly stacked.

Block-stacking constraints

If P is a block-area, then there is a fence preceding P if P is a reference-area or if the border-before-width or padding-before-width of P are non-zero. Similarly, there is a fence following P if P is a reference-area or if the border-after-width or padding-after-width of P are non-zero.

If A and B are stackable areas, and S is a sequence of space-specifiers (see 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality), it is defined that A and B have block-stacking constraint S if any of the following conditions holds:

  1. B is a block-area which is the first normal child of A, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-before of B.

  2. A is a block-area which is the last normal child of B, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-after of A.

  3. A and B are both block-areas, and either

    a. B is the next stackable sibling area of A, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-after of A and the space-before of B;

    b. B is the first normal child of a block-area P, B is not a line-area, there is no fence preceding P, A and P have a block-stacking constraint S', and S consists of S' followed by the space-before of B; or

    c. A is the last normal child of a block-area P, A is not a line-area, there is no fence following P, P and B have a block-stacking constraint S'', and S consists of the space-after of A followed by S''.

    d. A has a block-stacking constraint S' with a block-area E, E has a block-stacking constraint S'' with B, E is empty (i.e., it has zero border, padding, and block-progression-dimension, and no normal children), and S consists of S' followed by S''.

Note:

The use of "stackable" in two places in the above definition allows block-stacking constraints to apply between areas of area-class xsl-before-float or xsl-footnote.

Adjacent Edges with Block-stacking   [D]

Adjacent Edges with Block-stacking

When A and B have a block-stacking constraint, the adjacent edges of A and B are an ordered pair recursively defined as:

  • In case 1, the before-edge of the content-rectangle of A and the before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 2, the after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the after-edge of the content-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3a, the after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3b, the first of the adjacent edges of A and P, and the before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3c, the after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the second of the adjacent edges of P and B.

  • In case 3d, the first of the adjacent edges of A and E, and the second of the adjacent edges of E and B.

Example. In this diagram each node represents a block-area. Assume that all padding and border widths are zero, and none of the areas are reference-areas. Then P and A have a block-stacking constraint, as do A and B, A and C, B and C, C and D, D and B, B and E, D and E, and E and P; these are the only pairs in the diagram having block-stacking constraints. If B had non-zero padding-after, then D and E would not have any block-stacking constraint (though B and E would continue to have a block-stacking constraint).

Block-stacking constraint example   [D]

Block-stacking constraint example

Inline-stacking constraints.

This section will recursively define the inline-stacking constraints between two areas (either two inline-areas or one inline-area and one line-area), together with the notion of fence preceding and fence following; these definitions are interwoven with one another. This parallels the definition for block-stacking constraints, but with the additional complication that we may have a stacking constraint between inline-areas which are stacked in opposite inline-progression-directions. (This is not an issue for block-stacking constraints because a block-area which is not a reference-area may not have a block-progression-direction different from that of its parent.)

If P and Q have an inline-stacking constraint, then P has a fence preceding Q if P is a reference-area or has non-zero border-width or padding-width at the first adjacent edge of P and Q. Similarly, Q has a fence following P if Q is a reference-area or has non-zero border-width or padding-width at the second adjacent edge of P and Q.

If A and B are normal areas, and S is a sequence of space-specifiers, it is defined that A and B have inline-stacking constraint S if any of the following conditions holds:

  1. A is an inline-area or line-area, B is an inline-area which is the first normal child of A, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-start of B.

  2. B is an inline-area or line-area, A is an inline-area which is the last normal child of B, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-end of A.

  3. A and B are each either an inline-area or a line-area, and either

    a. both A and B are inline-areas, B is the next normal sibling area of A, and S is the sequence consisting of the space-end of A and the space-start of B;

    b. B is an inline-area which is the first normal child of an inline-area P, P has no fence following A, A and P have an inline-stacking constraint S', the inline-progression-direction of P is the same as the inline-progression-direction of the nearest common ancestor area of A and P, and S consists of S' followed by the space-start of B.

    c. A is an inline-area which is the last normal child of an inline-area P, P has no fence preceding B, P and B have an inline-stacking constraint S'', the inline-progression-direction of P is the same as the inline-progression-direction of the nearest common ancestor area of P and B, and S consists of the space-end of A followed by S''.

    d. B is an inline-area which is the last normal child of an inline-area P, P has no fence following A, A and P have an inline-stacking constraint S', the inline-progression-direction of P is opposite to the inline-progression-direction of the nearest common ancestor area of A and P, and S consists of S' followed by the space-end of B.

    e. A is an inline-area which is the first normal child of an inline-area P, P has no fence preceding B, P and B have an inline-stacking constraint S'', the inline-progression-direction of P is opposite to the inline-progression-direction of the nearest common ancestor area of P and B, and S consists of the space-start of A followed by S''.

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking   [D]

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking, continued   [D]

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking, continued

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking, continued   [D]

Mixed English and Arabic

Adjacent Edges with Inline-stacking, continued   [D]

Mixed English and Arabic

When A and B have an inline-stacking constraint, the adjacent edges of A and B are an ordered pair defined as:

  • In case 1, the start-edge of the content-rectangle of A and the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 2, the end-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the end-edge of the content-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3a, the end-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3b, the first of the adjacent edges of A and P, and the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3c, the end-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the second of the adjacent edges of P and B.

  • In case 3d, the first of the adjacent edges of A and P, and the end-edge of the allocation-rectangle of B.

  • In case 3e, the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of A and the second of the adjacent edges of P and B.

Two areas are adjacent if they have a block-stacking constraint or an inline-stacking constraint. It follows from the definitions that areas of the same type (inline or block) can be adjacent only if all their non-common ancestors are also of the same type (up to but not including their nearest common ancestor). Thus, for example, two inline-areas which reside in different line-areas are never adjacent.

An area A begins an area P if A is a descendant of P and P and A have either a block-stacking constraint or an inline-stacking constraint, provided that no descendant of P which is an ancestor of A has a space-before (in the case of a block-stacking constraint) or a space-start (in the case of an inline-stacking constraint) whose computed minimum, maximum, or optimum values are nonzero. In this case the second of the adjacent edges of P and A is defined to be a leading edge in P. A space-specifier which applies to the leading edge is also defined to begin P.

Similarly, An area A ends an area P if A is a descendant of P and A and P have either a block-stacking constraint or an inline-stacking constraint, provided that no descendant of P which is an ancestor of A has a space-after (in the case of a block-stacking constraint) or a space-end (in the case of an inline-stacking constraint) whose computed minimum, maximum, or optimum values are nonzero. In this case the first of the adjacent edges of A and P is defined to be a trailing edge in P. A space-specifier which applies to the trailing edge is also defined to end P.

4.2.6 Font Baseline Tables

Each script has its preferred "baseline" for aligning glyphs from that script. Western scripts typically use an "alphabetic" baseline that touches at or near the bottom of capital letters. Further, for each font there is a preferred way of aligning embedded glyphs from different scripts, e.g., for a Western font there are separate baselines for aligning embedded ideographic or Indic glyphs.

Each block-area and inline-area has a dominant-baseline-identifier trait whose value is a baseline identifier corresponding to the type of alignment expected for inline-area descendants of that area, and each inline-area has an alignment-baseline which specifies how the area is aligned to its parent. These traits are interpreted as described in section 7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data.

For each font, an actual-baseline-table maps these identifiers to points on the start-edge of the area. By abuse of terminology, the line in the inline-progression-direction through the point corresponding to the dominant-baseline-identifier is called the "dominant baseline."

4.3 Spaces and Conditionality

A space-specifier is a compound datatype whose components are minimum, optimum, maximum, conditionality, and precedence.

Minimum, optimum, and maximum are lengths and can be used to define a constraint on a distance, namely that the distance should preferably be the optimum, and in any case no less than the minimum nor more than the maximum. Any of these values may be negative, which can (for example) cause areas to overlap, but in any case the minimum should be less than or equal to the optimum value, and the optimum less than or equal to the maximum value.

Conditionality is an enumerated value which controls whether a space-specifier has effect at the beginning or end of a reference-area or a line-area. Possible values are retain and discard; a conditional space-specifier is one for which this value is discard.

Precedence has a value which is either an integer or the special token force. A forcing space-specifier is one for which this value is force.

Space-specifiers occurring in sequence may interact with each other. The constraint imposed by a sequence of space-specifiers is computed by calculating for each space-specifier its associated resolved space-specifier in accordance with their conditionality and precedence, as shown below in the space-resolution rules.

The constraint imposed on a distance by a sequence of resolved space-specifiers is additive; that is, the distance is constrained to be no less than the sum of the resolved minimum values and no larger than the sum of the resolved maximum values.

4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules

The resolved space-specifier of a given space-specifier S is computed as follows. Consider the maximal inline-stacking constraint or block-stacking constraint S'' containing the space-specifier S as an element of the sequence (S'' is a sequence of space-specifiers; see 4.2.5 Stacking Constraints). Define S' to be a subsequence of S'' as follows:

  • if S is the space-before or space-after of a line-area, then S' is the maximal subsequence of S'' containing S such that all the space-specifiers in S' are traits of line-areas,

  • if S is the space-before or space-after of a block-area which is not a line-area, then S' is the maximal subsequence of S'' containing S such that all the space-specifiers in S' are traits of block-areas which are not line-areas,

  • if S is the space-start or space-end of an inline-area, then S' is all of S''.

The resolved space-specifier of S is a non-conditional, forcing space-specifier computed in terms of the sequence S'.

  1. If any of the space-specifiers in S' is conditional, and begins a reference-area or line-area, then it is suppressed, which means that its resolved space-specifier is zero. Further, any conditional space-specifiers which consecutively follow it in the sequence are also suppressed. For purposes of this rule, a space-specifier U consecutively follows a space-specifier V if it U follows V and U and V are separated in the sequence only by conditional space-specifiers and/or space-specifiers whose computed minimum, maximum, and optimum values are zero.

    If a conditional space-specifier ends a reference-area or line-area, then it is suppressed together with any other conditional space-specifiers which consecutively precede it in the sequence. For purposes of this rule, a space-specifier U consecutively precedes a space-specifier V if it U precedes V and U and V are separated in the sequence only by conditional space-specifiers and/or space-specifiers whose computed minimum, maximum, and optimum values are zero.

  2. If any of the remaining space-specifiers in S' is forcing, all non-forcing space-specifiers are suppressed, and the value of each of the forcing space-specifiers is taken as its resolved value.

  3. Alternatively if all of the remaining space-specifiers in S' are non-forcing, then the resolved space-specifier is defined in terms of those non-suppressed space-specifiers whose precedence is numerically highest, and among these those whose optimum value is the greatest. All other space-specifiers are suppressed. If there is only one of these then its value is taken as its resolved value.

    Otherwise, follow these rules when there are two or more space-specifiers all of the same highest precedence and the same (largest) optimum: The resolved space-specifier of the last space-specifier in the sequence is derived from these spaces by taking their common optimum value as its optimum. The greatest of their minimum values is its minimum. The least of their maximum values is its maximum. All other space-specifiers are suppressed.

  4. If S is subject to overconstrainment relaxing, then its maximum value is set to the actual block-progression-dimension of the containing block-area. See 4.3.2 Overconstrained space-specifiers

Example. Suppose the sequence of space values occurring at the beginning of a reference-area is: first, a space with value 10 points (that is minimum, optimum, and maximum all equal to 10 points) and conditionality discard; second, a space with value 4 points and conditionality retain; and third, a space with value 5 points and conditionality discard; all three spaces having precedence zero. Then the first (10 point) space is suppressed under rule 1, and the second (4 point) space is suppressed under rule 3. The resolved value of the third space is a non-conditional 5 points, even though it originally came from a conditional space.

The padding of a block-area does not interact with any space-specifier (except that by definition, the presence of padding at the before- or after-edge prevents areas on either side of it from having a stacking constraint.)

The border or padding at the before-edge or after-edge of a block-area B may be specified as conditional. If so, then it is set to zero if its associated edge is a leading edge in a reference-area, and the is-first trait of B is false, or if its associated edge is a trailing edge in a reference-area, and the is-last trait of B is false. In either of these cases, the border or padding is taken to be zero for purposes of the stacking constraint definitions.

The border or padding at the start-edge or end-edge of an inline-area I may be specified as conditional. If so, then it is set to zero if its associated edge is a leading edge in a line-area, and the is-first trait of I is false, or if its associated edge is a trailing edge in a line-area, and the is-last trait of I is false. In either of these cases, the border or padding is taken to be zero for purposes of the stacking constraint definitions.

4.3.2 Overconstrained space-specifiers

When an area P is generated by a formatting object whose block-progression-dimension is "auto", then the constraints involving the before-edge and after-edge of the content-rectangle of P, together with the constraints between the various descendants of P, result in a constraint on the actual value of the block-progression-dimension. If the block-progression-dimension is instead specified as a length, then this might result in an overconstrained area tree, for example an incompletely-filled fo:block with a specified size. In that case some constraints between P and its descendants should be relaxed; those that are eligible for this treatment are said to be subject to overconstrainment relaxing, and treated as in the previous section.

  • If the display-align value is "after" or "center" and P is the first normal area generated by the formatting object, then the space-before of the first normal child of P is subject to overconstrainment relaxing.

  • If the display-align value is "before" or "center" and P is the last normal area generated by the formatting object, then the space-after of the last normal child of P is subject to overconstrainment relaxing.

4.4 Block-areas

Block-areas have several traits which typically affect the placement of their children. The line-height is used in line placement calculations. The line-stacking-strategy trait controls what kind of allocation is used for descendant line-areas and has an enumerated value (either font-height, max-height, or line-height). This is all rigorously described below. All areas have these traits, but they only have relevance for areas which have stacked line-area children.

The space-before and space-after traits determine the distance between the block-area and surrounding block-areas.

A block-area which is not a line-area typically has its size in the inline-progression-direction determined by its start-indent and end-indent and by the size of its nearest ancestor reference-area. A block-area which is not a line-area must be properly stacked (as defined in 4.4.1 Stacked Block-areas below) unless otherwise specified in the description of its generating formatting object. In this case its block-progression-dimension will be subject to constraints based on the block-progression-dimensions and space-specifiers of its descendants. See 4.3.2 Overconstrained space-specifiers

4.4.1 Stacked Block-areas

Block-area children of an area are typically stacked in the block-progression-direction within their parent area, and this is the default method of positioning block-areas. However, formatting objects are free to specify other methods of positioning child areas of areas which they generate, for example list-items or tables.

For a parent area P whose children are block-areas, P is defined to be properly stacked if all of the following conditions hold:

  1. For each block-area B which is a descendant of P, the following hold:

    • the before-edge and after-edge of its allocation-rectangle are parallel to the before-edge and after-edges of the content-rectangle of P,

    • the start-edge of its allocation-rectangle is parallel to the start-edge of the content-rectangle of R (where R is the closest ancestor reference-area of B), and offset from it inward by a distance equal to the block-area's start-indent plus its start-intrusion-adjustment (as defined below), minus its border-start, padding-start, and space-start values, and

    • the end-edge of its allocation-rectangle is parallel to the end-edge of the content-rectangle of R, and offset from it inward by a distance equal to the block-area's end-indent plus its end-intrusion-adjustment (as defined below), minus its border-end, padding-end, and space-end values.

    Metrics of a block area   [D]

    Content Rectangle of Reference Area

    Note:

    The notion of indent is intended to apply to the content-rectangle, but the constraint is written in terms of the allocation-rectangle, because as noted earlier (4.2.3 Geometric Definitions) the edges of the content-rectangle may not correspond to like-named edges of the allocation-rectangle.

    The start-intrusion-adjustment and end-intrusion-adjustment are traits used to deal with intrusions from floats in the inline-progression-direction.

    See also section 5.3.2 Margin, Space, and Indent Properties for how the margin properties affect the indents.

  2. For each pair of normal areas B and B' in the subtree below P, if B and B' have a block-stacking constraint S and B is not empty (see 4.2.5 Stacking Constraints), then the distance between the adjacent edges of B and B' is consistent with the constraint imposed by the resolved values of the space-specifiers in S.

    Example of stacked areas   [D]

    Example. In the diagram, if area A has a space-after value of 3 points, B a space-before of 1 point, and C a space-before of 2 points, all with precedence of force, and with zero border and padding, then the constraints will place B's allocation-rectangle 4 points below that of A, and C's allocation-rectangle 6 points below that of A. Thus the 4-point gap receives the background color from P, and the 2-point gap before C receives the background color from B.

4.4.2 Intrusion Adjustments

Intrusion adjustments (both start- and end-) are defined to account for the indentation that occurs as the result of side floats.

If A and B are areas which have the same nearest reference area ancestor, then A and B are defined to be inline-overlapping if there is some line parallel to the inline-progression-direction, which intersects both the allocation-rectangle of A and the allocation-rectangle of B.

If A is an area of class xsl-side-float with float="start", and B is a block-area, and A and B have the same nearest reference area ancestor, then A is defined to encroach upon B if A and B are inline-overlapping and the start-indent of B is less than the sum of the start-indent of A and the inline-progression-dimension of A. The start-encroachment of A on B is then defined to be amount by which the start-indent of B is less than the sum of the start-indent of A and the inline-progression-dimension of A.

If A is an area of class xsl-side-float with float="end", and B is a block-area, and A and B have the same nearest reference area ancestor, then A is defined to encroach upon B if A and B are inline-overlapping and the end-indent of B is less than the sum of the end-indent of A and the inline-progression-dimension of A. The end-encroachment of A on B is then defined to be amount by which the end-indent of B is less than the sum of the end-indent of A and the inline-progression-dimension of A.

If B is a block-area which is not a line-area, then its local-start-intrusion-adjustment is computed as the maximum of the following lengths:

  1. zero;

  2. if the parent of B is not a reference area: the start-intrusion-adjustment of the parent of B; and

  3. if B has intrusion-displace="block", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="start" such that the generating formatting object of A is not a descendant of the generating formatting object of B, and such that A encroaches upon some line-area child of B: the start-encroachment of A on B; and

  4. if B has intrusion-displace = "block", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="start" such that A and B are inline-overlapping, and for each block-area ancestor B' of B which is a descendant of the nearest reference area ancestor of B, such that A encroaches on a line-area child of B': the start-encroachment of A on B'.

The start-intrusion-adjustment of a block-area B is then defined to be the maximum of the local-start-intrusion-adjustments of the normal block-areas generated and returned by the generating formatting object of B.

If L is a line-area, then its start-intrusion-adjustment is computed as the maximum of the following lengths:

  1. the start-intrusion-adjustment of the parent of L;

  2. for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="start" such that A encroaches upon L: the start-encroachment of A on L; and

  3. if the parent of L has intrusion-displace = "indent", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="start" such that A and L are inline-overlapping, and for each block-area ancestor B' of L which is a descendant of the nearest reference area ancestor of L, such that A encroaches on some line-area child L' of B': the start-encroachment of A on B'.

The end-intrusion-adjustment for a block-area is computed in a precisely analogous manner. That is:

If B is a block-area which is not a line-area, then its local-end-intrusion-adjustment is computed as the maximum of the following lengths:

  1. zero;

  2. if the parent of B is not a reference area: the end-intrusion-adjustment of the parent of B; and

  3. if B has intrusion-displace="block", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="end" such that the generating formatting object of A is not a descendant of the generating formatting object of B, and such that A encroaches upon some line-area child of B: the end-encroachment of A on B; and

  4. if B has intrusion-displace = "block", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="end" such that A and B are inline-overlapping, and for each block-area ancestor B' of B which is a descendant of the nearest reference area ancestor of B, such that A encroaches on a line-area child of B': the end-encroachment of A on B'.

The end-intrusion-adjustment of a block-area B is then defined to be the maximum of the local-end-intrusion-adjustments of the normal block-areas generated and returned by the generating formatting object of B.

If L is a line-area, then its end-intrusion-adjustment is computed as the maximum of the following lengths:

  1. the end-intrusion-adjustment of the parent of L;

  2. for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="end" such that A encroaches upon L: the end-encroachment of A on L; and

  3. if the parent of L has intrusion-displace = "indent", then for each area A of class xsl-side-float with float="end" such that A and L are inline-overlapping, and for each block-area ancestor B' of L which is a descendant of the nearest reference area ancestor of L, such that A encroaches on some line-area child L' of B': the end-encroachment of A on B'.

4.5 Line-areas

A line-area is a special type of block-area, and is generated by the same formatting object which generated its parent. Line-areas do not have borders and padding, i.e., border-before-width, padding-before-width, etc. are all zero. Inline-areas are stacked within a line-area relative to a baseline-start-point which is a point determined by the formatter, on the start-edge of the line area's content-rectangle.

The allocation-rectangle of a line is determined by the value of the line-stacking-strategy trait: if the value is font-height, the allocation-rectangle is the nominal-requested-line-rectangle, defined below; if the value is max-height, the allocation-rectangle is the maximum-line-rectangle, defined below; and if the value is line-height, the allocation-rectangle is the per-inline-height-rectangle, defined below. If the line-stacking-strategy trait is font-height or max-height the space-before and space-after are both set to the half-leading value; otherwise they are both set to zero.

The nominal-requested-line-rectangle for a line-area is the rectangle whose start-edge is parallel to the start-edge of the content-rectangle of the nearest ancestor reference-area and offset from it by the sum of the start-indent and the start-intrusion-adjustment of the line area, whose end-edge is parallel to the end-edge of the content-rectangle of the nearest ancestor reference-area and offset from it by the sum of the end-indent and the end-intrusion-adjustment of the line area, whose before-edge is separated from the baseline-start-point by the text-altitude of the parent block-area, and whose after-edge is separated from the baseline-start-point by the text-depth of the parent block-area. It has the same block-progression-dimension for each line-area child of a block-area.

The maximum-line-rectangle for a line-area is the rectangle whose start-edge and end-edge are parallel to and coincident with the start-edge and end-edge of the nominal-requested-line-rectangle, and whose extent in the block-progression-direction is the minimum required to enclose both the nominal-requested-line-rectangle and the allocation-rectangles of all the inline-areas stacked within the line-area; this may vary depending on the descendants of the line-area.

Nominal and Maximum Line Rectangles   [D]

Nominal and Maximum Line Rectangles

The per-inline-height-rectangle for a line-area is the rectangle whose start-edge and end-edge are parallel to and coincident with the start-edge and end-edge of the nominal-requested-line-rectangle, and whose extent in the block-progression-dimension is determined as follows.

The expanded-rectangle of an inline-area is the rectangle with start-edge and end-edge coincident with those of its allocation-rectangle, and whose before-edge and after-edge are outside those of its allocation-rectangle by a distance equal to either (a.) the half-leading, when the area's allocation-rectangle is specified to be the normal-allocation-rectangle by the description of the generating formatting object , or (b.) the space-before and space-after (respectively), when the area's allocation-rectangle is specified to be the large-allocation-rectangle. The expanded-nominal-requested-line-rectangle is the rectangle with start-edge and end-edge coincident with those of the nominal-requested-line-rectangle, and whose before-edge and after-edge are outside those of the nominal-requested-line-rectangle by a distance equal to the half-leading.

The extent of the per-inline-height-rectangle in the block-progression-direction is then defined to be the minimum required to enclose both the expanded-nominal-requested-line-rectangle and the expanded-rectangles of all the inline-areas stacked within the line-area; this may vary depending on the descendants of the line-area.

Note:

Using the nominal-requested-line-rectangle allows equal baseline-to-baseline spacing. Using the maximum-line-rectangle allows constant space between line-areas. Using the per-inline-height-rectangle and zero space-before and space-after allows CSS-style line box stacking. Also, the value of half-leading is included in the expanded-rectangle regardless of conditionality, and thus a line-height conditionality of "discard" does not have effect in this case.

4.6 Inline-areas

An inline-area has its own line-height trait, which may be different from the line-height of its containing block-area. This may affect the placement of its ancestor line-area when the line-stacking-strategy is line-height. An inline-area has an actual-baseline-table for its nominal-font. It has a dominant-baseline-identifier trait which determines how its stacked inline-area descendants are to be aligned.

An inline-area may or may not have child areas, and if so it may or may not be a reference-area. The dimensions of the content-rectangle for an inline-area without children is computed as specified by the generating formatting object, as are those of an inline-area with block-area children.

An inline-area with inline-area children has a content-rectangle which extends from its dominant baseline (see 4.2.6 Font Baseline Tables) by its text-depth in the block-progression-direction, and in the opposite direction by its text-altitude; in the inline-progression-direction it extends from the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of its first child to the end-edge of the allocation-rectangle of its last child. The allocation-rectangle of such an inline-area is the same as its content-rectangle.

The allocation-rectangle of an inline-area without children is either the normal-allocation-rectangle or the large-allocation-rectangle, as specified in the description of the generating formatting object.

Note:

When the line-stacking-strategy is line-height, allocation is done with respect to the expanded-rectangle.

Examples of inline-areas with children might include portions of inline mathematical expressions or areas arising from mixed writing systems (left-to-right within right-to-left, for example).

4.6.1 Stacked Inline-areas

Inline-area children of an area are typically stacked in the inline-progression-direction within their parent area, and this is the default method of positioning inline-areas.

Inline-areas are stacked relative to the dominant baseline, as defined above (4.2.6 Font Baseline Tables).

For a parent area P whose children are inline-areas, P is defined to be properly stacked if all of the following conditions hold:

  1. For each inline-area descendant I of P, the start-edge, end-edge, before-edge and after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of I are parallel to corresponding edges of the content-rectangle of the nearest ancestor reference-area of I.

  2. For each pair of normal areas I and I' in the subtree below P, if I and I' have an inline-stacking constraint S, then the distance between the adjacent edges of I and I' is consistent with the constraint imposed by the resolved values of the space-specifiers in S.

  3. For any inline-area descendant I of P, the distance in the shift-direction from the dominant baseline of P to the alignment-point of I equals the offset between the dominant baseline of P and the baseline of P corresponding to the alignment-baseline trait of I, plus the sum of the baseline-shifts for I and all of its ancestors which are descendants of P.

    The first summand is computed to compensate for mixed writing systems with different baseline types, and the other summands involve deliberate baseline shifts for things like superscripts and subscripts.

4.6.2 Glyph-areas

The most common inline-area is a glyph-area, which contains the representation for a character (or characters) in a particular font.

A glyph-area has an associated nominal-font, determined by the area's typographic traits, which apply to its character data, and a glyph-orientation determined by its writing-mode and reference-orientation, which determine the orientation of the glyph when it is rendered.

The alignment-point and dominant-baseline-identifier of a glyph-area are assigned according to the writing-system in use (e.g., the glyph baseline in Western languages), and are used to control placement of inline-areas descendants of a line-area. The formatter may generate inline-areas with different inline-progression-directions from their parent to accommodate correct inline-area stacking in the case of mixed writing systems.

A glyph-area has no children. Its block-progression-dimension and actual-baseline-table are the same for all glyphs in a font. Conforming implementations may choose to compute the block-progression-dimension for a glyph area based on the actual glyph size rather than using a common size for all glyphs in a font.

4.7 Ordering Constraints

4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints

A subset S of the areas returned to a formatting object is called properly ordered if the areas in that subset have the same order as their generating formatting objects. Specifically, if A1 and A2 are areas in S, returned by child formatting objects F1 and F2 where F1 precedes F2, then A1 must precede A2 in the pre-order traversal order of the area tree. If F1 equals F2 and A1 is returned prior to A2, then A1 must precede A2 in the pre-order-traversal of the area tree.

For each formatting object F and each area-class C, the subset consisting of the areas returned to F with area-class C must be properly ordered, except where otherwise specified.

4.7.2 Line-building

This section describes the ordering constraints that apply to formatting an fo:block or similar block-level object.

A block-level formatting object F which constructs lines does so by constructing block-areas which it returns to its parent formatting object, and placing normal areas and/or anchor areas returned to F by its child formatting objects as children of those block-areas or of line-areas which it constructs as children of those block-areas.

For each such formatting object F, it must be possible to form an ordered partition P consisting of ordered subsets S1, S2, ..., Sn of the normal areas and anchor areas returned by the child formatting objects, such that the following are all satisfied:

  1. Each subset consists of a sequence of inline-areas, or of a single block-area.

  2. The ordering of the partition follows the ordering of the formatting object tree. Specifically, if A is in Si and B is in Sj with i < j, or if A and B are both in the same subset Si with A before B in the subset order, then either A is returned by a preceding sibling formatting object of B, or A and B are returned by the same formatting object with A being returned before B.

  3. The partitioning occurs at legal line-breaks. Specifically, if A is the last area of Si and B is the first area of Si+1, then the rules of the language, script and hyphenation constraints (7.10 Common Hyphenation Properties, 7.16.1 hyphenation-keep, and 7.16.2 hyphenation-ladder-count) in effect must permit a line-break between A and B, within the context of all areas in Si and Si+1.

  4. Forced line-breaks are respected. Specifically, if C is a descendant of F, and C is an fo:character whose Unicode character is U+000A, and A is the area generated by C, then either C is a child of F and A is the last area in a subset Si, or C is a descendant of a child C' of F, and A ends (in the sense of 4.2.5) an area A' returned by C', such that A' is the last area in a subset Si.

  5. The partition follows the ordering of the area tree, except for certain glyph substitutions and deletions. Specifically, if B1, B2, ..., Bp are the normal child areas of the area or areas returned by F, (ordered in the pre-order traversal order of the area tree), then there is a one-to-one correspondence between these child areas and the partition subsets (i.e. n = p), and for each i,

    • Si consists of a single block-area and Bi is that block-area, or

    • Si consists of inline-areas and Bi is a line-area whose child areas are the same as the inline-areas in Si, and in the same order, except that where the rules of the language and script in effect call for glyph-areas to be substituted, inserted, or deleted, then the substituted or inserted glyph-areas appear in the area tree in the corresponding place, and the deleted glyph-areas do not appear in the area tree. For example, insertions and substitutions may occur because of addition of hyphens or spelling changes due to hyphenation, or glyph image construction from syllabification, or ligature formation. Deletions occur as specified in 6., below.

  6. white-space-treatment is enforced. In particular, deletions in 5. occur when there is a glyph area G such that

    (a.) the white-space-treatment of G is "ignore" and the character of G is classified as white space in XML; or

    (b.) the white-space-treatment of G is "ignore-if-before-linefeed" or "ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed", the suppress-at-line-break of G is "suppress", and G would end a line-area; or

    (c.) the white-space-treatment of G is "ignore-if-after-linefeed" or "ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed", the suppress-at-line-break of G is "suppress", and G would begin a line-area.

    In these cases the area G is deleted; this may cause the condition in clauses (b.) or (c.) to become true and lead to further deletions.

Substitutions that replace a sequence of glyph-areas with a single glyph-area should only occur when the margin, border, and padding in the inline-progression-direction (start- and end-), baseline-shift, and letter-spacing values are zero, treat-as-word-space is false, and the values of all other relevant traits match (i.e., alignment-adjust, alignment-baseline, color trait, background traits, dominant-baseline-identifier, font traits, text-depth, text-altitude, glyph-orientation-horizontal, glyph-orientation-vertical, line-height, line-height-shift-adjustment, text-decoration, text-shadow).

Note:

Line-areas do not receive the background traits or text-decoration of their generating formatting object, or any other trait that requires generation of a mark during rendering.

4.7.3 Inline-building

This section describes the ordering constraints that apply to formatting an fo:inline or similar inline-level object.

An inline-level formatting object F which constructs one or more inline-areas does so by placing normal inline-areas and/or anchor inline-areas returned to F by its child formatting objects as children of inline-areas which it generates.

For each such formatting object F, it must be possible to form an ordered partition P consisting of ordered subsets S1, S2, ..., Sn of the normal and/or anchor inline-areas and normal block-areas returned by the child formatting objects, such that the following are all satisfied:

  1. Each subset consists of a sequence of inline-areas, or of a single block-area.

  2. The ordering of the partition follows the ordering of the formatting object tree, as defined above.

  3. The partitioning occurs at legal line-breaks, as defined above.

  4. Forced line-breaks are respected, as defined above.

  5. The partition follows the ordering of the area tree, except for certain glyph substitutions and deletions, as defined above.

4.8 Keeps and Breaks

Keep and break conditions apply to a class of areas, which are typically page-reference-areas, column-areas, and line-areas. The appropriate class for a given condition is referred to as a context and an area in this class is a context-area. As defined in Section 6.4.1 Introduction, page-reference-areas are areas generated by an fo:page-sequence using the specifications in an fo:page-master, and column-areas are normal-flow-reference-areas generated from a region-body, or region-reference-areas generated from other types of region-master.

A keep or break condition is an open statement about a formatting object and the tree relationships of the areas it generates with the relevant context-areas. These tree relationships are defined mainly in terms of leading or trailing areas. If A is a descendant of P, then A is defined to be leading in P if A has no preceding sibling which is a normal area, nor does any of its ancestor areas up to but not including P. Similarly, A is defined to be trailing in P if A has no following sibling which is a normal area, nor does any of its ancestor areas up to but not including P. For any given formatting object, the next formatting object in the flow is the first formatting object following (in the pre-order traversal order) which is not a descendant of the given formatting object and which generates and returns normal areas.

Break conditions are either break-before or break-after conditions. A break-before condition is satisfied if the first area generated and returned by the formatting object is leading within a context-area. A break-after condition depends on the next formatting object in the flow; the condition is satisfied if either there is no such next formatting object, or if the first normal area generated and returned by that formatting object is leading in a context-area.

Break conditions are imposed by the break-before and break-after properties. A refined value of page for these traits imposes a break condition with a context consisting of the page-reference-areas; a value of even-page or odd-page imposes a break condition with a context of even-numbered page-reference-areas or odd-numbered page-reference-areas, respectively; a value of column imposes a break condition with a context of column-areas. A value of auto in a break-before or break-after trait imposes no break condition.

Keep conditions are either keep-with-previous, keep-with-next, or keep-together conditions. A keep-with-previous condition on an object is satisfied if the first area generated and returned by the formatting object is not leading within a context-area, or if there are no preceding areas in a post-order traversal of the area tree. A keep-with-next condition is satisfied if the last area generated and returned by the formatting object is not trailing within a context-area, or if there are no following areas in a pre-order traversal of the area tree. A keep-together condition is satisfied if all areas generated and returned by the formatting object are descendants of a single context-area.

Keep conditions are imposed by the "within-page", "within-column", and "within-line" components of the "keep-with-previous", "keep-with-next", and "keep-together" properties. The refined value of each component specifies the strength of the keep condition imposed, with higher numbers being stronger than lower numbers and the value always being stronger than all numeric values. A component with value auto does not impose a keep condition. A "within-page" component imposes a keep-condition with context consisting of the page-reference-areas; "within-column", with context consisting of the column-areas; and "within-line" with context consisting of the line-areas.

The area tree is constrained to satisfy all break conditions imposed. Each keep condition must also be satisfied, except when this would cause a break condition or a stronger keep condition to fail to be satisfied. If not all of a set of keep conditions of equal strength can be satisfied, then some maximal satisfiable subset of conditions of that strength must be satisfied (together with all break conditions and maximal subsets of stronger keep conditions, if any).

4.9 Rendering Model

This section makes explicit the relationship between the area tree and visually rendered output.

Areas generate three types of marks: (1) the area background, if any, (2) the marks intrinsic to the area (a glyph, image, or decoration) if any, and (3) the area border, if any.

An area tree is rendered by causing marks to appear on an output medium in accordance with the areas in the area tree. This section describes the geometric location of such marks, and how conflicts between marks are to be resolved.

4.9.1 Geometry

Each area is rendered in a particular location. Formatting object semantics describe the location of intrinsic marks relative to the object's location, i.e., the left, right, top, and bottom edges of its content-rectangle. This section describes how the area's location is determined, which determines the location of its intrinsic marks.

For each page, the page-viewport-area corresponds isometrically to the output medium.

The page-reference-area is offset from the page-viewport-area as described below in section 4.9.2 Viewport Geometry.

All areas in the tree with an area-class of xsl-fixed are positioned such that the left-, right-, top-, and bottom-edges of its content-rectangle are offset inward from the content-rectangle of its ancestor page-viewport-area by distances specified by the left-position, right-position, top-position, and bottom-position traits, respectively.

Any area in the tree which is the child of a viewport-area is rendered as described in section 4.9.2 Viewport Geometry.

All other areas in the tree are positioned such that the left-, right-, top-, and bottom-edges of its content-rectangle are offset inward from the content-rectangle of its nearest ancestor reference-area by distances specified by the left-position, right-position, top-position, and bottom-position traits, respectively. These are shifted down and left by the values of the top-offset and left-offset traits, respectively, if the area has a relative-position of relative.

4.9.2 Viewport Geometry

A reference-area which is the child of a viewport-area is positioned such that the start-edge and end-edge of its content-rectangle are parallel to the start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of its parent viewport-area. The start-edge of its content-rectangle is offset from the start-edge of the content-rectangle of its parent viewport-area by an inline-scroll-amount, and the before-edge of its content-rectangle is offset from the before-edge of the content-rectangle of its parent viewport-area by a block-scroll-amount.

If the block-progression-dimension of the reference-area is larger than that of the viewport-area and the overflow trait for the reference-area is scroll, then the inline-scroll-amount and block-scroll-amount are determined by a scrolling mechanism, if any, provided by the user agent. Otherwise, both are zero.

4.9.3 Visibility

The visibility of marks depends upon the location of the marks, the visibility of the area, and the overflow of any ancestor viewport-areas.

If an area has visibility hidden it generates no marks.

If an area has an overflow of hidden, or when the environment is non-dynamic and the overflow is scroll then the area determines a clipping rectangle, which is defined to be the rectangle determined by the value of the clip trait of the area, and for any mark generated by one of its descendant areas, portions of the mark lying outside the clipping rectangle do not appear.

4.9.4 Border, Padding, and Background

The border- and padding-rectangles are determined relative to the content-rectangle by the values of the common padding and border width traits (border-before-width, etc.).

For any area, which is not a child of a viewport-area, the border is rendered between the border-rectangle and the padding-rectangle in accordance with the common border color and style traits. For a child of a viewport-area, the border is not rendered.

For an area, which is not part of a viewport/reference pair, the background is rendered. For an area that is either a viewport-area or a reference-area in a viewport/reference pair, if the refined value of background-attachment is scroll and the block-progression-dimension of the reference-area is larger than that of the viewport-area, then the background is rendered on the reference-area and not the viewport-area, and otherwise it is rendered on the viewport-area and not the reference-area.

The background, if any, is rendered in the padding-rectangle, in accordance with the background-image, background-color, background-repeat, background-position-vertical, and background-position-horizontal traits.

4.9.5 Intrinsic Marks

For each class of formatting objects, the marks intrinsic to its generated areas are specified in the formatting object description. For example, an fo:character object generates a glyph-area, and this is rendered by drawing a glyph within that area's content-rectangle in accordance with the area's font traits and glyph-orientation and blink traits.

In addition, other traits (for example the various score and score-color traits) specify other intrinsic marks. In the case of score traits (underline-score, overline-score and through-score), the score thickness and position are specified by the nominal-font in effect; where the font fails to specify these quantities, they are implementation-dependent.

4.9.6 Layering and Conflict of Marks

Marks are layered as described below, which defines a partial ordering of which marks are beneath which other marks.

Two marks are defined to conflict if they apply to the same point in the output medium. When two marks conflict, the one which is beneath the other does not affect points in the output medium where they both apply.

Marks generated by the same area are layered as follows: the area background is beneath the area's intrinsic marks, and the intrinsic marks are beneath the border. Layering among the area's intrinsic marks is defined by the semantics of the area's generating formatting object and its properties. For example, a glyph-area's glyph drawing comes beneath the marks generated for text-decoration.

The stacking layer of an area is defined by its stacking context and its z-index value. The stacking layer of an area A is defined to be less than that of an area B if some ancestor-or-self A' of A and B' of B have the same stacking context and the z-index of A' is less than the z-index of B'. If neither stacking layer is less than the other then they are defined to have the same stacking layer.

If A and B are areas, and the stacking layer of A is less than the stacking layer of B, then all marks generated by A are beneath all marks generated by B.

If A and B are areas with the same stacking layer, the backgrounds of A and B come beneath all other marks generated by A and B. Further, if A is an ancestor of B (still with the same stacking layer), then the background of A is beneath all the areas of B, and all the areas of B are beneath the intrinsic areas (and border) of A.

If A and B have the same stacking layer and neither is an ancestor of the other, then it is an error if either their backgrounds conflict or if a non-background mark of A conflicts with a non-background mark of B. An implementation may recover by proceeding as if the marks from the first area in the pre-order traversal order are beneath those of the other area.

4.10 Sample Area Tree

A typical area tree   [D]

A Typical Area Tree

5 Property Refinement / Resolution

Every formatting property may be specified on every formatting object. For each formatting object class, however, only a subset of the formatting properties are used; those that apply to the class.

During refinement the set of properties that apply to a formatting object is transformed into a set of traits that define constraints on the result of formatting. For many traits there is a one-to-one correspondence with a property; for other traits the transformation is more complex. Details on the transformation are described below.

The first step in refinement of a particular formatting object is to obtain the effective value of each property that applies to the object. Any shorthand property specified on the formatting object is expanded into the individual properties. This is further described in 5.2 Shorthand Expansion. For any property that has not been specified on the object the inherited (see 5.1.4 Inheritance) or initial value, as applicable, is used as the effective value. The second step is to transform this property set into traits.

Note:

Although the refinement process is described in a series of steps, this is solely for the convenience of exposition and does not imply they must be implemented as separate steps in any conforming implementation. A conforming implementation must only achieve the same effect.

5.1 Specified, Computed, and Actual Values, and Inheritance

For every property that is applicable to a given formatting object, it is necessary to determine the value of the property. Three variants of the property value are distinguished: the specified value, the computed value, and the actual value. The "specified value" is one that is placed on the formatting object during the tree-construction process. A specified value may not be in a form that is directly usable; for example, it may be a percentage or other expression that must be converted into an absolute value. A value resulting from such a conversion is called the "computed value". Finally, the computed value may not be realizable on the output medium and may need to be adjusted prior to use in rendering. For example, a line width may be adjusted to become an integral number of output medium pixels. This adjusted value is the "actual value."

5.1.1 Specified Values

The specified value of a property is determined using the following mechanisms (in order of precedence):

  1. If the tree-construction process placed the property on the formatting object, use the value of that property as the specified value. This is called "explicit specification".

  2. Otherwise, if the property is inheritable, use the value of that property from the parent formatting object, generally the computed value (see below).

  3. Otherwise use the property's initial value, if it has one. The initial value of each property is indicated in the property's definition. If there is no initial value, that property is not specified on the formatting object. In general, this is an error.

Since it has no parent, the root of the result tree cannot use values from a parent formatting object; in this case, the initial value is used if necessary.

5.1.2 Computed Values

Specified values may be absolute (i.e., they are not specified relative to another value, as in "red" or "2mm") or relative (i.e., they are specified relative to another value, as in "auto", "2em", and "12%"), or they may be expressions. For most absolute values, no computation is needed to find the computed value. Relative values, on the other hand, must be transformed into computed values: percentages must be multiplied by a reference value (each property defines which value that is), values with a relative unit (em) must be made absolute by multiplying with the appropriate font size, "auto" values must be computed by the formulas given with each property, certain property values ("smaller", "bolder") must be replaced according to their definitions. The computed value of any property that controls a border width where the style of the border is "none" is forced to be "0pt".

Some properties have more than one way in which the property value can be specified. The simplest example of such properties are those which can be specified either in terms of a direction relative to the writing-mode (e.g., padding-before) or a direction in terms of the absolute geometric orientation of the viewport (e.g., padding-top). These two properties are called the relative property and the absolute property, respectively. Collectively, they are called "corresponding properties".

Specifying a value for one property determines both a computed value for the specified property and a computed value for the corresponding property. Which relative property corresponds to which absolute property depends on the writing-mode. For example, if the "writing-mode" at the top level of a document is "lr-tb", then "padding-start" corresponds to "padding-left", but if the "writing-mode" is "rl-tb", then "padding-start" corresponds to "padding-right". The exact specification of how to compute the values of corresponding properties is given in 5.3 Computing the Values of Corresponding Properties.

In most cases, elements inherit computed values. However, there are some properties whose specified value may be inherited (e.g., some values for the "line-height" property). In the cases where child elements do not inherit the computed value, this is described in the property definition.

5.1.3 Actual Values

A computed value is in principle ready to be used, but a user agent may not be able to make use of the value in a given environment. For example, a user agent may only be able to render borders with integer pixel widths and may, therefore, have to adjust the computed width to an integral number of media pixels. The actual value is the computed value after any such adjustments have been applied.

5.1.4 Inheritance

Some of the properties applicable to formatting objects are "inheritable." Such properties are so identified in the property description. The inheritable properties can be placed on any formatting object. The inheritable properties are propagated down the formatting object tree from a parent to each child. (These properties are given their initial value at the root of the result tree.) For a given inheritable property, if that property is present on a child, then that value of the property is used for that child (and its descendants until explicitly re-set in a lower descendant); otherwise, the specified value of that property on the child is the computed value of that property on the parent formatting object. Hence there is always a specified value defined for every inheritable property for every formatting object.

5.2 Shorthand Expansion

In XSL there are two kinds of shorthand properties; those originating from CSS, such as "border", and those that arise from breaking apart and/or combining CSS properties, such as "page-break-inside". In XSL both types of shorthands are handled in the same way.

Note:

Shorthands are included only in the highest XSL conformance level: "complete" (see 8 Conformance).

The conformance level for each property is shown in C.3 Property Table: Part II.

Shorthand properties do not inherit from the shorthand on the parent. Instead the individual properties that the shorthand expands into may inherit.

Some CSS shorthands are interrelated; their expansion has one or more individual properties in common. CSS indicates that the user must specify the order of processing for combinations of multiple interrelated shorthands and individual interrelated properties. In XML, attributes are defined as unordered. To resolve this issue, XSL defines a precedence order when multiple interrelated shorthand properties or a shorthand property and an interrelated individual property are specified:

They are processed in increasing precision (i.e., "border" is less precise than "border-top", which is less precise than "border-top-color"). The individual properties are always more precise than any shorthand. For the remaining ambiguous case, XSL defines the ordering to be:

  1. "border-style", "border-color", and "border-width" is less precise than

  2. "border-top", "border-bottom", "border-right", and "border-left".

Processing is conceptually in the following steps:

  1. Set the effective value of all properties to their initial values.

  2. Process all shorthands in increasing precision.

    If the shorthand is set to "inherit": set the effective value of each property that can be set by the shorthand to the computed value of the corresponding property in the parent.

    If the value of the shorthand is not "inherit": determine which individual properties are to be set, and replace the initial value with the computed value derived from the specified value.

  3. Process all specified individual properties.

  4. Carry out any inheritance for properties that were not given a value other than by the first step.

Note:

For example, if both the "background" and the "background-color" properties are specified on a given formatting object: process the "background" shorthand, then process the "background-color" property.

5.3 Computing the Values of Corresponding Properties

Where there are corresponding properties, such as "padding-left" and "padding-start", a computed value is determined for all the corresponding properties. How the computed values are determined for a given formatting object is dependent on which of the corresponding properties are specified on the object. See description below.

The correspondence mapping from absolute to relative property is as follows:

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "top-to-bottom": "top" maps to "before", and "bottom" maps to "after".

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "bottom-to-top": "top" maps to "after", and "bottom" maps to "before".

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "left-to-right": "left" maps to "before", and "right" maps to "after".

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "right-to-left": "left" maps to "after", and "right" maps to "before".

If the "writing-mode" specifies an inline-progression-direction of "left-to-right": "left" maps to "start", and "right" maps to "end".

If the "writing-mode" specifies an inline-progression-direction of "right-to-left": "left" maps to "end", and "right" maps to "start".

If the "writing-mode" specifies an inline-progression-direction of "top-to-bottom": "top" maps to "start", and "bottom" maps to "end".

If the "writing-mode" specifies an inline-progression-direction of "bottom-to-top": "top" maps to "end", and "bottom" maps to "start".

If the "writing-mode" specifies an inline-progression-direction of "left-to-right" for odd-numbered lines, and "right-to-left" for even-numbered lines: "left" maps to "start", and "right" maps to "end".

Note:

"reference-orientation" is a rotation and does not influence the correspondence mapping.

5.3.1 Border and Padding Properties

The simplest class of corresponding properties are those for which there are only two variants in the correspondence, an absolute property and a relative property, and the property names differ only in the choice of absolute or relative designation; for example, "border-left-color" and "border-start-color".

For this class, the computed values of the corresponding properties are determined as follows. If the corresponding absolute variant of the property is specified on the formatting object, its computed value is used to set the computed value of the corresponding relative property. If the corresponding absolute property is not explicitly specified, then the computed value of the absolute property is set to the computed value of the corresponding relative property. If the corresponding relative property is specified on the formatting object and the absolute property only specified by the expansion of a shorthand, then the computed value of the absolute property is set to the computed value of the corresponding relative property.

Note that if both the absolute and the relative properties are not explicitly specified, then the rules for determining the specified value will use either inheritance if that is defined for the property or the initial value. The initial value must be the same for all possible corresponding properties. If both an absolute and a corresponding relative property are explicitly specified, then the above rule gives precedence to the absolute property, and the specified value of the corresponding relative property is ignored in determining the computed value of the corresponding properties.

The (corresponding) properties that use the above rule to determine their computed value are:

  • border-after-color

  • border-before-color

  • border-end-color

  • border-start-color

  • border-after-style

  • border-before-style

  • border-end-style

  • border-start-style

  • border-after-width

  • border-before-width

  • border-end-width

  • border-start-width

  • padding-after

  • padding-before

  • padding-end

  • padding-start

5.3.2 Margin, Space, and Indent Properties

The "space-before", and "space-after" properties (block-level formatting objects), "space-start", and "space-end" properties (inline-level formatting objects) are handled in the same way as the properties immediately above, but the corresponding absolute properties are in the set: "margin-top", "margin-bottom", "margin-left", and "margin-right". The .conditionality component of any space-before or space-after determined from a margin property is set to "retain".

Note:

The treatment of the .conditionality component is for CSS2 compatibility.

Note:

The computed value of a CSS2 margin in the block-progression-dimension specified as "auto" is 0pt. Any space-before or space-after determined from a margin value of "auto" is set to 0pt.

There are two more properties, "end-indent" and "start-indent" (block-level formatting objects) which correspond to the various absolute "margin" properties. For these properties, the correspondence is more complex and involves the corresponding "border-X-width" and "padding-X" properties, where X is one of "left", "right", "top" or "bottom". The computed values of these corresponding properties are determined as follows:

If the corresponding absolute "margin" property is specified on the formatting object and the formatting object generates a reference area the computed value of the margin is used to calculate the computed value of the corresponding "Y-indent" property, where Y is either "start" or "end". The computed value of the of the absolute "margin" property is determined by the CSS descriptions of the properties and the relevant sections (in particular section 10.3) of the CSS Recommendation referenced by these properties. The formulae for "start-indent" and "end-indent" are":

start-indent = margin-corresponding + padding-corresponding + border-corresponding-width

end-indent = margin-corresponding + padding-corresponding + border-corresponding-width

If the corresponding absolute "margin" property is specified on the formatting object and the formatting object does not generate a reference area, the computed value of the margin and the computed values of the corresponding "border-X-width" and "padding-X" properties are used to calculate the computed value of the corresponding "Y-indent" property. The formulae for "start-indent" and "end-indent" are:

start-indent = inherited_value_of(start-indent) + margin-corresponding + padding-corresponding + border-corresponding-width

end-indent = inherited_value_of(end-indent) + margin-corresponding + padding-corresponding + border-corresponding-width

If the corresponding absolute margin property is not explicitly specified, or if the corresponding relative property is specified on the formatting object and the absolute property only specified by the expansion of a shorthand, the corresponding absolute margin property is calculated according to the following formulae:

margin-corresponding = start-indent - inherited_value_of(start-indent) - padding-corresponding - border-corresponding-width

margin-corresponding = end-indent - inherited_value_of(end-indent) - padding-corresponding - border-corresponding-width

Note:

If the "start-indent" or "end-indent" properties are not specified their inherited value is used in these formulae.

5.3.3 Height, and Width Properties

Based on the writing-mode in effect for the formatting object, either the "height", "min-height", and "max-height" properties, or the "width", "min-width", and "max-width" properties are converted to the corresponding block-progression-dimension, or inline-progression-dimension.

The "height" properties are absolute and indicate the dimension from "top" to "bottom"; the width properties the dimension from "left" to "right".

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "top-to-bottom" or "bottom-to-top" the conversion is as follows:

  • If any of "height", "min-height", or "max-height" is specified:

    • If "height" is specified then first set:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=<height>

      block-progression-dimension.optimum=<height>

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=<height>

    • If "height" is not specified, then first set:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=auto

      block-progression-dimension.optimum=auto

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

    • Then, if "min-height" is specified, reset:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=<min-height>

    • Then, if "max-height" is specified, reset:

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=<max-height>

    • However, if "max-height" is specified as "none", reset:

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

  • If any of "width", "min-width", or "min-width" is specified:

    • If "width" is specified then first set:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<width>

      inline-progression-dimension.optimum=<width>

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<width>

    • If "width" is not specified, then first set:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=auto

      inline-progression-dimension.optimum=auto

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

    • Then, if "min-width" is specified, reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<min-width>

    • Then, if "max-width" is specified, reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<max-width>

    • However, if "max-width" is specified as "none", reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

If the "writing-mode" specifies a block-progression-direction of "left-to-right" or "right-to-left" the conversion is as follows:

  • If any of "height", "min-height", or "max-height" is specified:

    • If "height" is specified then first set:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<height>

      inline-progression-dimension.optimum=<height>

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<height>

    • If "height" is not specified, then first set:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=auto

      inline-progression-dimension.optimum=auto

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

    • Then, if "min-height" is specified, reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<min-height>

    • Then, if "max-height" is specified, reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<max-height>

    • However, if "max-height" is specified as "none", reset:

      inline-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

  • If any of "width", "min-width", or "min-width" is specified:

    • If "width" is specified then first set:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=<width>

      block-progression-dimension.optimum=<width>

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=<width>

    • If "width" is not specified, then first set:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=auto

      block-progression-dimension.optimum=auto

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

    • Then, if "min-width" is specified, reset:

      block-progression-dimension.minimum=<min-width>

    • Then, if "max-width" is specified, reset:

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=<max-width>

    • However, if "max-width" is specified as "none", reset:

      block-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

5.3.4 Overconstrained Geometry

The sum of the start-indent, end-indent, and inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of an area should be equal to the inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the closest ancestor reference-area. In the case where a specification would lead to them being different the end-indent (and thus the corresponding margin) is adjusted such that the equality is true.

5.4 Simple Property to Trait Mapping

The majority of the properties map into traits of the same name. Most of these also simply copy the value from the property. These are classified as "Rendering", "Formatting", "Specification", "Font selection", "Reference", and "Action" in the property table in C.3 Property Table: Part II. For example, the property font-style="italic" is refined into a font-style trait with a value of "italic".

Some traits have a value that is different from the value of the property. These are classified as "Value change" in the property table. For example, the property background-position-horizontal="left" is refined into a background-position-horizontal trait with a value of "0pt". The value mapping for these traits is given below.

5.4.1 Background-position-horizontal and background-position-vertical Properties

A value of "top", "bottom", "left", "right", or "center" is converted to a length as specified in the property definition.

5.4.2 Column-number Property

If a value has not been specified on a formatting object to which this property applies the initial value is computed as specified in the property definition.

5.4.3 Text-align Property

A value of "left", or "right" is converted to the writing-mode relative value as specified in the property definition.

5.4.4 Text-align-last Property

A value of "left", or "right" is converted to the writing-mode relative value as specified in the property definition.

5.4.5 z-index Property

The value is converted to one that is absolute; i.e., the refined value is the specified value plus the refined value of z-index of its parent formatting object, if any.

5.4.6 Language Property

A value being a 2-letter code in conformance with [ISO639] is converted to the corresponding 3-letter [ISO639-2] terminology code, a 3-letter code in conformance with [ISO639-2] bibliographic code is converted to the corresponding 3-letter terminology code, a value of 'none' or 'mul' is converted to 'und'.

5.5 Complex Property to Trait Mapping

A small number of properties influence traits in a more complex manner. Details are given below.

5.5.1 Word spacing and Letter spacing Properties

These properties may set values for the space-start and space-end traits, as described in the property definitions.

5.5.2 Reference-orientation Property

The reference-orientation trait is copied from the reference-orientation property during refinement. During composition an absolute orientation is determined (see 4.2.2 Common Traits).

5.5.3 Writing-mode and Direction Properties

The writing-mode, direction, and unicode-bidi traits are copied from the properties of the same name during refinement. During composition these are used in the determination of absolute orientations for the block-progression-direction, inline-progression-direction, and shift-direction traits in accordance with 4.2.2 Common Traits.

5.5.4 Absolute-position Property

If absolute-position has the value "absolute" or "fixed", the values of the left-position, top-position, etc. traits are copied directly from the values of the "left", "top", etc. properties. Otherwise these traits' values are left undefined during refinement and determined during composition.

5.5.5 Relative-position Property

If relative-position has the value "relative" then the values of the left-offset and top-offset traits are copied directly from the "left" and "top" properties. If the "right" property is specified but "left" is not, then left-offset is set to the negative of the value of "right". If neither "left" nor "right" is specified the left-offset is 0. If the "bottom" property is specified but "top" is not, then top-offset is set to the negative of the value of "bottom". If neither "top" nor "bottom" is specified the top-offset is 0.

5.5.6 Text-decoration Property

The "text-decoration" property value provides values for the blink trait and a set of score and score-color traits. The specified color has the value of the color trait of the formatting object for which the "text-decoration" property is being refined.

A property value containing the token "underline" sets a value of "true" to the underline-score trait, and a value of specified color to the underline-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "overline" sets a value of "true" to the overline-score trait, and a value of specified color to the overline-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "line-through" sets a value of "true" to the through-score trait, and a value of specified color to the through-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "blink" sets a value of "true" to the blink trait.

A property value containing the token "no-underline" sets a value of "false" to the underline-score trait, and a value of specified color to the underline-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "no-overline" sets a value of "false" to the overline-score trait, and a value of specified color to the overline-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "no-line-through" sets a value of "false" to the through-score trait, and a value of specified color to the through-score-color trait.

A property value containing the token "no-blink" sets a value of "false" to the blink trait.

5.5.7 Font Properties

The font traits on an area are indirectly derived from the combination of the font properties, which are used to select a font, and the font tables from that font.

The abstract model that XSL assumes for a font is described in 7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data.

There is no XSL mechanism to specify a particular font; instead, a selected font is chosen from the fonts available to the User Agent based on a set of selection criteria. The selection criteria are the following font properties: "font-family", "font-style", "font-variant", "font-weight", "font-stretch", and "font-size", plus, for some formatting objects, one or more characters. The details of how the selection criteria are used is specified in the "font-selection-strategy" property (see 7.9.3 font-selection-strategy).

The nominal-font trait is set to the selected font. In the case where there is no selected font and the 'missing character' glyph is displayed, the nominal-font trait is set to the font containing that glyph, otherwise (i.e., some other mechanism was used to indicate that a character is not being displayed) the nominal-font is a system font.

The dominant-baseline-identifier and actual-baseline-table traits are derived from the value of the "dominant-baseline" property. The value of this property is a compound value with three components: a baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline, a baseline-table and a baseline-table font-size. The dominant-baseline-identifier is set from the first component. The baseline-table font-size is used to scale the the positions of the baselines from the baseline table and, then, the position of the dominant-baseline is subtracted from the positions of the other baselines to yield a table of offsets from the dominant baseline. This table is the value of the actual-baseline-table trait.

5.6 Non-property Based Trait Generation

The is-reference-area trait is set to "true" for specific formatting objects. The description of these formatting objects specify explicitly that this is the case. For all other formatting objects it is set to "false".

5.7 Property Based Transformations

5.7.1 Text-transform Property

The case changes specified by this property are carried out during refinement by changing the value of the "character" property appropriately.

Note:

The use of the "text-transform" property is deprecated in XSL due to its severe internationalization issues.

5.8 Unicode BIDI Processing

The characters in certain scripts are written horizontally from right to left. In some documents, in particular those written with the Arabic or Hebrew script, and in some mixed-language contexts, text in a single (visually displayed) block may appear with mixed directionality. This phenomenon is called bidirectionality, or "BIDI" for short.

The Unicode standard [UNICODE] defines a complex algorithm, the Unicode BIDI algorithm [UNICODE UAX #9], for determining the proper directionality of text. The algorithm is based on both an implicit part based on character properties, as well as explicit controls for embeddings and overrides.

The final step of refinement uses this algorithm and the Unicode bidirectional character type of each character to convert the implicit directionality of the text into explicit markup in terms of formatting objects. For example, a sub-sequence of Arabic characters in an otherwise English paragraph would cause the creation of an inline formatting object with the Arabic characters as its content, with a "direction" property of "rtl" and a "unicode-bidi" property of "bidi-override". The formatting object makes explicit the previously implicit right to left positioning of the Arabic characters.

As defined in [UNICODE UAX #9], the Unicode BIDI algorithm takes a stream of text as input, and proceeds in three main phases:

  1. Separation of the input text into paragraphs. The rest of the algorithm affects only the text between paragraph separators.

  2. Resolution of the embedding levels of the text. In this phase, the bidirectional character types, plus the Unicode directional formatting codes, are used to produce resolved embedding levels. The normative bidirectional character type for each character is specified in the Unicode Character Database [UNICODE Character Database].

  3. Reordering the text for display on a line-by-line basis using the resolved embedding levels, once the text has been broken into lines.

The algorithm, as described above, requires some adaptions to fit into the XSL processing model. First, the final, text reordering step is not done during refinement. Instead, the XSL equivalent of re-ordering is done during area tree generation. The inline-progression-direction of each glyph is used to control the stacking of glyphs as described in 4.2.5 Stacking Constraints. The inline-progression-direction is determined at the block level by the "writing-mode" property and within the inline formatting objects within a block by the "direction" and "unicode-bidi" properties that were either specified on inline formatting objects generated by tree construction or are on inline formatting objects introduced by this step of refinement (details below).

Second, the algorithm is applied to a sequence of characters coming from the content of one or more formatting objects. The sequence of characters is created by processing a fragment of the formatting object tree. A fragment is any contiguous sequence of children of some formatting object in the tree. The sequence is created by doing a pre-order traversal of the fragment down to the fo:character level. During the pre-order traversal, every fo:character formatting object adds a character to the sequence. Furthermore, whenever the pre-order scan encounters a node with a "unicode-bidi" property with a value of "embed" or "bidi-override", add a Unicode RLO/LRO or RLE/LRE character to the sequence as appropriate to the value of the "direction" and "unicode-bidi" properties. On returning to that node after traversing its content, add a Unicode PDF character. In this way, the formatting object tree fragment is flattened into a sequence of characters. This sequence of characters is called the flattened sequence of characters below.

Third, in XSL the algorithm is applied to delimited text ranges instead of just paragraphs. A delimited text range is a maximal flattened sequence of characters that does not contain any delimiters. Any formatting object that generates block-areas is a delimiter. It acts as a delimiter for its content. It also acts as a delimiter for its parent's content. That is, if the parent has character content, then its children formatting objects that generate block-areas act to break that character content into anonymous blocks each of which is a delimited text range. In a similar manner, the fo:multi-case formatting object acts as delimiter for its content and the content of its parent. Finally, text with an orientation that is not perpendicular to the dominant-baseline acts as a delimiter to text with an orientation perpendicular to the dominant-baseline. We say that text has an orientation perpendicular to the dominant-baseline if the glyphs that correspond to the characters in the text are all oriented perpendicular to the dominant-baseline.

Note:

In most cases, a delimited text range is the maximal sequence of characters that would be formatted into a sequence of one or more line-areas. For the fo:multi-case and the text with an orientation perpendicular to the dominant-baseline, the delimited range may be a sub-sequence of a line or sequence of lines. For example, in Japanese formatted in a vertical writing-mode, rotated Latin and Arabic text would be delimited by the vertical Japanese characters that immediately surround the Latin and Arabic text. Any formatting objects that generated inline-areas would have no affect on the determination of the delimited text range.

For each delimited text range, the inline-progression-direction of the nearest ancestor (including self) formatting object that generates a block-area determines the paragraph embedding level used in the Unicode BIDI algorithm. This is the default embedding level for the delimited text range.

Embedding levels are numbers that indicate how deeply the text is nested, and the default direction of text on that level. The minimum embedding level of text is zero, and the maximum embedding level is level 61. Having more than 61 embedding levels is an error. An XSL processor may signal the error. If it does not signal the error, it must recover by allowing a higher maximum number of embedding levels.

The second step of the Unicode BIDI algorithm labels each character in the delimited text range with a resolved embedding level. The resolved embedding level of each character will be greater than or equal to the paragraph embedding level. Right-to-left text will always end up with an odd level, and left-to-right and numeric text will always end up with an even level. In addition, numeric text will always end up with a higher level than the paragraph level.

Once the resolved embedding levels are determined for the delimited text range, new fo:bidi-override formatting objects with appropriate values for the "direction" and "unicode-bidi" properties are inserted into the formatting object tree fragment that was flattened into the delimited text range such that the following constraints are satisfied:

  1. For any character in the delimited text range, the inline-progression-direction of the character must match its resolved embedding level.

  2. For each resolved embedding level L from the paragraph embedding level to the maximum resolved embedding level, and for each maximal contiguous sequence of characters S for which the resolved embedding level of each character is greater than or equal to L,

    1. There is an inline formatting object F which has as its content the formatting object tree fragment that flattens to S and has a "direction" property consistent with the resolved embedding level L.

      Note:

      F need not be an inserted formatting object if the constraint is met by an existing formatting object or by specifying values for the "direction" and "unicode-bidi" properties on an existing formatting object.

    2. All formatting objects that contain any part of the sequence S are properly nested in F and retain the nesting relationships they had in the formatting object tree prior to the insertion of the new formatting objects.

      Note:

      Satisfying this constraint may require splitting one or more existing formatting objects in the formatting object tree each into a pair of formatting objects each of which has the same set of computed property values as the original, unsplit formatting object. One of the pair would be ended before the start of F or start after the end of F and the other would start after the start of F or would end before the end of F, respectively. The created pairs must continue to nest properly to satisfy this constraint. For example, assume Left-to-right text is represented by the character "L" and Right-to-left text is represented by "R". In the sub-tree

        <fo:block>
          LL
          <fo:inline id="A" color="red">LLLRRR</fo:inline>
          RR
        </fo:block>
      

      assuming a paragraph embedding level of "0", the resolved embedding levels would require the following (inserted and replicated) structure:

         <fo:block>
          LL
          <fo:inline id="A" color="red">LLL</fo:inline>
          <fo:bidi-override direction="rtl">
            <fo:inline color="red">RRR</fo:inline>
            RR
          </fo:bidi-override>
        </fo:block>
      

      Note that the fo:inline with id equal to "A" has been split into two fo:inlines, with only the first one retaining the original id of "A". Since id's must be unique within the formatting object tree, the computed value of any id must not be replicated in the second member of the pair.

  3. No fewer fo:bidi-override formatting objects can be inserted and still satisfy the above constraints. That is, add to the refined formatting object tree only as many fo:bidi-override formatting objects, beyond the formatting objects created during tree construction, as are needed to represent the embedding levels present in the document.

5.9 Expressions

All property value specifications in attributes within an XSL stylesheet can be expressions. These expressions represent the value of the property specified. The expression is first evaluated and then the resultant value is used to determine the value of the property.

Note:

The expression language supports operations on a limited set of datatypes. These do not include <angle>, <time>, and <frequency>. Values of these datatypes must be strings in the expression language. The definition of these datatypes specify the allowed form of these strings.

5.9.1 Property Context

Properties are evaluated against a property-specific context. This context provides:

  • A list of allowed resultant types for a property value.

  • Conversions from resultant expression value types to an allowed type for the property.

  • The current font-size value.

  • Conversions from relative numerics by type to absolute numerics within additive expressions.

Note:

It is not necessary that a conversion be provided for all types. If no conversion is specified, it is an error.

When a type instance (e.g., a string, a keyword, a numeric, etc.) is recognized in the expression it is evaluated against the property context. This provides the ability for specific values to be converted with the property context's specific algorithms or conversions for use in the evaluation of the expression as a whole.

For example, the "auto" enumeration token for certain properties is a calculated value. Such a token would be converted into a specific type instance via an algorithm specified in the property definition. In such a case the resulting value might be an absolute length specifying the width of some aspect of the formatting object.

In addition, this allows certain types like relative numerics to be resolved into absolute numerics prior to mathematical operations.

All property contexts allow conversions as specified in 5.9.12 Expression Value Conversions.

5.9.2 Evaluation Order

When a set of properties is being evaluated for a specific formatting object in the formatting object tree there is a specific order in which properties must be evaluated. Essentially, the "font-size" property must be evaluated first before all other properties. Once the "font-size" property has been evaluated, all other properties may be evaluated in any order.

When the "font-size" property is evaluated, the current font-size for use in evaluation is the font-size of the parent element. Once the "font-size" property has been evaluated, that value is used as the current font-size for all property contexts of all properties value expressions being further evaluated.

5.9.3 Basics

[1]   Expr   ::=   AdditiveExpr
[2]   PrimaryExpr   ::=   '(' Expr ')'
| Numeric
| Literal
| Color
| Keyword
| EnumerationToken
| FunctionCall

5.9.4 Function Calls

[3]   FunctionCall   ::=   FunctionName '(' ( Argument ( ',' Argument)*)? ')'
[4]   Argument   ::=   Expr

5.9.5 Numerics

A numeric represents all the types of numbers in an XSL expression. Some of these numbers are absolute values. Others are relative to some other set of values. All of these values use a floating-point number to represent the number-part of their definition.

A floating-point number can have any double-precision 64-bit format IEEE 754 value [IEEE 754]. These include a special "Not-a-Number" (NaN) value, positive and negative infinity, and positive and negative zero. See Section 4.2.3 of [JLS] for a summary of the key rules of the IEEE 754 standard.

[5]   Numeric   ::=   AbsoluteNumeric
| RelativeNumeric
[6]   AbsoluteNumeric   ::=   AbsoluteLength
[7]   AbsoluteLength   ::=   Number AbsoluteUnitName?
[8]   RelativeNumeric   ::=   Percent
| RelativeLength
[9]   Percent   ::=   Number '%'
[10]   RelativeLength   ::=   Number RelativeUnitName

The following operators may be used with numerics:

+

Performs addition.

-

Performs subtraction or negation.

*

Performs multiplication.

div

Performs floating-point division according to IEEE 754.

mod

Returns the remainder from a truncating division.

Note:

Since XML allows - in names, the - operator (when not used as a UnaryExpr negation) typically needs to be preceded by white space. For example the expression 10pt - 2pt means subtract 2 points from 10 points. The expression 10pt-2pt would mean a length value of 10 with a unit of "pt-2pt".

Note:

The following are examples of the mod operator:

  • 5 mod 2 returns 1

  • 5 mod -2 returns 1

  • -5 mod 2 returns -1

  • -5 mod -2 returns -1

Note:

The mod operator is the same as the % operator in Java and ECMAScript and is not the same as the IEEE remainder operation, which returns the remainder from a rounding division.

Numeric Expressions
[11]   AdditiveExpr   ::=   MultiplicativeExpr
| AdditiveExpr '+' MultiplicativeExpr
| AdditiveExpr '-' MultiplicativeExpr
[12]   MultiplicativeExpr   ::=   UnaryExpr
| MultiplicativeExpr MultiplyOperator UnaryExpr
| MultiplicativeExpr 'div' UnaryExpr
| MultiplicativeExpr 'mod' UnaryExpr
[13]   UnaryExpr   ::=   PrimaryExpr
| '-' UnaryExpr

Note:

The effect of this grammar is that the order of precedence is (lowest precedence first):

  • +, -

  • *, div, mod

and the operators are all left associative. For example, 2*3 + 4 div 5 is equivalent to (2*3) + (4 div 5).

If a non-numeric value is used in an AdditiveExpr and there is no property context conversion from that type into an absolute numeric value, the expression is invalid and considered an error.

5.9.6 Absolute Numerics

An absolute numeric is an absolute length which is a pair consisting of a Number and a UnitName raised to a power. When an absolute length is written without a unit, the unit power is assumed to be zero. Hence, all floating point numbers are a length with a power of zero.

Each unit name has associated with it an internal ratio to some common internal unit of measure (e.g., a meter). When a value is written in a property expression, it is first converted to the internal unit of measure and then mathematical operations are performed.

In addition, only the mod, addition, and subtraction operators require that the numerics on either side of the operation be absolute numerics of the same unit power. For other operations, the unit powers may be different and the result should be mathematically consistent as with the handling of powers in algebra.

A property definition may constrain an absolute length to a particular power. For example, when specifying font-size, the value is expected to be of power "one". That is, it is expected to have a single powered unit specified (e.g., 10pt).

When the final value of a property is calculated, the resulting power of the absolute numeric must be either zero or one. If any other power is specified, the value is an error.

5.9.7 Relative Numerics

Relative lengths are values that are calculated relative to some other set of values. When written as part of an expression, they are either converted via the property context into an absolute numeric or passed verbatim as the property value.

It is an error if the property context has no available conversion for the relative numeric and a conversion is required for expression evaluation (e.g., within an add operation).

5.9.7.1 Percents

Percentages are values that are counted in 1/100 units. That is, 10% as a percentage value is 0.10 as a floating point number. When converting to an absolute numeric, the percentage is defined in the property definition as being a percentage of some known property value. If the percentage evaluates to "auto" the complete expression evaluates to "auto".

For example, a value of "110%" on a "font-size" property would be evaluated to mean 1.1 times the current font size. Such a definition of the allowed conversion for percentages is specified on the property definition. If no conversion is specified, the resulting value is a percentage.

5.9.7.2 Relative Lengths

A relative length is a unit-based value that is measured against the current value of the font-size property.

There is only one relative unit of measure, the "em". The definition of "1em" is equal to the current font size. For example, a value of "1.25em" is 1.25 times the current font size.

When an em measurement is used in an expression, it is converted according to the font-size value of the current property's context. The result of the expression is an absolute length. See 7.9.4 font-size.

5.9.8 Strings

Strings are represented either as literals or as an enumeration token. All properties contexts allow conversion from enumeration tokens to strings. See 5.9.12 Expression Value Conversions.

5.9.9 Colors

A color is a set of values used to identify a particular color from a color space. Only RGB [sRGB] (Red, Green, Blue) and ICC (International Color Consortium) [ICC] colors are included in this Recommendation.

RGB colors are directly represented in the expression language using a hexadecimal notation. ICC colors can be specified through an rgb-icc function. Colors can also be specified through the system-color function or through conversion from an EnumerationToken via the property context.

5.9.10 Keywords

Keywords are special tokens in the grammar that provide access to calculated values or other property values. The allowed keywords are defined in the following subsections.

5.9.10.1 inherit

The property takes the same computed value as the property for the formatting object's parent object.

Note:

"inherit" is not allowed as an expression mixed with operations. The same functionality is provided by the from-parent() function, which can be mixed with operations.

5.9.11 Lexical Structure

When processing an expression, white space (ExprWhitespace) may be allowed before or after any expression token even though it is not explicitly defined as such in the grammar. In some cases, white space is necessary to make tokens in the grammar lexically distinct. Essentially, white space should be treated as if it does not exist after tokenization of the expression has occurred.

The following special tokenization rules must be applied in the order specified to disambiguate the grammar:

  • If the character following an NCName (possibly after intervening ExprWhitespace) is "(", then the token must be recognized as FunctionName.

  • A number terminates at the first occurrence of a non-digit character other than ".". This allows the unit token for length quantities to parse properly.

  • When an NCName immediately follows a Number, it should be recognized as a UnitName or it is an error.

  • The Keyword values take precedence over EnumerationToken.

  • If a NCName follows a numeric, it should be recognized as an OperatorName or it is an error.

Expression Lexical Structure
[14]   ExprToken   ::=   '(' | ')' | '%'
| Operator
| FunctionName
| EnumerationToken
| Number
[15]   Number   ::=    FloatingPointNumber
[16]   FloatingPointNumber   ::=   Digits ('.' Digits?)?
| '.' Digits
[17]   Digits   ::=   [0-9]+
[18]   Color   ::=   '#' AlphaOrDigits
[19]   AlphaOrDigits   ::=   [a-fA-F0-9]+
[20]   Literal   ::=   '"' [^"]* '"'
| "'" [^']* "'"
[21]   Operator   ::=   OperatorName
| MultiplyOperator
| '+' | '-'
[22]   OperatorName   ::=   'mod' | 'div'
[23]   MultiplyOperator   ::=   '*'
[24]   Keyword   ::=   'inherit'
[25]   FunctionName   ::=    NCName
[26]   EnumerationToken   ::=   NCName
[27]   AbsoluteUnitName   ::=   'cm' | 'mm' | 'in' | 'pt' | 'pc' | 'px'
[28]   RelativeUnitName   ::=   'em'
[29]   ExprWhitespace   ::=   S

5.9.12 Expression Value Conversions

Values that are the result of an expression evaluation may be converted into property value types. In some instances this is a simple verification of set membership (e.g., is the value a legal country code). In other cases, the value is expected to be a simple type like an integer and must be converted.

It is not necessary that all types be allowed to be converted. If the expression value cannot be converted to the necessary type for the property value, it is an error.

The following table indicates what conversions are allowed.

TypeAllowed ConversionsConstraints
NCName
  • Color, via the system-color() function.

  • Enumeration value, as defined in the property definition.

  • To a string literal

The value may be checked against a legal set of values depending on the property.
AbsoluteNumeric
  • Integer, via the round() function.

  • Color, as an RGB color value.

If converting to an RGB color value, it must be a legal color value from the color space.
RelativeLength
  • To an AbsoluteLength

The specific conversion to be applied is property specific and can be found in the definition of each property.

Note:

Conversions of compound property values are not allowed; thus for example, space-before.optimum="inherited-property-value(space-before)" is invalid. Permitted are, for example, space-before="inherited-property-value(space-before)" and space-before.optimum="inherited-property-value(space-before.optimum)" since they do not require conversion.

5.9.13 Definitions of Units of Measure

The units of measure in this Recommendation have the following definitions:

NameDefinition
cmSee [ISO31]
mmSee [ISO31]
in2.54cm
pt1/72in
pc12pt
pxSee 5.9.13.1 Pixels
emSee 5.9.7.2 Relative Lengths
5.9.13.1 Pixels

XSL interprets a 'px' unit to be a request for the formatter to choose a device-dependent measurement that approximates viewing one pixel on a typical computer monitor. This interpretation is follows:

  1. The preferred definition of one 'px' is:

    • The actual distance covered by the largest integer number of device dots (the size of a device dot is measured as the distance between dot centers) that spans a distance less-than-or-equal-to the distance specified by the arc-span rule in http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2//syndata.html#x39 or superceding errata.

    • A minimum of the size of 1 device dot should be used.

    • This calculation is done separately in each axis, and may have a different value in each axis.

  2. However, implementors may instead simply pick a fixed conversion factor, treating 'px' as an absolute unit of measurement (such as 1/92" or 1/72").

Note:

Pixels should not be mixed with other absolute units in expressions as they may cause undesirable effects. Also, particular caution should be used with inherited property values that may have been specified using pixels.

If the User Agent chooses a measurement for a 'px' that does not match an integer number of device dots in each axis it may produce undesirable effects, such as:

  • moiré patterns in scaled raster graphics

  • unrenderable overlapping areas when the renderer rounds fonts or graphics sizes upward to its actual dot-size

  • large spaces between areas when the renderer rounds fonts or graphics sizes downward to its actual dot-size

  • unreadable results including unacceptably small text/layout (for example, a layout was calculated at 72 dpi [dots per inch], but the renderer assumed the result was already specified in device dots and rendered it at 600 dpi).

Stylesheet authors should understand a pixel's actual size may vary from device to device:

  • stylesheets utilizing 'px' units may not produce consistent results across different implementations or different output devices from a single implementation

  • even if stylesheets are expressed entirely in 'px' units the results may vary on different devices

5.10 Core Function Library

5.10.1 Number Functions

numeric floor(numeric)

The floor function returns the largest (closest to positive infinity) integer that is not greater than the argument. The numeric argument to this function must be of unit power zero.

Note:

If it is necessary to use the floor function for a property where a unit power of one is expected, then an expression such as: "floor(1.4in div 1.0in)*1.0in" must be used. This also applies to the ceiling, round, and other such functions where a unit power of zero is required.

numeric ceiling(numeric)

The ceiling function returns the smallest (closest to negative infinity) integer that is not less than the argument. The numeric argument to this function must be of unit power zero.

numeric round(numeric)

The round function returns the integer that is closest to the argument. If there are two such numbers, then the one that is closest to positive infinity is returned. The numeric argument to this function must be of unit power zero.

numeric min(numeric, numeric)

The min function returns the minimum of the two numeric arguments. These arguments must have the same unit power.

numeric max(numeric, numeric)

The max function returns the maximum of the two numeric arguments. These arguments must have the same unit power.

numeric abs(numeric)

The abs function returns the absolute value of the numeric argument. That is, if the numeric argument is negative, it returns the negation of the argument.

5.10.2 Color Functions

color rgb(numeric, numeric, numeric)

The rgb function returns a specific color from the RGB color space. The parameters to this function must be numerics (real numbers) with a length power of zero.

color rgb-icc(numeric, numeric, numeric, NCName, numeric, numeric)

The rgb-icc function returns a specific color from the ICC Color Profile. The color profile is specified by the name parameter (the fourth parameter). This color profile must have been declared in the fo:declarations formatting object using an fo:color-profile formatting object.

The first three parameters specify a fallback color from the sRGB color space. This color is used when the color profile is not available.

The color is specified by a sequence of one or more color values (real numbers) specified after the name parameter. These values are specific to the color profile.

color system-color(NCName)

The system-color function returns a system defined color with a given name.

5.10.3 Font Functions

object system-font(NCName, NCName?)

The system-font function returns a characteristic of a system font. The first argument is the name of the system font and the second argument, which is optional, names the property that specifies the characteristic. If the second argument is omitted, then the characteristic returned is the same as the name of the property to which the expression is being assigned.

For example, the expression "system-font(heading,font-size)" returns the font-size characteristic for the system font named "heading". This is equivalent to the property assignment 'font-size="system-font(heading)"'.

5.10.4 Property Value Functions

object inherited-property-value(NCName?)

The inherited-property-value function returns the inherited value of the property whose name matches the argument specified, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated. It is an error if this property is not an inherited property. If the argument specifies a shorthand property and if the expression only consists of the inherited-property-value function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion of the shorthand with each property into which the shorthand expands, each having a value of inherited-property-value with an argument matching the property. It is an error if arguments matching a shorthand property are used in any other way. Similarly, if the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the inherited-property-value function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of inherited-property-value with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way.

The returned "inherited value" is the computed value of this property on this object's parent. For example, given the following:

<fo:list-block>
  ...
  <fo:list-item color="red">
    <fo:list-item-body background-color="green">
      <fo:block background-color="inherited-property-value(color)">
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
</fo:list-block>

The background-color property on the fo:block is assigned the value "red" because the (computed, after inheritance) value of the color (not background-color) property on the fo:list-item-body that is the parent of the fo:block is "red".

numeric label-end()

The label-end function returns the calculated label-end value for lists. See the definition in 7.30.11 provisional-label-separation.

numeric body-start()

The body-start function returns the calculated body-start value for lists. See the definition in 7.30.12 provisional-distance-between-starts.

object from-parent(NCName?)

The from-parent function returns a computed value (see 5.1 Specified, Computed, and Actual Values, and Inheritance) of the property whose name matches the argument specified, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated. The value returned is that for the parent of the formatting object for which the expression is evaluated. If there is no parent, the value returned is the initial value. If the argument specifies a shorthand property and if the expression only consists of the from-parent function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion of the shorthand with each property into which the shorthand expands, each having a value of from-parent with an argument matching the property. It is an error if arguments matching a shorthand property are used in any other way. Similarly, if the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the from-parent function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of from-parent with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way.

object from-nearest-specified-value(NCName?)

The from-nearest-specified-value function returns a computed value of the property whose name matches the argument specified, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated. The value returned is that for the closest ancestor of the formatting object for which the expression is evaluated on which there is an assignment of the property in the XML result tree in the fo namespace. If there is no such ancestor, the value returned is the initial value. If the argument specifies a shorthand property and if the expression only consists of the from-nearest-specified-value function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion of the shorthand with each property into which the shorthand expands, each having a value of from-nearest-specified-value with an argument matching the property. It is an error if arguments matching a shorthand property are used in any other way. Similarly, if the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the from-nearest-specified-value function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of from-nearest-specified-value with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way.

object from-page-master-region(NCName?)

The from-page-master-region function returns the computed value of the property whose name matches the argument specified, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated.

In XSL 1.1 this function may only be used as the value of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. In addition the argument of the function must be omitted. If an argument is present, it is an error.

The computed value of the designated property is taken from that property on the layout formatting object being used to generate the region viewport/reference area pair.

If this function is used in an expression on a formatting object, F, that is a descendant of an fo:page-sequence, then the computed value is taken from the region specification that was used to generate the nearest ancestor region reference area which has as its descendants the areas returned by F.

If the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the inherited-property-value function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of inherited-property-value with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way.

Note:

Consider the following example:

<fo:root>

<fo:layout-master-set>
  <fo:simple-page-master master-name="all-pages">
    <fo:region-body region-name="xsl-region-body" margin="0.75in"
                    writing-mode="tb-rl" />
    <fo:region-before region-name="xsl-region-before" extent="0.75in"/>
  </fo:simple-page-master>
  <fo:page-sequence-master master-name="default-sequence">
    <fo:repeatable-page-master-reference master-reference="all-pages"/>
  </fo:page-sequence-master>
</fo:layout-master-set>

<fo:page-sequence master-name="default-sequence">
  <fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
    <fo:block>
        [Content in a language which allows either
         horizontal or vertical formatting]
    </fo:block>
  </fo:flow>
</fo:page-sequence>

</fo:root>

This example shows a very simple page layout specification. There is a single simple-page-master, named "all-pages". This page-master has two regions defined upon it, "xsl-region-body" and "xsl-region-before". The region named "xsl-region-before" is a page header that accepts static-content (said content is omitted for simplicity in this example). The region named "xsl-region-body" is assigned the content of the single fo:flow in the single fo:page-sequence.

In this example, the definition of "xsl-region-body" has a "writing-mode" property. As written, the computed value of this property, "tb-rl", would have no effect on the writing-mode used to fill the region because the writing-mode value used when generating the region viewport/reference area pair would be the computed value on the fo:page-sequence that uses the "xsl-region-body" region definition to generate a region viewport/reference area pair. Since no "writing-mode" property is specified on either the fo:root nor its child, the fo:page-sequence, the initial value would be used for the writing mode for the content that fills the region reference area. The initial value of "writing-mode" is "lr-tb".

If, however, the above line that reads:

<fo:page-sequence master-name="default-sequence">

becomes

<fo:page-sequence master-name="default-sequence"
                  writing-mode="from-page-master-region()">

then the computed value of the "writing-mode" property on the region definitions would be used when instantiating all the viewport/reference area pairs. Thus for the xsl-region-body the specification on the region definition for "xsl-region-body" would be used and the content would receive vertical formatting instead of the default horizontal formatting. Similarly for the xsl-region-before, the computed value of the "writing-mode" on the region definition would be used, in this case the initial value of "lr-tb" inherited from fo:root and the content of the xsl-region-before would be formatted horizontally.

object from-table-column(NCName?)

The from-table-column function returns the inherited value of the property whose name matches the argument specified, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated, from the fo:table-column whose column-number matches the column for which this expression is evaluated and whose number-columns-spanned also matches any span. If there is no match for the number-columns-spanned, it is matched against a span of 1. If there is still no match, the initial value is returned. If the argument specifies a shorthand property and if the expression only consists of the from-table-column function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion of the shorthand with each property into which the shorthand expands, each having a value of from-table-column with an argument matching the property. It is an error if arguments matching a shorthand property are used in any other way. Similarly, if the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the from-table-column function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of from-table-column with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way. It is also an error to use this function on formatting objects that are not an fo:table-cell or its descendants.

numeric proportional-column-width(numeric)

The proportional-column-width function returns N units of proportional measure where N is the argument given to this function. The column widths are first determined ignoring the proportional measures. The difference between the table-width and the sum of the column widths is the available proportional width. One unit of proportional measure is the available proportional width divided by the sum of the proportional factors. It is an error to use this function on formatting objects other than an fo:table-column. It is also an error to use this function if the fixed table layout is not used.

object merge-property-values(NCName?)

The merge-property-values function returns a value of the property whose name matches the argument, or if omitted for the property for which the expression is being evaluated. The value returned is the specified value on the last fo:multi-property-set, of the parent fo:multi-properties, that applies to the User Agent state. If there is no such value, the computed value of the parent fo:multi-properties is returned. If the argument specifies a shorthand property and if the expression only consists of the merge-property-values function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion of the shorthand with each property into which the shorthand expands, each having a value of merge-property-values with an argument matching the property. It is an error if arguments matching a shorthand property are used in any other way. Similarly, if the argument specifies a property of a compound datatype and if the expression only consists of the merge-property-values function with an argument matching the property being computed, it is interpreted as an expansion with each component of the compound property having a value of merge-property-values with an argument matching the component. It is an error if arguments matching a property of a compound datatype are used in any other way.

Note:

The test for applicability of a User Agent state is specified using the "active-state" property.

It is an error to use this function on formatting objects other than an fo:wrapper that is the child of an fo:multi-properties.

5.11 Property Datatypes

Certain property values are described in terms of compound datatypes, in terms of restrictions on permitted number values, or strings with particular semantics.

The compound datatypes, such as space, are represented in the result tree as multiple attributes. The names of these attributes consist of the property name, followed by a period, followed by the component name. For example a "space-before" property may be specified as:

space-before.minimum="2.0pt"
space-before.optimum="3.0pt"
space-before.maximum="4.0pt"
space-before.precedence="0"
space-before.conditionality="discard"

A short form of compound value specification may be used, in cases where the datatype has some <length> components and for the <keep> datatype. In the first case the specification consists of giving a <length> value to an attribute with a name matching a property name. Such a specification gives that value to each of the <length> components and the initial value to all the non-<length> components. For example:

space-before="4.0pt"

is equivalent to a specification of

space-before.minimum="4.0pt"
space-before.optimum="4.0pt"
space-before.maximum="4.0pt"
space-before.precedence="0"
space-before.conditionality="discard"

Note:

Since a <percentage> value, that is not interpreted as "auto", is a valid <length> value it may be used in a short form.

For the <keep> datatype the specification consists of giving a value that is valid for a component to an attribute with a name matching a property name. Such a specification gives that value to each of the components. For example:

keep-together="always"

is equivalent to a specification of

keep-together.within-line="always"
keep-together.within-column="always"
keep-together.within-page="always"

Short forms may be used together with complete forms; the complete forms have precedence over the expansion of a short form. For example:

space-before="4.0pt"
space-before.maximum="6.0pt"

is equivalent to a specification of

space-before.minimum="4.0pt"
space-before.optimum="4.0pt"
space-before.maximum="6.0pt"
space-before.precedence="0"
space-before.conditionality="discard"

Compound values of properties are inherited as a unit and not as individual components. After inheritance any complete form specification for a component is used to set its value.

If the computed value of a corresponding relative property is set from the corresponding absolute property, the latter is used in determining all the components of the former.

Note:

For example, assuming a block-progression-direction of "top-to-bottom", in a specification of

margin-top="10.0pt"
space-before.minimum="4.0pt"

the explicit setting of one of the components of the corresponding relative property will have no effect.

The following defines the syntax for specifying the datatypes usable in property values:

<integer>

A signed integer value which consists of an optional '+' or '-' character followed by a sequence of digits. A property may define additional constraints on the value.

Note:

A '+' sign is allowed for CSS2 compatibility.

<number>

A signed real number which consists of an optional '+' or '-' character followed by a sequence of digits followed by an optional '.' character and sequence of digits. A property may define additional constraints on the value.

<length>

A signed length value where a 'length' is a real number plus a unit qualification. A property may define additional constraints on the value.

<length-range>

A compound datatype, with components: minimum, optimum, maximum. Each component is a <length>. If "minimum" is greater than optimum, it will be treated as if it had been set to "optimum". If "maximum" is less than optimum, it will be treated as if it had been set to "optimum". A property may define additional constraints on the values, and additional permitted values and their semantics; e.g. 'auto' or <percentage>.

<length-conditional>

A compound datatype, with components: length, conditionality. The length component is a <length>. The conditionality component is either "discard" or "retain". A property may define additional constraints on the values.

<length-bp-ip-direction>

A compound datatype, with components: block-progression-direction, and inline-progression-direction. Each component is a <length>. A property may define additional constraints on the values.

<space>

A compound datatype, with components: minimum, optimum, maximum, precedence, and conditionality. The minimum, optimum, and maximum components are <length>s. The precedence component is either "force" or an <integer>. The conditionality component is either "discard" or "retain". If "minimum" is greater than optimum, it will be treated as if it had been set to "optimum". If "maximum" is less than optimum, it will be treated as if it had been set to "optimum".

<keep>

A compound datatype, with components: within-line, within-column, and within-page. The value of each component is either "auto", "always", or an <integer>.

<angle>

A representation of an angle consisting of an optional '+' or '-' character immediately followed by a <number> immediately followed by an angle unit identifier. Angle unit identifiers are: 'deg' (for degrees), 'grad' (for grads), and 'rad' (for radians). The specified values are normalized to the range 0deg to 360deg. A property may define additional constraints on the value.

<percentage>

A signed real percentage which consists of an optional '+' or '-' character followed by a sequence of digits followed by an optional '.' character and sequence of digits followed by '%'. A property may define additional constraints on the value.

<character>

A single Unicode character valid in accordance with production [2] of [XML]. For example, "c" or "&#x2202;".

<string>

A sequence of characters.

Note:

Given the allowable Expression Value Conversions (5.9.12 Expression Value Conversions), a property value of type <string> must be a quoted value, an NCName, or a expression that evaluates to a <string>; anything else (e.g., an integer) is an error. An implementation may recover from this error by treating the unevaluated property value as a string.

<name>

A string of characters representing a name. It must conform to the definition of an NCName in [XML Names].

<family-name>

A string of characters identifying a font.

<color>

Either a string of characters representing a keyword or a color function defined in 5.10.2 Color Functions. The list of keyword color names is: aqua, black, blue, fuchsia, gray, green, lime, maroon, navy, olive, purple, red, silver, teal, white, and yellow.

<country>

A string of characters conforming to an ISO 3166 country code.

<language>

A string of characters conforming to either a [ISO639-2] 3-letter terminology or bibliographic code or a [ISO639] 2-letter code representing the name of a language.

<script>

A string of characters conforming to an ISO 15924 script code.

<id>

A string of characters conforming to the definition of an NCName in [XML Names] and is unique within the stylesheet.

<idref>

A string of characters conforming to the definition of an NCName in [XML Names] and that matches an ID property value used within the stylesheet.

<uri-specification>

A sequence of characters that is "url(", followed by optional white space, followed by an optional single quote (') or double quote (") character, followed by a URI reference as defined in [RFC2396], followed by an optional single quote (') or double quote (") character, followed by optional white space, followed by ")". The two quote characters must be the same and must both be present or absent. If the URI reference contains a single quote, the two quote characters must be present and be double quotes.

<shape>

"rect (" <top> <right> <bottom> <left> ")" where <top>, <bottom> <right>, and <left> specify offsets from the respective sides of the content rectangle of the area.

<top>, <right>, <bottom>, and <left> may either have a <length> value or 'auto'. Negative lengths are permitted. The value 'auto' means that a given edge of the clipping region will be the same as the edge of the content rectangle of the area (i.e., 'auto' means the same as '0pt'.)

<time>

A <number> immediately followed by a time unit identifier. Time unit identifiers are: 'ms' (for milliseconds) and 's' (for seconds).

<frequency>

A <number> immediately followed by a frequency unit identifier. Frequency unit identifiers are: 'Hz' (for Hertz) and 'kHz' (for kilo Hertz).

6 Formatting Objects

6.1 Introduction to Formatting Objects

The refined formatting object tree describes one or more intended presentations of the information within this tree. Formatting is the process which converts the description into a presentation. See 3 Introduction to Formatting. The presentation is represented, abstractly, by an area tree, as defined in the area model. See 4 Area Model. Each possible presentation is represented by one or more area trees in which the information in the refined formatting object tree is positioned on a two and one-half dimensional surface.

There are three kinds of formatting objects: (1) those that generate areas, (2) those that return areas, but do not generate them, and (3) those that are used in the generation of areas. The first and second kinds are typically called flow objects. The third kind is either a layout object or an auxiliary object. The kind of formatting object is indicated by the terminology used with the object. Formatting objects of the first kind are said to "generate one or more areas". Formatting objects of the second kind are said to "return one or more areas". Formatting objects of the first kind may both generate and return areas. Formatting objects of the third kind are "used in the generation of areas"; that is, they act like parameters to the generation process.

6.1.1 Definitions Common to Many Formatting Objects

This categorization leads to defining two traits which characterize the relationship between an area and the formatting objects which generate and return that area. These traits are generated-by and returned-by.

The value of the generated-by trait is a single formatting object. A formatting object F is defined to generate an area A if the semantics of F specify the generation of one or more areas and A is one of the areas thus generated, or is a substituted form of one of the areas thus generated, as specified in section 4.7.2 Line-building.

In the case of substituted glyph-areas, the generating formatting object is deemed to be the formatting object which generated the glyph-area which comes first in the sequence of substituted glyph-areas. In the case of an inserted glyph-area (e.g., an automatically-generated hyphen) the generating formatting object is deemed to be the generating formatting object of the last glyph-area preceding the inserted glyph-area in the pre-order traversal of the area tree.

The value of the returned-by trait is a set of pairs, where each pair consists of a formatting object and a positive integer. The integer represents the position of the area in the ordering of all areas returned by the formatting object.

A formatting object F is defined to return the sequence of areas A, B, C, ... if the pair (F,1) is a member of the returned-by trait of A, the pair (F,2) is a member of the returned-by trait of B, the pair (F,3) is a member of the returned-by trait of C, ...

If an area is a member of the sequence of areas returned by a formatting object, then either it was generated by the formatting object or it was a member of the sequence of areas returned by a child of that formatting object. Not all areas returned by a child of a formatting object need be returned by that formatting object. A formatting object may generate an area that has, as some of its children areas, areas returned by the children of that formatting object. These children (in the area tree) of the generated area are not returned by the formatting object to which they were returned.

A set of nodes in a tree is a lineage if:

  • there is a node N in the set such that all the nodes in the set are ancestors of N, and

  • for every node N in the set, if the set contains an ancestor of N, it also contains the parent of N.

The set of formatting objects that an area is returned by is a lineage.

Areas returned by a formatting object may be either normal or out-of-line. Normal areas represent areas in the "normal flow of text"; that is, they become area children of the areas generated by the formatting object to which they are returned. Normal areas have a returned-by lineage of size one. There is only one kind of normal area.

Out-of-line areas are areas used outside the normal flow of text either because they are absolutely positioned or they are part of a float or footnote. Out-of-line areas may have a returned-by lineage of size greater than one.

The area-class trait indicates which class, normal or out-of-line, an area belongs to. For out-of-line areas, it also indicates the subclass of out-of-line area. The values for this trait are: "xsl-normal", "xsl-absolute", "xsl-footnote", "xsl-side-float", or "xsl-before-float". An area is normal if and only if the value of the area-class trait is "xsl-normal"; otherwise, the area is an out-of-line area. (See section 4.2.5 Stacking Constraints.)

The areas returned-by a given formatting object are ordered as noted above. This ordering defines an ordering on the sub-sequence of areas that are of a given area-class, such as the sub-sequence of normal areas. An area A precedes an area B in the sub-sequence if and only if area A precedes area B in the areas returned-by the formatting objects.

A reference-area chain is defined as a sequence of reference-areas that is either generated by the same formatting object that is not a page-sequence formatting object, or that consists of the region reference-areas or normal-flow-reference-areas (see 6.4.14 fo:region-body) generated using region formatting objects assigned to the same flow (see 6.4.1.4 Flows and Flow Mapping). The reference-areas in the sequence are said to be "contained" by the reference-area chain, and they have the same ordering relative to each other in the sequence as they have in the area tree, using pre-order traversal order of the area tree.

6.2 Formatting Object Content

The content of a formatting object is described using XML content-model syntax. In some cases additional constraints, not expressible in XML content models, are given in prose.

The parameter entity, "%block;" in the content models below, contains the following formatting objects:

     block
     block-container
     table-and-caption
     table
     list-block

The parameter entity, "%inline;" in the content models below, contains the following formatting objects:

     bidi-override
     character
     external-graphic
     instream-foreign-object
     inline
     inline-container
     leader
     page-number
     page-number-citation
     page-number-citation-last
     scaling-value-citation
     basic-link
     multi-toggle
     index-page-citation-list

The following formatting objects are "neutral" containers and may be used, provided that the additional constraints listed under each formatting object are satisfied, anywhere where #PCDATA, %block;, or %inline; are allowed:

     multi-switch
     multi-properties
     index-range-begin
     index-range-end
     wrapper
     retrieve-marker

The following formatting objects are "neutral" containers that may be used as described by the constraints listed under each formatting object:

     retrieve-table-marker

The following formatting objects define "points" and may be used anywhere as a descendant of fo:flow or fo:static content:

     change-bar-begin
     change-bar-end

The following "out-of-line" formatting objects may be used anywhere where #PCDATA, %block;, or %inline; are allowed (except as a descendant of any "out-of-line" formatting object):

     float

The following "out-of-line" formatting objects may be used anywhere where #PCDATA or %inline; are allowed (except as a descendant of any "out-of-line" formatting object):

     footnote

6.3 Formatting Objects Summary

basic-link

The fo:basic-link is used for representing the start resource of a simple link.

bidi-override

The fo:bidi-override inline formatting object is used where it is necessary to override the default Unicode-bidirectional-algorithm direction for different (or nested) inline scripts in mixed-language documents.

block

The fo:block formatting object is commonly used for formatting paragraphs, titles, headlines, figure and table captions, etc.

block-container

The fo:block-container flow object is used to generate a block-level reference-area.

bookmark

The fo:bookmark formatting object is used to identify an access point, by name, and to specify where that access point is within the current document or another external document. A given bookmark may be further subdivided into a sequence of (sub-)bookmarks to as many levels as the authors desire.

bookmark-title

The fo:bookmark-title formatting object is used to identify, in human readable form, an access point.

bookmark-tree

The fo:bookmark-tree formatting object is used to hold a list of access points within the document such as a table of contents, a list of figures or tables, etc. Each access point is represented by a bookmark.

change-bar-begin

The fo:change-bar-begin is used to indicate the beginning of a "change region" that is ended by its matching fo:change-bar-end. The change region is decorated with a change bar down either the start or end edge of the column. The style of the change bar is determined by the value of various change bar related properties.

change-bar-end

The fo:change-bar-end is used to indicate the end of a "change region" that is started by its matching fo:change-bar-begin.

character

The fo:character flow object represents a character that is mapped to a glyph for presentation.

color-profile

Used to declare a color profile for a stylesheet.

conditional-page-master-reference

The fo:conditional-page-master-reference is used to identify a page-master that is to be used when the conditions on its use are satisfied.

declarations

Used to group global declarations for a stylesheet.

external-graphic

The fo:external-graphic flow object is used for a graphic where the graphics data resides outside of the XML result tree in the fo namespace.

float

The fo:float serves two purposes. It can be used so that during the normal placement of content, some related content is formatted into a separate area at beginning of the page (or of some following page) where it is available to be read without immediately intruding on the reader. Alternatively, it can be used when an area is intended to float to one side, with normal content flowing alongside.

flow

The content of the fo:flow formatting object is a sequence of flow objects that provides the flowing text content that is distributed into pages.

flow-assignment

The fo:flow-assignment is used to specify the assignment of one sequence of flows to a sequence of regions.

flow-map

The fo:flow-map is used to specify the assignment of flows to regions.

flow-name-specifier

The fo:flow-name-specifier is used to specify one flow in a source-list.

flow-source-list

The fo:flow-source-list is used to specify the sequence of flows to assign in a particular fo:flow-assignment.

flow-target-list

The fo:flow-target-list is used to specify the sequence of regions to which flows are assigned in a particular fo:flow-assignment.

folio-prefix

The fo:folio-prefix formatting object specifies a static prefix for the folio numbers within a page-sequence.

folio-suffix

The fo:folio-suffix formatting object specifies a static suffix for the folio numbers within a page-sequence.

footnote

The fo:footnote is used to produce a footnote citation and the corresponding footnote.

footnote-body

The fo:footnote-body is used to generate the content of the footnote.

index-key-reference

The fo:index-key-reference formatting object is used to generate a set of cited page items for all the occurrences of the specified index-key.

index-page-citation-list

The fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object is used to group together the sets of cited page items generated by its fo:index-key-reference children. The ultimate effect of the fo:index-page-citation-list is to generate a formatted list of page numbers and ranges.

index-page-citation-list-separator

The fo:index-page-citation-list-separator formatting object specifies the formatting objects used to separate singleton page numbers or page number ranges in the generated list of page numbers.

index-page-citation-range-separator

The fo:index-page-citation-range-separator formatting object specifies the formatting objects used to separate two page numbers forming a range in the generated list of page numbers.

index-page-number-prefix

The fo:index-page-number-prefix formatting object specifies a static prefix for the cited page items created by fo:index-key-reference.

index-page-number-suffix

The fo:index-page-number-suffix formatting object specifies a static suffix for the cited page items created by fo:index-key-reference.

index-range-begin

The fo:index-range-begin formatting object is used to indicate the beginning of an "indexed range" associated with an index key. The index range is ended by a corresponding fo:index-range-end.

index-range-end

The fo:index-range-end is used to indicate the end of an "indexed range" that is started by its matching fo:index-range-begin.

initial-property-set

The fo:initial-property-set specifies formatting properties for the first line of an fo:block.

inline

The fo:inline formatting object is commonly used for formatting a portion of text with a background or enclosing it in a border.

inline-container

The fo:inline-container flow object is used to generate an inline reference-area.

instream-foreign-object

The fo:instream-foreign-object flow object is used for an inline graphic or other "generic" object where the object data resides as descendants of the fo:instream-foreign-object.

layout-master-set

The fo:layout-master-set is a wrapper around all masters used in the document.

leader

The fo:leader formatting object is used to generate leaders consisting either of a rule or of a row of a repeating character or cyclically repeating pattern of characters that may be used for connecting two text formatting objects.

list-block

The fo:list-block flow object is used to format a list.

list-item

The fo:list-item formatting object contains the label and the body of an item in a list.

list-item-body

The fo:list-item-body formatting object contains the content of the body of a list-item.

list-item-label

The fo:list-item-label formatting object contains the content of the label of a list-item; typically used to either enumerate, identify, or adorn the list-item's body.

marker

The fo:marker is used in conjunction with fo:retrieve-marker or fo:retrieve-table-marker to produce running headers or footers.

multi-case

The fo:multi-case is used to contain (within an fo:multi-switch) each alternative sub-tree of formatting objects among which the parent fo:multi-switch will choose one to show and will hide the rest.

multi-properties

The fo:multi-properties is used to switch between two or more property sets that are associated with a given portion of content.

multi-property-set

The fo:multi-property-set is used to specify an alternative set of formatting properties that, dependent on a User Agent state, are applied to the content.

multi-switch

The fo:multi-switch wraps the specification of alternative sub-trees of formatting objects (each sub-tree being within an fo:multi-case), and controls the switching (activated via fo:multi-toggle) from one alternative to another.

multi-toggle

The fo:multi-toggle is used within an fo:multi-case to switch to another fo:multi-case.

page-number

The fo:page-number formatting object is used to represent the current page-number.

page-number-citation

The fo:page-number-citation is used to reference the page-number for the page containing the first normal area returned by the cited formatting object.

page-number-citation-last

The fo:page-number-citation-last is used to reference the page-number for the last page containing the an area that is (a) returned by the cited formatting object and (b) has an area-class that is consistent with the specified page-citation-strategy.

page-sequence

The fo:page-sequence formatting object is used to specify how to create a (sub-)sequence of pages within a document; for example, a chapter of a report. The content of these pages comes from flow children of the fo:page-sequence.

page-sequence-master

The fo:page-sequence-master specifies sequences of page-masters that are used when generating a sequence of pages.

page-sequence-wrapper

The fo:page-sequence-wrapper formatting object is used to specify inherited properties for a group of fo:page-sequence formatting objects. It has no additional formatting semantics.

region-after

This region defines a viewport that is located on the "after" side of fo:region-body region.

region-before

This region defines a viewport that is located on the "before" side of fo:region-body region.

region-body

This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located in the "center" of the fo:simple-page-master.

region-end

This region defines a viewport that is located on the "end" side of fo:region-body region.

region-name-specifier

The fo:region-name-specifier is used to specify one region in a target-list.

region-start

This region defines a viewport that is located on the "start" side of fo:region-body region.

repeatable-page-master-alternatives

An fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives specifies a sub-sequence consisting of repeated instances of a set of alternative page-masters. The number of repetitions may be bounded or potentially unbounded.

repeatable-page-master-reference

An fo:repeatable-page-master-reference specifies a sub-sequence consisting of repeated instances of a single page-master. The number of repetitions may be bounded or potentially unbounded.

retrieve-marker

The fo:retrieve-marker is used in conjunction with fo:marker to produce running headers or footers.

retrieve-table-marker

The fo:retrieve-table-marker is used in conjunction with fo:marker to produce table-headers and table-footers whose content can change over different pages.

root

The fo:root node is the top node of an XSL result tree. This tree is composed of formatting objects.

scaling-value-citation

The fo:scaling-value-citation is used to obtain the scale-factor applied to the cited fo:external-graphic.

simple-page-master

The fo:simple-page-master is used in the generation of pages and specifies the geometry of the page. The page is subdivided into regions.

single-page-master-reference

An fo:single-page-master-reference specifies a sub-sequence consisting of a single instance of a single page-master.

static-content

The fo:static-content formatting object holds a sequence or a tree of formatting objects that is to be presented in a single region or repeated in like-named regions on one or more pages in the page-sequence. Its common use is for repeating or running headers and footers.

table

The fo:table flow object is used for formatting the tabular material of a table.

table-and-caption

The fo:table-and-caption flow object is used for formatting a table together with its caption.

table-body

The fo:table-body formatting object is used to contain the content of the table body.

table-caption

The fo:table-caption formatting object is used to contain block-level formatting objects containing the caption for the table only when using the fo:table-and-caption.

table-cell

The fo:table-cell formatting object is used to group content to be placed in a table cell.

table-column

The fo:table-column formatting object specifies characteristics applicable to table cells that have the same column and span.

table-footer

The fo:table-footer formatting object is used to contain the content of the table footer.

table-header

The fo:table-header formatting object is used to contain the content of the table header.

table-row

The fo:table-row formatting object is used to group table-cells into rows.

title

The fo:title formatting object is used to associate a title with a given page-sequence. This title may be used by an interactive User Agent to identify the pages. For example, the content of the fo:title can be formatted and displayed in a "title" window or in a "tool tip".

wrapper

The fo:wrapper formatting object is used to specify inherited properties for a group of formatting objects. It has no additional formatting semantics.

6.4 Declarations and Pagination and Layout Formatting Objects

6.4.1 Introduction

The root node of the formatting object tree must be an fo:root formatting object. The children of the fo:root formatting object are a single fo:layout-master-set, an optional fo:declarations, an optional fo:bookmark-tree, and a sequence of one or more fo:page-sequences and/or fo:page-sequence-wrapper elements. The fo:layout-master-set defines the geometry and sequencing of the pages; the children of the fo:page-sequences, which are called flows (contained in fo:flow and fo:static-content), provide the content that is distributed into the pages. The fo:declarations object is a wrapper for formatting objects whose content is to be used as a resource to the formatting process. The process of generating the pages is done automatically by the XSL processor formatting the result tree.

The children of the fo:layout-master-set are the pagination and layout specifications and flow-map specifications. There are two types of pagination and layout specifications: page-masters and page-sequence-masters. Page-masters have the role of describing the intended subdivisions of a page and the geometry of these subdivisions. Page-sequence-masters have the role of describing the sequence of page-masters that will be used to generate pages during the formatting of an fo:page-sequence. Flow-maps have the role of assigning flows to regions.

6.4.1.1 Page-sequence-masters

Each fo:page-sequence-master characterizes a set of possible sequences of page-masters. For any given fo:page-sequence, only one of the possible set of sequences will be used. The sequence that is used is any sequence that satisfies the constraints determined by the individual page-masters, the flows which generate pages from the page-masters, and the fo:page-sequence-master itself.

The fo:page-sequence-master is used to determine which page-masters are used and in which order. The children of the fo:page-sequence-master are a sequence of sub-sequence specifications. The page-masters in a sub-sequence may be specified by a reference to a single page-master or as a repetition of one or more page-masters. For example, a sequence might begin with several explicit page-masters and continue with a repetition of some other page-master (or masters).

The fo:single-page-master-reference is used to specify a sub-sequence consisting of a single page-master.

There are two ways to specify a sub-sequence that is a repetition. The fo:repeatable-page-master-reference specifies a repetition of a single page-master. The fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives specifies the repetition of a set of page-masters. Which of the alternative page-masters is used at a given point in the sub-sequence is conditional and may depend on whether the page number is odd or even, is the first page, is the last page, or is blank. The "maximum-repeats" property on the repetition specification controls the number of repetitions. If this property is not specified, there is no limit on the number of repetitions.

6.4.1.2 Page-masters

A page-master is a master that is used to generate a page. A page is a viewport/reference pair in which the viewport-area is a child of the area tree root. A page-viewport-area is defined to be the viewport-area of a page, and a page-area is defined to be the unique child of a page-viewport-area.

The page-viewport-area is defined by the output medium; the page-area holds the page contents and has the effect of positioning the page contents on the output medium.

A single page-master may be used multiple times. Each time it is used it generates a single page; for example, a page-master that is referenced from an fo:repeatable-page-master-reference will be used by the fo:page-sequence to generate one page for each occurrence of the reference in the specified sub-sequence.

Note:

When pages are used with a User Agent such as a Web browser, it is common that the each document has only one page. The viewport used to view the page determines the size of the page. When pages are placed on non-interactive media, such as sheets of paper, pages correspond to one or more of the surfaces of the paper. The size of the paper determines the size of the page.

In this specification, there is only one kind of page-master, the fo:simple-page-master. Future versions of this specification may add additional kinds of page-masters.

An fo:simple-page-master has, as children, specifications for one or more regions.

A region specification is used as a master, the region-master, in generating a viewport/reference pair consisting of a region-viewport-area and a region-reference-area. The region-viewport-area is always a child of a page-area generated using the parent of the region-master.

Note:

The regions on the page are analogous to "frames" in an HTML document. Typically, at least one of these regions is of indefinite length in one of its dimensions. For languages with a lr-tb (or rl-tb) writing-mode, this region is typically of indefinite length in the top-to-bottom direction. The viewport represents the visible part of the frame. The flows assigned to the region are viewed by scrolling the region reference-area through the viewport.

Each region is defined by a region formatting object. Each region formatting object has a name and a definite position. In addition, the region's height or width is fixed and the other dimension may be either fixed or indefinite. For example, a region that is the body of a Web page may have indefinite height.

The specification of the region determines the size and position of region-viewport-areas generated using the region formatting object. The positioning of the viewport is relative to its page-area parent.

For version 1.1 of this Recommendation, a page-master will consist of the following regions: "region-body" (one or more) and four other regions, one on each side of the body. To allow the side regions to correspond to the current writing-mode, these regions are named "region-before" (which corresponds to "header" in the "lr-tb" writing-mode), "region-after" (which corresponds to "footer" in the "lr-tb" writing-mode), "region-start" (which corresponds to a "left-sidebar" in the "lr-tb" writing-mode) and "region-end" (which corresponds to a "right-sidebar" in the "lr-tb" writing-mode). It is expected that a future version of the Recommendation will introduce a mechanism that allows a page-master to contain an arbitrary number of arbitrarily sized and positioned regions.

Some types of region have conditional sub-regions associated with them, and the associated region-reference-areas are divided up by having child areas corresponding to the sub-regions, including a "main-reference-area" for the region. For region-masters to which the column-count property applies, the main-reference-area is further subdivided by having child-areas designated as "span-reference-areas" whose number depends upon the number of spans (i.e. block-areas with span="all") occurring on the page. These in turn are subdivided by having child-areas designated as "normal-flow-reference-areas", whose number depends on the number of columns specified.

6.4.1.3 Page Generation

Pages are generated by the formatter's processing of fo:page-sequences. As noted above, each page is a viewport/reference pair in which the viewport-area is a child of the area tree root. Each page is generated using a page-master to define the region-viewport-areas and region-reference-areas that correspond to the regions specified by that page-master.

Each fo:page-sequence references either an fo:page-sequence-master or a page-master. If the reference is to a page-master, this is interpreted as if it were a reference to an fo:page-sequence-master that repeats the referenced page-master an unbounded number of times. An fo:page-sequence references a page-master if either the fo:page-sequence directly references the page-master via the "master-reference" property or that property references an fo:page-sequence-master that references the page-master.

6.4.1.4 Flows and Flow Mapping

There are two kinds of flows: fo:static-content and fo:flow. An fo:static-content flow holds content, such as the text that goes into headers and footers, that is repeated on many of the pages. An fo:flow flow holds content that is distributed across a sequence of pages. The processing of the fo:flow flows is what determines how many pages are generated to hold the fo:page-sequence. The fo:page-sequence-master is used as the generator of the sequence of page-masters into which the flow children content is distributed.

The children of a flow are a sequence of block-level flow objects. Each flow has a name that is given by its "flow-name" property. No two flows that are children of the same fo:page-sequence may have the same name.

The assignment of flows to regions on a page-master is determined by a flow-map. The flow-map is an association between the flow children of the fo:page-sequence and regions defined within the page-masters referenced by that fo:page-sequence.

Flow-maps are specified by fo:flow-map formatting objects. An fo:page-sequence uses the flow-map indicated by its flow-map-reference property when assigning its flows to regions. If the flow-map-reference property is not specified for the page-sequence then the implicit flow-map is used for that page-sequence, as in version 1.0 of this Recommendation. The "flow-name" property of a flow specifies to which region that flow is assigned. Each region has a "region-name" property. The flow-map assigns a flow to the region that has the same name.

To avoid requiring users to generate region-names, the regions all have default values for the "region-name" property. The region-body, region-before, region-after, region-start, and region-end have the default names "xsl-region-body", "xsl-region-before", "xsl-region-after", "xsl-region-start", and "xsl-region-end", respectively. It is an error for a page master to have two region-body descendants with the default region-name.

In addition, an fo:static-content formatting object may have a "flow-name" property value of "xsl-before-float-separator" or "xsl-footnote-separator". If a conditional sub-region of the region-body is used to generate a reference-area on a particular page, the fo:static-content whose name corresponds to the conditional sub-region shall be formatted into the reference-area associated with the sub-region, as specified in 6.12.1.3 Conditional Sub-Regions.

6.4.1.5 Constraints on Page Generation

The areas that are descendants of a page-area are constrained by the page-master used to generate the page-area and the flows that are assigned to the regions specified on the page-master. For fo:flow flows, the areas generated by the descendants of the flow are distributed across the pages in the sequence according to the flow-map in effect for that page-sequence. For fo:static-content flows, the processing of the flow is repeated for each page generated using a page-master having the region to which the flow is assigned with two exceptions: for an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-before-float-separator, the processing is repeated only for those page-reference-areas which have descendant areas with an area-class of xsl-before-float, and for an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-footnote-separator, the processing is repeated only for those page-reference-areas which have descendant areas with an area-class of xsl-footnote.

6.4.1.6 Pagination Tree Structure

The result tree structure is shown below.

Tree representation of the Formatting Objects for pagination   [D]

Tree Representation of the Formatting Objects for Pagination

6.4.2 fo:root

Common Usage:

This is the top node of the formatting object tree. It holds an fo:layout-master-set formatting object (which holds all masters used in the document), an optional fo:declarations, an optional fo:bookmark-tree, and one or more fo:page-sequence or fo:page-sequence-wrapper objects. Each fo:page-sequence represents a sequence of pages that result from formatting the content children of the fo:page-sequence. An fo:page-sequence-wrapper can also occur as the child of fo:root. An fo:page-sequence-wrapper can contain zero or more fo:page-sequence objects or fo:page-sequence-wrappers. The fo:page-sequence-wrapper is used to specify inherited properties for the fo:page-sequence objects it wraps; it has no additional formatting semantics.

Note:

A document can contain multiple fo:page-sequences. For example, each chapter of a document could be a separate fo:page-sequence; this would allow chapter-specific content, such as the chapter title, to be placed within a header or footer.

Areas:

Page-viewport-areas are returned by the fo:page-sequence children of the fo:root formatting object. The fo:root does not generate any areas.

Constraints:

The children of the root of the area tree consist solely of, and totally of, the page-viewport-areas returned by the fo:page-sequence children of the fo:root. The set of all areas returned by the fo:page-sequence children is properly ordered. (See Section 4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints.)

Contents:

It is an error if there is not at least one fo:page-sequence descendant of fo:root.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.27.11 media-usage

6.4.3 fo:declarations

Common Usage:

The fo:declarations formatting object is used to group global declarations for a stylesheet.

Areas:

The fo:declarations formatting object does not generate or return any areas.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

The fo:declarations formatting object may have additional child elements in a non-XSL namespace. Their presence does not, however, change the semantics of the XSL namespace objects and properties. The permitted structure of these non-XSL namespace elements is defined for their namespace(s).

6.4.4 fo:color-profile

Common Usage:

The fo:color-profile formatting object is used to declare an ICC Color Profile for a stylesheet. The color-profile is referenced again via the name specified in the "color-profile-name" property.

The color-profile is identified by the URI specified in the "src" property value. This URI may identify an internally recognized color-profile or it may point to a ICC Color Profile encoding that should be loaded and interpreted.

When the color-profile is referenced (e.g., via the rgb-icc function 5.10.2 Color Functions), the following rules are used:

  1. If the color-profile is available, the color value identified from the color-profile should be used.

  2. If the color-profile is not available, the sRGB ([sRGB]) fallback must be used.

Areas:

The fo:color-profile formatting object does not generate or return any areas.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.16 src
7.18.2 color-profile-name
7.18.3 rendering-intent

6.4.5 fo:page-sequence

Common Usage:

The fo:page-sequence formatting object is used to specify how to create a (sub-)sequence of pages within a document; for example, a chapter of a report. The content of these pages comes from flow children of the fo:page-sequence as assigned by the flow-map in effect for that fo:page-sequence. The layout of these pages comes from the fo:page-sequence-master or page-master referenced by the master-reference trait on the fo:page-sequence. The sequence of areas returned by each of the flow-object children of the fo:page-sequence are made descendants of the generated pages as described below.

Areas:

The fo:page-sequence formatting object generates a sequence of viewport/reference pairs, and returns the page-viewport-areas. For each page-reference-area, and each region specified in the page-master used to generate that page-reference-area, the fo:page-sequence object also generates the viewport/reference pair for the occurrence of that region in that page-reference-area, and may generate a before-float-reference-area, footnote-reference-area, and main-reference-area, and one or more normal-flow-reference-areas. The generation of these further areas is described in the descriptions of the fo:simple-page-master, region-masters and fo:flow-map. It may also generate a title-area.

All areas generated by an fo:page-sequence have area-class "xsl-absolute".

The page-viewport-areas identify one of the sides as a page binding edge. This recommendation does not specify the mechanism for selecting which side is the page binding edge.

Note:

If the User Agent can determine that the result is to be bound, then the page binding edge of any given page is the edge on which that page is intended to be bound.

Commonly the page binding edge of a page with an odd folio-number is the start-edge of that page and the binding-edge of a page with an even folio-number is the end-edge of that page.

The binding can be a simple as stapling or may be as complex as producing a book using an imposition scheme.

For each formatting object descendant D under the change bar influence of a given fo:change-bar-begin object F (as defined in 6.13.2 fo:change-bar-begin), the fo:page-sequence generates a "change bar area" for each area A returned by D, as a child of the ancestor region-area of A. Each change bar area is of class xsl-absolute, with zero margin and padding, with border-end-color given by the change-bar-color of F, with border-end-style given by the change-bar-style of F, with border-end-width given by the change-bar-width of F, with inline progression-dimension equal to zero and block-progression-dimension equal to the dimension of A parallel to the block-progression-dimension of the region-area.

The change bar area is positioned to be adjacent to the nearest ancestor area C of A which is either a normal-flow-reference-area or region-reference-area. The change bar area is aligned with A and lies away from C by a distance given by the change-bar-offset of F, with respect to the start-edge or the end-edge of C as determined by the change-bar-placement trait of F.

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-areas are determined by the values of the "reference-orientation" and "writing-mode" properties of the fo:page-sequence.

Note:

The value may be given as an explicit value or the from-page-master-region function may be used to obtain the value specified on the layout formatting object being used to generate the region viewport/reference area pair.

Constraints:

Each page-viewport-area/page-reference-area pair is generated using a page-master that satisfies the constraints of the page-sequence-master identified by the master-reference trait of the fo:page-sequence or a page-master that was directly identified by the master-reference trait. The region-viewport-area children of such a page-reference-area must correspond to the regions that are children of that page-master.

The areas generated by the fo:page-sequence have as their descendants the areas returned by the flows that are children of the fo:page-sequence.

The areas returned to the fo:page-sequence by a flow must satisfy five types of constraints:

  • Completeness. All areas returned by formatting object descendants of the flow children of the fo:page-sequence become descendants of areas generated by the fo:page-sequence, with the exception of glyph-areas subject to deletion or substitution as in Sections 4.7.2 Line-building and 4.7.3 Inline-building.

  • Flow-map association. The areas returned from a flow child of the fo:page-sequence must be descendants of region-reference-areas generated using regions to which the flow is assigned by the flow-map in effect.

    Areas returned from an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-before-float-separator become children of the before-float-reference-area of an area associated to an fo:region-body, following all sibling areas of area-class xsl-before-float. Areas returned from an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-footnote-separator become children of the footnote-reference-area of an area associated to an fo:region-body, preceding all sibling areas of area-class xsl-footnote.

    If the flow-map-reference is specified, the flow-map in effect is the one described by the fo:flow-map child of the fo:layout-master-set having a flow-map-name matching the specified value of flow-map-reference on the fo:page-sequence. If the flow-map-reference is not specified, the flow-map in effect is the implicit flow-map shown in 6.4.22 fo:flow-map.

  • Area-class association. Areas returned by flow children of an fo:page-sequence are distributed as follows:

    • All areas of area-class xsl-footnote, and all areas returned from an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-footnote-separator, must be descendants of a footnote-reference-area;

    • all areas of area-class xsl-before-float, and all areas returned from an fo:static-content with a flow-name of xsl-before-float-separator, must be descendants of a before-float-reference-area;

    all other areas must be descendants of a region-reference-area and further they must be descendants of a main-reference-area child of that region-reference-area if it has one.

  • Stacking. The stackable areas of a given class returned by children of each flow are properly stacked within the appropriate reference-area, as described above.

  • Flow-assignment ordering. The default ordering constraint of 4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints does not apply to the fo:page-sequence. The default ordering constraint applies to the flow object children inside each fo:flow; special ordering constraints apply to the child fo:static-content objects.

    If the flow-map in effect for a page-sequence has a flow-assignment child with flow-source-list S and flow-target-list T and the child flow-name-specifiers of S have flow-name-reference values F1,...,Fm, and the child region-name-specifiers of T have region-name-reference values R1,...,Rn, then for each area-class C, the areas returned to the page-sequence belonging to that class have the same order in the area tree (relative to the region ordering) as their generating formatting objects (relative to the flow ordering). That is, if A and B are areas of area-class C and either A and B are returned by the same flow with A returned prior to B, or A and B are returned by flows with flow-name values Fi and Fj, respectively, for some i and j such that i<j, then one of the following conditions must hold:

    • the ancestor page-reference-area of A precedes the ancestor page-reference-area of B, or

    • A and B share the same ancestor page-reference-area, A is a descendant of a region-reference-area generated using a region whose region-name value is Rk and B is a descendant of a region-reference-area generated using a region whose region-name value is Rl for some k and l such that k<l, or

    • A and B are descendants of the same region-reference-area and A precedes B in the pre-order-tree traversal of the area tree.

If a title-area is generated the following constraints must be satisfied:

  • Completeness. All areas returned by formatting object descendants of the fo:title child of the fo:page-sequence become descendants of the title-area generated by the fo:page-sequence, with the exception of glyph-areas subject to deletion or substitution as in Sections 4.7.2 Line-building and 4.7.3 Inline-building.

  • Stacking. The areas returned by children of the fo:title are properly stacked within the title-area.

The default ordering constraint of section 4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints does apply to the fo:title.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.10.1 country
7.27.19 flow-map-reference
7.26.1 format
7.10.2 language
7.26.4 letter-value
7.26.2 grouping-separator
7.26.3 grouping-size
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.27.7 initial-page-number
7.27.6 force-page-count
7.27.9 master-reference
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.6 fo:page-sequence-wrapper

Common Usage:

The fo:page-sequence-wrapper formatting object is used to specify inherited properties for a group of fo:page-sequence formatting objects.

Areas:

The fo:page-sequence-wrapper formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:page-sequence-wrapper formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:page-sequence-wrapper.

Trait Derivation:

Except for "id", "index-class", and "index-key", the fo:page-sequence-wrapper has no properties that are directly used by it. However, it does serve as a carrier to hold inheritable properties that are utilized by its children.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:page-sequence-wrapper is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:page-sequence-wrapper. An fo:page-sequence-wrapper that contains no fo:page-sequence objects as descendants returns no areas.

Note:

Because an fo:page-sequence-wrapper that contains no fo:page-sequence objects as descendants returns no areas, any id, index-key, or index-class property on such an fo:page-sequence-wrapper is ignored; the result would be as if they were not assigned on this FO. In particular, any attempt to refer to this id would result in the same action as if this id were never declared within the FO result tree.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.4.7 fo:layout-master-set

Common Usage:

The fo:layout-master-set is a wrapper around all masters used in the document. This includes page-sequence-masters, page-masters, and flow-maps.

Areas:

The fo:layout-master-set formatting object generates no area directly. The masters that are the children of the fo:layout-master-set are used by the fo:page-sequence to generate pages.

Constraints:

The value of the master-name trait on each child of the fo:layout-master-set must be unique within the set.

Contents:

6.4.8 fo:page-sequence-master

Common Usage:

The fo:page-sequence-master is used to specify the constraints on and the order in which a given set of page-masters will be used in generating a sequence of pages. Pages are automatically generated when the fo:page-sequence-master is used in formatting an fo:page-sequence.

Note:

There are several ways of specifying a potential sequence of pages. One can specify a sequence of references to particular page-masters. This yields a bounded sequence of potential pages. Alternatively, one can specify a repeating sub-sequence of one or more page-masters. This sub-sequence can be bounded or unbounded. Finally one can intermix the two kinds of sub-sequence-specifiers.

Areas:

The fo:page-sequence-master formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to generate pages.

Constraints:

The children of the fo:page-sequence-master are a sequence of sub-sequence-specifiers. A page-sequence satisfies the constraint determined by an fo:page-sequence-master if (a) it can be partitioned into a sequence of sub-sequences of pages that map one-to-one to an initial sub-sequence of the sequence of sub-sequence-specifiers that are the children of the fo:page-sequence-master and, (b) for each sub-sequence of pages in the partition, that sub-sequence satisfies the constraints of the corresponding sub-sequence-specifier. The sequence of sub-sequences of pages can be shorter than the sequence of sub-sequence-specifiers.

It is an error if the entire sequence of sub-sequence-specifiers children is exhausted while some areas returned by an fo:flow are not placed. Implementations may recover, if possible, by re-using the sub-sequence-specifier that was last used to generate a page.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.8 master-name

6.4.9 fo:single-page-master-reference

Common Usage:

An fo:single-page-master-reference is the simplest sub-sequence-specifier. It specifies a sub-sequence consisting of a single instance of a single page-master. It is used to specify the use of a particular page-master at a given point in the sequence of pages that would be generated using the fo:page-sequence-master that is the parent of the fo:single-page-master-reference.

Areas:

The fo:single-page-master-reference formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to generate pages.

Constraints:

The fo:single-page-master-reference has a reference to the fo:simple-page-master which has the same master-name as the master-reference trait on the fo:single-page-master-reference.

The sub-sequence of pages mapped to this sub-sequence-specifier satisfies the constraints of this sub-sequence-specifier if (a) the sub-sequence of pages consists of a single page and (b) that page is constrained to have been generated using the fo:simple-page-master referenced by the fo:single-page-master-reference.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.9 master-reference

6.4.10 fo:repeatable-page-master-reference

Common Usage:

An fo:repeatable-page-master-reference is the next simplest sub-sequence-specifier. It specifies a sub-sequence consisting of repeated instances of a single page-master. The number of repetitions may be bounded or potentially unbounded.

Areas:

The fo:repeatable-page-master-reference formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to generate pages.

Constraints:

The fo:repeatable-page-master-reference has a reference to the fo:simple-page-master which has the same master-name as the master-reference trait on the fo:repeatable-page-master-reference.

The sub-sequence of pages mapped to this sub-sequence-specifier satisfies the constraints of this sub-sequence-specifier if (a) the sub-sequence of pages consists of zero or more pages, (b) each page is generated using the fo:simple-page-master referenced by the fo:repeatable-page-master-reference, and (c) length of the sub-sequence is less than or equal to the value of maximum-repeats.

If no region-master child of the page-master referred to by this formatting object has a region-name associated to any flow in an fo:page-sequence, then the sub-sequence is constrained to have length zero.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.9 master-reference
7.27.10 maximum-repeats

6.4.11 fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives

Common Usage:

The fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives formatting object is the most complex sub-sequence-specifier. It specifies a sub-sequence consisting of repeated instances of a set of alternative page-masters. The number of repetitions may be bounded or potentially unbounded. Which of the alternative page-masters is used at any point in the sequence depends on the evaluation of a condition on the use of the alternative. Typical conditions include, testing whether the page which is generated using the alternative is the first or last page in a page-sequence or is the page blank. The full set of conditions allows different page-masters to be used for the first page, for odd and even pages, for blank pages, etc.

Note:

Because the conditions are tested in order from the beginning of the sequence of children, the last alternative in the sequence usually has a condition that is always true and this alternative references the page-master that is used for all pages that do not receive some specialized layout.

Areas:

The fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives formatting object generates no area directly. This formatting object is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to generate pages.

Constraints:

The children of the fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives are fo:conditional-page-master-references. These children are called alternatives.

The sub-sequence of pages mapped to this sub-sequence-specifier satisfies the constraints of this sub-sequence-specifier if (a) the sub-sequence of pages consists of zero or more pages, (b) each page is generated using the fo:simple-page-master referenced by the one of the alternatives that are the children of the fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives, (c) the conditions on that alternative are true, (d) that alternative is the first alternative in the sequence of children for which all the conditions are true, and (e) the length of the sub-sequence is less than or equal to the value of maximum-repeats.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.10 maximum-repeats

6.4.12 fo:conditional-page-master-reference

Common Usage:

The fo:conditional-page-master-reference is used to identify a page-master that is to be used when the conditions on its use are satisfied. This allows different page-masters to be used, for example, for even and odd pages, for the first page in a page-sequence, or for blank pages. This usage is typical in chapters of a book or report where the first page has a different layout than the rest of the chapter and the headings and footings on even and odd pages may be different as well.

Areas:

The fo:conditional-page-master-reference formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to generate pages.

Constraints:

The fo:conditional-page-master-reference has a reference to the fo:simple-page-master which has the same master-name as the master-reference trait on the fo:conditional-page-master-reference.

There are three traits, page-position, odd-or-even, and blank-or-not-blank that specify the sub-conditions on the use of the referenced page-master. All three sub-conditions must be true for the condition on the fo:conditional-page-master-reference to be true.

Note:

Since the properties from which these traits are derived are not inherited and the initial value of all the properties makes the corresponding sub-condition true, only the subset of traits that are derived from properties with specified values must have their corresponding sub-condition be true.

The sub-condition corresponding to the page-position trait is true if the page generated using the fo:conditional-page-master-reference has the specified position in the sequence of pages generated by the referencing page-sequence; namely, "first", "last", "only" (both first and last), "rest" (not first nor last) or "any" (all of the previous). The referencing page-sequence is the fo:page-sequence that referenced the fo:page-sequence-master from which this fo:conditional-page-master-reference is a descendant.

The sub-condition corresponding to the odd-or-even trait is true if the value of the odd-or-even trait is "any" or if the value matches the parity of the page number of the page generated using the fo:conditional-page-master-reference.

The sub-condition corresponding to the blank-or-not-blank trait is true, if (1) the value of the trait is "not-blank" and the page generated using the fo:conditional-page-master-reference has areas generated by descendants of the fo:flow formatting objects; if (2) the value of the trait is "blank" and the page generated using the fo:conditional-page-master-reference is such that there are no areas from any fo:flow to be put on that page (e.g., (a) to maintain proper page parity due to (i) a break-after or break-before value of "even-page" or "odd-page" or (ii) at the start or end of the page-sequence or (b) because the constraints on the areas generated by descendants of the fo:flow formatting objects would not be satisfied if they were descendant from this page); or if (3) the value of the trait is "any".

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.9 master-reference
7.27.14 page-position
7.27.12 odd-or-even
7.27.1 blank-or-not-blank

6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master

Common Usage:

The fo:simple-page-master is used in the generation of pages and specifies the geometry of the page. The page is subdivided into regions: one or more region-body, and up to four other regions: region-before, region-after, region-start, and region-end.

Note:

For example, if the writing-mode of the fo:simple-page-master is "lr-tb", then these regions correspond to the body of a document, the header, the footer, the left sidebar, and the right sidebar.

Note:

The simple-page-master is intended for systems that wish to provide a simple page layout facility. Future versions of this Recommendation may support more complex page layouts constructed using the fo:page-master formatting object.

Areas:

The fo:simple-page-master formatting object generates no area directly. It is used in the generation of pages by an fo:page-sequence.

When the fo:simple-page-master is used to generate a page, a viewport/reference pair is generated, consisting of a page-viewport-area and a page-reference-area. The page-viewport-area represents the physical bounds of the output medium. The page-reference-area represents the portion of the page on which content is intended to appear; that is, the area inside the page margins.

In addition, when the fo:simple-page-master is used to generate a page, viewport/reference pairs that correspond to the regions that are the children of the fo:simple-page-master are also generated. (See the formatting object specifications for the five regions (6.4.14 fo:region-body, 6.4.15 fo:region-before, 6.4.16 fo:region-after, 6.4.17 fo:region-start, and 6.4.18 fo:region-end) for the details on the generation of these areas.) The "writing-mode" of the page is used to determine the placement of the five regions on the master.

Region-viewport-areas   [D]

Region-viewport-areas

The spacing between the outer four regions and the fo:region-body is determined by subtracting the relevant extent trait on each outer region from the "margin-x" property on the fo:region-body.

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation of the page-reference-area and writing-mode of the page-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The writing-mode of the page-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the page-viewport-area. Reference-orientation does not affect the page-viewport-area and its reference-orientation is set to "0". Borders and padding are not allowed with a page-reference-area. The remaining traits on the page-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

Constraints:

When a page-master is used in the generation of a page, the block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the page-viewport-area are determined using the computed values of the "page-height" and "page-width" properties. For sheet media, the computed values of the "page-height" and "page-width" properties determine the orientation of the sheet; "page-height" is measured from "top" to "bottom". For display media, the display window is always upright; the top of the display screen is "top".

The traits derived from the "margin-top", "margin-bottom", "margin-left" and "margin-right" properties are used to indent the page-reference-area content-rectangle from the corresponding edge of the content-rectangle of the page-viewport-area.

Note:

The reference points for the page-viewport-area content-rectangle are in terms of the "top", "bottom", "left", and "right" rather than "before-edge", "after-edge", "start-edge", and "end-edge" because users see the media relative to its orientation and not relative to the writing-mode currently in use.

Margins of a page   [D]

The value of the folio-number trait on the first page returned by the fo:page-sequence is constrained to equal the value of the initial-page-number trait. The value of the folio-number trait on subsequent pages is constrained to be one greater than the value on the immediately preceding page.

The format, letter-value, grouping-separator, grouping-size, country, and language traits are used to format the number into a string form, as specified in [XSLT]. This formatted number is used by the fo:page-number flow object.

Constraints applicable to regions:

There are a number of constraints that apply to all the regions that are specified within a given fo:simple-page-master.

Two page model examples   [D]

If the block-progression-dimension of the properly stacked region-reference-area is greater than the block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area that is its parent, then the constraints on the relationship between the region-viewport-area and the region-reference-area depend on values of the overflow trait on the region-master and the kind of flows assigned to the region.

If all the flows assigned to the corresponding region are fo:static-content flow objects, then there is no constraint on the block-progression-dimension of the region-reference-area.

If all the flows assigned to the corresponding region are fo:flow formatting objects, then

  • If the value of the media-usage trait is paginate, or the value of the overflow trait is visible, hidden, or error-if-overflow, then the block-progression-dimension of the region-reference-area is constrained to be no greater than the block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area.

  • If the value of the media-usage trait is bounded-in-one-dimension or unbounded, and the value of the overflow trait is scroll or auto, then there is no constraint on the block-progression-dimension of the region-reference-area.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.27.8 master-name
7.27.13 page-height
7.27.15 page-width
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.14 fo:region-body

Common Usage:

Used in constructing a simple-page-master. This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located in the "center" of the fo:simple-page-master. The overflow trait controls how much of the underlying region-reference-area is visible; that is, whether the region-reference-area is clipped by its parent region-viewport-area.

Note:

Typically, for paged media and when no explicit flow map is specified, the areas returned by the fo:flow formatting object in an fo:page-sequence are made to be descendants of a sequence of region-reference-areas that correspond to the region-body. These region-reference-areas are all area descendants of page-areas for which the page-master included an fo:region-body. If the fo:flow flow is assigned to some other region, then the areas returned by the fo:flow are constrained to be descendants of region-reference-areas generated using the assigned region-master.

Note:

The body region should be sized and positioned within the fo:simple-page-master so that there is room for the areas returned by the flow that is assigned to the fo:region-body and for any desired side regions, that is, fo:region-before, fo:region-after, fo:region-start and fo:region-end's that are to be placed on the same page. These side regions are positioned within the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area. The margins on the fo:region-body are used to position the region-viewport-area for the fo:region-body and to leave space for the other regions that surround the fo:region-body.

A close-up of the first case in the previous figure.   [D]

The spacing between the last four regions and the fo:region-body is determined by subtracting the relevant extent trait on the side regions from the trait that corresponds to the "margin-x" property on the fo:region-body.

The fo:region-body may be also be used to provide multiple columns. When the column-count trait is greater than one, then the region-body will be subdivided into multiple columns.

Areas:

The fo:region-body formatting object is used to generate one region-viewport-area and one region-reference-area whenever an fo:simple-page-master that has an fo:region-body as a child is used to generate a page. A scrolling mechanism shall be provided, in an implementation-defined manner, if the value of the overflow trait is "scroll".

The position and size of the region-viewport-area is specified relative to the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area generated by fo:simple-page-master. The content-rectangle of the region-viewport-area is indented from the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area by the values of the "margin-top", "margin-bottom", "margin-left" and "margin-right" properties. The values of the padding and border-width traits must be "0".

The region-reference-area generated using an fo:region-body is the child of the region-viewport-area. The "writing-mode" of the fo:region-body defines the column-progression within the region. The inline-progression-direction is used to determine the stacking direction for columns (and the default flow order of text from column-to-column).

In addition to the viewport/reference pair, when the region-body is used to generate areas, at least one and up to three additional reference-areas are generated. These reference-areas are the optional before-float-reference-area, the optional footnote-reference-area, and the main-reference-area. The latter reference-area comprises the space left after space is borrowed for the other two reference-areas. The main-reference-area has no padding, border, or space associated with it.

Note:

If there is no before-float-reference-area or footnote-reference-area child of the region-reference-area, then the content-rectangle of the main-reference-area is coterminous with the content-rectangle of the region-reference-area.

The main-reference-area has as its children a sequence of span-reference-areas. These are reference-area block-areas with zero border and padding, whose inline-progression-dimension is equal to that of the main-reference-area, and which are normally stacked within the main-reference-area.

Each span-reference-area has one or more reference-area children, designated as normal-flow-reference-areas. The number and placement of the children of a span-reference-area depends on the column-count trait of the span-reference-area. In turn, the formatter must generate precisely enough of these span-reference-areas, and so set their column-count traits, that block-areas returned from the flows with a span of "all" are children of span-reference-areas with column-count equal to 1, and block-areas returned from the flows with a span of "none" are children of span-reference-areas with column-count equal to the refined value of the column-count property of the associated region-reference-area.

For each span-reference-area, the number N of normal-flow-reference-area children is equal to the value of the column-count trait.

It is an error to specify a column-count other than 1 if the "overflow" property has the value "scroll". An implementation may recover by behaving as if "1" had been specified.

The inline-progression-dimension of each of these normal-flow-reference-areas is determined by subtracting (N-1) times the column-gap trait from the inline-progression-dimension of the main-reference-area and dividing that result by N. Using "body-in-size" for the name of the inline-progression-dimension of the span-reference-area and "column-in-size" for the name of the size of the normal-flow-reference-areas in the inline-progression-direction, the formula is:

column-in-size = (body-in-size - (N - 1)*column-gap)/N

The block-progression-dimension of the normal-flow-reference-areas is the same as that of the parent span-reference-area.

Note:

As noted above, the block-progression-dimension of the span-reference-area may be less than the size of the region-reference-area if a before-float-reference-area or footnote-reference-area are present, or if there is more than one span-reference-area child of the main-reference-area.

The normal-flow-reference-areas are positioned within the span-reference-area as follows: The first column is positioned with the before-edge and start-edge of its content-rectangle coincident with the before-edge and start-edge of the content-rectangle of the span-reference-area. The content-rectangle of the Jth normal-flow-reference-area child of the span-reference-area is positioned with its before-edge coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the span-reference-area and with is start-edge at ((J-1)*(column-in-size + column-gap)) in the inline-progression-direction. This results in the end-edge of the content-rectangle of the Nth normal-flow-reference-area being coincident with the end-edge of the content-rectangle of the span-reference-area.

Note:

If the writing-mode is "rl-tb", the above description means that the columns are ordered from right-to-left as would be expected. This follows because the start-edge is on the right in an "rl-tb" writing-mode.

All areas generated by using the fo:region-body are of area-class "xsl-absolute".

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The reference-orientation of the region-reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the region-viewport-area. The writing-mode of the region-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the region-viewport-area.

The remaining traits on the region-viewport-area and region-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

The traits on the span-reference-areas and on the normal-flow-reference-areas are determined in the same manner as described in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

Constraints:

The constraints applicable to all regions (see 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master) all apply.

The inline-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area minus the values of the start-indent and end-indent traits of the region-master. The start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of the region-viewport-area are determined by the reference-orientation trait on the page-master.

The block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the block-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle for the page-reference-area minus the values of the space-before and space-after traits of the region-master. The before-edge and after-edge of the content-rectangle of the region-viewport-area are determined by the reference-orientation trait on the page-master.

The values of the space-before and start-indent traits are used to position the region-viewport-area relative to the before-edge and start-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area.

The constraints on the size and position of the region-reference-area generated using the fo:region-body are covered in the "Constraints applicable to regions" section of 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.21.1 clip
7.27.2 column-count
7.27.3 column-gap
7.14.4 display-align
7.21.2 overflow
7.27.17 region-name
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.15 fo:region-before

Common Usage:

Used in constructing a simple-page-master. This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located on the "before" side of the page-reference-area. In lr-tb writing-mode, this region corresponds to the header region. The overflow trait controls how much of the underlying region-reference-area is visible; that is, whether the region-reference-area is clipped by its parent region-viewport-area.

Areas:

The fo:region-before formatting object is used to generate one region-viewport-area and one region-reference-area.

The values of the padding and border-width traits must be "0".

The before-edge of the content-rectangle of this region-viewport-area is positioned coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area generated using the parent fo:simple-page-master. The block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the extent trait on the fo:region-before formatting object.

The inline-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the precedence trait on the fo:region-before. If the value of the precedence trait is true, then the inline-progression-dimension extends up to the start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area. In this case, the region-before region-viewport-area acts like a float into areas generated by the region-start and region-end. If the value of the precedence trait on the fo:region-before is false, then these adjacent regions float into the area generated by the fo:region-before and the extent of the fo:region-before is (effectively) reduced by the incursions of the adjacent regions.

The region-reference-area lies on a canvas underneath the region-viewport-area.

The size of the region-reference-area depends on the setting of the overflow trait on the region. If the value of that trait is "auto", "hidden", "error-if-overflow", "paginate", or "visible" then the size of the reference-area is the same as the size of the viewport. If the value of the overflow trait is "scroll", the size of the reference-area is equal to the size of the viewport in the inline-progression-direction in the writing-mode for the region and has no constraint in the block-progression-direction (which implies that it grows to hold the distribution of all the content bound to the region).

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The reference-orientation of the region-reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the region-viewport-area. The writing-mode of the region-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the region-viewport-area.

The remaining traits on the region-viewport-area and region-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

Constraints:

The constraints on the size and position of the region-reference-area generated using the fo:region-before are covered in the "Constraints applicable to regions" section of 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.27.4 extent
7.21.2 overflow
7.27.16 precedence
7.27.17 region-name
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.16 fo:region-after

Common Usage:

Used in constructing a simple-page-master. This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located on the "after" side of the page-reference-area. In lr-tb writing-mode, this region corresponds to the footer region. The overflow trait controls how much of the underlying region-reference-area is visible; that is, whether the region-reference-area is clipped by its parent region-viewport-area.

Areas:

The fo:region-after formatting object is used to generate one region-viewport-area and one region-reference-area.

The values of the padding and border-width traits must be "0".

The after-edge of the content-rectangle of this region-viewport-area is positioned coincident with the after-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area generated using the parent fo:simple-page-master. The block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the extent trait on the fo:region-after formatting object.

The inline-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the precedence trait on the fo:region-after. If the value of the precedence trait is true, then the inline-progression-dimension extends up to the start-edge and end-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area. In this case, the region-after region-viewport-area acts like a float into areas generated by the region-start and region-end. If the value of the precedence trait on the fo:region-after is false, then these adjacent regions float into the area generated by the fo:region-after and the extent of the fo:region-after is (effectively) reduced by the incursions of the adjacent regions.

The region-reference-area lies on a canvas underneath the region-viewport-area.

The size of the region-reference-area depends on the setting of the overflow trait on the region. If the value of that trait is "auto", "hidden", "error-if-overflow", "paginate", or "visible" then the size of the reference-area is the same as the size of the viewport. If the value of the overflow trait is "scroll", the size of the reference-area is equal to the size of the viewport in the inline-progression-direction in the writing-mode for the region and has no constraint in the block-progression-direction (which implies that it grows to hold the distribution of all the content bound to the region).

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The reference-orientation of the region-reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the region-viewport-area. The writing-mode of the region-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the region-viewport-area.

The remaining traits on the region-viewport-area and region-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

Constraints:

The constraints on the size and position of the region-reference-area generated using the fo:region-after are covered in the "Constraints applicable to regions" section of 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.27.4 extent
7.21.2 overflow
7.27.16 precedence
7.27.17 region-name
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.17 fo:region-start

Common Usage:

Used in constructing a simple-page-master. This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located on the "start" side of the page-reference-area. In lr-tb writing-mode, this region corresponds to a left sidebar. The overflow trait controls how much of the underlying region-reference-area is visible; that is, whether the region-reference-area is clipped by its parent region-viewport-area.

Areas:

The fo:region-start formatting object is used to generate one region-viewport-area and one region-reference-area.

The values of the padding and border-width traits must be "0".

The start-edge of the content-rectangle of this region-viewport-area is positioned coincident with the start-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area generated using the parent fo:simple-page-master. The inline-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the extent trait on the fo:region-after formatting object.

The block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the precedence trait on the adjacent fo:region-before and the fo:region-after, if these exist; otherwise it is determined as if the value of the precedence trait was false. If the value of the precedence trait of the fo:region-before (or, respectively, fo:region-after) is false, then the block-progression-dimension extends up to the before- (or, respectively, after-) edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area. In this case, the region-start acts like a float into areas generated by the region-before (respectively, the region-after). If the value of the precedence trait on the adjacent regions is true, then these adjacent regions float into the area generated by the fo:region-start and the extent of the fo:region-start is (effectively) reduced by the incursions of the adjacent regions with the value of the precedence trait equal to true.

The region-reference-area lies on a canvas underneath the region-viewport-area.

The size of the region-reference-area depends on the setting of the overflow trait on the region. If the value of that trait is "auto", "hidden", "error-if-overflow", "paginate", or "visible" then the size of the reference-area is the same as the size of the viewport. If the value of the overflow trait is "scroll", the size of the reference-area is equal to the size of the viewport in the inline-progression-direction in the writing-mode for the region and has no constraint in the block-progression-direction (which implies that it grows to hold the distribution of all the content bound to the region).

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The reference-orientation of the region-reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the region-viewport-area. The writing-mode of the region-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the region-viewport-area.

The remaining traits on the region-viewport-area and region-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

Constraints:

The constraints on the size and position of the region-reference-area generated using the fo:region-start are covered in the "Constraints applicable to regions" section of 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.27.4 extent
7.21.2 overflow
7.27.17 region-name
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.18 fo:region-end

Common Usage:

Used in constructing a simple-page-master. This region specifies a viewport/reference pair that is located on the "end" side of the page-reference-area. In lr-tb writing-mode, this region corresponds to a right sidebar. The overflow trait controls how much of the underlying region-reference-area is visible; that is, whether the region-reference-area is clipped by its parent region-viewport-area.

Areas:

The fo:region-end formatting object is used to generate one region-viewport-area and one region-reference-area.

The values of the padding and border-width traits must be "0".

The end-edge of the content-rectangle of this region-viewport-area is positioned coincident with the end-edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area generated using the parent fo:simple-page-master. The inline-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the extent trait on the fo:region-after formatting object.

The block-progression-dimension of the region-viewport-area is determined by the precedence trait on the adjacent fo:region-before and the fo:region-after, if these exist; otherwise it is determined as if the value of the precedence trait was false. If the value of the precedence trait of the fo:region-before (or, respectively, fo:region-after) is false, then the block-progression-dimension extends up to the before- (or, respectively, after-) edge of the content-rectangle of the page-reference-area. In this case, the region-end acts like a float into areas generated by the region-before (respectively, the region-after). If the value of the precedence trait on the adjacent regions is true, then these adjacent regions float into the area generated by the fo:region-end and the extent of the fo:region-end is (effectively) reduced by the incursions of the adjacent regions with the value of the precedence trait equal to true.

The region-reference-area lies on a canvas underneath the region-viewport-area.

The size of the region-reference-area depends on the setting of the overflow trait on the region. If the value of that trait is "auto", "hidden", "error-if-overflow", "paginate", or "visible" then the size of the reference-area is the same as the size of the viewport. If the value of the overflow trait is "scroll", the size of the reference-area is equal to the size of the viewport in the inline-progression-direction in the writing-mode for the region and has no constraint in the block-progression-direction (which implies that it grows to hold the distribution of all the content bound to the region).

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode of the region-viewport-area are determined by the formatting object that generates the area (see 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence). The reference-orientation of the region-reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the region-viewport-area. The writing-mode of the region-reference-area is set to the same value as that of the region-viewport-area.

The remaining traits on the region-viewport-area and region-reference-area are set according to the normal rules for determining the values of traits.

Constraints:

The constraints on the size and position of the region-reference-area generated using the fo:region-end are covered in the "Constraints applicable to regions" section of 6.4.13 fo:simple-page-master.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.27.4 extent
7.21.2 overflow
7.27.17 region-name
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.4.19 fo:flow

Common Usage:

The content of the fo:flow formatting object is a sequence of flow objects that provides the flowing text content that is distributed into pages.

Areas:

The fo:flow formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:flow formatting object returns a sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:flow. The order of concatenation is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:flow.

Constraints:

The flow-map determines the assignment of the content of the fo:flow to a region.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.27.5 flow-name

6.4.20 fo:static-content

Common Usage:

The fo:static-content formatting object holds a sequence or a tree of formatting objects that is to be presented in a single region or repeated in like-named regions on one or more pages in the page-sequence. Its common use is for repeating or running headers and footers.

This content is repeated, in its entirety, on every page to which it is assigned.

Areas:

The fo:static-content formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:static-content formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:static-content. The order of concatenation is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:static-content.

Constraints:

The flow-map determines the assignment of the content of the fo:static-content to a region.

The fo:static-content may be processed multiple times and thus the default ordering constraint of section 4.7.1 General Ordering Constraints does not apply to the fo:static-content. Instead, it must satisfy the constraint on a per-page basis. Specifically, if P is a page-reference-area, C is an area-class, and S is the set of all descendants of P of area-class C returned to the fo:static-content descendant, then S must be properly ordered.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.27.5 flow-name

6.4.21 fo:title

Common Usage:

The fo:title formatting object is used to associate a title with a given page-sequence. This title may be used by an interactive User Agent to identify the pages. For example, the content of the fo:title can be formatted and displayed in a "title" window or in a "tool tip".

Areas:

This formatting object returns the sequence of areas returned by the children of this formatting object.

Constraints:

The sequence of returned areas must be the concatenation of the sub-sequences of areas returned by each of the flow children of the fo:title formatting object in the order in which the children occur.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

An fo:title is not permitted to have an fo:float, fo:footnote or fo:marker as a descendant.

Additionally, an fo:title is not permitted to have as a descendant an fo:block-container that generates an absolutely positioned area.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.18.1 color
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.17 visibility

6.4.22 fo:flow-map

Common Usage:

The fo:flow-map is used to specify the assignment of flows to regions.

Areas:

The fo:flow-map formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Each fo:flow-assignment child of the fo:flow map defines a source list and a target list. The source list is a sequence of flow names whose corresponding fo:flow objects (in the referring fo:page-sequence) are treated as a single fo:flow for composition purposes. The target list is a sequence of region-names which identify the region or regions on each page which are used for the source content.

Note:

This is independent of the actual sequence of pages, which is generated as it has always been generated using the fo:simple-page-master, and fo:page-sequence-master objects referred to by the master-reference property of the fo:page-sequence.

For each fo:flow-assignment child of the fo:flow-map, having an fo:flow-source-list child S and an fo:flow-target-list child T, we say that the fo:flow-map assigns each of the flows referenced by the fo:flow-name-specifier children of S to the regions referenced by the fo:region-name-specifier children of T.

Constraints:

Many of the constraints that a flow-map induces are expressed in 6.4.5 fo:page-sequence.

The children of the fo:flow-map are fo:flow-assignment objects containing parallel constraints for assigning flows to regions. It is an error for a flow-name to appear in the source list of more than one fo:flow-assignment child of a given fo:flow-map. It is also an error for a region-name to appear in the target list of more than one fo:flow-assignment child of a given fo:flow-map.

Implicit flow-map:

<fo:flow-map>
  <fo:flow-assignment>
    <fo:flow-source-list>
      <fo:flow-name-specifier
        flow-name-reference="xsl-region-body"/>
    </fo:flow-source-list>
    <fo:flow-target-list>
      <fo:region-name-specifier
        region-name-reference="xsl-region-body"/>
    </fo:flow-target-list>
  </fo:flow-assignment>
  <fo:flow-assignment>
    <fo:flow-source-list>
      <fo:flow-name-specifier
        flow-name-reference="xsl-region-before"/>
    </fo:flow-source-list>
    <fo:flow-target-list>
      <fo:region-name-specifier
        region-name-reference="xsl-region-before"/>
    </fo:flow-target-list>
  </fo:flow-assignment>
  <fo:flow-assignment>
    <fo:flow-source-list>
      <fo:flow-name-specifier
        flow-name-reference="xsl-region-after"/>
    </fo:flow-source-list>
    <fo:flow-target-list>
      <fo:region-name-specifier
        region-name-reference="xsl-region-after"/>
    </fo:flow-target-list>
  </fo:flow-assignment>
  <fo:flow-assignment>
    <fo:flow-source-list>
      <fo:flow-name-specifier
        flow-name-reference="xsl-region-start"/>
    </fo:flow-source-list>
    <fo:flow-target-list>
      <fo:region-name-specifier
        region-name-reference="xsl-region-start"/>
    </fo:flow-target-list>
  </fo:flow-assignment>
  <fo:flow-assignment>
    <fo:flow-source-list>
      <fo:flow-name-specifier
        flow-name-reference="xsl-region-end"/>
    </fo:flow-source-list>
    <fo:flow-target-list>
      <fo:region-name-specifier
        region-name-reference="xsl-region-end"/>
     </fo:flow-target-list>
  </fo:flow-assignment>
</fo:flow-map>

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.18 flow-map-name

6.4.23 fo:flow-assignment

Common Usage:

The fo:flow-assignment is used to specify the assignment of one sequence of flows to a sequence of regions.

Areas:

The fo:flow-assignment formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Constraints:

The children of the fo:flow-assignment are a source-list and target-list containing constraints for assigning one sequence of flows to a sequence of regions.

Contents:

6.4.24 fo:flow-source-list

Common Usage:

The fo:flow-source-list is used to specify the sequence of flows to assign in a particular fo:flow-assignment.

Areas:

The fo:flow-source-list formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Constraints:

The children of the fo:flow-source-list are a sequence of flow-name-specifiers identifying flows of the sequence. These flows must be either all fo:flow formatting objects or all fo:static-content formatting objects. It is an error if they are a mixture.

Contents:

6.4.25 fo:flow-name-specifier

Common Usage:

The fo:flow-name-specifier is used to specify one flow in a source-list.

Areas:

The fo:flow-name-specifier formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Constraints:

The flow-name-reference property specifies the name of a flow in the source sequence.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.20 flow-name-reference

6.4.26 fo:flow-target-list

Common Usage:

The fo:flow-target-list is used to specify the sequence of regions to which flows are assigned in a particular fo:flow-assignment.

Areas:

The fo:flow-target-list formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Constraints:

The children of the fo:flow-target-list are a sequence of region-name-specifiers identifying regions in the sequence.

Contents:

6.4.27 fo:region-name-specifier

Common Usage:

The fo:region-name-specifier is used to specify one region in a target-list.

Areas:

The fo:region-name-specifier formatting object generates no area directly. It is used by the fo:page-sequence formatting object to assign flows to regions.

Constraints:

The region-name-reference property specifies the name of a region in the target sequence.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.27.21 region-name-reference

6.5 Block-level Formatting Objects

6.5.1 Introduction

The fo:block formatting object is used for formatting paragraphs, titles, figure captions, table titles, etc. The following example illustrates the usage of fo:block in a stylesheet.

6.5.1.1 Example

The following example shows the use of fo:block for chapter and section titles, and paragraphs.

Input sample:

<doc>
  <chapter>
    <title>Chapter title</title>
    <section>
      <title>First section title</title>
      <paragraph>Section one's first paragraph.</paragraph>
      <paragraph>Section one's second paragraph.</paragraph>
    </section>
    <section>
      <title>Second section title</title>
      <paragraph>Section two's only paragraph.</paragraph>
    </section>
  </chapter>
</doc>

In this example the chapter title appears at the top of the page (its "space-before" is discarded).

Space between chapter title and first section title is (8pt,8pt,8pt): the chapter title's "space-after" has a higher precedence than the section title's "space-before" (which takes on the initial value of zero), so the latter is discarded.

Space between the first section title and section one's first paragraph is (6pt,6pt,6pt): the section title's "space-after" has higher precedence than the paragraph's "space-before", so the latter is discarded.

Space between the two paragraphs is (6pt,8pt,10pt): the "space-after" the first paragraph is discarded because its precedence is equal to that of the "space-before" the next paragraph, and the optimum of the "space-after" of the first paragraph is greater than the optimum of the "space-before" of the second paragraph.

Space between the second paragraph of the first section and the title of the second section is (12pt,12pt,12pt): the "space-after" the paragraph is discarded because its precedence is equal to that of the "space-before" of the section title, and the optimum of the "space-after" of the paragraph is less than the optimum of the "space-before" of the section title.

The indent on the first line of the first paragraph in section one and the only paragraph in section two is zero; the indent on the first line of the second paragraph in section one is 2pc.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xsl:stylesheet
    xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
    xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format">

<xsl:template match="chapter">
  <fo:block break-before="page">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title">
  <fo:block text-align="center" space-after="8pt"
            space-before="16pt" space-after.precedence="3">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section">
  <xsl:apply-templates/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section/title">
  <fo:block text-align="center" space-after="6pt"
            space-before="12pt" space-before.precedence="0"
            space-after.precedence="3">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="paragraph[1]" priority="1">
  <fo:block text-indent="0pc" space-after="7pt"
            space-before.minimum="6pt" space-before.optimum="8pt"
            space-before.maximum="10pt">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="paragraph">
  <fo:block text-indent="2pc" space-after="7pt"
            space-before.minimum="6pt" space-before.optimum="8pt"
            space-before.maximum="10pt">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block break-before="page">

  <fo:block text-align="center" space-after="8pt"
    space-before="16pt"
    space-after.precedence="3">Chapter title
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block text-align="center" space-after="6pt"
    space-before="12pt" space-before.precedence="0"
    space-after.precedence="3">First section title
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block text-indent="0pc" space-after="7pt"
    space-before.minimum="6pt" space-before.optimum="8pt"
    space-before.maximum="10pt">Section one's first paragraph.
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block text-indent="2pc" space-after="7pt"
    space-before.minimum="6pt" space-before.optimum="8pt"
    space-before.maximum="10pt">Section one's second paragraph.
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block text-align="center" space-after="6pt"
    space-before="12pt" space-before.precedence="0"
    space-after.precedence="3">Second section title
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block text-indent="0pc" space-after="7pt"
    space-before.minimum="6pt" space-before.optimum="8pt"
    space-before.maximum="10pt">Section two's only paragraph.
  </fo:block>

</fo:block>

6.5.2 fo:block

Common Usage:

The fo:block formatting object is commonly used for formatting paragraphs, titles, headlines, figure and table captions, etc.

Areas:

The fo:block formatting object generates one or more normal block-areas. The fo:block returns these areas, any page-level-out-of-line areas, and any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:block. The fo:block also generates zero or more line-areas as children of the normal block-areas it returns, in accordance with 4.7.2 Line-building.

Trait Derivation:

The .minimum, .optimum, and .maximum components of the half-leading trait are set to 1/2 the difference of the computed value of the line-height property and the computed value of the sum of the text-altitude and text-depth properties. The .precedence and .conditionality components are copied from the line-height property.

Note:

The usage of the half-leading is described in 4.5 Line-areas.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:block formatting object.

The children of each normal area generated by an fo:block must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.2 Line-building.

In addition the constraints imposed by the traits derived from the properties applicable to this formatting object must be satisfied. The geometric constraints are rigorously defined in 4 Area Model.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children, optionally followed by an fo:initial-property-set.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.10 Common Hyphenation Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.19.1 clear
7.18.1 color
7.29.5 text-depth
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.16.1 hyphenation-keep
7.16.2 hyphenation-ladder-count
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.3 last-line-end-indent
7.16.7 linefeed-treatment
7.16.4 line-height
7.16.5 line-height-shift-adjustment
7.16.6 line-stacking-strategy
7.20.6 orphans
7.16.8 white-space-treatment
7.21.4 span
7.16.9 text-align
7.16.10 text-align-last
7.16.11 text-indent
7.30.17 visibility
7.16.12 white-space-collapse
7.20.7 widows
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.5.3 fo:block-container

Common Usage:

The fo:block-container flow object is used to generate a block-level reference-area, typically containing text blocks with a different writing-mode. In addition, it can also be used with a different reference-orientation to rotate its content.

Note:

The use of this flow object is not required for changing the inline-progression-direction only; in that case the Unicode BIDI algorithm and the fo:bidi-override are sufficient.

Areas:

The fo:block-container formatting object generates one or more viewport/reference pairs. All generated viewport-areas are subject to the constraints given by the block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension traits of the fo:block-container. The fo:block-container returns these areas and any page-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:block-container.

Note:

In the case that the block-progression-dimension.maximum is other than "auto", then overflow processing may apply. The "repeat" value of overflow can be used to generate multiple viewport/reference pairs if this is desired rather than clipping or scrolling.

If the absolute-position trait is "auto", these areas all have an area-class of "xsl-normal". If the absolution-position trait is "absolute" or "fixed" then there is one viewport/reference pair, and its area-class is "xsl-absolute" or "xsl-fixed", respectively.

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode traits of the viewport-area and reference-area come from the fo:block-container. These determine the orientation of the start-edge, end-edge, before-edge and after-edge of the content-rectangle of the viewport-area, and of the padding-, border-, and content-rectangles of the reference-area. The reference-orientation of the reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the viewport-area. The inline-progression-dimension of the reference-area is the same as that of the viewport-area, and may not be "auto" if the inline-progression-direction is different from that of the parent of the fo:block-container. The block-progression-dimension of the reference-area is not constrained; thus the reference-area may be larger than the viewport-area and this may cause the "overflow" property to operate.

Note:

As a property value applies to each of the areas generated by this flow object the size can vary from instance to instance if the value is "auto" or a <length-range>.

Constraints:

The children of each reference-area generated by an fo:block-container formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the children of the fo:block-container, must be properly stacked, and must be properly ordered.

Any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:block-container are handled as described in 6.12.2 fo:float.

Contents:

In addition an fo:block-container that does not generate an absolutely positioned area may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.6 Common Absolute Position Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.19.1 clear
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.21.2 overflow
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.21.4 span
7.15.14 width
7.29.7 writing-mode
7.30.18 z-index

6.6 Inline-level Formatting Objects

6.6.1 Introduction

Inline-level formatting objects are most commonly used to format a portion of text or for generating rules and leaders. There are many other uses. The following examples illustrate some of these uses of inline-level formatting objects.

  • putting the first line of a paragraph into small-caps,

  • turning a normally inline formatting object, fo:external-graphic, into a block by "wrapping" with an fo:block formatting object,

  • formatting a running footer containing the word "Page" followed by a page number.

6.6.1.1 Examples
6.6.1.1.1 First Line of Paragraph in Small-caps

Input sample:

<doc>
<p>This is the text of a paragraph that is going to be
presented with the first line in small-caps.</p>
</doc>

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <fo:initial-property-set font-variant="small-caps"/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block>
  <fo:initial-property-set font-variant="small-caps">
  </fo:initial-property-set>This is the text of a paragraph that is going to be
presented with the first line in small-caps.
</fo:block>
6.6.1.1.2 Figure with a Photograph

Input sample:

<doc>
  <figure>
    <photo image="TH0317A.jpg"/>
    <caption>C'ieng Tamlung of C'ieng Mai</caption>
  </figure>
</doc>

In this example the image (an fo:external-graphic) is placed as a centered block-level object. The caption is centered with 10mm indents.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="figure">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="photo">
  <fo:block text-align="center">
    <fo:external-graphic src="'url({@image})'"/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="caption">
  <fo:block space-before="3pt" text-align="center"
    start-indent="10mm" end-indent="10mm">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

fo: element and attribute tree:

<fo:block>
  <fo:block text-align="center">
    <fo:external-graphic src="'url(TH0317A.jpg)'"/>
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block space-before="3pt" text-align="center" start-indent="10mm"
    end-indent="10mm">C'ieng Tamlung of C'ieng Mai</fo:block>
</fo:block>
6.6.1.1.3 Page numbering and page number reference

Input sample:

<!DOCTYPE doc SYSTEM "pgref.dtd">
<doc>
  <chapter id="x"><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>Text</p>
  </chapter>
  <chapter><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>For a description of X see <ref refid="x"/>.</p>
  </chapter>
</doc>

In this example each page has a running footer containing the word "Page" followed by the page number. The "ref" element generates the word "page" followed by the page number of the page on which the referenced by the "refid" attribute was placed.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="doc">
  <fo:root>
    <fo:layout-master-set>
      <fo:simple-page-master master-name="page"
        page-height="297mm" page-width="210mm"
        margin-top="20mm" margin-bottom="10mm"
        margin-left="25mm" margin-right="25mm">
        <fo:region-body
          margin-top="0mm" margin-bottom="15mm"
          margin-left="0mm" margin-right="0mm"/>
        <fo:region-after extent="10mm"/>
      </fo:simple-page-master>
    </fo:layout-master-set>
    <fo:page-sequence master-reference="page">
      <fo:static-content flow-name="xsl-region-after">
        <fo:block>
          <xsl:text>Page </xsl:text>
          <fo:page-number/>
        </fo:block>
      </fo:static-content>
      <fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
        <xsl:apply-templates/>
      </fo:flow>
    </fo:page-sequence>
  </fo:root>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title">
  <fo:block id="{generate-id(.)}">
    <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="ref">
  <xsl:text>page </xsl:text>
  <fo:page-number-citation refid="{generate-id(id(@refid)/title)}"/>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:root>
  <fo:layout-master-set>
    <fo:simple-page-master master-name="page"
      page-height="297mm" page-width="210mm"
      margin-top="20mm" margin-bottom="10mm"
      margin-left="25mm" margin-right="25mm">
      <fo:region-body margin-top="0mm" margin-bottom="15mm"
        margin-left="0mm" margin-right="0mm"/>
      <fo:region-after extent="10mm"/>
    </fo:simple-page-master>
  </fo:layout-master-set>
  <fo:page-sequence master-reference="page">
    <fo:static-content flow-name="xsl-region-after">
      <fo:block>Page <fo:page-number/>
      </fo:block>
    </fo:static-content>
    <fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
      <fo:block id="N5">1. Chapter</fo:block>
      <fo:block>Text</fo:block>
      <fo:block id="N13">2. Chapter</fo:block>
      <fo:block>For a description of X see page <fo:page-number-citation refid="N5"/>
      </fo:block>
    </fo:flow>
  </fo:page-sequence>
</fo:root>
6.6.1.1.4 Table of Contents with Leaders

Input sample:

<doc>
  <chapter><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
  </chapter>
  <chapter><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
  </chapter>
</doc>

In this example the table of contents is formatted with a dot leader between the heading text and the page number.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="doc">
  <!-- create the table of contents -->
  <xsl:apply-templates select="chapter/title" mode="toc"/>
  <!-- do the document -->
  <xsl:apply-templates/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title" mode="toc">
  <fo:block text-align-last="justify">
    <fo:basic-link internal-destination="{generate-id(.)}">
      <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
      <xsl:apply-templates/>
    </fo:basic-link>
    <xsl:text> </xsl:text>
    <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
               leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots"/>
    <xsl:text> </xsl:text>
    <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="{generate-id(.)}"/>
  </fo:block>
  <xsl:apply-templates select="../section/title" mode="toc"/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section/title" mode="toc">
  <fo:block start-indent="10mm" text-align-last="justify">
    <fo:basic-link internal-destination="{generate-id(.)}">
      <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter|section" format="1.1 "/>
      <xsl:apply-templates/>
    </fo:basic-link>
    <xsl:text> </xsl:text>
    <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
               leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots"/>
    <xsl:text> </xsl:text>
    <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="{generate-id(.)}"/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title">
  <fo:block id="{generate-id(.)}">
    <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section/title">
  <fo:block id="{generate-id(.)}">
    <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter|section" format="1.1 "/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N4">1. Chapter
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N4">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>
<fo:block start-indent="10mm" text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N11">1.1 Section
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N11">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>
<fo:block start-indent="10mm" text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N19">1.2 Section
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N19">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>
<fo:block text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N28">2. Chapter
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N28">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>
<fo:block start-indent="10mm" text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N35">2.1 Section
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N35">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>
<fo:block start-indent="10mm" text-align-last="justify">
  <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N43">2.2 Section
  </fo:basic-link>
  <fo:leader leader-length.minimum="12pt" leader-length.optimum="40pt"
    leader-length.maximum="100%" leader-pattern="dots">
  </fo:leader>
  <fo:page-number-citation ref-id="N43">
  </fo:page-number-citation>
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N4">1. Chapter
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N11">1.1 Section
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N19">1.2 Section
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N28">2. Chapter
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N35">2.1 Section
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

<fo:block id="N43">2.2 Section
</fo:block>

<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>

6.6.2 fo:bidi-override

Common Usage:

The fo:bidi-override formatting object is used when the Unicode BIDI algorithm fails. It forces a string of text to be written in a specific direction.

Areas:

The fo:bidi-override formatting object generates one or more normal inline-areas. The fo:bidi-override returns these areas, together with any normal block-areas, page-level-out-of-line areas, and reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:bidi-override.

Trait Derivation:

The direction traits are derived from the "writing-mode", "direction", and "unicode-bidi" properties as described in 5.5.3 Writing-mode and Direction Properties.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:bidi-override formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:bidi-override must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.3 Inline-building.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

An fo:bidi-override that is a descendant of an fo:leader or of the fo:inline child of an fo:footnote may not have block-level children, unless it has a nearer ancestor that is an fo:inline-container.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.18.1 color
7.29.1 direction
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.29.6 unicode-bidi
7.17.8 word-spacing

6.6.3 fo:character

Common Usage:

The fo:character flow object represents a character that is mapped to a glyph for presentation. It is an atomic unit to the formatter.

When the result tree is interpreted as a tree of formatting objects, a character in the result tree is treated as if it were an empty element of type fo:character with a character attribute equal to the Unicode representation of the character. The semantics of an "auto" value for character properties, which is typically their initial value, are based on the Unicode code point. Overrides may be specified in an implementation-specific manner.

Note:

In a stylesheet the explicit creation of an fo:character may be used to explicitly override the default mapping.

Unicode Tag Characters need not be supported.

Note:

Unicode Version 3.1, in fact, states that they are not to be used "with any protocols that provide alternate means for language tagging, such as HTML or XML.". Unicode TR20 ([UNICODE TR20]) also declares very clearly that they are not suitable together with markup.

Areas:

The fo:character formatting object generates and returns one or more normal inline-area.

Note:

Cases where more than one inline-area is generated are encountered in scripts where a single character generates both a prefix and a suffix glyph to some other character.

Constraints:

The dimensions of the areas are determined by the font metrics for the glyph.

When formatting an fo:character with a "treat-as-word-space" value of "true", the User Agent may use a different method for determining the inline-progression-dimension of the area.

Note:

Such methods typically make use of a word space value stored in the font, or a formatter defined word space value.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.10 Common Hyphenation Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.17.7 treat-as-word-space
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.17.1 character
7.18.1 color
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.29.5 text-depth
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.29.2 glyph-orientation-horizontal
7.29.3 glyph-orientation-vertical
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.17.3 suppress-at-line-break
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing

6.6.4 fo:initial-property-set

Common Usage:

The fo:initial-property-set auxiliary formatting object specifies formatting properties for the first line of an fo:block.

Note:

It is analogous to the CSS first-line pseudo-element.

In future versions of this Recommendation a property controlling the number of lines, or the "depth" that these initial properties apply to may be added.

Areas:

The fo:initial-property-set formatting object does not generate or return any areas. It simply holds a set of traits that are applicable to the first line-area of the area that has a value of "true" for the is-first trait and that was generated by the parent fo:block of the fo:initial-property-set.

Trait Derivation:

The traits on the fo:initial-property-set are taken into account as traits constraining the first line as if the child inline formatting objects of the fo:block, or parts of them in the case of a line-break, that were used in formatting the first line were enclosed by an fo:wrapper, as a direct child of the fo:block, with those traits.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.18.1 color
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.17.8 word-spacing

6.6.5 fo:external-graphic

Common Usage:

The fo:external-graphic flow object is used for a graphic where the graphics data resides outside of the fo:element tree.

Areas:

The fo:external-graphic formatting object generates and returns one inline-level viewport-area and one reference-area containing the external graphic. The inline-level area uses the large-allocation-rectangle as defined in 4.2.3 Geometric Definitions.

Note:

An fo:external-graphic may be placed block-level by enclosing it in an fo:block.

A "line-stacking-strategy" of "max-height" or "line-height" is typically used for stacking one or more lines with fo:external-graphic content.

Constraints:

The viewport's size is determined by the block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension traits. For values of "auto", the content size of the graphic is used.

The content size of a graphic is determined by taking the intrinsic size of the graphic and scaling as specified by the content-height, content-width, scaling, allowed-height-scale, and allowed-width-scale traits. If one of the content-height or content-width is not "auto", the same scale factor (as calculated from the specified non-auto value) is applied equally to both directions.

Once scaled, the reference-area is aligned with respect to the viewport-area using the text-align and display-align traits. If it is too large for the viewport-area, the graphic is aligned as if it would fit and the overflow trait controls the clipping, scroll bars, etc.

In the case when the graphics format does not specify an intrinsic size of the graphic the size is determined in an implementation-defined manner.

Note:

For example, a size of 1/96" as the size of one pixel for rasterized images may be used.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.15.1 allowed-height-scale
7.15.2 allowed-width-scale
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.21.1 clip
7.15.4 content-height
7.30.7 content-type
7.15.5 content-width
7.14.4 display-align
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.4 line-height
7.21.2 overflow
7.15.12 scaling
7.15.13 scaling-method
7.30.16 src
7.16.9 text-align
7.15.14 width

6.6.6 fo:instream-foreign-object

Common Usage:

The fo:instream-foreign-object flow object is used for an inline graphic or other "generic" object where the object data resides as descendants of the fo:instream-foreign-object, typically as an XML element subtree in a non-XSL namespace.

Note:

A common format is SVG.

Areas:

The fo:instream-foreign-object formatting object generates and returns one inline viewport-area and one reference-area containing the instream-foreign-object. The inline-level area uses the large-allocation-rectangle as defined in 4.2.3 Geometric Definitions.

Constraints:

The viewport's size is determined by the block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension traits. For values of "auto", the content size of the instream foreign object is used.

The content size of an instream-foreign-object is determined by taking the intrinsic size of the object and scaling as specified by the content-height, content-width, scaling, allowed-height-scale, and allowed-width-scale traits. If one of the content-height or content-width is not "auto", the same scale factor (as calculated from the specified non-auto value) is applied equally to both directions.

Once scaled, the reference-area is aligned with respect to the viewport-area using the text-align and display-align traits. If it is too large for the viewport-area, the instream-foreign-object is aligned as if it would fit and the overflow trait controls the clipping, scroll bars, etc.

In the case when the instream-foreign-object does not specify an intrinsic size of the object, the size is determined in an implementation defined manner.

Contents:

The fo:instream-foreign-object flow object has a child from a non-XSL namespace. The permitted structure of this child is that defined for that namespace.

The fo:instream-foreign-object flow object may have additional attributes in the non-XSL namespace. These, as well as the xsl defined properties, are made available to the processor of the content of the flow object. Their semantics are defined by that namespace.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.15.1 allowed-height-scale
7.15.2 allowed-width-scale
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.21.1 clip
7.15.4 content-height
7.30.7 content-type
7.15.5 content-width
7.14.4 display-align
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.4 line-height
7.21.2 overflow
7.15.12 scaling
7.15.13 scaling-method
7.16.9 text-align
7.15.14 width

6.6.7 fo:inline

Common Usage:

The fo:inline formatting object is commonly used for formatting a portion of text with a background or enclosing it in a border.

Areas:

The fo:inline formatting object generates one or more normal inline-areas. The fo:inline returns these areas, together with any normal block-areas, page-level-out-of-line areas, and reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:inline.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:inline formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:inline must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.3 Inline-building.

In addition the constraints imposed by the traits derived from the properties applicable to this formatting object must be satisfied. The geometric constraints are rigorously defined in 4 Area Model.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

An fo:inline that is a child of an fo:footnote may not have block-level children. An fo:inline that is a descendant of an fo:leader or of the fo:inline child of an fo:footnote may not have block-level children, unless it has a nearer ancestor that is an fo:inline-container.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.18.1 color
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.4 line-height
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.30.17 visibility
7.15.14 width
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.6.8 fo:inline-container

Common Usage:

The fo:inline-container flow object is used to generate an inline reference-area, typically containing text blocks with a different writing-mode.

Note:

The use of this flow object is not required for bi-directional text; in this case the Unicode BIDI algorithm and the fo:bidi-override are sufficient.

Areas:

The fo:inline-container formatting object generates one or more viewport/reference pairs. All generated viewport-areas are subject to the constraints given by the block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension traits of the fo:inline-container. The fo:inline-container returns these areas and any page-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:inline-container.

Note:

In the case that the block-progression-dimension.maximum is other than "auto", then overflow processing may apply. The "repeat" value of overflow can be used to generate multiple viewport/reference pairs if this is desired rather than clipping or scrolling.

If the absolute-position trait is "auto", these areas all have an area-class of "xsl-normal". If the absolution-position trait is "absolute" or "fixed" then there is one viewport/reference pair, and its area-class is "xsl-absolute" or "xsl-fixed", respectively.

Trait Derivation:

The reference-orientation and writing-mode traits of the viewport-area and reference-area come from the fo:inline-container. These determine the orientation of the start-edge, end-edge, before-edge and after-edge of the content-rectangle of the viewport-area, and of the padding-, border-, and content-rectangles of the reference-area. The reference-orientation of the reference-area is set to "0" and is, therefore, the same as the orientation established by the viewport-area. The inline-progression-dimension of the reference-area is the same as that of the viewport-area, and may not be "auto" if the inline-progression-direction is different from that of the parent of the fo:inline-container. The block-progression-dimension of the reference-area is not constrained; thus the reference-area may be larger than the viewport-area and this may cause the "overflow" property to operate.

Note:

As a property value applies to each of the areas generated by this flow object the size can vary from instance to instance if the value is "auto" or a <length-range>.

The values in the baseline-table of this object are calculated as follows:

baseline

If the writing mode has a block-progression-direction that is parallel to the block-progression-direction of the parent: the alignment-point is at the position of the dominant-baseline of the first descendant line-area. If there is no such line-area the alignment-point is at the position of the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

If the writing mode has a block-progression-direction that is not parallel to the block-progression-direction of the parent: the alignment-point is at the position that is half way between the before-edge and after-edge of the content rectangle.

before-edge

The alignment-point is at the position of the before-edge of the allocation rectangle.

text-before-edge

The alignment-point is at the position that is the closest to the before-edge of the allocation rectangle selected from the two candidate edges. If the writing mode has a block-progression-direction that is parallel to the block-progression-direction of the parent the candidate edges are the before-edge and the after-edge of the content rectangle; if it is not, the candidate edges are the start-edge and the end-edge of the content rectangle.

middle

The alignment-point is at the position that is half way between the before-edge and after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

after-edge

The alignment-point is at the position of the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

text-after-edge

The alignment-point is at the position that is the closest to the after-edge of the allocation rectangle selected from the two candidate edges. If the writing mode has a block-progression-direction that is parallel to the block-progression-direction of the parent the candidate edges are the before-edge and the after-edge of the content rectangle; if it is not, the candidate edges are the start-edge and the end-edge of the content rectangle.

ideographic

The alignment-point is at the position that is 7/10 of the distance from the before-edge of the allocation rectangle to the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

alphabetic

The alignment-point is at the position that is 6/10 of the distance from the before-edge of the allocation rectangle to the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

hanging

The alignment-point is at the position that is 2/10 of the distance from the before-edge of the allocation rectangle to the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

mathematical

The alignment-point is at the position that is 5/10 of the distance from the before-edge of the allocation rectangle to the after-edge of the allocation rectangle.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:inline-container formatting object.

The children of each reference-area generated by an fo:inline-container formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the children of the fo:inline-container, must be properly stacked, and must be properly ordered.

Any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:inline-container are handled as described in 6.12.2 fo:float.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.21.1 clip
7.14.4 display-align
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.4 line-height
7.21.2 overflow
7.21.3 reference-orientation
7.15.14 width
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.6.9 fo:leader

Common Usage:

The fo:leader formatting object is often used:

  • in table-of-contents to generate sequences of "." glyphs that separate titles from page numbers

  • to create entry fields in fill-in-the-blank forms

  • to create horizontal rules for use as separators

Areas:

The fo:leader formatting object generates and returns a single normal inline-area.

Trait Derivation:

If the value of the leader-pattern is "use-content" the block-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle is determined in the same manner as for line-areas; otherwise it is determined by the rule-thickness trait.

Constraints:

If the leader's minimum length is too long to place in the line-area, the leader will begin a new line. If it is too long to be placed in a line by itself, it will overflow the line and potentially overflow the reference-area in accordance with that container's overflow trait.

The fo:leader formatting object can have any inline formatting objects and characters as its children, except that fo:leaders may not be nested. Its children are ignored unless the value of the leader-pattern trait is "use-content".

Note:

If the value of the leader-pattern trait is "use-content" and the fo:leader has no children, the leader shall be filled with blank space.

The inline-area generated by the fo:leader has a dimension in the inline-progression-direction which shall be at least the leader-length.minimum and at most the leader-length.maximum.

For lines-areas that have been specified to be justified, the justified line-area must honor the leader-alignment trait of any inline-areas generated by fo:leaders.

If the value of the leader-pattern trait is "dots" or "use-content", the following constraint applies:

The inline-area generated by the fo:leader has as its children the areas returned by children of the fo:leader, or obtained by formatting the pattern specified in the leader-pattern trait, repeated an integral number of times. If the width of even a single repetition is larger than the dimension of the inline-area in the inline-progression-direction, the inline-area shall be filled with blank space. The space-start and space-end of the child areas is set to account for the constraints specified in the leader-pattern-width and leader-alignment traits.

Note:

If it is desired that the leader should stretch to fill all available space on a line, the maximum length of the leader should be specified to be at least as large as the column width.

Note:

The alignment of the leader may be script specific and may require indicating what alignment point is required, because it is different from the default alignment for the script. For example, in some usage of Indic scripts the leader is aligned at the alphabetic baseline.

Note:

An fo:leader can be wrapped in an fo:block, yielding a block-area with a line-area containing the leader, to create a rule for separating or decorating block-areas.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

The content must not contain an fo:leader, fo:inline-container, fo:block-container, fo:float, fo:footnote, or fo:marker either as a direct child or as a descendant.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.18.1 color
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.29.5 text-depth
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.22.1 leader-alignment
7.22.4 leader-length
7.22.2 leader-pattern
7.22.3 leader-pattern-width
7.22.5 rule-style
7.22.6 rule-thickness
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing

6.6.10 fo:page-number

Common Usage:

The fo:page-number formatting object is used to obtain an inline-area whose content is the page-number for the page on which the inline-area is placed.

Areas:

The fo:page-number formatting object generates and returns a single normal inline-area.

Constraints:

The content of the inline-area depends on the reference-page and the reference-page-sequence. For the fo:page-number the reference-page is the page on which the inline-area is placed and the reference-page-sequence is the ancestor fo:page-sequence of the fo:page-number.

The child areas of this inline-area are the same as the result of formatting a result-tree fragment consisting of the content of any fo:folio-prefix child of the reference-page-sequence, followed by fo:character flow objects; one for each character in the folio-number string and with only the "character" property specified, followed by the content of any fo:folio-suffix child of the reference-page-sequence.

The folio-number string is obtained by converting the folio-number for the reference-page in accordance with the number to string conversion properties of the reference-page-sequence.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.29.5 text-depth
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.6.11 fo:page-number-citation

Common Usage:

The fo:page-number-citation is used to reference the page-number for the page containing the first normal area returned by the cited formatting object.

Note:

It may be used to provide the page-numbers in the table of contents, cross-references, and index entries.

Areas:

The fo:page-number-citation formatting object generates and returns a single normal inline-area.

Constraints:

The cited page is the page containing, as a descendant, the first normal area returned by the formatting object with an id trait matching the ref-id trait of the fo:page-number-citation (the referenced formatting object).

The child areas of the generated inline-area are the same as the result of formatting the result-tree fragment, defined in 6.6.10 fo:page-number, using the cited page as the reference-page, and the fo:page-sequence that generated the cited-page as the reference-page-sequence.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.13 ref-id
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.29.5 text-depth
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.6.12 fo:page-number-citation-last

Common Usage:

The fo:page-number-citation-last is used to reference the page-number for the last page containing an area that is (a) returned by the cited formatting object and (b) has an area-class that is consistent with the specified page-citation-strategy.

Note:

It may be used to provide the page-numbers in the table of contents, cross-references, and, when combined with fo:page-number-citation, for page range entries.

Areas:

The fo:page-number-citation-last formatting object generates and returns a single normal inline-area.

Constraints:

The cited page is the page of the last page area (in the pre-order traversal order of the area tree) that satisfies the constraints of the page-citation-strategy on this fo:page-number-citation-last.

The child areas of the generated inline-area are the same as the result of formatting the result-tree fragment, defined in 6.6.10 fo:page-number, using the cited page as the reference-page, and the fo:page-sequence that generated the cited-page as the reference-page-sequence.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.10 page-citation-strategy
7.30.13 ref-id
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.29.5 text-depth
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.6.13 fo:folio-prefix

Common Usage:

The fo:folio-prefix formatting object specifies a static prefix for the folio numbers within a page-sequence.

Areas:

The fo:folio-prefix formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used when formatting page numbers.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

An fo:folio-prefix is not permitted to have an fo:page-number, fo:page-number-citation, or fo:page-number-citation-last as a descendant.

6.6.14 fo:folio-suffix

Common Usage:

The fo:folio-suffix formatting object specifies a static suffix for the folio numbers within a page-sequence.

Areas:

The fo:folio-suffix formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used when formatting page numbers.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

An fo:folio-suffix is not permitted to have an fo:page-number, fo:page-number-citation, or fo:page-number-citation-last as a descendant.

6.6.15 fo:scaling-value-citation

Common Usage:

The fo:scaling-value-citation is used to obtain the scale-factor applied to the cited fo:external-graphic.

Note:

It may be used to provide the scale used in applications where a graphic is normally shown at true size, but is scaled down if it does not fit.

Areas:

The fo:scaling-value-citation formatting object generates and returns a single normal inline-area.

Constraints:

The cited fo:external-graphic is the fo:external-graphic with an id trait matching the ref-id trait of the fo:scaling-value-citation.

The applied scale-factor is the scale-factor that was applied to the intrinsic size of the cited fo:external-graphic multiplied by the value of the "intrinsic-scale-value" property. It is expressed as an integer percentage value. The "scale-option" property specifies if the scale-factor for the width or height should be used.

Note:

In the case when the graphics format does not specify an intrinsic size of the graphic and the size has been determined in an implementation-defined manner the scale factor obtained may not be meaningful.

The applied scale-factor string is obtained by converting the applied scale-factor in accordance with the number to string conversion properties.

The child areas of the generated inline-area are the same as the result of formatting a result-tree fragment consisting of fo:character flow objects; one for each character in the applied scale-factor string and with only the "character" property specified.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.9 Common Font Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.10.1 country
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.26.1 format
7.26.2 grouping-separator
7.26.3 grouping-size
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.10.2 language
7.17.2 letter-spacing
7.26.4 letter-value
7.16.4 line-height
7.30.9 intrinsic-scale-value
7.30.13 ref-id
7.30.15 score-spaces
7.30.14 scale-option
7.29.4 text-altitude
7.17.4 text-decoration
7.29.5 text-depth
7.17.5 text-shadow
7.17.6 text-transform
7.30.17 visibility
7.17.8 word-spacing
7.16.13 wrap-option

6.7 Formatting Objects for Tables

6.7.1 Introduction

There are nine formatting objects used to construct tables: fo:table-and-caption, fo:table, fo:table-column, fo:table-caption, fo:table-header, fo:table-footer, fo:table-body, fo:table-row, and fo:table-cell. The result tree structure is shown below.

Tree representation of the Formatting Objects for tables   [D]

Tree Representation of the Formatting Objects for Tables

6.7.1.1 Examples
6.7.1.1.1 Simple Table, Centered and Indented

Input sample:

<doc>
<table>
<caption><p>Caption for this table</p></caption>
<tgroup cols="3" width="325pt">
<colspec colwidth="100pt"/>
<colspec colwidth="150pt"/>
<colspec colwidth="75pt"/>
<tbody>
<row>
<entry><p>Cell 1</p></entry>
<entry><p>Cell 2</p></entry>
<entry><p>Cell 3</p></entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
</doc>

The table and its caption is centered in the available space between the following indents: start-indent="100pt" and end-indent="0pt". The centering and indent is not desired for the content of the caption and the cells.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:attribute-set name="inside-table">
  <xsl:attribute name="start-indent">0pt</xsl:attribute>
  <xsl:attribute name="text-align">start</xsl:attribute>
</xsl:attribute-set>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="table">
  <fo:table-and-caption text-align="center" start-indent="100pt">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-and-caption>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="caption">
  <fo:table-caption xsl:use-attribute-sets="inside-table">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-caption>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="tgroup">
  <fo:table width="{@width}" table-layout="fixed">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="colspec">
  <fo:table-column column-width="{@colwidth}">
    <xsl:attribute name="column-number">
      <xsl:number count="colspec"/>
    </xsl:attribute>
  </fo:table-column>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="tbody">
  <fo:table-body xsl:use-attribute-sets="inside-table">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-body>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="row">
  <fo:table-row>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-row>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="entry">
  <fo:table-cell>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-cell>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:table-and-caption text-align="center" start-indent="100pt">

  <fo:table-caption start-indent="0pt" text-align="start">
    <fo:block>Caption for this table
    </fo:block>
  </fo:table-caption>

  <fo:table width="325pt" table-layout="fixed">

    <fo:table-column column-width="100pt" column-number="1">
    </fo:table-column>
    <fo:table-column column-width="150pt" column-number="2">
    </fo:table-column>
    <fo:table-column column-width="75pt" column-number="3">
    </fo:table-column>

    <fo:table-body start-indent="0pt" text-align="start">

    <fo:table-row>

    <fo:table-cell>
    <fo:block>Cell 1
    </fo:block>
    </fo:table-cell>
    <fo:table-cell>
    <fo:block>Cell 2
    </fo:block>
    </fo:table-cell>
    <fo:table-cell>
    <fo:block>Cell 3
    </fo:block>
    </fo:table-cell>

    </fo:table-row>

    </fo:table-body>

  </fo:table>

</fo:table-and-caption>
6.7.1.1.2 Simple Table with Relative Column-width Specifications

This example is using a simple, "Oasis-table-model-like", markup for the table elements. The column-widths are specified using full relative column-width specification.

Input sample:

<doc>
<table>
<tgroup cols="3">
<colspec colname="col1" colwidth="1*"/>
<colspec colname="col2" colwidth="2*+2pi"/>
<colspec colname="col3" colwidth="72"/>
<tbody>
<row>
<entry colnum="1" valign="before"><p>Cell 1</p></entry>
<entry colnum="2" valign="middle" align="center"><p>Cell 2</p></entry>
<entry colnum="3" align="center"><p>Cell 3</p></entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
</doc>

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="table">
  <fo:table width="12cm" table-layout="fixed">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="colspec">
  <fo:table-column>
    <xsl:attribute name="column-number">
      <xsl:number count="colspec"/>
    </xsl:attribute>
    <xsl:attribute name="column-width">
      <xsl:call-template name="calc.column.width">
        <xsl:with-param name="colwidth">
          <xsl:value-of select="@colwidth"/>
        </xsl:with-param>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:attribute>
  </fo:table-column>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="tbody">
  <fo:table-body>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-body>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="row">
  <fo:table-row>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-row>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="entry">
  <fo:table-cell column-number="{@colnum}">
    <xsl:if test="@valign">
      <xsl:choose>
        <xsl:when test="@valign='middle'">
          <xsl:attribute name="display-align">center</xsl:attribute>
        </xsl:when>
        <xsl:when test="@valign='top'">
          <xsl:attribute name="display-align">before</xsl:attribute>
        </xsl:when>
        <xsl:when test="@valign='bottom'">
          <xsl:attribute name="display-align">after</xsl:attribute>
        </xsl:when>
        <xsl:otherwise>
          <xsl:attribute name="display-align">before</xsl:attribute>
        </xsl:otherwise>
      </xsl:choose>
    </xsl:if>
    <xsl:if test="@align">
      <xsl:attribute name="text-align">
        <xsl:value-of select="@align"/>
      </xsl:attribute>
    </xsl:if>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:table-cell>
</xsl:template>


<xsl:template name="calc.column.width">
<!-- **
     * <p>Calculate an XSL FO table column-width specification from a
     * full relative table column-width specification.</p>
     *
     * <p>Table column-widths are in the following basic
     * forms:</p>
     *
     * <ul>
     * <li><b>99.99units</b>, a fixed length-specifier.</li>
     * <li><b>99.99</b>, a fixed length-specifier without any units.</li>
     * <li><b>99.99*</b>, a relative length-specifier.</li>
     * <li><b>99.99*+99.99units</b>, a combination of both.</li>
     * </ul>
     *
     * <p>The units are points (pt), picas (pi), centimeters (cm),
     * millimeters (mm), and inches (in). These are the same units as XSL,
     * except that XSL abbreviates picas "pc" instead of "pi". If a length
     * specifier has no units, the default unit (pt) is assumed.</p>
     *
     * <p>Relative length-specifiers are represented in XSL with the
     * proportional-column-width() function.</p>
     *
     * <p>Here are some examples:</p>
     *
     * <ul>
     * <li>"36pt" becomes "36pt"</li>
     * <li>"3pi" becomes "3pc"</li>
     * <li>"36" becomes "36pt"</li>
     * <li>"3*" becomes "proportional-column-width(3)"</li>
     * <li>"3*+2pi" becomes "proportional-column-width(3)+2pc"</li>
     * <li>"1*+2" becomes "proportional-column-width(1)+2pt"</li>
     * </ul>
     *
     * @param colwidth The column width specification.
     *
     * @returns The XSL column width specification.
     * -->
  <xsl:param name="colwidth">1*</xsl:param>

  <!-- Ok, the colwidth could have any one of the following forms: -->
  <!--        1*       = proportional width -->
  <!--     1unit       = 1.0 units wide -->
  <!--         1       = 1pt wide -->
  <!--  1*+1unit       = proportional width + some fixed width -->
  <!--      1*+1       = proportional width + some fixed width -->

  <!-- If it has a proportional width, translate it to XSL -->
  <xsl:if test="contains($colwidth, '*')">
    <xsl:text>proportional-column-width(</xsl:text>
    <xsl:value-of select="substring-before($colwidth, '*')"/>
    <xsl:text>)</xsl:text>
  </xsl:if>

  <!-- Now get the non-proportional part of the specification -->
  <xsl:variable name="width-units">
    <xsl:choose>
      <xsl:when test="contains($colwidth, '*')">
        <xsl:value-of
             select="normalize-space(substring-after($colwidth, '*'))"/>
      </xsl:when>
      <xsl:otherwise>
        <xsl:value-of select="normalize-space($colwidth)"/>
      </xsl:otherwise>
    </xsl:choose>
  </xsl:variable>

  <!-- Now the width-units could have any one of the following forms: -->
  <!--                 = <empty string> -->
  <!--     1unit       = 1.0 units wide -->
  <!--         1       = 1pt wide -->
  <!-- with an optional leading sign -->

  <!-- Get the width part by blanking out the units part and discarding -->
  <!-- white space. -->
  <xsl:variable name="width"
       select="normalize-space(translate($width-units,
                                         '+-0123456789.abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz',
                                         '+-0123456789.'))"/>

  <!-- Get the units part by blanking out the width part and discarding -->
  <!-- white space. -->
  <xsl:variable name="units"
       select="normalize-space(translate($width-units,
                                         'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz+-0123456789.',
                                         'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz'))"/>

  <!-- Output the width -->
  <xsl:value-of select="$width"/>

  <!-- Output the units, translated appropriately -->
  <xsl:choose>
    <xsl:when test="$units = 'pi'">pc</xsl:when>
    <xsl:when test="$units = '' and $width != ''">pt</xsl:when>
    <xsl:otherwise><xsl:value-of select="$units"/></xsl:otherwise>
  </xsl:choose>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:table width="12cm" table-layout="fixed">
  <fo:table-column column-number="1" column-width="proportional-column-width(1)">
  </fo:table-column>
  <fo:table-column column-number="2" column-width="proportional-column-width(2)+2pc">
  </fo:table-column>
  <fo:table-column column-number="3" column-width="72pt">
  </fo:table-column>
  <fo:table-body>
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:table-cell column-number="1" display-align="top">
        <fo:block>Cell 1
        </fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
      <fo:table-cell column-number="2" display-align="center" text-align="center">
        <fo:block>Cell 2
        </fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
      <fo:table-cell column-number="3" text-align="center">
        <fo:block>Cell 3
        </fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
  </fo:table-body>
</fo:table>

6.7.2 fo:table-and-caption

Common Usage:

The fo:table-and-caption flow object is used for formatting a table together with its caption.

Note:

An fo:table-and-caption may be placed inline by enclosing it in an fo:inline-container.

Note:

This formatting object corresponds to the CSS anonymous box that encloses the table caption and the table.

Areas:

The fo:table-and-caption formatting object generates one or more normal block-areas. The fo:table-and-caption returns these areas, any page-level-out-of-line areas, and any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table-and-caption.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:table-and-caption formatting object.

The children of the areas generated by the fo:table-and-caption are one or two areas; one for the table caption and one for the table itself. These are positioned relative to each other as specified by the caption-side trait. They are placed relative to the content-rectangle of the generated area as specified by the text-align trait.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.28.7 caption-side
7.19.1 clear
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.9 text-align

6.7.3 fo:table

Common Usage:

The fo:table flow object is used for formatting the tabular material of a table.

The fo:table flow object and its child flow objects model the visual layout of a table in a "row primary" manner. A complete table may be seen as consisting of a grid of rows and columns where each cell occupies one or more grid units in the row-progression-direction and column-progression-direction.

The table content is divided into a header (optional), footer (optional), and one or more bodies. Properties specify if the headers and footers should be repeated at a break in the table. Each of these parts occupies one or more rows in the table grid.

Areas:

The fo:table formatting object generates and returns one or more normal block-areas. In addition the fo:table returns any page-level-out-of-line areas, and any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table.

The areas generated and returned by the fo:table formatting object have as children:

  • Areas, with only background, corresponding to the table-header, table-footer, table-body, spanned columns, columns, and rows.

    Note:

    The spanned columns (fo:table-column with a "number-columns-spanned" value greater than 1) are used in the same way as the "column groups" in CSS2 for determining the background.

  • Areas returned by the fo:table-cell formatting objects.

These areas have a z-index controlling the rendering order determined in accordance with 17.5.1 of the CSS2 specification (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/tables.html#table-layers").

Note:

A cell that is spanned may have a different background in each of the grid units it occupies.

Trait Derivation:

The column-progression-direction and row-progression-direction are determined by the writing-mode trait. Columns use the inline-progression-direction, and rows use the block-progression-direction.

The method for deriving the border traits for a table is specified by the "border-collapse" property.

If the value of the "border-collapse" property is "separate" the border is composed of two components. The first, which is placed with the inside edge coincident with the outermost table grid boundary line, has the width of half the value for the "border-separation" property. It is filled in accordance with the "background" property of the fo:table. Second, outside the outermost table grid boundary line is placed, for each side of the table, a border based on a border specified on the table.

If the value of the "border-collapse" property is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" the border is determined, for each segment, at the cell level.

Note:

By specifying "collapse-with-precedence" and an appropriately high precedence on the border specification for the fo:table one may ensure that this specification is the one used on all border segments.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:table formatting object.

The inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the table is the sum of the inline-progression-dimensions of the columns in the table grid. The method used to determine these inline-progression-dimensions is governed by the values of the table-layout and the inline-progression-dimension traits in the following manner:

inline-progression-dimension="auto" table-layout="auto"

The automatic table layout shall be used.

inline-progression-dimension="auto" table-layout="fixed"

The automatic table layout shall be used.

inline-progression-dimension=<length> or <percentage> table-layout="auto"

The automatic table layout shall be used.

inline-progression-dimension=<length> or <percentage> table-layout="fixed"

The fixed table layout shall be used.

The automatic table layout and fixed table layout is defined in 17.5.2 of the CSS2 specification (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/tables.html#width-layout").

The method for determining the block-progression-dimension of the table is governed by the block-progression-dimension trait.

Note:

The CSS2 specification explicitly does not specify what the behavior should be if there is a mismatch between an explicitly specified table block-progression-dimension and the block-progression-dimensions of the content.

Note:

The use of the "proportional-column-width()" function is only permitted when the fixed table layout is used.

If the use of proportional column widths are desired on a table of an unknown explicit width, the inline-progression-dimension cannot be specified to be "auto". Instead, the width must be specified as a percentage. For example, setting table-layout="fixed" and inline-progression-dimension="100%" would allow proportional column widths while simultaneously creating a table as wide as possible in the current context.

Note:

The result of using a percentage for the width may be unpredictable, especially when using the automatic table layout.

It is an error if two table-cells overlap or if a table-cell would extend beyond the current table row group (i.e., the current table-body, table-header, or table-footer).

Note:

Such overlap could be due to the same column-number being assigned to two different cells in the same row, or due to column or row spanning causing an overlap. A table-cell might extend beyond the current table row group by having a number-columns-spanned or number-rows-spanned value that is larger than the remaining number of columns or rows in the spanned direction.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.3 border-collapse
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.5 border-separation
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.19.1 clear
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.15.6 height
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.28.16 table-layout
7.28.17 table-omit-footer-at-break
7.28.18 table-omit-header-at-break
7.15.14 width
7.29.7 writing-mode

6.7.4 fo:table-column

Common Usage:

The fo:table-column auxiliary formatting object specifies characteristics applicable to table cells that have the same column and span. The most important property is the "column-width" property.

Areas:

The fo:table-column formatting object does not generate or return any areas. It holds a set of traits that provide constraints on the column widths and a specification of some presentation characteristics, such as background which affects the areas generated by the fo:table (see 6.7.3 fo:table). Inheritable properties may also be specified on the fo:table-column. These can be referenced by the from-table-column() function in an expression.

Note:

More details, in particular the use of an fo:table-column with number-columns-spanned greater than 1, are given in the description of fo:table and of the from-table-column() function.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
NOTE: Only the background properties: background-attachment, background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position-horizontal, and background-position-vertical from this set apply. If the value of border-collapse is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" for the table the border properties: border-before-color, border-before-style, border-before-width, border-after-color, border-after-style, border-after-width, border-start-color, border-start-style, border-start-width, border-end-color, border-end-style, border-end-width, border-top-color, border-top-style, border-top-width, border-bottom-color, border-bottom-style, border-bottom-width, border-left-color, border-left-style, border-left-width, border-right-color, border-right-style, and border-right-width also apply.

7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.28.8 column-number
7.28.9 column-width
7.28.12 number-columns-repeated
7.28.13 number-columns-spanned
7.30.17 visibility

6.7.5 fo:table-caption

Common Usage:

The fo:table-caption formatting object is used to contain block-level formatting objects containing the caption for the table only when using the fo:table-and-caption.

Areas:

The fo:table-caption formatting object generates one or more normal reference-areas. The fo:table-caption returns these reference-areas and any page-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table-caption.

Constraints:

For the case when the value of the caption-side trait is "before" or "after" the inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the generated reference-area is equal to the inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of the reference-area that encloses it.

When the value is "start" or "end" the inline-progression-dimension of the generated reference-area is constrained by the value of the inline-progression-dimension trait.

When the value is "top", "bottom", "left", or "right" the value is mapped in the same way as for corresponding properties (see 5.3 Computing the Values of Corresponding Properties) and the property is then treated as if the corresponding value had been specified.

If the caption is to be positioned before the table, the areas generated by the fo:table-caption shall be placed in the area tree as though the fo:table-caption had a "keep-with-next" property with value "always".

If the caption is to be positioned after the table, the areas generated by the fo:table-caption shall be placed in the area tree as though the fo:table-caption had a "keep-with-previous" property with value "always".

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:table-caption formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:table-caption formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the children of the fo:table-caption, must be properly stacked, and must be properly ordered.

Any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table-caption are handled as described in 6.12.2 fo:float.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.15.14 width

6.7.6 fo:table-header

Common Usage:

The fo:table-header formatting object is used to contain the content of the table header.

Areas:

The fo:table-header formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:table-header formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:table-header.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:table-header is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:table-header.

Contents:

The fo:table-header has fo:table-row (one or more) as its children, or alternatively fo:table-cell (one or more). In the latter case cells are grouped into rows using the starts-row and ends-row properties.

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
NOTE: Only the background properties: background-attachment, background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position-horizontal, and background-position-vertical from this set apply. If the value of border-collapse is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" for the table the border properties: border-before-color, border-before-style, border-before-width, border-after-color, border-after-style, border-after-width, border-start-color, border-start-style, border-start-width, border-end-color, border-end-style, border-end-width, border-top-color, border-top-style, border-top-width, border-bottom-color, border-bottom-style, border-bottom-width, border-left-color, border-left-style, border-left-width, border-right-color, border-right-style, and border-right-width also apply.

7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.30.17 visibility

6.7.7 fo:table-footer

Common Usage:

The fo:table-footer formatting object is used to contain the content of the table footer.

Areas:

The fo:table-footer formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:table-footer formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:table-footer.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:table-footer is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:table-footer.

Contents:

The fo:table-footer has fo:table-row (one or more) as its children, or alternatively fo:table-cell (one or more). In the latter case cells are grouped into rows using the starts-row and ends-row properties.

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
NOTE: Only the background properties: background-attachment, background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position-horizontal, and background-position-vertical from this set apply. If the value of border-collapse is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" for the table the border properties: border-before-color, border-before-style, border-before-width, border-after-color, border-after-style, border-after-width, border-start-color, border-start-style, border-start-width, border-end-color, border-end-style, border-end-width, border-top-color, border-top-style, border-top-width, border-bottom-color, border-bottom-style, border-bottom-width, border-left-color, border-left-style, border-left-width, border-right-color, border-right-style, and border-right-width also apply.

7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.30.17 visibility

6.7.8 fo:table-body

Common Usage:

The fo:table-body formatting object is used to contain the content of the table body.

Areas:

The fo:table-body formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:table-body formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:table-body.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:table-body is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:table-body.

Contents:

The fo:table-body has fo:table-row (one or more) as its children, or alternatively fo:table-cell (one or more). In the latter case cells are grouped into rows using the starts-row and ends-row properties.

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
NOTE: Only the background properties: background-attachment, background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position-horizontal, and background-position-vertical from this set apply. If the value of border-collapse is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" for the table the border properties: border-before-color, border-before-style, border-before-width, border-after-color, border-after-style, border-after-width, border-start-color, border-start-style, border-start-width, border-end-color, border-end-style, border-end-width, border-top-color, border-top-style, border-top-width, border-bottom-color, border-bottom-style, border-bottom-width, border-left-color, border-left-style, border-left-width, border-right-color, border-right-style, and border-right-width also apply.

7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.30.17 visibility

6.7.9 fo:table-row

Common Usage:

The fo:table-row formatting object is used to group table-cells into rows; all table-cells in a table-row start in the same geometric row on the table grid.

Areas:

The fo:table-row formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:table-row formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:table-row. The fo:table-row holds a specification of some presentation characteristics, such as background which affects the areas generated by the fo:table (see 6.7.3 fo:table).

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:table-row is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:table-row.

The method for determining the height of the row in the grid is governed by the row-height trait.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
NOTE: Only the background properties: background-attachment, background-color, background-image, background-repeat, background-position-horizontal, and background-position-vertical from this set apply. If the value of border-collapse is "collapse" or "collapse-with-precedence" for the table the border properties: border-before-color, border-before-style, border-before-width, border-after-color, border-after-style, border-after-width, border-start-color, border-start-style, border-start-width, border-end-color, border-end-style, border-end-width, border-top-color, border-top-style, border-top-width, border-bottom-color, border-bottom-style, border-bottom-width, border-left-color, border-left-style, border-left-width, border-right-color, border-right-style, and border-right-width also apply.

7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.6 height
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.30.17 visibility

6.7.10 fo:table-cell

Common Usage:

The fo:table-cell formatting object is used to group content to be placed in a table cell.

The "starts-row" and "ends-row" properties can be used when the input data does not have elements containing the cells in each row, but instead, for example, each row starts at elements of a particular type.

Areas:

The fo:table-cell formatting object generates one or more normal reference-areas. The fo:table-cell returns these reference-areas and any page-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table-cell.

Trait Derivation:

The method for deriving the border for a cell is specified by the border-collapse trait.

If the value of the border-collapse trait is "separate" the border is composed of two components. The first, which is placed with the outside edge coincident with the table grid boundary line, has the width of half the value for the border-separation trait. It is filled in accordance with the background trait of the fo:table. Inside this border is placed, for each side of the cell, a border based on a border specified on the cell or inherited.

If the value of the border-collapse trait is "collapse-with-precedence" the border for each side of the cell is determined by, for each segment of a border, selecting, from all border specifications for that segment, the border that has the highest precedence. It is an error if there are two such borders that have the same precedence but are not identical. An implementation may recover by selecting one of the borders. Each border segment is placed centered on the table grid boundary line. On devices that do not support sub-pixel rendering, if an effective border width is determined to be an odd number of pixels it is implementation defined on which side of the grid boundary line the odd pixel is placed.

If the value of the border-collapse trait is "collapse", the border for each side of the cell is determined by, for each segment of a border, selecting, from all border specifications for that segment, the border that has the most "eye catching" border style, see below for the details. Each border segment is placed centered on the table grid boundary line. On devices that do not support sub-pixel rendering, if an effective border width is determined to be an odd number of pixels it is implementation defined on which side of the grid boundary line the odd pixel is placed. Where there is a conflict between the styles of border segments that collapse, the following rules determine which border style "wins":

  1. Borders with the 'border-style' of 'hidden' take precedence over all other conflicting borders. Any border with this value suppresses all borders at this location.

  2. Borders with a style of 'none' have the lowest priority. Only if the border properties of all the elements meeting at this edge are 'none' will the border be omitted (but note that 'none' is the default value for the border style.)

  3. If none of the styles is 'hidden' and at least one of them is not 'none', then narrow borders are discarded in favor of wider ones.

  4. If the remaining border styles have the same 'border-width' than styles are preferred in this order: 'double', 'solid', 'dashed', 'dotted', 'ridge', 'outset', 'groove', and the lowest: 'inset'.

  5. If border styles differ only in color, then a style set on a cell wins over one on a row, which wins over a row group, column, column group and, lastly, table.

Constraints:

A table-cell occupies one or more grid units in the row-progression-direction and column-progression-direction. The content-rectangle of the cell is the size of the portion of the grid the cell occupies minus, for each of the four sides:

  • If the value of the border-collapse trait is "separate": half the value of the border-separation trait; otherwise 0.

  • If the value of the border-collapse trait is "separate": the thickness of the cell-border; otherwise half the thickness of the effective border.

  • The cell padding.

The method for determining the block-progression-dimension of the cell in the grid is governed by the row-height trait.

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:table-cell formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:table-cell formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the children of the fo:table-cell, must be properly stacked, and must be properly ordered.

Any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:table-cell are handled as described in 6.12.2 fo:float.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.28.1 border-after-precedence
7.28.2 border-before-precedence
7.28.4 border-end-precedence
7.28.6 border-start-precedence
7.15.3 block-progression-dimension
7.28.8 column-number
7.14.4 display-align
7.14.6 relative-align
7.28.10 empty-cells
7.28.11 ends-row
7.15.6 height
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.15.7 inline-progression-dimension
7.28.13 number-columns-spanned
7.28.14 number-rows-spanned
7.28.15 starts-row
7.15.14 width

6.8 Formatting Objects for Lists

6.8.1 Introduction

There are four formatting objects used to construct lists: fo:list-block, fo:list-item, fo:list-item-label, and fo:list-item-body.

Tree representation of the Formatting Objects for lists   [D]

Tree representation of the formatting Objects for Lists.

The fo:list-block has the role of containing the complete list and of specifying values used for the list geometry in the inline-progression-direction (see details below).

The children of the fo:list-block are one or more fo:list-item, each containing a pair of fo:list-item-label and fo:list-item-body.

The fo:list-item has the role of containing each item in a list.

The fo:list-item-label has the role of containing the content, block-level formatting objects, of the label for the list-item; typically an fo:block containing a number, a dingbat character, or a term.

The fo:list-item-body has the role of containing the content, block-level formatting objects, of the body of the list-item; typically one or more fo:block.

The placement, in the block-progression-direction, of the label with respect to the body is made in accordance with the "vertical-align" property of the fo:list-item.

Areas generated by a list   [D]

The specification of the list geometry in the inline-progression-direction is achieved by:

  • Specifying appropriate values of the "provisional-distance-between-starts" and "provisional-label-separation" properties. The "provisional-distance-between-starts" specifies the desired distance between the start-indents of the label and the body of the list-item. The "provisional-label-separation" specifies the desired separation between the end-indent of the label and the start-indent of the body of the list-item.

  • Specifying end-indent="label-end()" on the fo:list-item-label.

    Specifying start-indent="body-start()" on the fo:list-item-body.

    Note:

    These list specific functions are defined in 7.30.11 provisional-label-separation and 7.30.12 provisional-distance-between-starts.

The start-indent of the list-item-label and end-indent of the list-item-body, if desired, are typically specified as a length.

6.8.1.1 Examples
6.8.1.1.1 Enumerated List

The list-items are contained in an "ol" element. The items are contained in "item" elements and contain text (as opposed to paragraphs).

The style is to enumerate the items alphabetically with a dot after the letter.

Input sample:

<ol>
<item>List item 1.</item>
<item>List item 2.</item>
<item>List item 3.</item>
</ol>

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="ol">
  <fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="15mm"
   provisional-label-separation="5mm">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:list-block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="ol/item">
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label start-indent="5mm" end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>
        <xsl:number format="a."/>
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>
        <xsl:apply-templates/>
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="15mm"
  provisional-label-separation="5mm">

  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label start-indent="5mm" end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>a.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>List item 1.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>

  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label start-indent="5mm" end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>b.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>List item 2.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>

  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label start-indent="5mm" end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>c.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>List item 3.
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>

</fo:list-block>
6.8.1.1.2 HTML-style "dl" lists

In this example the stylesheet processes HTML-style "dl" lists, which contain unwrapped pairs of "dt" and "dd" elements, transforming them into fo:list-blocks.

Balanced pairs of "dt"/"dd"s are converted into fo:list-items. For unbalanced "dt"/"dd"s, the stylesheet makes the following assumptions:

  • Multiple "dt"s are grouped together into a single fo:list-item-label in a single list-item.

  • Multiple DDs are:

    • Output as individual FO list-items with an empty list-item-label if the stylesheet variable $allow-naked-dd is true.

    • Are grouped together into a single FO list-item-body if $allow-naked-dd is false.

In other words, given a structure like this:

<doc>
<dl>
  <dt>term</dt>
  <dd>definition</dd>
  <dt>term</dt>
  <dt>term</dt>
  <dd>definition</dd>
  <dt>term</dt>
  <dd>definition</dd>
  <dd>definition</dd>
</dl>
</doc>

If $allow-naked-dd is true, the result instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace is:

<fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="35mm"
  provisional-label-separation="5mm">
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
</fo:list-block>

If $allow-naked-dd is false, the result instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace is:

<fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="35mm"
  provisional-label-separation="5mm">
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
  <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
      <fo:block>term
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
      <fo:block>definition
      </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
  </fo:list-item>
</fo:list-block>

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:include href="dtdd.xsl"/>

<xsl:template match="doc">
  <xsl:apply-templates/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="dl">
  <xsl:call-template name="process.dl"/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="dt|dd">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Included stylesheet "dtdd.xsl"

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:variable name="allow-naked-dd" select="true()"/>

<xsl:template name="process.dl">
  <fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="35mm"
   provisional-label-separation="5mm">
    <xsl:choose>
      <xsl:when test="$allow-naked-dd">
        <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content.with.naked.dd"/>
      </xsl:when>
      <xsl:otherwise>
        <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content"/>
      </xsl:otherwise>
    </xsl:choose>
  </fo:list-block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template name="process.dl.content.with.naked.dd">
  <xsl:param name="dts" select="./force-list-to-be-empty"/>
  <xsl:param name="nodes" select="*"/>

  <xsl:choose>
    <xsl:when test="count($nodes)=0">
      <!-- Out of nodes, output any pending DTs -->
      <xsl:if test="count($dts)>0">
        <fo:list-item>
          <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
            <xsl:apply-templates select="$dts"/>
          </fo:list-item-label>
          <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()"/>
        </fo:list-item>
      </xsl:if>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:when test="name($nodes[1])='dd'">
      <!-- We found a DD, output the DTs and the DD -->
      <fo:list-item>
        <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
          <xsl:apply-templates select="$dts"/>
        </fo:list-item-label>
        <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
          <xsl:apply-templates select="$nodes[1]"/>
        </fo:list-item-body>
      </fo:list-item>
      <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content.with.naked.dd">
        <xsl:with-param name="nodes" select="$nodes[position()>1]"/>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:when test="name($nodes[1])='dt'">
      <!-- We found a DT, add it to the list of DTs and loop -->
      <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content.with.naked.dd">
        <xsl:with-param name="dts" select="$dts|$nodes[1]"/>
        <xsl:with-param name="nodes" select="$nodes[position()>1]"/>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:otherwise>
      <!-- This shouldn't happen -->
      <xsl:message>
        <xsl:text>DT/DD list contained something bogus (</xsl:text>
        <xsl:value-of select="name($nodes[1])"/>
        <xsl:text>).</xsl:text>
      </xsl:message>
    </xsl:otherwise>
  </xsl:choose>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template name="process.dl.content">
  <xsl:param name="dts" select="./force-list-to-be-empty"/>
  <xsl:param name="dds" select="./force-list-to-be-empty"/>
  <xsl:param name="output-on"></xsl:param>
  <xsl:param name="nodes" select="*"/>

  <!-- The algorithm here is to build up a list of DTs and DDs, -->
  <!-- outputing them only on the transition from DD back to DT -->

  <xsl:choose>
    <xsl:when test="count($nodes)=0">
      <!-- Out of nodes, output any pending elements -->
      <xsl:if test="count($dts)>0 or count($dds)>0">
        <fo:list-item>
          <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
            <xsl:apply-templates select="$dts"/>
          </fo:list-item-label>
          <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
            <xsl:apply-templates select="$dds"/>
          </fo:list-item-body>
        </fo:list-item>
      </xsl:if>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:when test="name($nodes[1])=$output-on">
      <!-- We're making the transition from DD back to DT -->
      <fo:list-item>
        <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
          <xsl:apply-templates select="$dts"/>
        </fo:list-item-label>
        <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
          <xsl:apply-templates select="$dds"/>
        </fo:list-item-body>
      </fo:list-item>

      <!-- Reprocess this node (and the rest of the node list) -->
      <!-- resetting the output-on state to nil -->
      <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content">
        <xsl:with-param name="nodes" select="$nodes"/>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:when test="name($nodes[1])='dt'">
      <!-- We found a DT, add it to the list and loop -->
      <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content">
        <xsl:with-param name="dts" select="$dts|$nodes[1]"/>
        <xsl:with-param name="dds" select="$dds"/>
        <xsl:with-param name="nodes" select="$nodes[position()>1]"/>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:when test="name($nodes[1])='dd'">
      <!-- We found a DD, add it to the list and loop, noting that -->
      <!-- the next time we cross back to DT's, we need to output the -->
      <!-- current DT/DDs. -->
      <xsl:call-template name="process.dl.content">
        <xsl:with-param name="dts" select="$dts"/>
        <xsl:with-param name="dds" select="$dds|$nodes[1]"/>
        <xsl:with-param name="output-on">dt</xsl:with-param>
        <xsl:with-param name="nodes" select="$nodes[position()>1]"/>
      </xsl:call-template>
    </xsl:when>

    <xsl:otherwise>
      <!-- This shouldn't happen -->
      <xsl:message>
        <xsl:text>DT/DD list contained something bogus (</xsl:text>
        <xsl:value-of select="name($nodes[1])"/>
        <xsl:text>).</xsl:text>
      </xsl:message>
    </xsl:otherwise>
  </xsl:choose>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

The "dtdd.xsl" stylesheet may be customized in the following ways:

  • Set the value of $allow-naked-dd to control the processing of unbalanced "dd"s.

  • Change "dt" to the name of the element which is a term in the list.

  • Change "dd" to the name of the element which is a definition in the list.

  • In the, perhaps unlikely, event that the documents may contain an element named "force-list-to-be-empty", that element name should be changed to a name that is not used in the documents.

In the stylesheet using the "dtdd.xsl" stylesheet change the "dl" to the name of the element which is the wrapper for the list.

6.8.2 fo:list-block

Common Usage:

The fo:list-block flow object is used to format a list.

Areas:

The fo:list-block formatting object generates one or more normal block-areas. The fo:list-block returns these areas, any page-level-out-of-line areas, and any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:list-block.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:list-block formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:list-block formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the children of the fo:list-block, must be properly stacked, and must be properly ordered.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.19.1 clear
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.30.12 provisional-distance-between-starts
7.30.11 provisional-label-separation

6.8.3 fo:list-item

Common Usage:

The fo:list-item formatting object contains the label and the body of an item in a list.

Areas:

The fo:list-item formatting object generates one or more normal block-areas. The fo:list-item returns these areas, any page-level-out-of-line areas, and any reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:list-item.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:list-item formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:list-item formatting object must be normal block-areas returned by the fo:list-item-label and the fo:list-item-body flow objects and must be properly ordered. Those returned by the fo:list-item-label must be properly stacked and those returned by the fo:list-item-body must be properly stacked.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:list-item formatting object returned by the fo:list-item-label and fo:list-item-body objects are positioned in the block-progression-direction with respect to each other according to the relative-align trait.

In the inline-progression-direction these areas are positioned in the usual manner for properly stacked areas. It is an error if the content-rectangles of the areas overlap.

The block-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle of an area generated by the fo:list-item is just large enough so that the allocation-rectangles of all its child areas are contained in it. In particular, the space-before and space-after of the child areas have no effect on the spacing of the list item. For purposes of the block-stacking constraints the areas generated by fo:list-item are treated as if there they have a fence preceding and a fence following them.

Note:

These areas are not reference-areas, hence the indents on all objects within them are measured relative to the reference-area that holds the content of the fo:list-block.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.20.1 break-after
7.20.2 break-before
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.19.3 intrusion-displace
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.14.6 relative-align

6.8.4 fo:list-item-body

Common Usage:

The fo:list-item-body formatting object contains the content of the body of a list-item.

Areas:

The fo:list-item-body formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:list-item-body formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:list-item-body.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:list-item-body is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:list-item-body.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.3 keep-together

6.8.5 fo:list-item-label

Common Usage:

The fo:list-item-label formatting object contains the content of the label of a list-item, typically used to either enumerate, identify, or adorn the list-item's body.

Areas:

The fo:list-item-label formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:list-item-label formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:list-item-label.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:list-item-label is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:list-item-label.

Contents:

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.20.3 keep-together

6.9 Dynamic Effects: Link and Multi Formatting Objects

6.9.1 Introduction

Dynamic effects, whereby user actions (including User Agent state) can influence the behavior and/or representation of portions of a document, can be achieved through the use of the formatting objects included in this section:

  • One-directional single-target links.

  • The ability to switch between the display of two or more formatting object subtrees. This can be used for, e.g., expandable/collapsible table of contents, display of an icon or a full table or graphic.

  • The ability to switch between different property values, such as color or font-weight, depending on a User Agent state, such as "hover".

The switching between subtrees is achieved by using the following three formatting objects: fo:multi-switch, fo:multi-case, and fo:multi-toggle. The result tree structure is shown below.

Tree representation of the multi Formatting Objects   [D]

Tree Representation of the Multi Formatting Objects

The role of the fo:multi-switch is to wrap fo:multi-case formatting objects, each containing a subtree. Each subtree is given a name on the fo:multi-case formatting object. Activating, for example implemented as clicking on, an fo:multi-toggle causes a named subtree, the previous, the next, or "any" subtree to be displayed; controlled by the "switch-to" property. For "any", an implementation would typically present a list of choices each labeled using the "case-title" property of the fo:multi-case. The initial subtree displayed is controlled by the "starting-state" property on the fo:multi-case.

Switching between different property values is achieved by using the fo:multi-properties and fo:multi-property-set formatting objects, and the merge-property-values() function. For example, an fo:multi-property-set can be used to specify various properties for each of the possible values of the active-state property, and merge-property-values() can be used to apply them on a given formatting object.

6.9.1.1 Examples
6.9.1.1.1 Expandable/Collapsible Table of Contents

Input sample:

<doc>
  <chapter><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
  </chapter>
  <chapter><title>Chapter</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
    <section><title>Section</title>
    <p>Text</p>
    </section>
  </chapter>
</doc>

In this example the chapter and section titles are extracted into a table of contents placed at the front of the result. The chapter titles are preceded by an icon indicating either collapsed or expanded state. The section titles are only shown in the expanded state. Furthermore, there are links from the titles in the table of contents to the corresponding titles in the body of the document.

The two states are achieved by, for each chapter title, using an fo:multi-switch with a fo:multi-case for each state. The icon is contained in an fo:multi-toggle with the appropriate fo:multi-case "switch-to" property to select the other state.

The links in the table of contents are achieved by adding a unique id on the title text in the body of the document and wrapping the title text in the table of contents in an fo:basic-link referring to that id.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="doc">
  <!-- create the table of contents -->
  <xsl:apply-templates select="chapter/title" mode="toc"/>
  <!-- do the document -->
  <xsl:apply-templates/>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title" mode="toc">
  <fo:multi-switch>
    <fo:multi-case case-name="collapsed" case-title="collapsed"
    starting-state="show">
      <fo:block>
        <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="expanded">
          <fo:external-graphic href="plus-icon.gif"/>
        </fo:multi-toggle>
        <fo:basic-link internal-destination="{generate-id(.)}">
          <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
          <xsl:apply-templates mode="toc"/>
        </fo:basic-link>
      </fo:block>
    </fo:multi-case>
    <fo:multi-case case-name="expanded" case-title="expanded"
    starting-state="hide">
      <fo:block>
        <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="collapsed">
          <fo:external-graphic href="minus-icon.gif"/>
        </fo:multi-toggle>
        <fo:basic-link internal-destination="{generate-id(.)}">
          <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
          <xsl:apply-templates mode="toc"/>
        </fo:basic-link>
      </fo:block>
      <xsl:apply-templates select="../section/title" mode="toc"/>
    </fo:multi-case>
  </fo:multi-switch>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section/title" mode="toc">
  <fo:block start-indent="10mm">
    <fo:basic-link internal-destination="{generate-id(.)}">
      <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter|section" format="1.1 "/>
      <xsl:apply-templates/>
    </fo:basic-link>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="chapter/title">
  <fo:block id="{generate-id(.)}">
    <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter" format="1. "/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="section/title">
  <fo:block id="{generate-id(.)}">
    <xsl:number level="multiple" count="chapter|section" format="1.1 "/>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:multi-switch>
  <fo:multi-case case-name="collapsed" case-title="collapsed" starting-state="show">
    <fo:block>
      <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="expanded">
        <fo:external-graphic href="plus-icon.gif">
        </fo:external-graphic>
      </fo:multi-toggle>
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N4">1. Chapter
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
  </fo:multi-case>
  <fo:multi-case case-name="expanded" case-title="expanded" starting-state="hide">
    <fo:block>
      <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="collapsed">
        <fo:external-graphic href="minus-icon.gif">
        </fo:external-graphic>
      </fo:multi-toggle>
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N4">1. Chapter
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
    <fo:block start-indent="10mm">
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N11">1.1 Section
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
    <fo:block start-indent="10mm">
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N19">1.2 Section
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
  </fo:multi-case>
</fo:multi-switch>
<fo:multi-switch>
  <fo:multi-case case-name="collapsed" case-title="collapsed" starting-state="show">
    <fo:block>
      <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="expanded">
        <fo:external-graphic href="plus-icon.gif">
        </fo:external-graphic>
      </fo:multi-toggle>
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N28">2. Chapter
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
  </fo:multi-case>
  <fo:multi-case case-name="expanded" case-title="expanded" starting-state="hide">
    <fo:block>
      <fo:multi-toggle switch-to="collapsed">
        <fo:external-graphic href="minus-icon.gif">
        </fo:external-graphic>
      </fo:multi-toggle>
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N28">2. Chapter
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
    <fo:block start-indent="10mm">
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N35">2.1 Section
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
    <fo:block start-indent="10mm">
      <fo:basic-link internal-destination="N43">2.2 Section
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:block>
  </fo:multi-case>
</fo:multi-switch>

<fo:block id="N4">1. Chapter
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
<fo:block id="N11">1.1 Section
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
<fo:block id="N19">1.2 Section
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
<fo:block id="N28">2. Chapter
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
<fo:block id="N35">2.1 Section
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
<fo:block id="N43">2.2 Section
</fo:block>
<fo:block>Text
</fo:block>
6.9.1.1.2 Styling an XLink Based on the Active State

Input sample:

<p>Follow this <xlink:mylink xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"
        xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/TR"
        xlink:title="An Example"
        xlink:show="new"
        xlink:actuate="onRequest">link</xlink:mylink> to access all
TRs of the W3C.</p>

In this example an fo:basic-link contains a series of fo:multi-property-sets that specify various colors or text-decorations depending on the active state, and a wrapper around the fo:basic-link that allows for the merging of the properties of the fo:multi-properties with those of the appropriate fo:multi-property-sets.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
    <fo:block>
        <xsl:apply-templates/>
    </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="xlink:mylink" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">
    <xsl:variable name="show"><xsl:value-of select="@xlink:show"/>
    </xsl:variable>
     <fo:multi-properties text-decoration="underline">
        <fo:multi-property-set active-state="link" color="blue"/>
        <fo:multi-property-set active-state="visited" color="red"/>
        <fo:multi-property-set active-state="active" color="green"/>
        <fo:multi-property-set active-state="hover" text-decoration="blink"/>
        <fo:multi-property-set active-state="focus" color="yellow"/>
        <fo:wrapper color="merge-property-values()"
                    text-decoration="merge-property-values()">
              <fo:basic-link external-destination="http://www.w3.org/TR"
                              show-destination="{$show}">
                  <xsl:attribute name="role">
                      <xsl:value-of select="@xlink:title"/>
                  </xsl:attribute>
                  <xsl:apply-templates/>
              </fo:basic-link>
        </fo:wrapper>
      </fo:multi-properties>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block>Follow this
  <fo:multi-properties text-decoration="underline">
    <fo:multi-property-set active-state="link" color="blue">
    </fo:multi-property-set>
    <fo:multi-property-set active-state="visited" color="red">
    </fo:multi-property-set>
    <fo:multi-property-set active-state="active" color="green">
    </fo:multi-property-set>
    <fo:multi-property-set active-state="hover" text-decoration="blink">
    </fo:multi-property-set>
    <fo:multi-property-set active-state="focus" color="yellow">
    </fo:multi-property-set>
    <fo:wrapper color="merge-property-values()"
      text-decoration="merge-property-values()">
      <fo:basic-link external-destination="http://www.w3.org/TR"
        show-destination="new" role="An Example">link
      </fo:basic-link>
    </fo:wrapper>
  </fo:multi-properties> to access all
TRs of the W3C.
</fo:block>

6.9.2 fo:basic-link

Common Usage:

The fo:basic-link is used for representing the start resource of a simple one-directional single-target link. The object allows for traversal to the destination resource, typically by clicking on any of the containing areas.

Areas:

The fo:basic-link formatting object generates one or more normal inline-areas. The fo:basic-link returns these areas, together with any normal block-areas, page-level-out-of-line areas, and reference-level-out-of-line areas returned by the children of the fo:basic-link.

Note:

An fo:basic-link can be enclosed in an fo:block to create a display area.

Constraints:

One of the external-destination and internal-destination properties should be specified. If both are specified, the system may either report it as an error, or use the internal-destination property.

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:basic-link formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:basic-link must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.3 Inline-building.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

In addition this formatting object may have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties
7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline
7.13 Common Relative Position Properties
7.14.1 alignment-adjust
7.14.2 alignment-baseline
7.14.3 baseline-shift
7.23.5 destination-placement-offset
7.14.5 dominant-baseline
7.23.6 external-destination
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.23.7 indicate-destination
7.23.8 internal-destination
7.20.3 keep-together
7.20.4 keep-with-next
7.20.5 keep-with-previous
7.16.4 line-height
7.23.9 show-destination
7.23.13 target-processing-context
7.23.12 target-presentation-context
7.23.14 target-stylesheet

6.9.3 fo:multi-switch

Common Usage:

The fo:multi-switch wraps the specification of alternative sub-trees of formatting objects (each sub-tree being within an fo:multi-case), and controls the switching (activated via fo:multi-toggle) from one alternative to another.

The direct children of an fo:multi-switch object are fo:multi-case objects. Only a single fo:multi-case may be visible at a single time. The user may switch between the available multi-cases.

Each fo:multi-case may contain one or more fo:multi-toggle objects, which controls the fo:multi-case switching of the fo:multi-switch.

Note:

An fo:multi-switch can be used for many interactive tasks, such as table-of-content views, embedding link targets, or generalized (even multi-layered hierarchical), next/previous views. The latter are today normally handled in HTML by next/previous links to other documents, forcing the whole document to be replaced whenever the users decides to move on.

Areas:

The fo:multi-switch formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:multi-switch formatting object returns the sequence of areas returned by the currently visible fo:multi-case. If there is no currently visible fo:multi-case no areas are returned.

Trait Derivation:

The currently-visible-multi-case trait has as its initial value a reference to the first fo:multi-case child that has a value of "show" of the starting-state trait. If there is no such child, it has a value indicating that there is no currently visible fo:multi-case. When an fo:multi-toggle is actuated, its closest ancestral fo:multi-switch's currently-visible-multi-case trait value changes to refer to the fo:multi-case selected by the "switch-to" property value of the fo:multi-toggle. Once the currently-visible-multi-case trait gets a value indicating that there is no currently visible fo:multi-case, it becomes impossible to actuate an fo:multi-toggle in this fo:multi-switch.

Constraints:

The order of the sequence of areas returned by the fo:multi-switch is the same as the order of the areas returned by the currently visible fo:multi-case.

Note:

Any number of the fo:multi-case objects may assign "starting-state" to "show".

If no fo:multi-case has "starting-state" property value of "show", the contents of no fo:multi-case should be displayed.

Note:

If no multi-case is displayed, the entire fo:multi-switch will effectively be hidden.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.23.2 auto-restore
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.9.4 fo:multi-case

Common Usage:

The fo:multi-case is used to contain (within an fo:multi-switch) each alternative sub-tree of formatting objects among which the parent fo:multi-switch will choose one to show and will hide the rest.

Areas:

The fo:multi-case formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:multi-case formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:multi-case.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:multi-case is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:multi-case.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

An fo:multi-case is only permitted to have children that would be permitted to be children of the parent of the fo:multi-switch that is the parent of the fo:multi-case, except that an fo:multi-case may not contain fo:marker children. In particular, it can contain fo:multi-toggle objects (at any depth), which controls the fo:multi-case switching.

This restriction applies recursively.

Note:

For example, an fo:multi-case whose parent fo:multi-switch is a child of another fo:multi-case may only have children that would be permitted in place of the outer fo:multi-case's parent fo:multi-switch.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.23.10 starting-state
7.23.3 case-name
7.23.4 case-title

6.9.5 fo:multi-toggle

Common Usage:

The fo:multi-toggle is typically used to establish an area that when actuated (for example implemented as "clicked"), has the effect of switching from one fo:multi-case to another. The "switch-to" property value of the fo:multi-toggle typically matches the "case-name" property value of the fo:multi-case to switch to.

Areas:

The fo:multi-toggle formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:multi-toggle formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:multi-toggle. Each of the areas returned by the fo:multi-toggle has a switch-to trait with the same value as on the returning fo:multi-toggle.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:multi-toggle is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:multi-toggle.

Activating an area returned by an fo:multi-toggle causes a change to the value of the currently-visible-multi-case of the closest ancestor fo:multi-switch. (See 7.23.11 switch-to for how the switch-to value selects an fo:multi-case.)

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

An fo:multi-toggle is only permitted as a descendant of an fo:multi-case.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.23.11 switch-to

6.9.6 fo:multi-properties

Common Usage:

The fo:multi-properties is used to switch between two or more property sets that are associated with a given portion of content.

Note:

An fo:multi-properties formatting object can be used to give different appearances to a given portion of content. For example, when a link changes from the not-yet-visited state to the visited-state, this could change the set of properties that would be used to format the content. Designers should be careful in choosing which properties they change, because many property changes could cause reflowing of the text which may not be desired in many circumstances. Changing properties such as "color" or "text-decoration" should not require re-flowing the text.

The direct children of an fo:multi-properties formatting object is an ordered set of fo:multi-property-set formatting objects followed by a single fo:wrapper formatting object. The properties, specified on the fo:wrapper, that have been specified with a value of "merge-property-values()" will take a value that is a merger of the value on the fo:multi-properties and the specified values on the fo:multi-property-set formatting objects that apply.

Areas:

The fo:multi-properties formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:multi-properties formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:multi-properties.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:multi-properties is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:multi-properties.

Contents:

The properties that should take a merged value shall be specified with a value of "merge-property-values()". This function, when applied on an fo:wrapper that is a direct child of an fo:multi-properties, merges the applicable property definitions on the fo:multi-property-set siblings.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties

6.9.7 fo:multi-property-set

Common Usage:

The fo:multi-property-set auxiliary formatting object is used to specify an alternative set of formatting properties that can be used to provide an alternate presentation of the children flow objects of the fo:wrapper child of the parent of this fo:multi-property-set.

Areas:

The fo:multi-property-set formatting object does not generate or return any areas. It simply holds a set of traits that may be accessed by expressions.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key
7.23.1 active-state

6.10 Formatting Objects for Indexing

6.10.1 Introduction

The formatting objects and properties for indexing enable the generation of lists of page numbers associated with specific items in the formatting object tree, such as for use in back-of-the-book indexes. There are two kinds of such objects and properties: those that associate index keys with formatting objects throughout the tree and formatting objects that are used in the back-of-the-book index to assemble page references to the pages where the areas from formatting objects with a particular index key occur. Further formatting properties and objects control the way in which these page references are grouped and arranged into ranges.

There are two properties for associating index keys with formatting objects: "index-key" and "index-class". These two properties apply to almost all formatting objects. There are two formatting objects for associating explicit index key ranges, fo:index-range-begin and fo:index-range-end.

Cited page items associated with a particular index key are obtained using the fo:index-key-reference. Its parent, fo:index-page-citation-list, groups and arranges these. In addition, the form of the generated page number list can be defined and controlled using the formatting objects fo:index-page-number-prefix, fo:index-page-number-suffix, fo:index-page-citation-list-separator, and fo:index-page-citation-range-separator. For a back-of-the-book index each index term would have an index key that is used to identify each occurrence of that term within the document. In the back-of-the-book index there would be at least one fo:index-key-reference for each index key used. For example,

<fo:block>Eiffel Tower
  <fo:index-page-citation-list>
    <fo:index-key-reference ref-index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
  </fo:index-page-citation-list>
</fo:block>

The structure and content of the generated list of page numbers can be further controlled through the use of index classes to distinguish different types of index entries or to distinguish entries present in different parts of the document. For example, different classes could be used to distinguish index entries for figures from normal entries or to distinguish entries within one section, e.g. the preface, of a document from entries from another section, e.g. the main body, in order to control the construction of page ranges. The fo:index-page-number-prefix and fo:index-page-number-suffix specify additional text, e.g. "[" and "]", to surround the page numbers in the index.

Note:

The formatting objects for indexing only provide facilities for generating the list of page numbers for individual index keys. Assembling the index entries; identifying all the entries, sorting them, and creating the formatting objects, e.g. fo:block, and text, e.g. "Eiffel Tower", for the entry and referencing the appropriate index key, e.g. "Eiffel Tower;;", is done by the general stylesheet mechanisms.

6.10.1.1 Example

The following example document is used throughout this section to describe the indexing process and how the various options change the presentation of the index.

The source document uses typical XML markup for representing back-of-the-book index entries. The document consists of a preface, four chapters, a glossary, and an index. The formatting style for this document specifies that the preface, body chapters, and glossary all use different page numbers as shown below.

ComponentNumbered pagesOrdinal page numbers
Title Page Recto/Verson/a1-2
Table of Contentsiii/iv3/4
List of Figuresv/vi5/6
Prefacevii/x7-10
Chapter 11-3/411-13/14
Chapter 25-12 (pg 4 is blank)15-22
Chapter 313-17/1823-27/28
Chapter 419-24 (pg 18 is blank)29-34
GlossaryG-1 to G-435-38
IndexI-1 to ...39-...

The composite page numbers (e.g., "G-1") used in the glossary are created using an fo:folio-prefix, e.g.

<fo:page-sequence id="glossary" initial-page-number="1">
  <fo:page-number-folio-prefix>
    <fo:inline>G-</fo:inline>
  </fo:page-number-folio-prefix>
  <fo:flow>...</fo:flow>
</fo:page-sequence>

Throughout the document, there are a number of index terms for the Eiffel Tower. This example uses explicit markup in the source document's vocabulary. Other mechanisms, such as external index documents, can also be supported as long as the correct formatting objects can be generated. In this example index terms may be primary, secondary, or tertiary, reflecting a typical multi-level index. Primary entries may have subordinate secondary entries. Secondary entries may have subordinate tertiary entries. For this document only the lowest-level entries are associated with page numbers (which means that each "indexterm" element can be simply translated into an index key value by concatenating the primary, secondary, and tertiary term values with some separator, ";" in this example, between them).

  • Each individual reference to the tower is identified:

    <indexterm><primary>Eiffel Tower</primary></indexterm>
    
  • Some of these terms identify a preferred description of the tower:

    <indexterm significance="preferred">
    <primary>Eiffel Tower</primary></indexterm>
    
  • For a long description of the tower, individual terms mark the beginning and end of the span:

    <indexterm id="ei.idx" class="startofrange">
    <primary>Eiffel Tower</primary></indexterm>
    ...
    <indexterm startref="ei.idx" class="endofrange"/>
    
  • Two of the terms occur inside figures:

    <figure id="tower1">
    <head>The Eiffel Tower</head>
    <indexterm><primary>Eiffel Tower</primary></indexterm>
    ...
    </figure>
    
6.10.1.1.1 Associating Index Keys with Formatting Objects

The first step in generating an index is to transfer the index term information from the source document into the formatting objects. It is the location of this information in the formatting object tree that will determine what pages appear in the index.

Any formatting object to which the "id" property applies can also have an "index-key" property. Any formatting object with an "index-key" specified defines a point or range of text that is associated with the corresponding index key.

To simplify this example, point anchors will be generated for each term (as opposed to placing "index-key" on formatting objects used for other purposes).

Consider the following templates:

<xsl:template match="indexterm[@significance='preferred']"
     priority="100">
  <fo:wrapper>
    <xsl:attribute name="index-key">
      <xsl:value-of select="primary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="secondary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="tertiary"/>
      <xsl:text>;preferred</xsl:text>
    </xsl:attribute>
  </fo:wrapper>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="indexterm[@class='startofrange']"
     priority="75">
  <fo:index-range-begin id="{@id}"/>
    <xsl:attribute name="index-key">
      <xsl:value-of select="primary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="secondary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="tertiary"/>
    </xsl:attribute>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="indexterm[@class='endofrange']"
     priority="75">
  <fo:index-range-end ref-id="{@startref}">
  </fo:index-range-end>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="figure/indexterm" priority="50">
  <fo:wrapper>
    <xsl:attribute name="index-key">
      <xsl:value-of select="primary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="secondary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="tertiary"/>
      <xsl:text>;figure</xsl:text>
    </xsl:attribute>
  </fo:wrapper>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="indexterm">
  <fo:wrapper>
    <xsl:attribute name="index-key">
      <xsl:value-of select="primary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="secondary"/>
      <xsl:text>;</xsl:text>
      <xsl:value-of select="tertiary"/>
    </xsl:attribute>
  </fo:wrapper>
</xsl:template>

Applied to the example index terms, these templates will produce a set of index key associations, e.g. (interspersed among the other formatting objects):

[E  9] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[F 10] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[G 11] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[H 13] <fo:index-range-begin id="ei.idx" index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[Y 15] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[C 15] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;figure"/>
[K 16] <fo:index-range-end ref-id="ei.idx"/>
[L 18] <fo:index-range-begin id="ei2.idx" index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[A 19] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;preferred"/>
[O 21] <fo:index-range-end ref-id="ei2.idx"/>
[B 23] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;preferred"/>
[D 25] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;figure"/>
[P 27] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[Q 29] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[R 30] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[S 31] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[T 32] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[U 33] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[V 34] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>
[X 37] <fo:wrapper index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"/>

In the list above a label has been added for each formatting object consisting of a letter and the ordinal page number (see below). These are carried through below to make referencing and reading the example easier.

These formatting objects are spread throughout the document, appearing in the formatting object tree where each index page reference is desired. Naturally, in a real document, there would be many more of these formatting objects, one or more for each term that will appear in the index.

6.10.1.1.2 Building the Index

Assembling a properly collated and sorted index is accomplished using the general stylesheet mechanisms. These details are not considered here.

Note:

Index cross references ("see" and "see also" entries) are not associated with page numbers, so they do not use the indexing formatting objects.

This section describes the formatting objects used for collating and sorting the lists of page number citations associated with each entry in the index. The formatting objects referenced by index keys are used to generate sets of cited page items referencing sets of pages from the paginated area tree. These cited page items are then collated, sorted, and possibly collapsed into cited page item ranges, and then the final formatting processing is applied. That is, the index processing starts as references to formatting objects by index key, moves to the domain of real pages on which those formatting objects fall, and then, once the lists of pages have been reduced to sets and ranges, results in formatted lists of page numbers and ranges.

The fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object is used to group index key references together. Its ultimate effect is to produce a formatted list of page numbers and ranges. The starting set of cited page items is created using "fo:index-key-reference" formatting objects. Each fo:index-key-reference formatting object uses a single index key to generate cited page items for the pages on which the formatting objects with that key occur. The fo:index-key-reference also provides the formatting properties for these page numbers. All of the cited page items generated from a single fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object are sorted and collated together.

For this example, the formatting style is to distinguish pages that have the principal description of an item by using bold page numbers and to enclose in square brackets the page numbers where the index key occured in a figure. The following formatting objects accomplish this:

<fo:index-page-citation-list
   merge-sequential-page-numbers="merge"/>
  <fo:index-key-reference ref-index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;preferred"
         font-weight="bold"
         id="XB"/>
  <fo:index-key-reference ref-index-key="Eiffel Tower;;;figure"
         font-style="italic"
         id="XI">
    <fo:index-page-number-prefix>
      <fo:inline>[</fo:inline>
    </fo:index-page-number-prefix>
    <fo:index-page-number-suffix>
      <fo:inline>]</fo:inline>
    </fo:index-page-number-suffix>
  </fo:index-key-reference>
  <fo:index-key-reference ref-index-key="Eiffel Tower;;"
                 id="XX"/>
</fo:index-page-citation-list>

In this index page citation list, three different groups of page citations, represented by references to three different, but related, keys, are merged into a single result list of page citations.

Note:

The "id" values on the fo:index-key-reference formatting objects are for reference purposes in the text below. They are not necessary for index processing.

6.10.1.2 Processing the Example Index

This section describes how the index items in the example are processed to produce the final lists of formatted page numbers and page ranges.

For the purpose of the example, assume that the following index classes are used; the preface specifies index-class="preface", all the chapters specify index-class="chapter", and the glossary specifies index-class="glossary".

Each fo:index-key-reference references one or more pages or page ranges (that is, the page-viewport-areas in the area tree that has as descendants areas generated by the referenced formatting objects). Each page-viewport-area in the full area tree has an ordinal number which is called the ordinal page number.

In this example the following sets of pages are referenced by the three fo:index-key-reference objects:

KeyOrdinal page numbers
Eiffel Tower;;;preferred19, 23
Eiffel Tower;;;figure15, 25
Eiffel Tower;;9, 10, 11, 13-16, 15, 18-21, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37

Note:

Formatting differences, e.g. ordinal page number 9 formats as "ix" and ordinal page number 37 formats as "G-3", will be considered later.

Within each fo:index-key-reference, page ranges are expanded to a sequence of individual pages and duplicate pages are removed as described in 6.10.6 fo:index-key-reference resulting in:

KeyOrdinal page numbers
Eiffel Tower;;;preferred19, 23
Eiffel Tower;;;figure15, 25
Eiffel Tower;;9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37

For the purpose of processing by the fo:index-page-citation-list each cited page item can be considered a tuple of four members: the ordinal page number, the formatting object that is referenced by the index-key-reference, the index class of the referenced formatting object, and the fo:index-key-reference that referenced the page (here represented by the ID values assigned in the example above).

[A] (19, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[C] (15, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[H] (13, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[I] (14, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[J] (15, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[K] (16, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[L] (18, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[M] (19, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[N] (20, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[O] (21, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[Q] (29, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[R] (30, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[S] (31, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[T] (32, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[U] (33, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[V] (34, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,           glossary, XX)

Note:

In the case of ranges, the first page in the range is associated with the start of the range and the last page is associated with the end of the range. Intermediate pages don't refer to any particular location on the page, they just refer to that page as a whole.

The next section describes the abstract steps in processing an fo:index-page-citation-list when the merge-pages-across-index-key-references property has the value "leave-separate". 6.10.1.2.2 merge-pages-across-index-key-references="merge" describes the same steps when merge-pages-across-index-key-references has the value "merge".

6.10.1.2.1 merge-pages-across-index-key-references="leave-separate"

Step A in the processing of fo:index-page-citation-list (see 6.10.7 fo:index-page-citation-list) is collating and sorting the cited page items from all the child fo:index-key-reference formatting objects. The merge-pages-across-index-key-references controls whether multiple references to the same page are retained.

The following set of tuples represents the case when merge-pages-across-index-key-references has the value "leave-separate". For example, ordinal page number 19 is represented twice, once for each fo:index-key-reference that referenced it:

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[H] (13, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[I] (14, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[J] (15, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[C] (15, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[K] (16, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[L] (18, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[A] (19, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[M] (19, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[N] (20, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[O] (21, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[Q] (29, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[R] (30, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[S] (31, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[T] (32, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[U] (33, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[V] (34, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,           glossary, XX)

Step B is performed if merge-sequential-page-numbers has the value "merge". It consists of merging cited page items referring to three or more sequential pages (see 6.10.7 fo:index-page-citation-list) into a range.

If merge-ranges-across-index-key-references has the value "leave-separate", the ranges will be as shown below (ranges are represented by a pair of tuples, the first for the start of the range, the second for the end of the range):

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,            preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,            preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX)
([H] (13, fo:index-range-begin,  chapter,  XX),
  [K] (16, fo:index-range-end,    chapter,  XX))
[C] (15, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XI)
([L] (18, fo:index-range-begin,  chapter,  XX),
  [O] (21, fo:index-range-end,    chapter,  XX))
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX)
([Q] (29, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX),
  [V] (34, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX))
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,            glossary, XX)

If merge-ranges-across-index-key-references has the value "merge", the ranges will be:

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,            preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,            preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX)
([H] (13, fo:index-range-begin,  chapter,  XX),
  [K] (16, fo:index-range-end,    chapter,  XX))
([L] (18, fo:index-range-begin,  chapter,  XX),
  [O] (21, fo:index-range-end,    chapter,  XX))
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX)
([Q] (29, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX),
  [V] (34, fo:wrapper,            chapter,  XX))
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,            glossary, XX)

Step C consists of formatting the cited page items and cited page item ranges as actual page numbers and ranges, taking into account any index page number prefix and suffix and using the appropriate index page citation list separator and index page citation range separator.

6.10.1.2.2 merge-pages-across-index-key-references="merge"

The following shows steps A and B when merge-pages-across-index-key-references has the value "merge".

In step A tuple [C] is merged with tuple [J] and tuple [M] is merged with tuple [A]:

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[H] (13, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[I] (14, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[C] (15, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[K] (16, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[L] (18, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[A] (19, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[N] (20, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[O] (21, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[Q] (29, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[R] (30, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[S] (31, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[T] (32, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[U] (33, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[V] (34, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,           glossary, XX)

In step B, if merge-ranges-across-index-key-references has the value "leave-separate", the ranges will be:

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
[H] (13, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[I] (14, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[C] (15, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[K] (16, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[L] (18, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX)
[A] (19, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[N] (20, null,                 chapter,  XX)
[O] (21, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX)
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
([Q] (29, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX),
  [V] (34, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX))
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,           glossary, XX)

If merge-ranges-across-index-key-references has the value "merge", the ranges will be:

[E] ( 9, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[F] (10, fo:wrapper,           preface,  XX)
[G] (11, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
([H] (13, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX),
  [K] (16, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX))
([L] (18, fo:index-range-begin, chapter,  XX),
  [O] (21, fo:index-range-end,   chapter,  XX))
[B] (23, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XB)
[D] (25, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XI)
[P] (27, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX)
([Q] (29, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX),
  [V] (34, fo:wrapper,           chapter,  XX))
[X] (37, fo:wrapper,           glossary, XX)
6.10.1.3 Example Index

The final set of page numbers that will appear in the example index entry depends on the values of the merge-pages-across-index-key-references, merge-ranges-across-index-key-references, and index-class traits. If the index terms from the preface, chapter and glossary have different index-class values as is the case in the example, then the results for the generated page number list are:

merge-pages-across-index-key-references/ merge-ranges-across-index-key-referencesResulting index pages
leave-separate/leave-separateix, x, 1, 3-6, [5], 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
leave-separate/mergeix, x, 1, 3-6, 8-11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
merge/leave-separateix, x, 1, 3-6, [5], 8-11, 9, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
merge/mergeix, x, 1, 3-6, 8-11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3

If the index terms from the preface, chapter, and appendix pages are in the same index-class:

merge-pages-across-index-key-references/ merge-ranges-across-index-key-referencesResulting index pages
leave-separate/leave-separateix-1, 3-6, [5], 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
leave-separate/mergeix-1, 3-6, 8-11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
merge/leave-separateix-1, 3-6, [5], 8-11, 9, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3
merge/mergeix-1, 3-6, 8-11, 13, [15], 17, 19-24, G-3

6.10.2 fo:index-page-number-prefix

Common Usage:

The fo:index-page-number-prefix formatting object specifies a static prefix for the cited page items created by fo:index-key-reference.

Areas:

The fo:index-page-number-prefix formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used by fo:index-page-citation-list when formatting cited page items and cited page item ranges.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

6.10.3 fo:index-page-number-suffix

Common Usage:

The fo:index-page-number-suffix formatting object specifies a static suffix for the cited page items created by fo:index-key-reference.

Areas:

The fo:index-page-number-suffix formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used by fo:index-page-citation-list when formatting cited page items and cited page item ranges.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

6.10.4 fo:index-range-begin

Common Usage:

The fo:index-range-begin formatting object is used to indicate the beginning of an "indexed range" associated with an index key. The index range is ended by a corresponding fo:index-range-end.

All formatting objects following (in document order) this fo:index-range-begin, and up to the matching fo:index-range-end, are considered to be under the index range influence of this fo:index-range-begin.

Areas:

The fo:index-range-begin does not generate any area.

Constraints:

Each fo:index-range-begin formatting object must specify both an id and an index-key property.

An fo:index-range-begin/fo:index-range-end pair is considered a matching pair if the ref-id property of the fo:index-range-end has the same value as the id property on the fo:index-range-begin.

Following this fo:index-range-begin in document order, there must be an fo:index-range-end with which it forms a matching pair. If there is no such fo:index-range-end, it is an error, and the implementation should recover by assuming the equivalent of a matching fo:index-range-end at the end of the document.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.2 index-key
7.24.1 index-class

6.10.5 fo:index-range-end

Common Usage:

The fo:index-range-end is used to indicate the end of an "indexed range" that is started by its matching fo:index-range-begin. See 6.10.4 fo:index-range-begin for details.

Areas:

The fo:index-range-begin does not generate any area.

Constraints:

Preceding this fo:index-range-end in document order, there must be an fo:index-range-begin with which it forms a matching pair. If there is no such fo:index-range-begin, it is an error, and the implementation should recover by ignoring this fo:index-range-end.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.13 ref-id

6.10.6 fo:index-key-reference

Common Usage:

The fo:index-key-reference formatting object is used to generate a set of cited page items for all the occurrences of the specified index-key.

A cited page item is a name for a collection containing the following information:

  • a reference to a page area

  • a reference to an fo:index-key-reference

  • an index class.

Areas:

The fo:index-key-reference does not generate any areas. The containing fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object uses the cited page items that it contains to produce the generated list of page numbers.

Constraints:

Each fo:index-key-reference formatting object identifies one or more formatting objects in the formatting object tree with an index-key value that matches the ref-index-key property of the fo:index-key-reference. It is an error if there are no such formatting objects. Implementations should recover from this error by ignoring the fo:index-key-reference.

If the matched index-key occurs on an fo:index-range-begin, all of the pages whose descendants include areas generated by formatting objects under the index range influence of that fo:index-range-begin are referenced by the generated cited page items.

For each formatting object containing a matching index-key, a cited page item is generated for each page whose descendants include areas returned from that formatting object. The index class of these cited page items is taken from that formatting object. If there are no areas returned from that formatting object then a cited page item is generated referring to the page containing the first area returned from a following formatting object, if any, or the last area returned from a preceding formatting object, if any.

Note:

For example, if the matched index-key occurs on an fo:block and that block spans pages 3 and 4, then pages 3 and 4 are referenced. If the block is wholly contained on page 3, only page 3 is referenced. Equally, if the matched element is an fo:index-range-begin on page 8 and the matching pair fo:index-range-end is on page 10, then pages 8-10 are referenced. If the beginning of the range and the end of the range both occur on page 8, then only page 8 is referenced.

Within each fo:index-key-reference, page ranges are expanded to a sequence of individual cited page items and all but one cited page item that refer to the same page are removed. When two cited page items refer to the same page, the cited page item referring to the fo:index-range-begin or fo:index-range-end occurring first in document order is retained. If none of the referenced formatting objects is an fo:index-range-begin or fo:index-range-end, the cited page item referring to the formatting object that occurs first in the page is retained.

Note:

Duplicates are removed irrespective of index-class.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.24.3 page-number-treatment
7.24.7 ref-index-key

6.10.7 fo:index-page-citation-list

Common Usage:

The fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object is used to group together the sets of cited page items generated by its fo:index-key-reference children. Each fo:index-key-reference child provides formatting properties for the corresponding cited page items. The resulting cited page items are sorted and collated together. The ultimate effect of the fo:index-page-citation-list is to generate a formatted list of page numbers and ranges.

Areas:

The fo:index-page-citation-list formatting object generates and returns one or more normal inline-areas.

Trait Derivation:

The traits used for formatting the individual parts of the list of page numbers and ranges is described below.

Constraints:

Note:

Although the constraints are described as performing a series of steps, this is solely for the convenience of exposition and does not imply they must be implemented as separate steps in any conforming implementation. A conforming implementation must only achieve the same effect.

Step A: Cited page items from all the child fo:index-key-reference formatting objects are sorted in area tree order. There are then two cases: if merge-pages-across-index-key-references has the value "leave-separate", cited page items referring to the same page generated by different fo:index-key-reference formatting objects will be preserved. If merge-pages-across-index-key-references has the value "merge", only one of the cited page items referring to any given page will be preserved, as specified in 7.24.6 merge-pages-across-index-key-references.

Step B: consists of merging sequences of three or more sequential cited page items into a cited page item range. It is performed only if the value of merge-sequential-page-numbers is "merge".

Several conditions influence whether or not any two cited page items from the complete set of cited page items are considered sequential. Two cited page items are sequential if and only if all of the following conditions hold:

  1. The cited page items refer to page-viewport-areas that are consecutive children of the root of the area tree.

  2. They have the same index-class.

  3. Either the cited page items are generated by the same fo:index-key-reference or the value of merge-ranges-across-index-key-references is "merge".

Step C: consists of formatting the cited page items and cited page item ranges into the list of formatted page numbers and ranges. The result is the same as formatting a sequence of result tree fragments corresponding to individual page numbers, any index page number prefix or suffix, range and list separators.

For each cited page item, from fo:index-key-reference R, the result areas are the same as the result of formatting:

  1. If R has an fo:index-page-number-prefix child, an fo:inline containing the result-tree fragment that are the children of the fo:index-page-number-prefix. The traits of the fo:inline are inherited from R, except for keep-with-next.within-line which has the value "always".

  2. An fo:inline containing the result-tree fragment, defined in 6.6.10 fo:page-number, using the page referenced by the cited page item as the reference-page, and the fo:page-sequence that generated the referenced page as the reference-page-sequence. The traits of the fo:inline are inherited from R. If the page-number-treatment has the value "link", the fo:inline should be a link back to the source of the reference as for fo:basic-link.

  3. If R has an fo:index-page-number-suffix child, an fo:inline containing the result-tree fragment that are the children of the fo:index-page-number-suffix. The traits of the fo:inline are inherited from R, except for keep-with-previous.within-line which has the value "always".

For each cited page item range the result areas are the same as the result of formatting:

  1. The first cited page item in the range in the same way as a cited page item; see above.

  2. If the fo:index-page-citation-list has an fo:index-page-citation-range-separator child, an fo:inline containing the result-tree fragment that are the children of the fo:index-page-citation-range-separator. The traits of the fo:inline are inherited from the fo:index-page-citation-range-separator, except for keep-with-previous.within-line and keep-with-next.within-line that have the value "always".

    Otherwise an fo:character with traits: character with value U+2013 (en dash), keep-with-previous.within-line and keep-with-next.within-line that have the value "always". All other traits are inherited from the fo:index-page-citation-list. Implementations may provide an alternative default, for example to provide a language- or locale-specific index range separator.

  3. The last cited page item in the range in the same way as a cited page item; see above.

After each formatted page item or range, except the last, a separator is inserted. The result areas are the same as the result of formatting:

If the fo:index-page-citation-list has an fo:index-page-citation-list-separator child, the result-tree fragment that are the children of the fo:index-page-citation-list-separator. The traits of the fo:inline are inherited from the fo:index-page-citation-list-separator.

Otherwise an fo:character with traits: character with value U+002C (comma) and keep-with-previous.within-line with value "always", followed by an fo:character with trait: character with value U+0020 (space). All other traits are inherited from the fo:index-page-citation-list. Implementations may provide an alternative default, for example to provide a language- or locale-specific index list separator.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.24.5 merge-sequential-page-numbers
7.24.4 merge-ranges-across-index-key-references
7.24.6 merge-pages-across-index-key-references

6.10.8 fo:index-page-citation-list-separator

Common Usage:

The fo:index-page-citation-list-separator formatting object specifies the formatting objects used to separate singleton page numbers or page number ranges in the generated list of page numbers.

Areas:

The fo:index-page-citation-list-separator formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used by fo:index-page-citation-list when formatting the list of page references.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

6.10.9 fo:index-page-citation-range-separator

Common Usage:

The fo:index-page-citation-range-separator formatting object specifies the formatting objects used to separate two page numbers forming a range in the generated list of page numbers.

Areas:

The fo:index-page-citation-range-separator formatting object does not directly produce any areas. Its children will be retrieved and used by fo:index-page-citation-list when formatting the list of page references.

Constraints:

None.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;)*

6.11 Formatting Objects for Bookmarks

6.11.1 fo:bookmark-tree

Common Usage:

The fo:bookmark-tree formatting object is used to hold a list of access points within the document such as a table of contents, a list of figures or tables, etc. Each access point is called a bookmark.

Areas:

This formatting object returns the sequence of areas returned by the children of this formatting object.

Constraints:

The sequence of returned areas must be the concatenation of the sub-sequences of areas returned by each of the flow children of the fo:bookmark-tree formatting object in the order in which the children occur.

Contents:

6.11.2 fo:bookmark

Common Usage:

The fo:bookmark formatting object is used to identify an access point, by name, and to specify where that access point is within the current document or another external document. A given bookmark may be further subdivided into a sequence of (sub-)bookmarks to as many levels as the authors desire.

Note:

The fo:bookmark is a specialized form of the fo:basic-link with restrictions on the applicable properties and on its content model.

Areas:

The fo:bookmark formatting object generates one or more normal inline-areas. The fo:bookmark returns these areas.

Constraints:

One of the external-destination and internal-destination properties should be specified. If both are specified, the system may either report it as an error, or use the internal-destination property.

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:bookmark formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:bookmark must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.3 Inline-building.

The property "starting-state" determines whether any sub-list of bookmarks is initially displayed or is hidden. The value "show" means include the sub-list of bookmarks in the presentation of this bookmark. The value "hide" means show only this bookmark in the presentation.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.23.6 external-destination
7.23.8 internal-destination
7.23.10 starting-state

6.11.3 fo:bookmark-title

Common Usage:

The fo:bookmark-title formatting object is used to identify, in human readable form, an access point.

Note:

The fo:bookmark-title is a specialized form of the fo:inline with restrictions on the applicable properties and on its content model.

Areas:

The fo:bookmark-title formatting object generates one or more normal inline-areas. The fo:bookmark-title returns these areas.

Trait Derivation:

Even though the white-space-treatment, linefeed-treatment, and white-space-collapse properties are not applicable to fo:bookmark-title, the implementation should behave as though these properties applied and had their initial values.

Constraints:

No area may have more than one normal child area returned by the same fo:bookmark-title formatting object.

The children of each normal area returned by an fo:bookmark-title must satisfy the constraints specified in 4.7.3 Inline-building.

Contents:

(#PCDATA)

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.18.1 color
7.9.7 font-style
NOTE: with the value space limited to "normal" and "italic",

7.9.9 font-weight
NOTE: with the value space limited to "normal" and "bold"

6.12 Out-of-Line Formatting Objects

6.12.1 Introduction

6.12.1.1 Floats

The fo:float formatting object is used for two distinct purposes. First, so that during the normal placement of content, some related content is formatted into a separate area at the beginning of a page where it is available to be read without immediately intruding on the reader. The areas generated by this kind of fo:float are called before-floats. An fo:float is specified to generate before-floats if it has a "float" property value of "before". The constraints on placing before-floats on a page are described in the 6.12.1.3 Conditional Sub-Regions section of this introduction and in the description of the fo:float formatting object.

Second, the fo:float formatting object is used when an area is intended to float to one side, with normal content flowing alongside the floated area. The areas generated by this kind of fo:float are called side-floats. A side-float is always made a child of the nearest ancestor reference-area. The edge of the reference-area towards which the side-float floats is controlled by the value of the "float" property.

Flowing normal content flowing alongside side-floats is realized by increasing the start-intrusion-adjustment or the end-intrusion-adjustment of normal child areas of the parent reference-area of the side-float.

The "clear" property applies to any block-level formatting object. If the value of this property for a particular formatting object is any value other than "none", then the areas generated by the block will be positioned to ensure that their border-rectangles do not overlap the allocation-rectangles of the applicable side-floats as determined by the "clear" property value.

6.12.1.2 Footnotes

The fo:footnote formatting object is used to generate both a footnote and its citation. The fo:footnote has two children, which are both required to be present. The first child is an fo:inline formatting object, which is formatted to produce the footnote citation. The second child is an fo:footnote-body formatting object which generates the content (or body) of the footnote.

The actual areas generated by the descendants of the fo:footnote-body formatting object are determined by the formatting objects that comprise the descendant subtree. For example, the footnote could be formatted with a label and an indented body by using the fo:list-block formatting object within the fo:footnote-body.

6.12.1.3 Conditional Sub-Regions

The region-body has two conditional sub-regions which implicitly specify corresponding reference-areas called before-float-reference-area and footnote-reference-area. These reference-areas are conditionally generated as children of the region-reference-area. The before-float-reference-area is generated only if the page contains one or more areas with area-class "xsl-before-float". The footnote-reference-area is generated only if the page contains one or more areas with area-class "xsl-footnote".

The conditionally generated areas borrow space in the block-progression-dimension (this is "height" when the writing-mode is "lr-tb") within the region-reference-area, at the expense of the main-reference-area. Whether or not a conditionally generated area is actually generated depends, additionally, on whether there is sufficient space left in the main-reference-area.

There may be limits on how much space conditionally generated areas can borrow from the region-reference-area. It is left to the user agent to decide these limits.

The block-progression-dimension of the main-reference-area is set equal to the block-progression-dimension of the allocation-rectangle of the region-reference-area minus the sum of the sizes in the block-progression-direction of the allocation-rectangles of the conditionally generated reference-areas that were actually generated. The main-reference-area is positioned to immediately follow the after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the before-float-reference-area. This positions the after-edge of the main-reference-area to coincide with the before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the footnote-reference-area. In addition to the constraints normally determined by the region-reference-area, the inline-progression-dimension (this is "width" when the writing-mode is "lr-tb") of a conditionally generated reference-area is constrained to match the inline-progression-dimension of the main-reference-area.

Each conditionally generated reference-area may additionally contain a sequence of areas used to separate the reference-area from the main-reference-area. The sequence of areas is the sequence returned by formatting an fo:static-content specified in the page-sequence that is being used to format the page.

If there is an fo:static-content in a page-sequence whose "flow-name" property value is "xsl-before-float-separator", then the areas returned by formatting the fo:static-content are inserted in the proper order as the last children of a before-float-reference-area that is generated using the same page-master, provided the main-reference-area on the page is not empty.

If there is an fo:static-content whose "flow-name" property value is "xsl-footnote-separator", then the areas returned by formatting the fo:static-content are inserted in the proper order as the initial children of a footnote-reference-area that is generated using the same page-master.

An interactive user agent may choose to create "hot links" to the footnotes from the footnote-citation, or create "hot links" to the before-floats from an implicit citation, instead of realizing conditional sub-regions.

The generation of areas with area-class "xsl-before-float" or "xsl-footnote" is specified in the descriptions of the formatting objects that initially return areas with those area-classes.

6.12.1.4 Examples
6.12.1.4.1 Floating Figure

Input sample:

<doc>
  <p>C'ieng pieces were made in northern towns, such as C'ieng Mai.
They were typically of tamlung weight.</p>
  <figure>
    <photo image="TH0317A.jpg"/>
    <caption>C'ieng Tamlung of C'ieng Mai</caption>
  </figure>
</doc>

In this example the figures are placed as floats at the before side (top in a lr-tb writing-mode).

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="figure">
  <fo:float float="before">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:float>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="photo">
  <fo:block text-align="center">
    <fo:external-graphic src="{@image}"/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="caption">
  <fo:block space-before="3pt" text-align="center"
    start-indent="10mm" end-indent="10mm">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block>C'ieng pieces were made in northern towns,
such as C'ieng Mai. They were typically of tamlung weight.
</fo:block>

<fo:float float="before">

  <fo:block text-align="center">
    <fo:external-graphic src="TH0317A.jpg">
    </fo:external-graphic>
  </fo:block>

  <fo:block space-before="3pt" text-align="center" start-indent="10mm"
    end-indent="10mm">C'ieng Tamlung of C'ieng Mai
  </fo:block>

</fo:float>
6.12.1.4.2 Footnote

Input sample:

<doc>
  <p>Some Pod Duang were restruck<fn>Berglund, A., Thai Money, from
Earliest Times to King Rama V, p. 203.</fn> during the reign of King Rama V.</p>
</doc>

In this example the footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the document. The footnote callout is the number of the footnote, followed by a ")", as a superscript. The footnote itself is formatted using list formatting objects with the footnote number as the label and the footnote text as the body.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="fn">
  <fo:footnote>
    <fo:inline font-size="0.83em" baseline-shift="super">
      <xsl:number level="any" count="fn" format="1)"/>
    </fo:inline>
    <fo:footnote-body>
      <fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="20pt"
          provisional-label-separation="5pt">
        <fo:list-item>
          <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
            <fo:block  font-size="0.83em"
                       line-height="0.9em">
              <xsl:number level="any" count="fn" format="1)"/>
            </fo:block>
          </fo:list-item-label>
          <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
            <fo:block  font-size="0.83em"
                       line-height="0.9em">
              <xsl:apply-templates/>
            </fo:block>
          </fo:list-item-body>
        </fo:list-item>
      </fo:list-block>
    </fo:footnote-body>
  </fo:footnote>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<fo:block>Some Pod Duang were restruck
  <fo:footnote>
    <fo:inline font-size="0.83em" baseline-shift="super">1)
    </fo:inline>
    <fo:footnote-body>
    <fo:list-block provisional-distance-between-starts="20pt"
      provisional-label-separation="5pt">
    <fo:list-item>
    <fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
    <fo:block font-size="0.83em" line-height="0.9em">1)
    </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-label>
    <fo:list-item-body start-indent="body-start()">
    <fo:block font-size="0.83em" line-height="0.9em">Berglund, A.,
Thai Money, from Earliest Times to King Rama V, p. 203.
    </fo:block>
    </fo:list-item-body>
    </fo:list-item>
    </fo:list-block>
    </fo:footnote-body>
  </fo:footnote> during the reign of King Rama V.
</fo:block>

6.12.2 fo:float

Common Usage:

The fo:float formatting object is typically used either to cause an image to be positioned in a separate area at the beginning of a page, or to cause an image to be positioned to one side, with normal content flowing around and along-side the image.

Areas:

The fo:float generates an optional single area with area-class "xsl-anchor", and one or more block-areas that all share the same area-class, which is either "xsl-before-float", "xsl-side-float" or "xsl-normal" as specified by the "float" property. (An fo:float generates normal block-areas if its "float" property value is "none".)

Areas with area-class "xsl-side-float" are reference areas.

An area with area-class "xsl-before-float" is placed as a child of a before-float-reference-area.

The optional area with area-class "xsl-anchor" is not generated if the "float" property value is "none", or if, due to an error as described in the constraints section, the fo:float shall be formatted as though its "float" property was "none". Otherwise, the area with area-class "xsl-anchor" shall be generated.

The area with area-class "xsl-anchor" has no children, and is an inline-area, except where this would violate the constraints that (a.) any area's children must be either block-areas or inline-areas, but not a mixture, and (b.) the children of a line-area may not consist only of anchor areas. In the case where an inline-area would violate these constraints, the fo:float must instead generate a block-area.

Constraints:

The normal inline-area generated by the fo:float shall be placed in the area tree as though the fo:float had a "keep-with-previous" property with value "always". The inline-area has a length of zero for both the inline-progression-dimension and block-progression-dimension.

The term anchor-area is used here to mean the area with area-class "xsl-anchor" generated by the fo:float. An area with area-class "xsl-side-float" is a side-float.

No area may have more than one child block-area with the same area-class returned by the same fo:float formatting object.

Areas with area-class "xsl-before-float" must be properly ordered within the area tree relative to other areas with the same area-class.

The padding-, border-, and content-rectangles of the block-areas generated by fo:float all coincide. That is, the padding and border are zero at all edges of the area.

The following constraints apply to fo:float formatting objects that generate areas with area-class "xsl-before-float":

  • It is an error if the fo:float occurs as a descendant of a flow that is not assigned to one or more region-body regions, or of an fo:block-container that generates absolutely positioned areas. In either case, the fo:float shall be formatted as though its "float" property was "none".

  • A block-area with area-class "xsl-before-float" generated by the fo:float may only be descendant from a before-float-reference-area that is (a) descendant from a "region-reference-area" generated using the region-master for the region to which the flow that has the fo:float as a descendant is assigned, and (b) is descendant from the same page containing the anchor-area, or from a page following that page.

  • The fo:float may not generate any additional block-areas with area-class "xsl-before-float" unless the page containing the preceding block-area generated by the fo:float contains no other areas with area-class "xsl-before-float", has an empty main-reference-area, and does not contain a footnote-reference-area.

  • The "clear" property does not apply.

The following constraints apply to fo:float formatting objects that generate areas with area-class "xsl-side-float":

  • Each side-float is placed either as a child of the nearest ancestor reference-area of the anchor-area or as a child of a later reference-area in the same reference-area chain.

  • Side-floats that are siblings in the area-tree may overlap their content rectangles.

  • The description in section 9.5 of [CSS2] shall be used to determine the formatting of the fo:float and the rendering of normal line-areas and side-floats that are inline-overlapping, with these modifications:

    • All references to left and right shall be interpreted as their corresponding writing-mode relative directions "start" and "end". The "float" property will additionally have the writing-mode relative values "start" and "end".

    • All references to top and bottom shall be interpreted as their corresponding writing-mode relative directions "before" and "after".

    • The phrase "current line box" shall be interpreted to mean the line-area containing the anchor-area generated by the float. If the anchor-area is a block-area then the "current line box" does not exist.

    • Side-floats derive their length in the inline-progression-dimension intrinsically from their child areas; the length is not determined by an explicit property value.

    • A side-float may add to the intrusion adjustment of any inline-overlapping block-area whose nearest ancestor reference-area is the parent of the side-float. See 4.4.2 Intrusion Adjustments for the description of intrusion adjustments.

    • The user agent may make its own determination, after taking into account the intrusion adjustments caused by one or more overlapping side-floats, that the remaining space in the inline-progression-direction is insufficient for the next side-float or normal block-area. The user agent may address this by causing the next side-float or normal block-area to "clear" one of the relevant side-floats, as described in the "clear" property description, so the intrusion adjustment is sufficiently reduced. Of the side-floats that could be cleared to meet this constraint, the side-float that is actually cleared must be the one whose after-edge is closest to the before-edge of the parent reference-area.

      Note:

      The user agent may determine sufficiency of space by using a fixed length, or by some heuristic such as whether an entire word fits into the available space, or by some combination, in order to handle text and images.

Contents:

An fo:float is not permitted to have an fo:float, fo:footnote or fo:marker as a descendant.

Additionally, an fo:float is not permitted to have as a descendant an fo:block-container that generates an absolutely positioned area.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.19.2 float
7.19.1 clear
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.12.3 fo:footnote

Common Usage:

The fo:footnote is typically used to produce footnote-citations within the region-body of a page and the corresponding footnote in a separate area nearer the after-edge of the page.

Areas:

The fo:footnote formatting object does not generate any areas. The fo:footnote formatting object returns the areas generated and returned by its child fo:inline formatting object.

Additionally the fo:footnote formatting object returns the block-areas with area class "xsl-footnote" generated by its fo:footnote-body child. An area with area-class "xsl-footnote" is placed as a child of a footnote-reference-area.

Constraints:

The term anchor-area is defined to mean the last area that is generated and returned by the fo:inline child of the fo:footnote.

A block-area returned by the fo:footnote is only permitted as a descendant from a footnote-reference-area that is (a) descendant from a "region-reference-area" generated using the region-master for the region to which the flow that has the fo:footnote as a descendant is assigned, and (b) is descendant from the same page that contains the anchor-area, or from a page following the page that contains the anchor-area.

The second block-area and any additional block-areas returned by an fo:footnote must be placed on the immediately subsequent pages to the page containing the first block-area returned by the fo:footnote, before any other content is placed. If a subsequent page does not contain a region-body, the user agent must use the region-master of the last page that did contain a region-body to hold the additional block-areas.

It is an error if the fo:footnote occurs as a descendant of a flow that is not assigned to one or more region-body regions, or of an fo:block-container that generates absolutely positioned areas. In either case, the block-areas generated by the fo:footnote-body child of the fo:footnote shall be returned to the parent of the fo:footnote and placed in the area tree as though they were normal block-level areas.

Contents:

An fo:footnote is not permitted to have an fo:float, fo:footnote, or fo:marker as a descendant.

Additionally, an fo:footnote is not permitted to have as a descendant an fo:block-container that generates an absolutely positioned area.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.12.4 fo:footnote-body

Common Usage:

The fo:footnote-body is used to generate the footnote content.

Areas:

The fo:footnote-body generates and returns one or more block-level areas with area-class "xsl-footnote".

Constraints:

The fo:footnote-body is only permitted as a child of an fo:footnote.

No area may have more than one child block-area returned by the same fo:footnote-body formatting object.

Areas with area-class "xsl-footnote" must be properly ordered within the area tree relative to other areas with the same area-class.

Contents:

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.13 Other Formatting Objects

6.13.1 Introduction

6.13.1.1 Examples
6.13.1.1.1 Wrapper

The following example shows the use of the fo:wrapper formatting object that has no semantics but acts as a "carrier" for inherited properties.

Input sample:

<doc>
<p>This is an <emph>important word</emph> in this
sentence that also refers to a <code>variable</code>.</p>
</doc>

The "emph" elements are to be presented using a bold font and the "code" elements using a Courier font.

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version='1.0'?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
                xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
                version='1.0'>

<xsl:template match="p">
  <fo:block>
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:block>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="emph">
  <fo:wrapper font-weight="bold">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:wrapper>
</xsl:template>

<xsl:template match="code">
  <fo:wrapper font-family="Courier">
    <xsl:apply-templates/>
  </fo:wrapper>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

fo: element and attribute tree:

<fo:block xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format">This is an
<fo:wrapper font-weight="bold">important word</fo:wrapper>
in this sentence that also refers to a
<fo:wrapper font-family="Courier">variable</fo:wrapper>.
</fo:block>
6.13.1.1.2 Table Markers

The following example shows how to use the fo:retrieve-table-marker formatting object to create a 'Table continued...' caption that appears at the bottom of the table, when the table continues on the next page (assuming enough data is present that page breaks are generated). It will also show the subtotal at the bottom of the page when the table continues on the next page, and the grand total at the end of the table.

Input sample:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<numbers>
  <number>1</number>
  <number>2</number>
  <!-- and so on... -->
  <number>11</number>
  <number>12</number>
</numbers>

XSL Stylesheet:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format" version="1.0">
  <xsl:strip-space elements="*"/>

  <xsl:template match="numbers">
    <fo:table>
      <fo:table-column/>
      <fo:table-footer>
        <fo:table-row>
          <fo:table-cell font-weight="bold">
            <fo:block>
 <fo:retrieve-table-marker retrieve-class-name="subtotal-caption"
retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"/>
 <fo:retrieve-table-marker retrieve-class-name="subtotal"
retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"/>
            </fo:block>
          </fo:table-cell>
        </fo:table-row>
        <fo:retrieve-table-marker retrieve-class-name="continued"
          retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"/>
      </fo:table-footer>
      <fo:table-body>
        <fo:marker marker-class-name="continued">
          <fo:table-row>
            <fo:table-cell>
              <fo:block>Table continued...</fo:block>
            </fo:table-cell>
          </fo:table-row>
        </fo:marker>
        <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal-caption">
                Subtotal:
        </fo:marker>
        <xsl:apply-templates/>
      </fo:table-body>
    </fo:table>
  </xsl:template>

  <xsl:template match="number">
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal">
        <xsl:value-of select="sum(preceding::number)+text()"/>
      </fo:marker>
      <xsl:if test="position() = last()">
        <fo:marker marker-class-name="continued"/>
        <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal-caption">
          Total:
        </fo:marker>
      </xsl:if>
      <fo:table-cell>
        <fo:block>
          <xsl:apply-templates/>
        </fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
  </xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>

Result Instance: elements and attributes in the fo: namespace

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<fo:table>
  <fo:table-column/>
  <fo:table-footer>
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:table-cell font-weight="bold">
        <fo:block>
          <fo:retrieve-table-marker
            retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"
            retrieve-class-name="subtotal-caption"/>
          <fo:retrieve-table-marker
            retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"
            retrieve-class-name="subtotal"/>
        </fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
    <fo:retrieve-table-marker retrieve-class-name="continued"
      retrieve-position-within-table="last-ending-within-page"/>
  </fo:table-footer>
  <fo:table-body>
    <fo:marker marker-class-name="continued">
      <fo:table-row>
        <fo:table-cell>
          <fo:block>Table continued...</fo:block>
        </fo:table-cell>
      </fo:table-row>
    </fo:marker>
    <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal-caption">
      Subtotal:
    </fo:marker>
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal">1</fo:marker>
      <fo:table-cell>
        <fo:block>1</fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal">3</fo:marker>
      <fo:table-cell>
        <fo:block>2</fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
    <!-- and so on... -->
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal">66</fo:marker>
      <fo:table-cell>
        <fo:block>11</fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
    <fo:table-row>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal">78</fo:marker>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="continued"/>
      <fo:marker marker-class-name="subtotal-caption">
        Total:
      </fo:marker>
      <fo:table-cell>
        <fo:block>12</fo:block>
      </fo:table-cell>
    </fo:table-row>
  </fo:table-body>
</fo:table>

6.13.2 fo:change-bar-begin

Common Usage:

The fo:change-bar-begin is used to indicate the beginning of a "change region" that is ended by the subsequent fo:change-bar-end whose change-bar-class property value matches that of the change-bar-class property on this fo:change-bar-begin and is at the same nesting level (relative to other fo:change-bar-begin/fo:change-bar-end pairs with the same change-bar-class property value) of this fo:change-bar-begin.

The change region is decorated with a change bar down either the start or end edge of the column. That is, a change bar is generated along side of the areas generated within the region-body's non-conditional reference area by the formatting objects "under the change bar influence". All formatting objects after (in document order) this fo:change-bar-begin and up to the matching fo:change-bar-end (or end of document) are considered under the change bar influence of this fo:change-bar-begin.

The position, thickness, style, and color of the generated change bar is determined by the respective properties (see each property definition).

Areas:

The fo:change-bar-begin formatting object does not in itself generate any areas, but it causes areas to be generated by the ancestor fo:page-sequence object, near the start or end edge of a normal-flow-reference-area or region-reference-area.

Constraints:

An fo:change-bar-begin/fo:change-bar-end pair is considered a matching pair if (1) the value of their change-bar-class properties are identical and (2) between (in document order) the fo:change-bar-begin and fo:change-bar-end formatting objects, there are either (a) no fo:change-bar-begin and fo:change-bar-end formatting objects or (b) only matching pairs of fo:change-bar-begin and fo:change-bar-end formatting objects.

Following this fo:change-bar-begin in document order, there must be an fo:change-bar-end with which it forms a matching pair. If there is no such fo:change-bar-end, it is an error, and the implementation should recover by assuming the equivalent of a matching fo:change-bar-end at the end of the document.

The generated change bar areas run continuously down the start or end edge of the column within the region body.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.30.1 change-bar-class
7.30.2 change-bar-color
7.30.3 change-bar-offset
7.30.4 change-bar-placement
7.30.5 change-bar-style
7.30.6 change-bar-width
7.30.18 z-index

6.13.3 fo:change-bar-end

Common Usage:

The fo:change-bar-end is used to indicate the end of a "change region" that is started by its matching fo:change-bar-begin. See 6.13.2 fo:change-bar-begin for details.

Areas:

The fo:change-bar-begin formatting object does not in itself generate any areas, but it causes areas to be generated by the ancestor fo:page-sequence object, near the start or end edge of a normal-flow-reference-area or region-reference-area.

Constraints:

Preceding this fo:change-bar-end in document order, there must be an fo:change-bar-begin with which it forms a matching pair. If there is no such fo:change-bar-begin, it is an error, and the implementation should recover by ignoring this fo:change-bar-end.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties
7.7 Common Aural Properties
7.30.1 change-bar-class

6.13.4 fo:wrapper

Common Usage:

The fo:wrapper formatting object is used to specify inherited properties for a group of formatting objects.

Areas:

The fo:wrapper formatting object returns the sequence of areas created by concatenating the sequences of areas returned by each of the children of the fo:wrapper. If this sequence contains at least one normal area, or if the "id" property is not specified on the fo:wrapper, then the fo:wrapper does not itself generate any areas.

If the sequence of areas returned to the fo:wrapper contains no normal areas, and the "id" property is specified on the fo:wrapper, then it additionally generates and returns one normal area with inline-progression-dimension and block-progression-dimension set to zero. This area is an inline-area except where this would violate the constraint (on some ancestor area) that an area's children are all block-areas or all inline-areas, but not a mixture. In that case the fo:wrapper must instead generate a block-area.

Trait Derivation:

Except for "id", the fo:wrapper has no properties that are directly used by it. However, it does serve as a carrier to hold inheritable properties that are utilized by its children.

Constraints:

The order of concatenation of the sequences of areas returned by the children of the fo:wrapper is the same order as the children are ordered under the fo:wrapper.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

An fo:wrapper is only permitted to have children that would be permitted to be children of the parent of the fo:wrapper, with two exceptions:

  • An fo:wrapper may always have a sequence of zero or more fo:markers as its initial children.

  • An fo:wrapper that is a child of an fo:multi-properties is only permitted to have children that would be permitted in place of the fo:multi-properties.

This restriction applies recursively.

Note:

For example an fo:wrapper that is a child of another fo:wrapper may only have children that would be permitted to be children of the parent fo:wrapper.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.30.8 id
7.24.1 index-class
7.24.2 index-key

6.13.5 fo:marker

Common Usage:

The fo:marker is used in conjunction with fo:retrieve-marker or fo:retrieve-table-marker to produce running headers or footers and dynamic table headers or footers. Typical examples include:

  • dictionary headers showing the first and last word defined on the page.

  • headers showing the page's chapter and section titles.

  • subtotals e.g. that give a subtotal of numbers in rows up to the last row on the current page.

  • table-continued captions that show whether or not a table is continued after the current page, or was a continuation from a previous page.

The fo:marker has to be an initial child of its parent formatting object.

Areas:

The fo:marker does not directly produce any area. Its children may be retrieved and formatted from within an fo:static-content or table header/footer, using an fo:retrieve-marker or an fo:retrieve-table-marker respectively, whose "retrieve-class-name" property value is the same as the "marker-class-name" property value of this fo:marker.

Constraints:

An fo:marker is only permitted as the descendant of an fo:flow.

Note: Property values set on an fo:marker or its ancestors will not be inherited by the children of the fo:marker when they are retrieved by an fo:retrieve-marker or fo:retrieve-table-marker.

It is an error if two or more fo:markers that share the same parent have the same "marker-class-name" property value.

Contents:

(#PCDATA|%inline;|%block;)*

An fo:marker may contain any formatting objects that are permitted as a replacement of any fo:retrieve-marker or fo:retrieve-table-marker that retrieves the fo:marker's children.

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.25.1 marker-class-name

6.13.6 fo:retrieve-marker

Common Usage:

The fo:retrieve-marker is used in conjunction with fo:marker to produce running headers or footers. Typical examples include:

  • dictionary headers showing the first and last word defined on the page.

  • headers showing the page's chapter and section titles.

Areas:

The fo:retrieve-marker does not directly generate any area. It is (conceptually) replaced by the children of the fo:marker that it retrieves.

Trait Derivation:

The properties and traits specified on the ancestors of the fo:retrieve-marker are taken into account when formatting the children of the retrieved fo:marker as if the children had the same ancestors as the fo:retrieve-marker.

Constraints:

An fo:retrieve-marker is only permitted as the descendant of an fo:static-content.

The fo:retrieve-marker specifies that the children of a selected fo:marker shall be formatted as though they replaced the fo:retrieve-marker in the formatting tree.

The properties of the fo:retrieve-marker impose a hierarchy of preference on the areas of the area tree. Each fo:marker is conceptually attached to each normal area returned by the fo:marker's parent formatting object. Additionally, an fo:marker is conceptually attached to each non-normal area that is directly generated by the fo:marker's parent formatting object. Conversely, areas generated by any descendant of an fo:flow may have zero or more fo:marker's conceptually attached. The fo:marker whose children are retrieved is the one that is (conceptually) attached to the area that is at the top of this hierarchy.

Every area in the hierarchy is considered preferential to, or "better" than, any area below it in the hierarchy. When comparing two areas to determine which one is better, the terms "first" and "last" refer to the pre-order traversal order of the area tree.

The term "containing page" is used here to mean the page that contains the first area generated or returned by the children of the retrieved fo:marker.

An area that has an attached fo:marker whose "marker-class-name" property value is the same as the "retrieve-class-name" property value of the fo:retrieve-marker is defined to be a qualifying area. Only qualifying areas have positions in the hierarchy.

A qualifying area within a page is better than any qualifying area within a preceding page, except that areas do not have a position in the hierarchy if they are within pages that follow the containing page. If the "retrieve-boundary" property has a value of "page-sequence", then an area does not have a position in the hierarchy if it is on a page from a page-sequence preceding the page-sequence of the containing page. If the "retrieve-boundary" property has a value of "page", then an area does not have a position in the hierarchy if it is not on the containing page.

If the value of the "retrieve-position" property is "first-starting-within-page", then the first qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-first" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the first qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position" property is "first-including-carryover", then the first qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position" property is "last-starting-within-page", then the last qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-first" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the last qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position" property is "last-ending-within-page", then the last qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-last" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the last qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the hierarchy of areas is empty, no formatting objects are retrieved.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.25.3 retrieve-class-name
7.25.4 retrieve-position
7.25.5 retrieve-boundary

6.13.7 fo:retrieve-table-marker

Common Usage:

The fo:retrieve-table-marker is used in conjunction with fo:marker to produce table-headers and table-footers whose content can change over different pages.

Typical examples include:

  • dictionary headers showing the first and last word defined in the part of the table on the current page.

  • subtotals e.g. that give a subtotal of numbers in rows up to the last row on the current page.

  • table-continued captions that show if a table is continued after the current page, or was a continuation from a previous page.

Areas:

The fo:retrieve-table-marker does not directly generate any area. It is (conceptually) replaced by the children of the fo:marker that it retrieves.

Trait Derivation:

The properties and traits specified on the ancestors of the fo:retrieve-table-marker are taken into account when formatting the children of the retrieved fo:marker as if the children had the same ancestors as the fo:retrieve-table-marker.

Constraints:

An fo:retrieve-table-marker is only permitted as the descendant of an fo:table-header or fo:table-footer or as a child of fo:table in a position where fo:table-header or fo:table-footer is permitted.

The fo:retrieve-table-marker specifies that the children of a selected fo:marker shall be formatted as though they replaced the fo:retrieve-table-marker in the formatting tree.

We say an fo:retrieve-table-marker is associated with an fo:table-body if the fo:table that is the parent of the fo:table-body is the same as the parent of the fo:table-header or fo:table-footer that contains the fo:retrieve-table-marker.

The properties of the fo:retrieve-table-marker impose a hierarchy of preference on the areas of the area tree. Each fo:marker is conceptually attached to each normal area returned by the fo:marker's parent formatting object. Additionally, an fo:marker is conceptually attached to each non-normal area that is directly generated by the fo:marker's parent formatting object. Conversely, areas generated by any descendant of an fo:flow may have zero or more fo:marker's conceptually attached. The fo:marker whose children are retrieved is the one that is conceptually attached to the area that is at the top of this hierarchy.

Every area in the hierarchy is considered preferential to, or "better" than, any area below it in the hierarchy. When comparing two areas to determine which one is better, the terms "first" and "last" refer to the pre-order traversal order of the area tree.

The term containing page is used here to mean the page that contains the first area generated or returned by the children of the retrieved fo:marker.

An area that has an attached fo:marker whose "marker-class-name" property value is the same as the "retrieve-class-name" property value of the fo:retrieve-table-marker, is defined to be a qualifying area if it is generated or returned by a descendant of the fo:table-body that is associated with the fo:retrieve-table-marker. Only qualifying areas have positions in the hierarchy.

A qualifying area within a page is better than any qualifying area within a preceding page, except that areas do not have a position in the hierarchy if they are within pages that follow the containing page. If the "retrieve-boundary-within-table" property has a value of "page" then an area does not have a position in the hierarchy if it is not on the containing page.

If the value of the "retrieve-position-within-table" property is "first-starting-within-page", then the first qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-first" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the first qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position-within-table" property is "first-including-carryover", then the first qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position-within-table" property is "last-starting-within-page", then the last qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-first" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the last qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the value of the "retrieve-position-within-table" property is "last-ending-within-page", then the last qualifying area in the containing page whose "is-last" trait has a value of "true" is better than any other area. If there is no such area, then the last qualifying area in the containing page is better than any other area.

If the hierarchy of areas is empty, no formatting objects are retrieved.

Contents:

EMPTY

The following properties apply to this formatting object:

7.25.3 retrieve-class-name
7.25.6 retrieve-position-within-table
7.25.2 retrieve-boundary-within-table

7 Formatting Properties

7.1 Description of Property Groups

The following sections describe the properties of the XSL formatting objects.

A number of properties are copied from the CSS2 specification. In addition, the CSS2 errata all apply. See [CSS2].

Properties copied from CSS2 are placed in a box with wide black borders, and properties derived from CSS2 properties are placed in a box with thin black borders.

  • The first nine sets of property definitions have been arranged into groups based on similar functionality and the fact that they apply to many formatting objects. In the formatting object descriptions the group name is referred to rather than referring to the individual properties.

    • Common Accessibility Properties

      This set of properties are used to support accessibility.

    • Common Absolute Position Properties

      This set of properties controls the position and size of formatted areas with absolute positioning.

    • Common Aural Properties

      This group of properties controls the aural rendition of the content of a formatting object. They appear on all formatting objects that contain content and other formatting objects that group other formatting objects and where that grouping is necessary for the understanding of the aural rendition. An example of the latter is fo:table-and-caption.

    • Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties

      This set of properties controls the backgrounds and borders on the block-areas and inline-areas.

    • Common Font Properties

      This set of properties controls the font selection on all formatting objects that can contain text.

    • Common Hyphenation Properties

      Control of hyphenation for line-breaking, including language, script, and country.

    • Common Margin Properties-Block

      These properties set the spacing and indents surrounding block-level formatting objects.

    • Common Margin Properties-Inline

      These properties set the spacing surrounding inline-level formatting objects.

    • Common Relative Position Properties

      This set of properties controls the position of formatted areas with relative positioning.

  • The remaining properties are used on a number of formatting objects. These are arranged into clusters of similar functionality to organize the property descriptions. In the formatting object description the individual properties are referenced.

    • Area Alignment Properties

      Properties that control the alignment of inline-areas with respect to each other, particularly in relation to the mixing of different baselines for different scripts. In addition, there are two properties: "display-align" and "relative-align" that control the placement of block-areas.

    • Area Dimension Properties

      Properties that control the dimensions of both block-areas and inline-areas.

    • Block and Line-related Properties

      Properties that govern the construction of line-areas and the placement of these line-areas within containing block-areas.

    • Character Properties

      Properties that govern the presentation of text, including word spacing, letter spacing, and word space treatment and suppression.

    • Color-related Properties

      Properties that govern color and color-model selection.

    • Float-related properties

      Properties governing the placement of both side-floats (start- and end-floats) and before-floats ("top" floats in "lr-tb" writing-mode).

    • Keeps and Breaks Properties

      Properties that control keeps and breaks across pages, columns, and lines, including widow and orphan control and keeping content together.

    • Layout-related Properties

      These properties control what is "top" ("reference-orientation") as well as clipping, overflow, and column-spanning conditions.

    • Leader and Rule Properties

      Properties governing the construction of leaders and horizontal rules.

    • Properties for Dynamic Effects

      Properties governing the presentation and actions associated with links and other dynamic effects.

    • Properties for Indexing

      Properties governing the creation and presentation of a "back of the book" index.

    • Properties for Markers

      Properties governing the creation and retrieval of markers. Markers are used typically for "dictionary" headers and footers.

    • Properties for Number to String Conversions

      Properties used in the construction of page-numbers and other formatter-based numbering.

    • Pagination and Layout Properties

      These properties govern the sequencing, layout, and instantiation of pages, including: the page size and orientation, sizes of regions on the page-master, the identification and selection of page-masters, division of the body region into columns, and the assignment of content flows to layout regions.

    • Table Properties

      Properties governing the layout and presentation of tables.

    • Writing-mode-related Properties

      Properties related to various aspects of "directionality" and writing-mode influencing block-progression-direction and inline-progression-direction.

    • Miscellaneous Properties

      These properties did not reasonably fit into any of the other categories.

  • Shorthand Properties

    Shorthand properties that are part of the complete conformance set. Shorthands expand to the individual properties that may be used in place of shorthands.

7.2 XSL Areas and the CSS Box Model

This section describes how to interpret property descriptions which incorporate the CSS2 definition of the same property. In CSS2, "boxes" are generated by "elements" in the same way that XSL areas are generated by formatting objects. Any references in the CSS2 definition to "boxes" are to be taken as referring to "areas" in the XSL area model, and where "element" appears in a CSS2 definition it should be taken to refer to a "formatting object".

The CSS term, positioned element will in XSL be taken as referring to an XSL FO that has one of the following: an "absolute-position" property with a computed value other than "auto" and/or a "relative-position" property with a computed value other than "static".

Note:

Since in XSL, the "position" property is a shorthand for the "absolute-position" and "relative-position" properties, this is equivalent to the CSS definition.

The position and size of a box are normally taken to refer to the position and size of the area's content-rectangle. Additional correspondences between the CSS2 Box Model and the XSL Area Model are contained in the following table.

BoxArea
top content edgetop edge of the content-rectangle
padding edgepadding-rectangle
content areainterior of the content-rectangle
padding arearegion between the content-rectangle and the padding-rectangle
border arearegion between the padding-rectangle and the border-rectangle
backgroundbackground
containing blockclosest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area (see below for additional information when the "containing block" is used as a reference for percentage calculations)
captionarea generated by fo:table-caption
inline boxinline-area
line boxline-area
block boxblock-area which is not a line-area
page boxpage-area

Box margins map to area traits in accordance with the description of how area traits are computed from property values in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.3 Reference Rectangle for Percentage Computations

Allowed conversions for percentages, specified on the property definition, is typically in terms of the content-rectangle of some area. That area is determined as follows:

  1. For properties defined in CSS2 referring to the "containing block" the content-rectangle of the closest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area is used.

  2. For properties defined by XSL, the property definition specifies which area's content-rectangle is used.

  3. Exceptions to the rules above for determining which area is used are:

    1. When used on fo:root, fo:page-sequence, and fo:title and any descendant of fo:title where there is no ancestor block-area the rectangle used has the dimensions corresponding to the "auto" value of the "page-height" and "page-width" properties. The block-progression-dimension and inline-progression-dimension is then determined based on the computed value of the reference-orientation and writing-mode on the formatting object for which the percentage is computed, or on fo:title in the case of a descentdant of fo:title.

    2. When used on fo:static-content and fo:flow the content rectangle used is based on the region on the first page into which the content is directed. For region-body it is the normal-flow-reference-area and for the other regions it is the region-reference-area.

    3. When used on fo:footnote-body, and fo:float that generates an area with area-class "xsl-before-float" the rectangle used is the content rectangle of the footnote-reference-area and the before-float-reference-area respectively.

    4. When used on fo:float that generates an area with area-class "xsl-side-float" the content rectangle used is the closest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area of the area of area-type "xsl-anchor" that was generated by the fo:float.

    5. When the absolute-position is "fixed", the containing block is defined by the nearest ancestor viewport area. If there is no ancestor viewport area, the containing block is defined by the user agent.

    6. When the absolute-position is "absolute", the containing block is established by the nearest ancestor area A which has an area-class different from xsl-normal or a relative-position of "relative".

      In the case where A is a block-area, the rectangle used is the padding-rectangle of A.

      In the case where A is an inline-area, generated by some formatting object F, the rectangle used is a virtual rectangle whose before-edge and start-edge are the before-edge and start-edge of the first area generated by F, and whose after-edge and end-edge are the after-edge and end-edge of the last area generated by F. This "rectangle" may have negative extent.

  4. If the formatting object generating the identified area generates a sequence of such areas the first area is used for the conversion.

7.4 Additional CSS Datatypes

The following "datatypes" are used in the definitions of some CSS2 properties. These are not considered datatypes in XSL, as they are merely notational shorthand and expand as follows:

DatatypeExpansion
<padding-width> <length> | <percentage>
<border-width> thin | medium | thick | <length>
<border-style> none | hidden | dotted | dashed | solid | double | groove | ridge | inset | outset
<generic-voice> 'male' | 'female' | 'child'
<specific-voice> values are specific instances (e.g., comedian, trinoids, carlos, lani)
<margin-width> <length> | <percentage> | auto
<background-color> shorthand component of background-color
<background-image> shorthand component of background-image
<background-repeat> shorthand component of background-repeat
<background-attachment>shorthand component of background-attachment
<background-position> shorthand component of background-position
<cue-before> shorthand component of cue-before
<cue-after> shorthand component of cue-after
<line-height> shorthand component of line-height
<country-language> <string>: a language and/or country specifier in conformance with [RFC3066]

7.5 Common Accessibility Properties

7.5.1 "source-document"

XSL Definition:

Value: <uri-specification> [<uri-specification>]* | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: all

Values have the following meanings:

none

The source document is transient, unknown, or unspecified.

<uri-specification>

A URI-specification giving a reference to the (sub)resource used as input to the stylesheet.

This property provides a pointer back to the original XML document(s) used to create this formatting object tree, in accordance with the Dublin Core definition of "Source" ("A Reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived." See: http://purl.org/DC/documents/rec-dces-19990702.htm.) The value is not validated by and has no inherent standardized semantics for any XSL processor.

W3C Accessibility guidelines, http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/, http://www.w3.org/TR/ATAG10/, and http://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG10/, strongly encourage the use of this property either on the fo:root or on the first formatting object generated from a given source document.

The URI reference is useful for alternate renderers (aural readers, etc.) whenever the structure of the formatting object tree is inappropriate for that renderer.

7.5.2 "role"

XSL Definition:

Value: <string> | <uri-specification> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: all

Values have the following meanings:

none

Indicates that no semantic tag is cited by this formatting object.

<string>

The value is a string representing a semantic identifier that may be used in rendering this formatting object.

<uri-specification>

A URI-specification, indicating an RDF resource [RDF]; that is, an XML object that is syntactically valid with respect to the RDF grammar.

This property provides a hint for alternate renderers (aural readers, etc.) as to the role of the XML element or elements that were used to construct this formatting object, if one could be identified during XSLT tree construction. This information can be used to prepare alternate renderings when the normal rendering of a formatting object is not appropriate or satisfactory; for example, the role information can be used to provide better aural renderings of visually formatted material.

To aid alternate renderers, the <string> value should be the qualified name (QName [XML Names]) of the element from which this formatting object is constructed. If a QName does not provide sufficient context, the <uri-specification> can be used to identify an RDF resource that describes the role in more detail. This RDF resource may be embedded in the result tree and referenced with a relative URI or fragment identifier, or the RDF resource may be external to the result tree. This specification does not define any standard QName or RDF vocabularies; these are frequently application area dependent. Other groups, for example the Dublin Core, have defined such vocabularies.

This property is not inherited, but all subsidiary nodes of this formatting object that do not bear a role property should utilize the same alternate presentation properties. (It is not inherited because knowledge of the start and end of the formatting object subtree generated by the element may be needed by the renderer.)

7.6 Common Absolute Position Properties

7.6.1 "absolute-position"

A Property Derived from a CSS2 Property.

Value: auto | absolute | fixed | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

There is no absolute-positioning constraint. Positioning is in accordance with the relative-position property.

absolute

The area's position (and possibly size) is specified with the "left", "right", "top", and "bottom" properties. These properties specify offsets with respect to the area's nearest ancestor reference area. Absolutely positioned areas are taken out of the normal flow. This means they have no impact on the layout of later siblings. Also, though absolutely positioned areas have margins, they do not collapse with any other margins.

fixed

The area's position is calculated according to the "absolute" model, but in addition, the area is fixed with respect to some reference. In the case of continuous media, the area is fixed with respect to the viewport (and doesn't move when scrolled). In the case of paged media, the area is fixed with respect to the page, even if that page is seen through a viewport (in the case of a print-preview, for example). Authors may wish to specify "fixed" in a media-dependent way. For instance, an author may want an area to remain at the top of the viewport on the screen, but not at the top of each printed page.

The following additional restrictions apply for paged presentations:

  • Only objects with absolute-position="auto" may have page/column breaks.

    For other values any keep and break properties are ignored.

  • The area generated is a descendant of the page-area where the first area from the object would have been placed had the object had absolute-position="auto" specified.

If the value is "absolute" or "fixed", any normal areas generated by the formatting object have their area-class changed to xsl-absolute or xsl-fixed, respectively.

7.6.2 "top"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x12

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to height of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "top" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visuren.html#propdef-top

This property specifies how far a box's top margin edge is offset below the top edge of the box's containing block.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

See definition of property left (7.6.5 left).

7.6.3 "right"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x12

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "right" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visuren.html#propdef-right

This property specifies how far a box's right margin edge is offset to the left of the right edge of the box's containing block.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

See definition of property left (7.6.5 left).

7.6.4 "bottom"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x12

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to height of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "bottom" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visuren.html#propdef-bottom

This property specifies how far a box's bottom margin edge is offset above the bottom edge of the box's containing block.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

See definition of property left (7.6.5 left).

7.6.5 "left"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x12

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "left" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visuren.html#propdef-left

This property specifies how far a box's left margin edge is offset to the right of the left edge of the box's containing block.

The values of the four (position offset) properties have the following meanings:

auto

The effect of this value depends on which of related properties have the value "auto" as well. See the sections on the width and height of absolutely positioned, non-replaced elements for details.

<length>

The offset is a fixed distance from the reference edge.

<percentage>

The offset is a percentage of the containing block's width (for "left" or "right") or "height" (for "top" and "bottom"). For "top" and "bottom", if the "height" of the containing block is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content height), the percentage value is interpreted like "auto".

For absolutely positioned boxes, the offsets are with respect to the box's containing block. For relatively positioned boxes, the offsets are with respect to the outer edges of the box itself (i.e., the box is given a position in the normal flow, then offset from that position according to these properties).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

These properties set the position of the content-rectangle of the associated area.

The left, right, top, and bottom are interpreted in the prevailing coordinate system (established by the nearest ancestor reference area) and not relative to the "containing block" as in CSS.

If both "left" and "right" have a value other than "auto", then if the "width" is "auto" the width of the content-rectangle is overridden; else the geometry is overconstrained and is resolved in accordance with 5.3.4 Overconstrained Geometry. Similarly, if both "top" and "bottom" have a value other than "auto", then if the "height" is "auto" the height of the content-rectangle is overridden; else the geometry is overconstrained and is resolved in accordance with 5.3.4 Overconstrained Geometry.

7.7 Common Aural Properties

7.7.1 "azimuth"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <angle> | [[ left-side | far-left | left | center-left | center | center-right | right | far-right | right-side ] || behind ] | leftwards | rightwards | inherit
Initial: center
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "azimuth" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-azimuth

7.7.2 "cue-after"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <uri-specification> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "cue-after" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-cue-after

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The <uri> value has been changed to a <uri-specification>.

7.7.3 "cue-before"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <uri-specification> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "cue-before" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-cue-before

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The <uri> value has been changed to a <uri-specification>.

7.7.4 "elevation"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <angle> | below | level | above | higher | lower | inherit
Initial: level
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "elevation" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-elevation

7.7.5 "pause-after"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <time> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: depends on user agent
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "pause-after" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-pause-after

7.7.6 "pause-before"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <time> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: depends on user agent
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "pause-before" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-pause-before

7.7.7 "pitch"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <frequency> | x-low | low | medium | high | x-high | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "pitch" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-pitch

7.7.8 "pitch-range"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | inherit
Initial: 50
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "pitch-range" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-pitch-range

7.7.9 "play-during"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <uri-specification> mix? repeat? | auto | none | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "play-during" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-play-during

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The <uri> value has been changed to a <uri-specification>.

7.7.10 "richness"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | inherit
Initial: 50
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "richness" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-richness

7.7.11 "speak"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | none | spell-out | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "speak" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-speak

7.7.12 "speak-header"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: once | always | inherit
Initial: once
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "speak-header" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/tables.html#propdef-speak-header

7.7.13 "speak-numeral"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: digits | continuous | inherit
Initial: continuous
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "speak-numeral" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-speak-numeral

7.7.14 "speak-punctuation"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: code | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "speak-punctuation" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-speak-punctuation

7.7.15 "speech-rate"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | x-slow | slow | medium | fast | x-fast | faster | slower | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "speech-rate" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-speech-rate

7.7.16 "stress"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | inherit
Initial: 50
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "stress" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-stress

7.7.17 "voice-family"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: [[<specific-voice> | <generic-voice> ],]* [<specific-voice> | <generic-voice> ] | inherit
Initial: depends on user agent
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "voice-family" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-voice-family

7.7.18 "volume"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | <percentage> | silent | x-soft | soft | medium | loud | x-loud | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to inherited value
Media: aural

CSS2 Reference: "volume" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/aural.html#propdef-volume

7.8 Common Border, Padding, and Background Properties

The following common-border-padding-and-background-properties are taken from CSS2. Those "border", "padding", and "background" properties that have a before, after, start, or end suffix are writing-mode relative and are XSL-only properties.

7.8.1 "background-attachment"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: scroll | fixed | inherit
Initial: scroll
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "background-attachment" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/colors.html#propdef-background-attachment

scroll

The background-image may scroll with the enclosing object.

fixed

The background-image is to be fixed within the viewable area of the enclosing object.

If a background-image is specified, this property specifies whether it is fixed with regard to the viewport (fixed) or scrolls along with the document (scroll).

Even if the image is fixed, it is still only visible when it is in the background or padding area of the element. Thus, unless the image is tiled ("background-repeat: repeat"), it may be invisible.

User agents may treat fixed as scroll. However, it is recommended they interpret fixed correctly, at least for the HTML and BODY elements, since there is no way for an author to provide an image only for those browsers that support fixed. See the section on conformance for details.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The last paragraph in the CSS description does not apply.

7.8.2 "background-color"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <color> | transparent | inherit
Initial: transparent
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "background-color" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/colors.html#propdef-background-color

This property sets the background color of an element, either a <color> value or the keyword transparent, to make the underlying colors shine through.

transparent

The underlying colors will shine through.

<color>

Any valid color specification.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

XSL adds an "rgb-icc" function (see 5.10.2 Color Functions) as a valid value of this property.

7.8.3 "background-image"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <uri-specification> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "background-image" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/colors.html#propdef-background-image

This property sets the background image of an element. When setting a "background-image", authors should also specify a background-color that will be used when the image is unavailable. When the image is available, it is rendered on top of the background color. (Thus, the color is visible in the transparent parts of the image).

Values for this property are either <uri-specification>, to specify the image, or "none", when no image is used.

none

No image is specified.

<uri-specification>

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The <uri> value has been changed to a <uri-specification>.

7.8.4 "background-repeat"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: repeat | repeat-x | repeat-y | no-repeat | inherit
Initial: repeat
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "background-repeat" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/colors.html#propdef-background-repeat

If a background image is specified, this property specifies whether the image is repeated (tiled), and how. All tiling covers the content and padding areas of a box. Values have the following meanings:

repeat

The image is repeated both horizontally and vertically.

repeat-x

The image is repeated horizontally only.

repeat-y

The image is repeated vertically only.

no-repeat

The image is not repeated: only one copy of the image is drawn.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

"Horizontal" and "vertical" are defined relative to the reference-orientation; "horizontal" is "left" to "right", and "vertical" is "top" to "bottom".

Note:

Thus for a rotated area the tiling is also rotated. It is, however, independent of the writing-mode.

7.8.5 "background-position-horizontal"

A Property Derived from a CSS2 Property.

Value: <percentage> | <length> | left | center | right | inherit
Initial: 0%
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to the size of the padding-rectangle
Media: visual

If a "background-image" has been specified, this property specifies its initial position horizontally.

<percentage>

Specifies that a point, at the given percentage across the image from left-to-right, shall be placed at a point at the given percentage across, from left-to-right, the area's padding-rectangle.

Note:

For example with a value of 0%, the left-edge of the image is aligned with the left-edge of the area's padding-rectangle. A value of 100% places the right-edge of the image aligned with the right-edge of the padding-rectangle. With a value of 14%, a point 14% across the image is to be placed at a point 14% across the padding-rectangle.

<length>

Specifies that the left-edge of the image shall be placed at the specified length to the right of the left-edge of the padding-rectangle.

Note:

For example with a value of 2cm, the left-edge of the image is placed 2cm to the right of the left-edge of the padding-rectangle.

left

Same as 0%.

center

Same as 50%.

right

Same as 100%.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

"Left" and "right" are defined relative to the reference-orientation.

7.8.6 "background-position-vertical"

A Property Derived from a CSS2 Property.

Value: <percentage> | <length> | top | center | bottom | inherit
Initial: 0%
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to the size of the padding-rectangle
Media: visual

If a "background-image" has been specified, this property specifies its initial position vertically.

<percentage>

Specifies that a point, at the given percentage down the image from top-to-bottom, shall be placed at a point at the given percentage down, from top-to-bottom, the area's padding-rectangle.

Note:

For example with a value of 0%, the top-edge of the image is aligned with the top-edge of the area's padding-rectangle. A value of 100% places the bottom-edge of the image aligned with the bottom-edge of the padding-rectangle. With a value of 84%, a point 84% down the image is to be placed at a point 84% down the padding-rectangle.

<length>

Specifies that the top-edge of the image shall be placed at the specified length below the top-edge of the padding-rectangle.

Note:

For example with a value of 2cm, the top-edge of the image is placed 2cm below the top-edge of the padding-rectangle.

top

Same as 0%.

center

Same as 50%.

bottom

Same as 100%.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

"Top" and "bottom" are defined relative to the reference-orientation.

7.8.7 "border-before-color"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the color of the border on the before-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.8 "border-before-style"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-style for the before-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.9 "border-before-width"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-width for the before-edge.

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the border for the before-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the border should be 0pt or retained if its associated edge is a leading-edge in a reference-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-first value of "false". See 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

If border-before-width is specified using <length>, the formatter shall convert the single value to components as follows:

  • border-before-width.length: the resultant computed value of the <length>.

  • border-before-width.conditional: discard.

If border-before-width is specified using one of the width keywords the .conditional component is set to "discard" and the .length component to a User Agent dependent length.

Note:

If the border-style is "none" the computed value of the width is forced to "0pt".

7.8.10 "border-after-color"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the color of the border on the after-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.11 "border-after-style"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-style for the after-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.12 "border-after-width"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-width for the after-edge.

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the border for the after-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the border should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a trailing-edge in a reference-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-last value of "false". See 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

Note:

If the border-style is "none" the computed value of the width is forced to "0pt".

7.8.13 "border-start-color"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the color of the border on the start-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.14 "border-start-style"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-style for the start-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.15 "border-start-width"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-width for the start-edge.

Note:

If the border-style is "none" the computed value of the width is forced to "0pt".

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the border for the start-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the border should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a leading-edge in a line-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-first value of "false". See 4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.16 "border-end-color"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the color of the border on the end-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.17 "border-end-style"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-style for the end-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.18 "border-end-width"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <border-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Specifies the border-width for the end-edge.

Note:

If the border-style is "none" the computed value of the width is forced to "0pt".

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the border for the end-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the border should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a trailing-edge in a line-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-last value of "false". See 4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.19 "border-top-color"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-top-color" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-top-color

The 'border-color' property sets the color of the four borders. Values have the following meanings:

<color>

Any valid color specification.

If an element's border color is not specified with a "border" property, user agents must use the value of the element's "color" property as the computed value for the border color.

7.8.20 "border-top-style"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x9

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-top-style" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-top-style

The border style properties specify the line style of a box's border (solid, double, dashed, etc.).

The properties defined in this section refer to the <border-style> value type, which may take one of the following:

none

No border. This value forces the computed value of 'border-width' to be '0'.

hidden

Same as 'none', except in terms of border conflict resolution for table elements.

dotted

The border is a series of dots.

dashed

The border is a series of short line segments.

solid

The border is a single line segment.

double

The border is two solid lines. The sum of the two lines and the space between them equals the value of 'border-width'.

groove

The border looks as though it were carved into the canvas.

ridge

The opposite of 'groove': the border looks as though it were coming out of the canvas.

inset

The border makes the entire box look as though it were embedded in the canvas.

outset

The opposite of 'inset': the border makes the entire box look as though it were coming out of the canvas.

All borders are drawn on top of the box's background. The color of borders drawn for values of 'groove', 'ridge', 'inset', and 'outset' should be based on the element's 'border-color' property, but UAs may choose their own algorithm to calculate the actual colors used. For instance, if the 'border-color' has the value 'silver', then a UA could use a gradient of colors from white to dark gray to indicate a sloping border.

Conforming HTML user agents may interpret 'dotted', 'dashed', 'double', 'groove', 'ridge', 'inset', and 'outset' to be 'solid'.

7.8.21 "border-top-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-width> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-top-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-top-width

The border width properties specify the width of the border area. The properties defined in this section refer to the <border-width> value type, which may take one of the following values:

thin

A thin border.

medium

A medium border.

thick

A thick border.

<length>

The border's thickness has an explicit value. Explicit border widths cannot be negative.

The interpretation of the first three values depends on the user agent. The following relationships must hold, however:

  • 'thin' <='medium' <= 'thick'.

  • Furthermore, these widths must be constant throughout a document.

7.8.22 "border-bottom-color"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-bottom-color" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-bottom-color

Specifies the border color for the bottom-edge.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.23 "border-bottom-style"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-bottom-style" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-bottom-style

Specifies the border style for the bottom-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.24 "border-bottom-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-width> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-bottom-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-bottom-width

Specifies the border width for the bottom-edge.

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

7.8.25 "border-left-color"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-left-color" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-left-color

Specifies the border color for the left-edge.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.26 "border-left-style"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-left-style" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-left-style

Specifies the border style for the left-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.27 "border-left-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-width> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-left-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-left-width

Specifies the border width for the left-edge.

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

7.8.28 "border-right-color"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <color> | inherit
Initial: the value of the 'color' property
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-right-color" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-right-color

Specifies the border color for the right-edge.

See definition of property border-top-color (7.8.19 border-top-color).

7.8.29 "border-right-style"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-style> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-right-style" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-right-style

Specifies the border style for the right-edge.

See definition of property border-top-style (7.8.20 border-top-style).

7.8.30 "border-right-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <border-width> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "border-right-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-border-right-width

Specifies the border width for the right-edge.

See definition of property border-top-width (7.8.21 border-top-width).

7.8.31 "padding-before"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <padding-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

Specifies the width of the padding on the before-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the padding for the before-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the padding should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a leading-edge in a reference-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-first value of "false". See 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.32 "padding-after"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <padding-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

Specifies the width of the padding on the after-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the padding for the after-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the padding should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a trailing-edge in a reference-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-last value of "false". See 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.33 "padding-start"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <padding-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

Specifies the width of the padding on the start-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the padding for the start-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the padding should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a leading-edge in a line-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-first value of "false". See 4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.34 "padding-end"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: <padding-width> | <length-conditional> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

Specifies the width of the padding on the end-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<length-conditional>

A compound value specifying the width and any conditionality of the padding for the end-edge.

The .length component is a <length>. It may not be negative. The .conditionality component may be set to "discard" or "retain" to control if the padding should be 0 or retained if its associated edge is a trailing-edge in a line-area for areas generated from this formatting object that have an is-last value of "false". See 4.3.1 Space-resolution Rules for further details. The initial value of the .conditionality component is "discard".

7.8.35 "padding-top"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <padding-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "padding-top" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-padding-top

<length>

Specifies the width of the padding on the top-edge of a block-area or inline-area. Unlike margin properties, values for padding properties cannot be negative.

7.8.36 "padding-bottom"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <padding-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "padding-bottom" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-padding-bottom

Specifies the width of the padding on the bottom-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

7.8.37 "padding-left"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <padding-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "padding-left" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-padding-left

Specifies the width of the padding on the left-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

7.8.38 "padding-right"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <padding-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "padding-right" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-padding-right

Specifies the width of the padding on the right-edge of a block-area or inline-area.

See definition of property padding-top (7.8.35 padding-top).

7.9 Common Font Properties

The following common-font-properties all are taken from CSS2. The reference to CSS2 is: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html

Note:

Although these properties reference the individual properties in the CSS specification, it is recommended that you read the entire font section of the CSS2 specification.

7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data

XSL uses an abstract model of a font. This model is described in this section and is based on current font technology as exemplified by the OpenType specification [OpenType].

A font consists of a collection of glyphs together with the information, the font tables, necessary to use those glyphs to present characters on some medium. A glyph is a recognizable abstract graphic symbol which is independent of any specific design. The combination of the collection of glyphs and the font tables is called the font data.

The font tables include the information necessary to map characters to glyphs, to determine the size of glyph areas and to position the glyph area. Each font table consists of one or more font characteristics, such as the font-weight and font-style.

The geometric font characteristics are expressed in a coordinate system based on the em box. (The em is a relative measure of the height of the glyphs in the font; see 5.9.7.2 Relative Lengths.) This box that is 1 em high and 1 em wide is called the design space. Points in this design space are expressed in geometric coordinates in terms of fractional units of the em.

The coordinate space of the em box is called the design space coordinate system. For scalable fonts, the curves and lines that are used to draw a glyph are represented using this coordinate system.

Note:

Most often, the (0,0) point in this coordinate system is positioned on the left edge of the em box, but not at the bottom left corner. The Y coordinate of the bottom of a Roman capital letter is usually zero. In addition, the descenders on lower case Roman letters have negative coordinate values.

XSL assumes that the font tables will provide at least three font characteristics: an ascent, a descent and a set of baseline-tables. The coordinate values for these are given in the design space coordinate system. The ascent is given by the vertical coordinate of the top of the em box; the descent is given by the vertical coordinate of the bottom of the em box. The baseline-table is explained below.

The glyphs of a given script are positioned so that a particular point on each glyph, the alignment-point, is aligned with the alignment-points of the other glyphs in that script. The glyphs of different scripts are typically aligned at different points on the glyph. For example, Western glyphs are aligned on the bottoms of the capital letters, certain Indic glyphs (including glyphs from the Devanagari, Gurmukhi and Bengali scripts) are aligned at the top of a horizontal stroke near the top of the glyphs and Far Eastern glyphs are aligned either at the bottom or center of the em box of the glyph. Within a script and within a line of text having a single font-size, the sequence of alignment-points defines, in the inline-progression-direction, a geometric line called a baseline. Western and most other alphabetic and syllabic glyphs are aligned to an "alphabetic" baseline, the above Indic glyphs are aligned to a "hanging" baseline and the Far Eastern glyphs are aligned to an "ideographic" baseline.

Three examples of baselines   [D]

This figure shows the vertical position of the alignment-point for alphabetic and many syllabic scripts, illustrated by a Roman "A"; for certain Indic scripts, illustrated by a Gurmukhi syllable "ji"; and for ideographic scripts, illustrated by the ideograhic glyph meaning "country". The thin black rectangle around the ideographic glyph illustrates the em box for that glyph and shows the typical positioning of the "black marks" of the glyph within the em box.

A baseline-table specifies the position of one or more baselines in the design space coordinate system. The function of the baseline table is to facilitate the alignment of different scripts with respect to each other when they are mixed on the same text line. Because the desired relative alignments may depend on which script is dominant in a line (or block), there may be a different baseline table for each script. In addition, different alignment positions are needed for horizontal and vertical writing modes. Therefore, the font may have a set of baseline tables: typically, one or more for horizontal writing-modes and zero or more for vertical writing-modes.

Horizontal and vertical baseline alignment   [D]

Examples of horizontal and vertical baseline positions. The thin lined box in each example is the "em box". For the Latin glyphs, only the em box of the first glyph is shown. Example 1 shows typical Latin text written horizontally. This text is positioned relative to the alphabetic baseline, shown in blue. Example 2 shows a typical ideographic glyph positioned on the horizontal ideographic baseline. Note that the em box is positioned differently for these two cases. Examples 3 and 4 show the same set of baselines used in vertical writing. The Latin text, example 3, is shown with a glyph-orientation of 90 degrees which is typical for proportionally space Latin glyphs in vertical writing. Even though the ideographic glyph in example 4 is positioned on the vertical ideographic baseline, because it is centered in the em box, all glyphs with the same em box are centered, vertically, with respect to one another. Additional examples showing the positioning of mixed scripts are given in the introductions to 7.14 Area Alignment Properties and 7.29 Writing-mode-related Properties.

The font tables for a font include font characteristics for the individual glyphs in the font. XSL assumes that the font tables include, for each glyph in the font, one width value, one alignment-baseline and one alignment-point for the horizontal writing-modes. If vertical writing-modes are supported, then each glyph must have another width value, alignment-baseline and alignment-point for the vertical writing-modes. (Even though it is specified as a width, for vertical writing-modes the width is used in the vertical direction.)

The script to which a glyph belongs determines an alignment-baseline to which the glyph is to be aligned. The position of this baseline in the design space coordinate system determines the default block-progression-direction position of the alignment-point. The inline-progression-direction position of the alignment-point is on the start-edge of the glyph. (These positions are adjusted according to the specifications in 7.14.1 alignment-adjust when an instance of a glyph is used in an inline or block formatting object. The "space-start" and/or the "space-end" properties of the fo:character that maps to the glyph may be adjusted to effect "kerning" with respect to adjacent glyphs.)

Baseline alignment of glyphs from different scripts   [D]

This figure shows glyphs from three different scripts, each with its em box and within the em box, the baseline table applicable to that glyph. The alignment-point of each glyph is shown by an "X" on the start edge of the em box and by making alignment-baseline blue. The baseline-table of the parent formatting object of the characters that mapped to these glyphs is shown as a set of dashed lines.

In addition to the font characteristics required above, a font may also supply substitution and positioning tables that can be used by a formatter to re-order, combine, and position a sequence of glyphs to make one or more composite glyphs. The combination may be as simple as a ligature, or as complex as an Indic syllable which combines, usually with some re-ordering, multiple consonants and vowel glyphs. See 4.7.2 Line-building.

Note:

If the font tables do not define values for required font characteristics, heuristics may be used to approximate these values.

7.9.2 "font-family"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x73

Value: [[ <family-name> | <generic-family> ],]* [<family-name> | <generic-family>] | inherit
Initial: depends on user agent
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-family" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#propdef-font-family

This property specifies a prioritized list of font family names and/or generic family names. To deal with the problem that a single font may not contain glyphs to display all the characters in a document, or that not all fonts are available on all systems, this property allows authors to specify a list of fonts, all of the same style and size, that are tried in sequence to see if they contain a glyph for a certain character. This list is called a font set.

The generic font family will be used if one or more of the other fonts in a font set is unavailable. Although many fonts provide the "missing character" glyph, typically an open box, as its name implies this should not be considered a match except for the last font in a font set.

There are two types of font family names:

<family-name>

The name of a font-family of choice. In the previous example [in the CSS2 Recommendation], "Baskerville", "Heisi Mincho W3", and "Symbol" are font families. Font family names containing whitespace should be quoted. If quoting is omitted, any whitespace characters before and after the font name are ignored and any sequence of whitespace characters inside the font name is converted to a single space.

<generic-family>

The following generic families are defined: "serif", "sans-serif", "cursive", "fantasy", and "monospace". Please see the section on generic font families for descriptions of these families. Generic font family names are keywords, and therefore must not be quoted.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

<string>

The names are syntactically expressed as strings.

Note:

See the expression language for a two-argument "system-font" function that returns a characteristic of a system-font. This may be used, instead of the "font" shorthand, to specify the name of a system-font.

7.9.3 "font-selection-strategy"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | character-by-character | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

There is no XSL mechanism to specify a particular font; instead, a selected font is chosen from the fonts available to the User Agent based on a set of selection criteria. The selection criteria are the following font properties: "font-family", "font-style", "font-variant", "font-weight", "font-stretch", and "font-size", plus, for some formatting objects, one or more characters. These characters are called the contextual characters. The contextual characters can be as few as a single character and as many as the entire character complement of the result tree being processed.

Except for the fo:character formatting object, for all other formatting objects where "font-family" applies, the selection criteria consist of the above font properties only. For the fo:character formatting object, the selection criteria are these properties plus either the value of the "character" property of the fo:character alone or that character together with other contextual characters.

The strategy to be followed for selecting a font based on these criteria is specified by the "font-selection-strategy" property.

The "font-family" property is a prioritized list of font family names, which are tried in sequence to find an available font that matches the selection criteria. The font property selection criteria are matched if the corresponding font characteristics match the properties as specified in the property descriptions.

If no matching font is found, a fallback selection is determined in a system-dependent manner.

Note:

This fallback may be to seek a match using a User Agent default "font-family", or it may be a more elaborate fallback strategy where, for example, "Helvetica" would be used as a fallback for "Univers".

If no match has been found for a particular character, there is no selected font and the User Agent should provide a visual indication that a character is not being displayed (for example, using the 'missing character' glyph).

Values of the "font-selection-strategy" property have the following meanings:

auto

The selection criterion given by the contextual characters is used in an implementation defined manner.

Note:

An implementation may, for example, use an algorithm where all characters in the result tree having the same set of font selection property values influence the selection, or it may only use the character property of a single fo:character formatting object for which a font is to be selected. Consider, for example, a case where the available fonts include a font that covers all of Latin, Greek and Cyrillic as well as three better quality fonts that cover those three separately, but match each other badly stylistically. An implementation that takes a larger view for its set of contextual characters may consider the glyph complement to allow the selection of the better font if it covers the glyph complement, but to use the broader font to get a consistent style if the glyph complement is larger than any one of the other fonts can cover.

character-by-character

The set of contextual characters consists of the single character that is the value of the "character" property of the fo:character for which a font is to be selected.

Note:

This selection strategy is the same as the strategy used to select fonts in CSS.

Describes the criteria for selecting fonts and the different strategies for using these criteria to determine a selected font.

7.9.4 "font-size"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x74

Value: <absolute-size> | <relative-size> | <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: medium
Inherited: yes, the computed value is inherited
Percentages: refer to parent element's font size
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-size" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#propdef-font-size

This property describes the size of the font when set solid. The font size corresponds to the em square, a concept used in typography. Note that certain glyphs may bleed outside their em squares. Values have the following meanings:

<absolute-size>

An <absolute-size> keyword refers to an entry in a table of font sizes computed and kept by the user agent. Possible values are:

[ xx-small | x-small | small | medium | large | x-large | xx-large ]

On a computer screen a scaling factor of 1.2 is suggested between adjacent indexes; if the "medium" font is 12pt, the "large" font could be 14.4pt. Different media may need different scaling factors. Also, the user agent should take the quality and availability of fonts into account when computing the table. The table may be different from one font family to another. Note. In CSS1, the suggested scaling factor between adjacent indexes was 1.5 which user experience proved to be too large.

<relative-size>

A <relative-size> keyword is interpreted relative to the table of font sizes and the font size of the parent element. Possible values are:

[ larger | smaller ]

For example, if the parent element has a font size of "medium", a value of "larger" will make the font size of the current element be "large". If the parent element's size is not close to a table entry, the user agent is free to interpolate between table entries or round off to the closest one. The user agent may have to extrapolate table values if the numerical value goes beyond the keywords.

<length>

A length value specifies an absolute font size (that is independent of the user agent's font table). Negative lengths are illegal.

<percentage>

A percentage value specifies an absolute font size relative to the parent element's font size. Use of percentage values, or values in "em's", leads to more robust and cascadable stylesheets.

The actual value of this property may differ from the computed value due a numerical value on 'font-size-adjust' and the unavailability of certain font sizes.

Child elements inherit the computed 'font-size' value (otherwise, the effect of 'font-size-adjust' would compound).

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

XSL incorporates the following text from CSS2 15.5 (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#algorithm") as part of the property definition.

'font-size' must be matched within a UA-dependent margin of tolerance. (Typically, sizes for scalable fonts are rounded to the nearest whole pixel, while the tolerance for bitmapped fonts could be as large as 20%.) Further computations, e.g., by 'em' values in other properties, are based on the computed 'font-size' value.

7.9.5 "font-stretch"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | wider | narrower | ultra-condensed | extra-condensed | condensed | semi-condensed | semi-expanded | expanded | extra-expanded | ultra-expanded | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-stretch" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#font-styling

The 'font-stretch' property selects a normal, condensed, or extended face from a font family.

ultra-condensed
extra-condensed
condensed
semi-condensed
normal
semi-expanded
expanded
extra-expanded
ultra-expanded

Absolute keyword values have the following ordering, from narrowest to widest :

  1. ultra-condensed

  2. extra-condensed

  3. condensed

  4. semi-condensed

  5. normal

  6. semi-expanded

  7. expanded

  8. extra-expanded

  9. ultra-expanded

wider

The relative keyword "wider" sets the value to the next expanded value above the inherited value (while not increasing it above "ultra-expanded").

narrower

The relative keyword "narrower" sets the value to the next condensed value below the inherited value (while not decreasing it below "ultra-condensed").

7.9.6 "font-size-adjust"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <number> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-size-adjust" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#font-size-props

In bicameral scripts, the subjective apparent size and legibility of a font are less dependent on their 'font-size' value than on the value of their 'x-height', or, more usefully, on the ratio of these two values, called the aspect value (x-height divided by font size). The higher the aspect value, the more likely it is that a font at smaller sizes will be legible. Inversely, faces with a lower aspect value will become illegible more rapidly below a given threshold size than faces with a higher aspect value. Straightforward font substitution that relies on font size alone may lead to illegible characters.

For example, the popular font Verdana has an aspect value of 0.58; when Verdana's font size 100 units, its x-height is 58 units. For comparison, Times New Roman has an aspect value of 0.46. Verdana will therefore tend to remain legible at smaller sizes than Times New Roman. Conversely, Verdana will often look 'too big' if substituted for Times New Roman at a chosen size.

This property allows authors to specify an aspect value for an element that will preserve the x-height of the first choice font in the substitute font. Values have the following meanings:

none

Do not preserve the font's x-height.

<number>

Specifies the aspect value. The number refers to the aspect value of the first choice font. The scaling factor for available fonts is computed according to the following formula:

y(a/a') = c

where:

y="font-size" of first-choice font

a = aspect value of first-choice font

a' = aspect value of available font

c="font-size" to apply to available font

This property allows authors to specify an aspect value for an element that will preserve the x-height of the first choice font in the substitute font.

Font size adjustments take place when computing the actual value of "font-size". Since inheritance is based on the computed value, child elements will inherit unadjusted values.

7.9.7 "font-style"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | italic | oblique | backslant | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-style" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#font-styling

The "font-style" property requests normal (sometimes referred to as "roman" or "upright"), italic, and oblique faces within a font family. Values have the following meanings:

normal

Specifies a font that is classified as "normal" in the UA's font database.

oblique

Specifies a font that is classified as "oblique" in the UA's font database. Fonts with Oblique, Slanted, or Incline in their names will typically be labeled "oblique" in the font database. A font that is labeled "oblique" in the UA's font database may actually have been generated by electronically slanting a normal font.

italic

Specifies a font that is classified as "italic" in the UA's font database, or, if that is not available, one labeled 'oblique'. Fonts with Italic, Cursive, or Kursiv in their names will typically be labeled "italic".

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

backslant

Specifies a font that is classified as "backslant" in the UA's font database.

XSL incorporates the following text from CSS2 15.5 (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#algorithm) as part of the property definition, except that for XSL the information is obtained from the font tables of the available fonts.

'italic' will be satisfied if there is either a face in the UA's font database labeled with the CSS keyword 'italic' (preferred) or 'oblique'. Otherwise the values must be matched exactly or font-style will fail.

7.9.8 "font-variant"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | small-caps | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-variant" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#font-styling

In a small-caps font, the glyphs for lowercase letters look similar to the uppercase ones, but in a smaller size and with slightly different proportions. The "font-variant" property requests such a font for bicameral (having two cases, as with Roman script). This property has no visible effect for scripts that are unicameral (having only one case, as with most of the world's writing systems). Values have the following meanings:

normal

Specifies a font that is not labeled as a small-caps font.

small-caps

Specifies a font that is labeled as a small-caps font. If a genuine small-caps font is not available, user agents should simulate a small-caps font, for example by taking a normal font and replacing the lowercase letters by scaled uppercase characters. As a last resort, unscaled uppercase letter glyphs in a normal font may replace glyphs in a small-caps font so that the text appears in all uppercase letters.

Insofar as this property causes text to be transformed to uppercase, the same considerations as for "text-transform" apply.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

XSL incorporates the following text from CSS2 15.5 (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#algorithm) as part of the property definition.

'normal' matches a font not labeled as 'small-caps'; 'small-caps' matches (1) a font labeled as 'small-caps', (2) a font in which the small caps are synthesized, or (3) a font where all lowercase letters are replaced by uppercase letters. A small-caps font may be synthesized by electronically scaling uppercase letters from a normal font.

7.9.9 "font-weight"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | bold | bolder | lighter | 100 | 200 | 300 | 400 | 500 | 600 | 700 | 800 | 900 | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "font-weight" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#font-styling

The "font-weight" property specifies the weight of the font.

normal

Same as "400".

bold

Same as "700".

bolder

Specifies the next weight that is assigned to a font that is darker than the inherited one. If there is no such weight, it simply results in the next darker numerical value (and the font remains unchanged), unless the inherited value was "900", in which case the resulting weight is also "900".

lighter

Specifies the next weight that is assigned to a font that is lighter than the inherited one. If there is no such weight, it simply results in the next lighter numerical value (and the font remains unchanged), unless the inherited value was "100", in which case the resulting weight is also "100".

<integer>

These values form an ordered sequence, where each number indicates a weight that is at least as dark as its predecessor.

Child elements inherit the computed value of the weight.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

XSL incorporates the following text from CSS2 15.5.1 (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/fonts.html#q46) as part of the property definition.

The association of other weights within a family to the numerical weight values is intended only to preserve the ordering of weights within that family. User agents must map names to values in a way that preserves visual order; a face mapped to a value must not be lighter than faces mapped to lower values. There is no guarantee on how a user agent will map fonts within a family to weight values. However, the following heuristics tell how the assignment is done in typical cases: If the font family already uses a numerical scale with nine values (as e.g., OpenType does), the font weights should be mapped directly.

If there is both a face labeled Medium and one labeled Book, Regular, Roman or Normal, then the Medium is normally assigned to the '500'.

The font labeled "Bold" will often correspond to the weight value '700'.

If there are fewer then 9 weights in the family, the default algorithm for filling the "holes" is as follows. If '500' is unassigned, it will be assigned the same font as '400'. If any of the values '600', '700', '800', or '900' remains unassigned, they are assigned to the same face as the next darker assigned keyword, if any, or the next lighter one otherwise. If any of '300', '200', or '100' remains unassigned, it is assigned to the next lighter assigned keyword, if any, or the next darker otherwise.

There is no guarantee that there will be a darker face for each of the 'font-weight' values; for example, some fonts may have only a normal and a bold face, others may have eight different face weights.

7.10 Common Hyphenation Properties

7.10.1 "country"

XSL Definition:

Value: none | <country> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

none

Indicates the country is unknown or is not significant to the proper formatting of this object.

<country>

A country-specifier in conformance with [RFC3066].

Specifies the country to be used by the formatter in language-/locale-coupled services, such as line-justification strategy, line-breaking, and hyphenation.

Note:

This may affect line composition in a system-dependent way.

The country may be the country component of any RFC 3066 code; (these are derived from ISO 3166).

7.10.2 "language"

XSL Definition:

Value: none | <language> | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

none

Indicates the language is unknown or is not significant to the proper formatting of this object.

<language>

A 3-letter code conforming to a [ISO639-2] terminology or bibliographic code or a 2-letter code conforming to a [ISO639] 2-letter code.

Specifies the language to be used by the formatter in language-/locale-coupled services, such as line-justification strategy, line-breaking, and hyphenation.

Note:

This may affect line composition in a system-dependent way.

Note:

ISO 639 2-letter and ISO 639-2 terminology 3-letter codes are also used in the language component of [RFC3066], but user-defined and IANA registered language codes that are allowed in RFC 3066 are not allowed as the value of this property.

7.10.3 "script"

XSL Definition:

Value: none | auto | <script> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

Indicates that the script is determined based on testing a character in the document against script identifiers assigned to Unicode code point ranges.

For fo:character the character tested is given by the "character" property. For other formatting objects the character tested is the first character descendant, as determined by the pre-order traversal of the refined formatting object tree, which has an unambiguous script identifier.

Note:

This provides the automatic differentiation between Kanji, Katakana, Hiragana, and Romanji used in JIS-4051 and similar services in some other countries/languages.

none

Indicates the script is unknown or is not significant to the proper formatting of this object.

<script>

A script specifier in conformance with [ISO15924].

Specifies the script to be used by the formatter in language-/locale-coupled services, such as line-justification strategy, line-breaking, and hyphenation.

Note:

This may affect line composition in a system-dependent way.

7.10.4 "hyphenate"

XSL Definition:

Value: false | true | inherit
Initial: false
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

false

Hyphenation may not be used in the line-breaking algorithm between characters with this value.

true

Hyphenation may be used in the line-breaking algorithm between characters with this value.

Specifies whether hyphenation is allowed during line-breaking when the formatter is formatting this formatting object. It is implementation defined whether hyphenation may be used between a character for which the value is "true" and one for which the value is "false".

7.10.5 "hyphenation-character"

XSL Definition:

Value: <character> | inherit
Initial: The Unicode hyphen character U+2010
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<character>

Specifies the Unicode character to be presented when a hyphenation break occurs. The styling properties of this character are those inherited from its containing flow object.

7.10.6 "hyphenation-push-character-count"

XSL Definition:

Value: <number> | inherit
Initial: 2
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<number>

A positive integer. If a non-positive or non-integer value is provided, the value will be rounded to the nearest integer value greater than or equal to 1.

The hyphenation-push-character-count specifies the minimum number of characters in a hyphenated word after the hyphenation character. This is the minimum number of characters in the word pushed to the next line after the line ending with the hyphenation character.

7.10.7 "hyphenation-remain-character-count"

XSL Definition:

Value: <number> | inherit
Initial: 2
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<number>

A positive integer. If a non-positive or non-integer value is provided, the value will be rounded to the nearest integer value greater than or equal to 1.

The hyphenation-remain-character-count specifies the minimum number of characters in a hyphenated word before the hyphenation character. This is the minimum number of characters in the word left on the line ending with the hyphenation character.

7.11 Common Margin Properties-Block

7.11.1 "margin-top"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <margin-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "margin-top" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-margin-top

Margin-width may be one of the following:

auto

See the CSS2 section on computing widths and margins for behavior.

<length>

Specifies a fixed width.

<percentage>

The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block. This is true for 'margin-top' and 'margin-bottom', except in the page context, where percentages refer to page box height.

Negative values for margin properties are allowed, but there may be implementation-specific limits.

Sets the top margin of a box.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

7.11.2 "margin-bottom"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <margin-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "margin-bottom" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-margin-bottom

Margin-width may be one of the following:

auto

See the CSS2 section on computing widths and margins for behavior.

<length>

Specifies a fixed width.

<percentage>

The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block. This is true for 'margin-top' and 'margin-bottom', except in the page context, where percentages refer to page box height.

Negative values for margin properties are allowed, but there may be implementation-specific limits.

Sets the bottom margin of a box.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

7.11.3 "margin-left"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <margin-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "margin-left" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-margin-left

Margin-width may be one of the following:

auto

See the CSS2 section on computing widths and margins for behavior.

<length>

Specifies a fixed width.

<percentage>

The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block.

Negative values for margin properties are allowed, but there may be implementation-specific limits.

Sets the left margin of a box.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

7.11.4 "margin-right"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <margin-width> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "margin-right" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/box.html#propdef-margin-right

Margin-width may be one of the following:

auto

See the CSS2 section on computing widths and margins for behavior.

<length>

Specifies a fixed width.

<percentage>

The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block.

Negative values for margin properties are allowed, but there may be implementation-specific limits.

Sets the right margin of a box.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

7.11.5 "space-before"

XSL Definition:

Value: <space> | inherit
Initial: space.minimum=0pt, .optimum=0pt, .maximum=0pt, .conditionality=discard, .precedence=0
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A (Differs from margin-top in CSS)
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<space>

Specifies the minimum, optimum, and maximum values for the space before any areas generated by this formatting object and the conditionality and precedence of this space.

Specifies the value of the space-specifier for the space before the areas generated by this formatting object. A definition of space-specifiers, and the interaction between space-specifiers occurring in sequence are given in 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality.

Note:

A common example of such a sequence is the "space-after" on one area and the "space-before" of its next sibling.

7.11.6 "space-after"

XSL Definition:

Value: <space> | inherit
Initial: space.minimum=0pt, .optimum=0pt, .maximum=0pt, .conditionality=discard, .precedence=0
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A (Differs from margin-bottom in CSS)
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<space>

Specifies the minimum, optimum, and maximum values for the space after any areas generated by this formatting object and the conditionality and precedence of this space.

Specifies the value of the space-specifier for the space after the areas generated by this formatting object. A definition of space-specifiers, and the interaction between space-specifiers occurring in sequence are given in 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality.

Note:

A common example of such a sequence is the "space-after" on one area and the "space-before" of its next sibling.

7.11.7 "start-indent"

XSL Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to inline-progression-dimension of containing reference-area
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<length>

The "start-indent" is specified as a length.

<percentage>

The "start-indent" is specified as a percentage of the inline-progression-dimension of the containing reference-area.

For each block-area generated by this formatting object, specifies the distance from the start-edge of the content-rectangle of the containing reference-area to the start-edge of the content-rectangle of that block-area.

This property may have a negative value, which indicates an outdent.

7.11.8 "end-indent"

XSL Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to inline-progression-dimension of containing reference-area
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<length>

The "end-indent" is specified as a length.

<percentage>

The "end-indent" is specified as a percentage of the inline-progression-dimension of the containing reference-area.

For each block-area generated by this formatting object, specifies the distance from the end-edge of the content-rectangle of that block-area to the end-edge of the content-rectangle of the containing reference-area.

This property may have a negative value, which indicates an outdent.

7.12 Common Margin Properties-Inline

7.12.1 "margin-top"

See definition in (7.11.1 margin-top).

7.12.2 "margin-bottom"

See definition in (7.11.2 margin-bottom).

7.12.3 "margin-left"

See definition in (7.11.3 margin-left).

7.12.4 "margin-right"

See definition in (7.11.4 margin-right).

7.12.5 "space-end"

XSL Definition:

Value: <space> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: space.minimum=0pt, .optimum=0pt, .maximum=0pt, .conditionality=discard, .precedence=0
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to inline-progression-dimension of closest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<space>

The "space-end" is specified as a space.

<percentage>

The "space-end" is specified as a percentage of the inline-progression-dimension of the closest ancestor block-area.

Specifies the minimum, optimum, and maximum values for the space after any areas generated by this formatting object and the conditionality and precedence of this space.

Specifies the value of the space-specifier for the space after the areas generated by this formatting object. A definition of space-specifiers, and the interaction between space-specifiers occurring in sequence are given in 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality.

Note:

A common example of such a sequence is the "space-end" on one area and the "space-start" of its next sibling.

7.12.6 "space-start"

XSL Definition:

Value: <space> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: space.minimum=0pt, .optimum=0pt, .maximum=0pt, .conditionality=discard, .precedence=0
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to inline-progression-dimension of closest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<space>

The "space-start" is specified as a space.

<percentage>

The "space-start" is specified as a percentage of the inline-progression-dimension of the closest ancestor block-area.

Specifies the minimum, optimum, and maximum values for the space before any areas generated by this formatting object and the conditionality and precedence of this space.

Specifies the value of the space-specifier for the space before the areas generated by this formatting object. A definition of space-specifiers, and the interaction between space-specifiers occurring in sequence are given in 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality.

Note:

A common example of such a sequence is the "space-end" on one area and the "space-start" of its next sibling.

7.13 Common Relative Position Properties

7.13.1 "top"

See definition in (7.6.2 top).

7.13.2 "right"

See definition in (7.6.3 right).

7.13.3 "bottom"

See definition in (7.6.4 bottom).

7.13.4 "left"

See definition in (7.6.5 left).

7.13.5 "relative-position"

A Property Derived from a CSS2 Property.

Value: static | relative | inherit
Initial: static
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

static

The area is normally stacked.

relative

The area's position is determined as if it was normally stacked. Only during rendering is the area rendered offset relative to this position. The fact that one area is relatively positioned does not influence the position on any other area.

For areas that break over a page boundary, only the portion that would have been on a given page originally is included in the repositioned area on that page. Any portion of the repositioned area that was originally on the current page, but falls off the current page due to repositioning is "off" (typically clipped), thus does not fall onto any other page.

7.14 Area Alignment Properties

The area alignment properties control the alignment of child areas with respect to their parent areas. The parent area is given a frame of reference through its scaled-baseline-table. A scaled-baseline-table is a compound value with three components: a baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline, a derived baseline-table with positions for the baselines expressed in design space coordinates, and a baseline-table font-size that is used to scale the positions of the baselines in that baseline table. In a scaled-baseline-table, the positions of the baselines can be adjusted by multiplying the design-space coordinate values by the baseline-table font-size.

The positions of these baselines are illustrated in the following figure:

Example of alignment of different scripts   [D]

This figure shows samples of Gurmukhi (a hanging Indic script), Latin and ideographic scripts together with most of the baselines defined below. The thin line around the ideographic glyphs symbolizes the em box in which these glyphs are centered. In this figure, the position of the "text-before-edge" and "text-after-edge" baselines is computed assuming that the "alphabetic" baseline is the dominant-baseline. The "central" baseline has been omitted from the figure, but it lies halfway between the "text-before-edge" and "text-after-edge" baselines, just about where the "math" baseline is shown.

The baseline-identifiers below are used in this specification. Some of these are determined by baseline-tables contained in a font as described in 7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data. Others are computed from other font characteristics as described below. Whether determined by the font or computed, a derived baseline-table is constructed with positions for each of the baselines below.

alphabetic

This identifies the baseline used by most alphabetic and syllabic scripts. These include, but are not limited to, many Western, Southern Indic, Southeast Asian (non-ideographic) scripts.

ideographic

This identifies the baseline used by ideographic scripts. For historical reasons, this baseline is at the bottom of the ideographic em box and not in the center of the ideographic em box. See the "central" baseline. The ideographic scripts include Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Chu Nom.

hanging

This identifies the baseline used by certain Indic scripts. These scripts include Devanagari, Gurmukhi and Bengali.

mathematical

This identifies the baseline used by mathematical symbols.

central

This identifies a computed baseline that is at the center of the em box. This baseline lies halfway between the text-before-edge and text-after-edge baselines.

Note:

For ideographic fonts, this baseline is often used to align the glyphs; it is an alternative to the ideographic baseline.

middle

This identifies a baseline that is offset from the alphabetic baseline in the shift-direction by 1/2 the value of the x-height font characteristic. The position of this baseline may be obtained from the font data or, for fonts that have a font characteristic for "x-height", it may be computed using 1/2 the "x-height". Lacking either of these pieces of information, the position of this baseline may be approximated by the "central" baseline.

text-before-edge

This identifies the before-edge of the em box. The position of this baseline may be specified in the baseline-table or it may be calculated.

Note:

The position of this baseline is normally around or at the top of the ascenders, but it may not encompass all accents that can appear above a glyph. For these fonts the value of the "ascent" font characteristic is used. For ideographic fonts, the position of this baseline is normally 1 em in the shift-direction from the "ideographic" baseline. However, some ideographic fonts have a reduced width in the inline-progression-direction to allow tighter setting. When such a font, designed only for vertical writing-modes, is used in a horizontal writing-mode, the "text-before-edge" baseline may be less than 1 em from the text-after-edge.

text-after-edge

This identifies the after-edge of the em box. The position of this baseline may be specified in the baseline-table or it may be calculated.

Note:

For fonts with descenders, the position of this baseline is normally around or at the bottom of the descenders. For these fonts the value of the "descent" font characteristic is used. For ideographic fonts, the position of this baseline is normally at the "ideographic" baseline.

There are, in addition, two computed baselines that are only defined for line areas. For each line-area, there is a dominant-baseline, a baseline-table and a baseline-table font-size which are those of the nearest ancestor formatting object that completely contains the whole line. The "before-edge" and "after-edge" baselines are defined as follows.

before-edge

The offset of the "before-edge" baseline of the line from the dominant-baseline of the line is determined by ignoring all inline-areas whose alignment-baseline is either "before-edge" or "after-edge". For the "before-edge", extents are measured from the dominant-baseline in the direction toward the top of the reference-area. The top of the reference-area is defined by the reference-area's reference-orientation. The "before-edge" baseline offset is set to the maximum extent of the "before-edges" of the allocation-rectangles of the remaining areas. If all the inline-areas in a line-area are aligned either to the "before-edge" or to the "after-edge", then use the offset of the "text-before-edge" baseline of the line as the offset of the "before-edge" baseline of the line.

after-edge

The offset of the "after-edge" baseline of the line from the dominant-baseline of the line is determined by ignoring all inline-areas whose alignment-baseline is after-edge. For the "after-edge", extents are measured from the dominant-baseline in the direction toward the bottom of the reference-area. The top of the reference-area is defined by the reference-area's reference-orientation. The "after-edge" baseline offset is set to the negative of the maximum of (1) the maximum extent of the "after-edges" of the allocation-rectangles of the remaining areas and (2) the maximum height of the allocation-rectangles of the areas that are ignored minus the offset of the "before-edge" baseline of the line.

Note:

If all the inline-areas in a line-area are aligned to the "after-edge" then the specification for the "before-edge" will set the "before-edge" baseline to coincide with the "text-before-baseline" of the line. Then, case (2) above will determine the offset to the "after-edge" baseline. In this case the allocation-rectangle of one of the areas will extend from the "before-edge" baseline to the "after-edge" baseline.

Note:

The above specifications for "before-edge" and "after-edge" have the following three properties: (1) the allocation-rectangles of all the areas are below the "before-edge", (2) the allocation-rectangles of all the areas are above the "after-edge", and (3) the distance between the "before-edge" and the "after-edge" cannot be decreased without violating (1) or (2). The specified placement of the "before-edge" and "after-edge" is not the only way that (1)-(3) can be satisfied, but it is the only way they can be satisfied with the smallest possible offset to the "before-edge".

Examples showing "before-edge" and "after-edge" alignment:

Line stacking examples   [D]

The rectangles with lines or arrows are images with an intrinsic size as shown. The rectangles with no arrows represent images that receive the default, dominant baseline, alignment. The alignment of the other rectangles is at the furthest point from the arrow head (which is in the middle when there are two arrowheads). Examples 1 and 2 show the "before-edge" alignment is determined by the tallest non-"before-edge" aligned objects: in example 1 this is the default aligned, arrowhead free rectangular image and in example 2 this is the double headed arrow rectangle. Examples 3 and 4 show defaulting to the "text-before-edge" when all the areas have either "before-edge" or "after-edge" alignment. In example 3, the images with "before-edge" alignment has a taller member than do the "after-edge" aligned images. In example 4, the tallest image is in the "after-edge" aligned set. Example 5 is a repetition of example 2 with largest image being an "after-edge" aligned image.

There are also four baselines that are defined only for horizontal writing-modes.

top

This baseline is the same as the "before-edge" baseline in a horizontal writing-mode and is undefined in a vertical writing mode.

text-top

This baseline is the same as the "text-before-edge" baseline in a horizontal writing-mode and is undefined in a vertical writing mode.

bottom

This baseline is the same as the "after-edge" baseline in a horizontal writing-mode and is undefined in a vertical writing mode.

text-bottom

This baseline is the same as the "text-after-edge" baseline in a horizontal writing-mode and is undefined in a vertical writing mode.

The alignment of a formatting object with respect to its parent is determined by three things: the scaled-baseline-table of the parent and the alignment-baseline and alignment-point of the formatting object being aligned. Prior to alignment, the scaled-baseline-table of the parent may be shifted. The property specifications below provide the information necessary to align the parent and child formatting objects.

There are four properties that control alignment of formatting objects to the above set of baselines. These properties are all independent and are designed so that typically only the specification of one of the properties is needed to achieve a particular alignment goal.

The primary baseline alignment property is the "dominant-baseline" property. This property has a compound value with three components. The dominant-baseline-identifier component is the default alignment-baseline to be used when aligning two inline-areas. The baseline-table component specifies the positions of the baselines in the font design space coordinates. (See 7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data.) The baseline-table acts something like a musical staff; it defines particular points along the block-progression-direction to which glyphs and inline formatting objects can be aligned. The baseline-table font-size component provides a scaling factor for the baseline-table.

For convenience, the specification will sometimes refer to the baseline identified by the dominant-baseline-identifier component of the "dominant-baseline" property as the "dominant baseline" (in an abuse of terminology).

A simple example of alignment is shown in the following figure. The figure shows the presentation of two inline formatting objects, one inside the other. These inline formatting objects make up the content of a line in a block where the writing-mode is "lr-tb" and the font is "Helvetica". The structure of the example is as follows:

<fo:inline>Apex <fo:inline>Top</fo:inline></fo:inline>

Because no properties are specified, the initial values apply. Since a horizontal writing-mode is in use, the dominant-baseline-identifier is set to "alphabetic" and the baseline-table is taken from the nominal-font for the block in which the line appears, which, in this case, is Helvetica.

In the figure, the positions of the baselines relative to the current font size are shown as red (staff) lines. These lines are labeled with abbreviations of the names of the baselines (e.g., TBE for "text-before-edge"). The baseline identified by the dominant-baseline-identifier (A) is shown in blue. There is a break in the staff lines to separately show the inner inline formatting object. This is not necessary for this example, but this distinction will become important in subsequent examples.

The "alignment-baseline" property is the primary control on the positioning of an inner formatting object with respect to its parent. For all but fo:character, the initial value of the "alignment-baseline" property is "baseline". This aligns the dominant-baseline of the inner inline formatting object with the dominant baseline of the outer inline formatting object. This is shown by the short blue line that connects the two separated staffs (A) in the figure.

The glyphs determined by the fo:characters that are in the content of the two formatting objects are aligned based on the script to which the glyph belongs. Since this example only has Latin glyphs, they are aligned to the "alphabetic" baseline.

An inner inline formatting object containing Latin characters aligned to an outer inline formatting object also containing Latin characters.   [D]

An inner inline formatting object containing Latin characters aligned to an outer inline formatting object also containing Latin characters.

In the next figure, the content of the inner inline formatting object is in Gurmukhi, the script of the Punjabi language. The Gurmukhi syllables are read as, "guru". Rather than use Unicode values for these characters, they are symbolized by placing the Latin transliteration in italic type. The structure of the example becomes:

<fo:inline>Apex <fo:inline>guru</fo:inline></fo:inline>

The only change from the previous example is that the glyphs of the Gurmukhi script are aligned to the "hanging" baseline of the inner inline formatting object. The alignment of that formatting object itself, with respect to the outer inline formatting object, is unchanged.

An inner inline formatting object containing Gurmukhi characters aligned to an outer inline formatting object containing Latin characters.   [D]

An inner inline formatting object containing Gurmukhi characters aligned to an outer inline formatting object containing Latin characters.

In the next figure, fragments of the text of the previous examples make up the content of the outer inline formatting object. The inner inline formatting object has a change of font-size, however. The structure is:

<fo:inline>Apguru
  <fo:inline font-size='.75em'>
    Exji
  </fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

In this example, the alignment of the inner inline formatting object itself does not change, nor does the alignment of the smaller glyphs inside the inner formatting object. The Latin glyphs are still aligned to the "alphabetic" baseline and the Gurmukhi glyphs, which are pronounced "ji" are aligned to the "hanging" baseline. Note also that just changing the "font-size" property did not change the baseline-table in effect in the inner inline formatting object.

Inline alignment of glyphs with reduced font-size   [D]

The inner inline formatting object has a reduced font-size.

The next figure is equivalent to the previous example with the Gurmukhi character replaced by ideographic characters. These are aligned to the "ideographic" baseline.

Inline alignment of glyphs with reduced font-size, continued   [D]

The previous figure re-done with ideographic glyphs instead of Gurmukhi glyphs. The em boxes are shown for the ideograms to clarify the alignment of these glyphs.

To change the scaling of the lines of the baseline table, it is necessary to use the "dominant-baseline" property on the inner inline formatting object. The value of "reset-size" causes the baseline-table font-size to be reset from the font-size of the formatting object on which the "dominant-baseline" property appears. The next figure shows the effect of this, using the structure:

<fo:inline>Apguru
  <fo:inline font-size='.75em'
             dominant-baseline='reset-size'>
     Exji
  </fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

The alignment of the inner inline formatting object, with respect to the outer inline formatting object, is still determined by aligning the dominant baselines. But, the baseline-table of the inner inline formatting object has been rescaled to the font-size of the inner inline formatting object. Hence the smaller glyphs align with each other.

Inline alignment of glyphs with reduced font-size, continued   [D]

The baseline-table of the inner inline formatting object has been re-sized to match the font-size of the inner inline formatting object.

But, what if it is more important that the small Gurmukhi glyphs align with the large Gurmukhi glyphs than having the Latin glyphs align. There are at least two ways to achieve this. The structure:

<fo:inline dominant-baseline='hanging'>Apguru
  <fo:inline font-size='.75em'
             dominant-baseline='reset-size'>
     Exji
  </fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

is illustrated in the next figure. The "hanging" baseline becomes the dominant baseline and the initial value of the "alignment-baseline" property causes the (newly) dominant "hanging" baselines to be aligned as is shown by the connection of the blue baselines.

Inline alignment of glyphs with reduced font-size, continued   [D]

Changing the dominant baseline to the "hanging" baseline causes the inner inline formatting object to be aligned on its parent's "hanging" baseline.

It is also possible to achieve the effect of the above figure without changing the dominant baseline. Instead it is sufficient to explicitly specify that the inner inline formatting object is aligned on its "hanging" baseline. This is done by:

<fo:inline>Apguru
  <fo:inline font-size='.75em'
             dominant-baseline='reset-size'
             alignment-baseline='hanging'>
     Exji
  </fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

The only change this approach would make in the above figure is to color the "hanging" baseline red and keep the "alphabetic" baseline as the (blue) dominant baseline. This baseline in the inner inline formatting object would not (as it does not in the above figure) align with the "alphabetic" baseline in the outer inline formatting object.

The third baseline alignment property is the "baseline-shift" property. Like the properties other than the "dominant-baseline" property, this property does not change the baseline-table or the baseline-table font-size. It does shift the whole baseline table of the parent formatting object so that when an inner inline formatting object is aligned to one of the parents baselines, the position of the inner inline formatting object is shifted. This is illustrated in the next figure. The structure which creates this figure is:

<fo:inline>Ap
  <fo:inline baseline-shift='super'>1ji</fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

Because the whole set of baseline-table staff lines are shifted to the position of the superscript baseline: it does not matter to which baseline the glyphs in the superscript are aligned. The European number "1" is aligned to the "alphabetic" baseline and the Gurmukhi syllable "ji" is aligned to the "hanging" baseline.

Using a 'baseline-shift' for a superscript   [D]

Using a "baseline-shift" for a superscript (or a subscript).

It is more common for the font-size of the superscript text to be smaller than the font-size of the text to which it is appended. Consider:

<fo:inline>Ap
  <fo:inline font-size='.75em'
             baseline-shift='super'>
    1ji
  </fo:inline>
</fo:inline>

Because changing the font-size on a superscript (or subscript) is common, this is the one case where changing the font-size does cause the baseline-table font-size to be reset when the "dominant-baseline" property has its initial value. After the rescaling, the default alignment to the dominant baseline positions the inline formatting object for the superscript to the dominant baseline position in the shifted baseline-table of the parent formatting object.

Alignment of superscripts with reduces fonts   [D]

Reducing the font-size of the superscript automatically resets the baseline-table size so that mixed languages in the superscript stay mutually aligned.

The fourth alignment property is the "alignment-adjust" property. This property is primarily used for objects, such as some graphics, that do not belong to a particular script and do not have a predefined alignment point. The "alignment-adjust" property allows the author to assign where, on the start-edge of the object, the alignment point for that object lies.

7.14.1 "alignment-adjust"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | baseline | before-edge | text-before-edge | middle | central | after-edge | text-after-edge | ideographic | alphabetic | hanging | mathematical | <percentage> | <length> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: visual

The "alignment-adjust" property allows more precise alignment of areas generated by formatting objects, in particular for formatting objects, such as graphics, that do not have a baseline-table or lack the desired baseline in their baseline-table. With the "alignment-adjust" property, the position of the baseline identified by the "alignment-baseline" can be explicitly determined.

Values for the property have the following meaning:

auto

For a glyph, the alignment-point is the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the glyph-area and the block-progression-direction position of the alignment-point from the font as specified in 7.9.1 Fonts and Font Data. For other inline-areas, the alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the baseline identified by the "alignment-baseline" property if this baseline exists in the baseline-table for the dominant-baseline for the inline-area. If the baseline-identifier does not exist in the baseline-table for the glyph or other inline-area, then the User Agent may either use heuristics to determine where that missing baseline would be or may use the dominant-baseline as a fallback. For areas generated by an fo:external-graphic, or fo:instream-foreign-object, the alignment point is at the intersection of the start-edge and after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the area.

baseline

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the dominant-baseline of the area.

before-edge

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "before-edge" baseline of the area.

text-before-edge

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "text-before-edge" baseline of the area.

central

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "central" baseline of the area.

middle

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "middle" baseline of the area.

after-edge

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "after-edge" baseline of the area.

text-after-edge

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "text-after-edge" baseline of the area.

ideographic

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "ideographic" baseline of the area.

alphabetic

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "alphabetic" baseline of the area.

hanging

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "hanging" baseline of the area.

mathematical

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "mathematical" baseline of the area.

top

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "top" baseline of the area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

bottom

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "bottom" baseline of the area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

text-top

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "text-top" baseline of the area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

text-bottom

The alignment-point is at the intersection of the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle and the "text-bottom" baseline of the area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

<percentage>

The computed value of the property is this percentage multiplied by the area's computed "height" if the area is generated by an fo:external-graphic or fo:instream-foreign-object, the "font-size" if the area was generated by an fo:character, and the "line-height" otherwise. The alignment-point is on the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the area being aligned. Its position along the start-edge relative to the intersection of the dominant-baseline and the start-edge is offset by the computed value. The offset is opposite to the shift-direction if that value is positive and in the shift-direction if that value is negative value). A value of "0%" makes the dominant-baseline the alignment point.

<length>

The alignment-point is on the start-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the area being aligned. Its position along the start-edge relative to the intersection of the dominant-baseline and the start-edge is offset by <length> value. The offset is opposite to the shift-direction if that value is positive and in the shift-direction if that value is negative. A value of "0cm" makes the dominant-baseline the alignment point.

Implementations must support at least one of the "alignment-adjust" values defined in this Recommendation.

7.14.2 "alignment-baseline"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | baseline | before-edge | text-before-edge | middle | central | after-edge | text-after-edge | ideographic | alphabetic | hanging | mathematical | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

This property specifies how an object is aligned with respect to its parent. That is, to which of the parent's baselines the alignment-point of this object is aligned. The alignment-adjust property specifies how the alignment point is determined. It defaults to the baseline with the same name as the computed value of the alignment-baseline property. That is, the position of "ideographic" alignment-point in the block-progression-direction is the position of the "ideographic" baseline in the baseline-table of the object being aligned.

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The computed value depends on the kind of object on which it is being used. For fo:character, the value is the dominant-baseline of the script to which the character belongs. If the value of the "script" property on the parent formatting object is other than "auto" then use the baseline for that script; otherwise, use the dominant-baseline of the parent. For all other objects, the value is computed as for the "baseline" value.

baseline

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the dominant-baseline of the parent area.

before-edge

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "before-edge" baseline of the parent area.

text-before-edge

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "text-before-edge" baseline of the parent area.

central

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "central" baseline of the parent area.

middle

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "middle" baseline of the parent area.

after-edge

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "after-edge" baseline of the parent area.

text-after-edge

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "text-after-edge" baseline of the parent area.

ideographic

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "ideographic" baseline of the parent area.

alphabetic

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "alphabetic" baseline of the parent area.

hanging

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "hanging" baseline of the parent area.

mathematical

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "mathematical" baseline of the parent area.

top

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "top" baseline of the parent area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

bottom

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "bottom" baseline of the parent area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

text-top

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "text-top" baseline of the parent area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

text-bottom

The alignment-point of the object being aligned is aligned with the "text-bottom" baseline of the parent area if the writing-mode is horizontal. Otherwise, the dominant-baseline is used.

Implementations must support at least one of the "alignment-baseline" values defined in this Recommendation.

7.14.3 "baseline-shift"

XSL Definition:

Value: baseline | sub | super | <percentage> | <length> | inherit
Initial: baseline
Inherited: no
Percentages: refers to the "line-height" of the parent area
Media: visual

The "baseline-shift" property allows repositioning of the dominant-baseline relative to the dominant-baseline of the parent area. The shifted object might be a subscript or superscript. Within the shifted object, the whole baseline-table is offset; not just a single baseline. The amount of the shift is determined from information from the parent area, the subscript or superscript offset from the nominal-font of the parent area, percent of the "line-height" of the parent area or an absolute value.

When the value of "baseline-shift" is other than "0", then the baseline-table font-size component of the "dominant-baseline" property is re-computed to use the "font-size" applicable to the formatting object on which the non-zero "baseline-shift" property is specified.

Values for the property have the following meaning:

baseline

There is no baseline shift; the dominant-baseline remains in its original position.

sub

The dominant-baseline is shifted to the default position for subscripts. The offset to this position is determined using the font data for the nominal font. Because in most fonts the subscript position is normally given relative to the "alphabetic" baseline, the User Agent may compute the effective position for subscripts for superscripts when some other baseline is dominant. The suggested computation is to subtract the difference between the position of the dominant baseline and the position of the "alphabetic" baseline from the position of the subscript. The resulting offset is determined by multiplying the effective subscript position by the dominant baseline-table font-size. If there is no applicable font data the User Agent may use heuristics to determine the offset.

super

The dominant-baseline is shifted to the default position for superscripts. The offset to this position is determined using the font data for the nominal font. Because in most fonts the superscript position is normally given relative to the "alphabetic" baseline, the User Agent may compute the effective position for superscripts when some other baseline is dominant. The suggested computation is to subtract the difference between the position of the dominant baseline and the position of the "alphabetic" baseline from the position of the superscript. The resulting offset is determined by multiplying the effective superscript position by the dominant baseline-table font-size. If there is no applicable font data the User Agent may use heuristics to determine the offset.

<percentage>

The computed value of the property is this percentage multiplied by the computed "line-height" of the parent area. The dominant-baseline is shifted in the shift-direction (positive value) or opposite to the shift-direction (negative value) of the parent area by the computed value. A value of "0%" is equivalent to "baseline".

<length>

The dominant-baseline is shifted in the shift-direction (positive value) or opposite to the shift-direction (negative value) of the parent area by the <length> value. A value of "0cm" is equivalent to "baseline".

Note:

Although it may seem that "baseline-shift" and "alignment-adjust" properties are doing the same thing, there is an important although, perhaps, subtle difference. For "alignment-adjust" the percentage values refer to the "line-height" of the area being aligned. For "baseline-shift" the percentage values refer to the "line-height" of the parent. Similarly, it is the "sub" and "super" offsets of the parent that are used to align the shifted baseline rather than the "sub" or "super" offsets of the areas being positioned. To ensure a consistent subscript or superscript position, it makes more sense to use the parent as the reference rather than the subscript formatting object which may have a changed "line-height" due to "font-size" changes in the subscript or superscript formatting object.

Using the "alignment-adjust" property is more suitable for positioning objects, such as graphics, that have no internal textual structure. Using the "baseline-shift" property is intended for subscripts and superscripts where the positioned object may itself be a textual object. The baseline-shift provides a way to define a specific baseline offset other than the named offsets that are defined relative to the dominant-baseline. In addition, having "baseline-shift" makes it easier for tool to generate the relevant properties; many formatting programs already have a notion of baseline shift.

7.14.4 "display-align"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | before | center | after | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

This property specifies the alignment, in the block-progression-direction, of the areas that are the children of a reference-area.

Values for the property have the following meaning:

auto

If the "relative-align" property applies to this formatting object the "relative-align" property is used. If not, this value is treated as if "before" had been specified.

before

The before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the first child area is placed coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the reference-area.

center

The child areas are placed such that the distance between the before-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the first child area and the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the reference-area is the same as the distance between the after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the last child area and the after-edge of the content-rectangle of the reference-area.

after

The after-edge of the allocation-rectangle of the last child area is placed coincident with the after-edge of the content-rectangle of the reference-area.

7.14.5 "dominant-baseline"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | use-script | no-change | reset-size | ideographic | alphabetic | hanging | mathematical | central | middle | text-after-edge | text-before-edge | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no (see prose)
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

The "dominant-baseline" property is used to determine or re-determine a scaled-baseline-table. A scaled-baseline-table is a compound value with three components: a baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline, a derived baseline-table and a baseline-table font-size. Some values of the property re-determine all three values; other only re-establish the baseline-table font-size. Although this property is not inherited, components of the scaled-baseline-table propagate to child formatting objects if the "auto" value is used on these. When the initial value, "auto", would give an undesired result, this property can be used to explicitly set the desired scaled-baseline-table.

Note:

The derived baseline-table is constructed using a baseline-table in the font that corresponds to the computed value of the "writing-mode".

Values for the property have the following meaning:

auto

If this property occurs on a block-level formatting object, then the computed value depends on the value of the "script" property. There are two cases. If the value of the "script" property is "auto", then, if the "writing-mode" is horizontal, then the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline is set to be "alphabetic", else if the "writing-mode" is vertical, then the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline is set to be "central". On the other hand, if the value of the "script" property is anything other than "auto", then the value of the "script" property is used to select the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline. The mapping from script to baseline-identifier is taken from the nominal font. The derived baseline-table is constructed using the baseline-table in the nominal font that corresponds to the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

Otherwise, if this property is not on a block-level formatting object, then the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline, the derived baseline-table, and baseline-table font-size remain the same as those of the parent formatting object. If the computed "baseline-shift" value actually shifts the baseline, then the baseline-table font-size is set to the value of the "font-size" property on the formatting object on which the "dominant-baseline" property occurs, otherwise the baseline-table font-size remains the same as that of the parent formatting object. If there is no parent formatting object, the derived baseline-table is constructed as above for block-level formatting-objects.

use-script

The "script" property is used to select the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline. The mapping from script to baseline-identifier is taken from the nominal font. The derived baseline-table is constructed using the baseline-table in the nominal font that corresponds to the baseline-identifier for the dominant baseline. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

no-change

The dominant-baseline, the baseline-table, and the baseline-table font-size remain the same as that of the parent formatting object.

reset-size

The dominant-baseline and the baseline-table remain the same, but the baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object. This re-scales the baseline-table for the current "font-size".

ideographic

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "ideographic". The derived baseline-table is constructed using the "ideographic" baseline-table in the nominal font. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

alphabetic

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "alphabetic". The derived baseline-table is constructed using the "alphabetic" baseline-table in the nominal font. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

hanging

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "hanging". The derived baseline-table is constructed using the "hanging" baseline-table in the nominal font. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

mathematical

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "mathematical". The derived baseline-table is constructed using the "mathematical" baseline-table in the nominal font. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

central

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "central". The derived baseline-table is constructed from the defined baselines in a baseline-table in the nominal font. That font baseline-table is chosen using the following priority order of baseline-table names: "ideographic", "alphabetic", "hanging", "mathematical". The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

middle

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "middle". The derived baseline-table is constructed from the defined baselines in a baseline-table in the nominal font. That font baseline-table is chosen using the following priority order of baseline-table names: "alphabetic", "ideographic", "hanging", "mathematical". The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

text-after-edge

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "text-after-edge". The derived baseline-table is constructed from the defined baselines in a baseline-table in the nominal font. The choice of which font baseline-table to use from the baseline-tables in the nominal font is implementation defined. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

Note:

Using the following priority order of baseline-table names: "alphabetic", "ideographic", "hanging", "mathematical" is probably a reasonable strategy for determining which font baseline-table to use.

text-before-edge

The baseline-identifier for the dominant-baseline is set to be "text-before-edge". The derived baseline-table is constructed from the defined baselines in a baseline-table in the nominal font. The choice of which baseline-table to use from the baseline-tables in the nominal font is implementation defined. The baseline-table font-size is changed to the value of the "font-size" property on this formatting object.

Note:

Using the following priority order of baseline-table names: 'alphabetic', 'ideographic', 'hanging', 'mathematical' is probably a reasonable strategy for determining which font baseline-table to use.

If there is no baseline-table in the nominal font or if the baseline-table lacks an entry for the desired baseline, then the User Agent may use heuristics to determine the position of the desired baseline.

Implementations must support at least one of the "dominant-baseline" values defined in this Recommendation.

7.14.6 "relative-align"

XSL Definition:

Value: before | baseline | inherit
Initial: before
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

This property specifies the alignment, in the block-progression-direction, between two or more areas. If the "display-align" property applies to this formatting object and has a value other than "auto" this property is ignored.

Values for the property have the following meaning:

before

For an fo:table-cell: for each row, the first child area of all the cells that start in the row and that have this value is placed such that the before-edge of the content-rectangle is placed at the same distance from the row grid. In addition, at least, one of these first child areas of the cells has to be placed with the before-edge of its allocation-rectangle coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the table-cell.

For an fo:list-item the before-edge of the first area descendant generated by the fo:list-item-label is placed coincident with the before-edge of the area generated by the fo:list-item. Similarly the before-edge of the first area descendant generated by the fo:list-item-body is placed coincident with the before-edge of the area generated by the fo:list-item.

baseline

For an fo:table-cell: for each row, the first child area of all the cells that start in the row and that have this value is placed such that the dominant-baseline, as specified on the fo:table-row, of the first line is placed at the same distance from the row grid. In addition, at least, one of these first child areas of the cells has to be placed with the before-edge of its allocation-rectangle coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the table-cell.

Note:

That is, for all applicable cells the baseline of all the first lines are all aligned and placed the minimum distance down in the block-progression-direction. It should be noted that the start-edges of the content-rectangles of the cells need not align.

For an fo:list-item the distance between the baseline of the first line-area of the first area descendant generated by the fo:list-item-label is the same as the distance between the baseline of the first line-area of the first area descendant generated by the fo:list-item-body. In addition, at least, one of these first area descendants has to be placed such that the before-edge of its allocation-rectangle is coincident with the before-edge of the content-rectangle of the list-item.

7.15 Area Dimension Properties

7.15.1 "allowed-height-scale"

XSL Definition:

Value: [ any | <percentage;> ]* | inherit
Initial: any
Inherited: yes
Percentages: intrinsic height
Media: visual

A sequence of tokens, each specifying an allowed scale-factor value. Tokens have the following meanings:

any

No constraint on the scale-factor.

<percentage>

Specifies a constraint on the scale-factor to match the specified value.

Specifies a list of constraints on the scale-factor values that may be used when scaling a graphic in the height direction. The list is unordered, except that an "any" value is considered last and is only used if the scaling constraints cannot be satisfied using any of the other specified values.

Note:

It is recommended to include "any" in the list for applications where scrolling is not desired or available.

7.15.2 "allowed-width-scale"

XSL Definition:

Value: [ any | <percentage;> ]* | inherit
Initial: any
Inherited: yes
Percentages: intrinsic width
Media: visual

A sequence of tokens, each specifying an allowed scale-factor value. Tokens have the following meanings:

any

No constraint on the scale-factor.

<percentage>

Specifies a constraint on the scale-factor to match the specified value.

Specifies a list of constraints on the scale-factor values that may be used when scaling a graphic in the width direction. The list is unordered, except that an "any" value is considered last and is only used if the scaling constraints cannot be satisfied using any of the other specified values.

Note:

It is recommended to include "any" in the list for applications where scrolling is not desired or available.

7.15.3 "block-progression-dimension"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: auto | <length> | <percentage> | <length-range> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: visual

This property specifies the block-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle for each area generated by this formatting object. The user may specify an explicit size (<length> or <percentage>) or a <length-range>, allowing the size to be adjusted by the formatter.

This property does not apply when the "line-height" property applies to the same dimension of the areas generated by this formatting object.

Values have the following meanings:

auto

No constraint is imposed by this property. The block-progression-dimension is determined by the formatter taking all other constraints into account.

Specifying block-progression-dimension="auto" will set:

  • block-progression-dimension.minimum="auto"

  • block-progression-dimension.optimum="auto"

  • block-progression-dimension.maximum="auto"

<length>

Specifies a fixed block-progression-dimension.

Specifying block-progression-dimension=<length> will set:

  • block-progression-dimension.minimum=<length>

  • block-progression-dimension.optimum=<length>

  • block-progression-dimension.maximum=<length>

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage block-progression-dimension. The percentage is calculated with respect to the corresponding dimension of the closest area ancestor that was generated by a block-level formatting object. If that dimension is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content's block-progression-dimension), the value is interpreted as "auto".

Specifying block-progression-dimension=<percentage> will set:

  • block-progression-dimension.minimum=<percentage>

  • block-progression-dimension.optimum=<percentage>

  • block-progression-dimension.maximum=<percentage>

<length-range>

Specifies the dimension as a length-range, consisting of:

  • block-progression-dimension.optimum

    This is the preferred dimension of the area created; if minimum and maximum are identical, the area is of a fixed dimension. If they are, respectively, smaller and larger than optimum, then the area may be adjusted in dimension within that range.

    A value of "auto" may be specified for optimum, indicating that there is no preferred dimension, but that the intrinsic or resolved dimension of the area should be used. If minimum and/or maximum are not also auto, then the dimension shall be constrained between those limits.

  • block-progression-dimension.minimum

  • block-progression-dimension.maximum

    A value of "auto" may be specified for block-progression-dimension.maximum. This indicates that there is no absolute maximum limit, and the object may be sized to its intrinsic size.

Negative values for block-progression-dimension.minimum, block-progression-dimension.optimum, and block-progression-dimension.maximum are invalid and are treated as if "0pt" had been specified.

If the value of block-progression-dimension.optimum is "auto" and the computed value of block-progression-dimension.minimum is greater than the computed value of block-progression-dimension.maximum the block-progression-dimension.minimum is treated as if the value of block-progression-dimension.maximum had been specified.

7.15.4 "content-height"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | scale-to-fit | scale-down-to-fit | scale-up-to-fit | <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: intrinsic height
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The content-height should be the intrinsic content-height.

scale-to-fit

The largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-height is less than or equal to the height of the viewport.

scale-down-to-fit

If the intrinsic content-height is less than or equal to the height of the viewport the content-height should be the intrinsic content-height. Otherwise the largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-height is less than or equal to the height of the viewport.

scale-up-to-fit

If the intrinsic content-height is greater than or equal to the height of the viewport the content-height should be the intrinsic content-height. Otherwise the largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-height is less than or equal to the height of the viewport.

<length>

An absolute size for the content-height. This value implies a certain scaling factor to be applied onto the content.

<percentage>

A percentage representing a scaling factor for the content-height.

Specifies the content-height of some object (e.g., an external graphic). If the value is a percentage, the value of this property is the percentage applied to the intrinsic height.

7.15.5 "content-width"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | scale-to-fit | scale-down-to-fit | scale-up-to-fit | <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: intrinsic width
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The content-width should be the intrinsic content-width.

scale-to-fit

The largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-width is less than or equal to the width of the viewport.

scale-down-to-fit

If the intrinsic content-width is less than or equal to the width of the viewport the content-width should be the intrinsic content-width. Otherwise the largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-width is less than or equal to the width of the viewport.

scale-up-to-fit

If the intrinsic content-width is greater than or equal to the width of the viewport the content-width should be the intrinsic content-width. Otherwise the largest scaling-factor permitted will be applied to the content so that the scaled content-width is less than or equal to the width of the viewport.

<length>

An absolute size for the content-width. This value implies a certain scaling factor to be applied onto the content.

<percentage>

A percentage representing a scaling factor for the content-width.

Specifies the content-width of some object (e.g., an external graphic). If the value is a percentage, the value of this property is the percentage applied to the intrinsic width.

7.15.6 "height"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "height" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-height

This property specifies the content height of boxes generated by block-level and replaced elements.

This property does not apply to non-replaced inline-level elements. The height of a non-replaced inline element's boxes is given by the element's (possibly inherited) 'line-height' value.

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The height depends on the values of other properties.

<length>

Specifies a fixed height.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage height. The percentage is calculated with respect to the height of the generated box's containing block. If the height of the containing block is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content height), the value is interpreted like "auto".

Negative values for 'height' are illegal.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

For a discussion of the "height" property in tables see: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/tables.html

7.15.7 "inline-progression-dimension"

Writing-mode Relative Equivalent of a CSS2 Property.

Value: auto | <length> | <percentage> | <length-range> | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: see prose
Media: visual

This property specifies the inline-progression-dimension of the content-rectangle for each area generated by this formatting object. The user may specify an explicit size (<length> or <percentage>) or a <length-range>, allowing the size to be adjusted by the formatter.

This property does not apply when the "line-height" property applies to the same dimension of the areas generated by this formatting object.

Values have the following meanings:

auto

No constraint is imposed by this property. The inline-progression-dimension is determined by the formatter taking all other constraints into account.

Specifying inline-progression-dimension=auto will set:

  • inline-progression-dimension.minimum=auto

  • inline-progression-dimension.optimum=auto

  • inline-progression-dimension.maximum=auto

<length>

Specifies a fixed inline-progression-dimension.

Specifying inline-progression-dimension=<length> will set:

  • inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<length>

  • inline-progression-dimension.optimum=<length>

  • inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<length>

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage inline-progression-dimension. The percentage is calculated with respect to the corresponding dimension of the closest area ancestor that was generated by a block-level formatting object. If that dimension is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content's inline-progression-dimension), the value is interpreted as "auto".

Specifying inline-progression-dimension=<percentage> will set:

  • inline-progression-dimension.minimum=<percentage>

  • inline-progression-dimension.optimum=<percentage>

  • inline-progression-dimension.maximum=<percentage>

<length-range>

Specifies the dimension as a length-range, consisting of:

  • inline-progression-dimension.optimum

    This is the preferred dimension of the area created, if minimum and maximum are identical, the area is of a fixed dimension. If they are, respectively, smaller and larger than optimum, then the area may be adjusted in dimension within that range.

    A value of "auto" may be specified for optimum, indicating that there is no preferred dimension, but that the intrinsic or resolved dimension of the area should be used. If minimum and/or maximum are not also auto, then the dimension shall be constrained between those limits.

  • inline-progression-dimension.minimum

  • inline-progression-dimension.maximum

    A value of "auto" may be specified for inline-progression-dimension.maximum. This indicates that there is no absolute maximum limit, and the object may be sized to its intrinsic size.

Negative values for inline-progression-dimension.minimum, inline-progression-dimension.optimum, and inline-progression-dimension.maximum are invalid and are treated as if "0pt" had been specified.

7.15.8 "max-height"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to height of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "max-height" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-max-height

These two properties ["max-height" and "min-height"] allow authors to constrain box heights to a certain range. Values have the following meanings:

none

(Only on "max-height") No limit on the height of the box.

<length>

Specifies a fixed maximum computed height.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage for determining the computed value. The percentage is calculated with respect to the height of the generated box's containing block. If the height of the containing block is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content height), the percentage value is interpreted like "none".

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.15.9 "max-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "max-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-max-width

These two properties ["max-width" and "min-width"] allow authors to constrain box widths to a certain range. Values have the following meanings:

none

(Only on "max-width") No limit on the width of the box.

<length>

Specifies a fixed maximum computed width.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage for determining the computed value. The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.15.10 "min-height"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to height of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "min-height" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-min-height

These two properties ["max-height" and "min-height"] allow authors to constrain box heights to a certain range. Values have the following meanings:

<length>

Specifies a fixed minimum computed height.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage for determining the computed value. The percentage is calculated with respect to the height of the generated box's containing block. If the height of the containing block is not specified explicitly (i.e., it depends on content height), the percentage value is interpreted like "0pt".

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.15.11 "min-width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: depends on UA
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "min-width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-min-width

These two properties ["max-width" and "min-width"] allow authors to constrain box widths to a certain range. Values have the following meanings:

<length>

Specifies a fixed minimum computed width.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage for determining the computed value. The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.15.12 "scaling"

XSL Definition:

Value: uniform | non-uniform | inherit
Initial: uniform
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

uniform

Scaling should preserve the aspect ratio.

non-uniform

Scaling need not preserve the aspect ratio.

Specifies whether scaling needs to preserve the intrinsic aspect ratio.

7.15.13 "scaling-method"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | integer-pixels | resample-any-method | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The User Agent is free to choose either resampling, integer scaling, or any other scaling method.

integer-pixels

The User Agent should scale the image such that each pixel in the original image is scaled to the nearest integer number of device-pixels that yields an image less-then-or-equal-to the image size derived from the content-height, content-width, and scaling properties.

resample-any-method

The User Agent should resample the supplied image to provide an image that fills the size derived from the content-height, content-width, and scaling properties. The user agent may use any sampling method.

This property is used to indicate a preference in the scaling/sizing tradeoff to be used when formatting bitmapped graphics.

Note:

This is defined as a preference to allow the user agent the flexibility to adapt to device limitations and to accommodate over-constrained situations involving min/max dimensions and scale factors.

7.15.14 "width"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | auto | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "width" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-width

This property specifies the content width of boxes generated by block-level and replaced elements.

This property does not apply to non-replaced inline-level elements. The width of a non-replaced inline element's boxes is that of the rendered content within them (before any relative offset of children). Recall that inline boxes flow into line boxes. The width of line boxes is given by their containing block, but may be shorted by the presence of floats.

The width of a replaced element's box is intrinsic and may be scaled by the user agent if the value of this property is different than 'auto'.

Values have the following meanings:

auto

The width depends on the values of other properties.

<length>

Specifies a fixed width.

<percentage>

Specifies a percentage width. The percentage is calculated with respect to the width of the generated box's containing block.

Negative values for "width" are illegal.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, this property is mapped to either "inline-progression-dimension" or "block-progression-dimension", based on the applicable values of the "writing-mode" and "reference-orientation" properties. Details on the mapping are given in 5 Property Refinement / Resolution.

7.16 Block and Line-related Properties

7.16.1 "hyphenation-keep"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | column | page | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

auto

No restriction applies. The word may be hyphenated at the end of any region.

column

Both parts of a hyphenated word shall lie within a single column.

page

Both parts of a hyphenated word shall lie within a single page.

Controls whether hyphenation can be performed on the last line that fits in a given reference-area.

7.16.2 "hyphenation-ladder-count"

XSL Definition:

Value: no-limit | <number> | inherit
Initial: no-limit
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

no-limit

Any number of successive lines may be hyphenated.

<number>

An integer greater than or equal to 1.

If a zero, negative, or non-integer value is provided, the value will be rounded to the nearest integer value greater than or equal to 1.

Specifies a limit on the number of successive hyphenated line-areas the formatter may generate in a block-area.

7.16.3 "last-line-end-indent"

XSL Definition:

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to inline-progression-dimension of closest ancestor block-area that is not a line-area
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<length>

The "last-line-end-indent" is specified as a length.

<percentage>

The "last-line-end-indent" is specified as a percentage of the inline-progression-dimension of the closest ancestor block-area.

Specifies an indent to be applied to the last line-area child of the last block-area generated and returned by the formatting object, and to any line-area generated by the formatting object whose following sibling is a block-area that is not a line-area. It is added to the block's end-edge. Positive values indent the edge, negative values outdent the edge.

7.16.4 "line-height"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | <length> | <number> | <percentage> | <space> | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to the font size of the element itself
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "line-height" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/visudet.html#propdef-line-height

Values have the following meanings:

normal

Tells user agents to set the computed value to a "reasonable" value based on the font size of the element. The value has the same meaning as <number>. We recommend a computed value for "normal" between 1.0 to 1.2.

<length>

The box height is set to this length. Negative values are illegal.

<number>

The computed value of the property is this number multiplied by the element's font size. Negative values are illegal. However, the number, not the computed value, is inherited.

<percentage>

The computed value of the property is this percentage multiplied by the element's computed font size. Negative values are illegal.

If the property is set on a block-level element whose content is composed of inline-level elements, it specifies the minimal height of each generated inline box.

If the property is set on an inline-level element, it specifies the exact height of each box generated by the element. (Except for inline replaced elements, where the height of the box is given by the "height" property.)

When an element contains text that is rendered in more than one font, user agents should determine the "line-height" value according to the largest font size.

Generally, when there is only one value of "line-height" for all inline boxes in a paragraph (and no tall images), the above will ensure that baselines of successive lines are exactly "line-height" apart. This is important when columns of text in different fonts have to be aligned, for example in a table.

Note that replaced elements have a "font-size" and a "line-height" property, even if they are not used directly to determine the height of the box. The "font-size" is, however, used to define the "em" and "ex" units, and the "line-height" has a role in the "vertical-align" property.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL the "line-height" property is used in determining the half-leading trait.

XSL adds the following value with the following meaning:

<space>

Specifies the minimum, optimum, and maximum values, the conditionality, and precedence of the "line-height" that is used in determining the half-leading.

Negative values for line-height.minimum, line-height.optimum, and line-height.maximum are invalid and will be interpreted as 0pt.

The line-height.conditionality setting can be used to control the half-leading above the first line or after the last line that is placed in a reference-area.

The line-height.precedence setting can be used to control the merging of the half-leading with other spaces.

If line-height is specified using <length>, <percentage>, or <number>, the formatter shall convert the single value to a space-specifier with the subfields interpreted as follows:

  • line-height.minimum: the resultant computed value (as a length) of the <length>, <percentage>, or <number>.

  • line-height.optimum: the resultant computed value (as a length) of the <length>, <percentage>, or <number>.

  • line-height.maximum: the resultant computed value (as a length) of the <length>, <percentage>, or <number>.

  • line-height.precedence: force.

  • line-height.conditionality: retain

7.16.5 "line-height-shift-adjustment"

XSL Definition:

Value: consider-shifts | disregard-shifts | inherit
Initial: consider-shifts
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

consider-shifts

In determining the line-height, include the adjusted top-edge and bottom-edge of any characters that have a baseline-shift.

disregard-shifts

In determining the line-height, include the unshifted top-edge and bottom-edge of any characters that have a baseline-shift.

This property is used to control whether the line-height is adjusted for content that has a baseline-shift.

Note:

This property can be used to prevent superscript and subscript characters from disrupting the line-spacing.

7.16.6 "line-stacking-strategy"

XSL Definition:

Value: line-height | font-height | max-height | inherit
Initial: max-height
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

line-height

Uses the per-inline-height-rectangle as described in 4.5 Line-areas.

Note:

This matches CSS's line-height and positioning strategy.

font-height

Uses the nominal-requested-line-rectangle as described in 4.5 Line-areas.

max-height

Uses the maximal-line-rectangle as described in 4.5 Line-areas.

Selects the strategy for positioning adjacent lines, relative to each other.

Implementations must support at least the "max-height" and "font-height" values defined in this Recommendation, and may treat "line-height" as if "max-height" had been specified.

7.16.7 "linefeed-treatment"

XSL Definition:

Value: ignore | preserve | treat-as-space | treat-as-zero-width-space | inherit
Initial: treat-as-space
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

ignore

Specifies that any character flow object whose Unicode code point is U+000A shall be discarded during the refinement process.

preserve

Specifies no special action.

treat-as-space

Specifies that any character flow object whose Unicode code point is U+000A (linefeed) shall be converted during the refinement process into a character flow object whose Unicode code point is U+0020 (space).

treat-as-zero-width-space

Specifies that any character flow object whose Unicode code point is U+000A shall be converted during the refinement process into a character flow object whose Unicode code point is U+200B (zero width space).

Note:

The Unicode Standard recommends that the zero width space is considered a valid line-break point and that if two characters with a zero width space in between are placed on the same line they are placed with no space between them and that if they are placed on two lines no additional glyph area, such as for a hyphen, is created at the line-break.

The "linefeed-treatment" property specifies the treatment of linefeeds (character flow objects whose Unicode code point is U+000A) during the refinement process.

7.16.8 "white-space-treatment"

XSL Definition:

Value: ignore | preserve | ignore-if-before-linefeed | ignore-if-after-linefeed | ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed | inherit
Initial: ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

ignore

Any glyph-area whose Unicode character is classified as white space in XML, except for U+000A, shall be deleted during line-building and inline-building (see 4.7.2 Line-building and 4.7.3 Inline-building).

preserve

Any glyph-area whose Unicode character is classified as white space in XML shall not be deleted during line-building and inline-building.

ignore-if-before-linefeed

Any glyph-area with a suppress-at-line-break value of 'suppress' shall be deleted during line-building and inline-building if it would be the last glyph-area descendant of a line-area.

ignore-if-after-linefeed

Any glyph-area with a suppress-at-line-break value of 'suppress' shall be deleted during line-building and inline-building if it would be the first glyph-area descendant of a line-area.

ignore-if-surrounding-linefeed

Any glyph-area with a suppress-at-line-break value of 'suppress' shall be deleted during line-building and inline-building if it would be the first or last glyph-area descendant of a line-area.

The "white-space-treatment" property specifies the treatment during the refinement process of character flow objects, except for linefeeds, that are classified as white space in XML. This includes U+0020 (space) and other white space characters but excludes U+000A (linefeed). Linefeed treatment is determined by the "linefeed-treatment" property.

7.16.9 "text-align"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x77

Value: start | center | end | justify | inside | outside | left | right | <string> | inherit
Initial: start
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "text-align" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-text-align

This property describes how inline content of a block is aligned. Values have the following meanings:

left
center
right
justify

Left, right, center, and justify text, respectively.

<string>

Specifies a string on which cells in a table column will align (see the section on horizontal alignment in a column for details and an example). This value applies only to table cells. If set on other elements, it will be treated as 'left' or 'right', depending on whether 'direction' is 'ltr', or 'rtl', respectively.

A block of text is a stack of line boxes. In the case of 'left', 'right' and 'center', this property specifies how the inline boxes within each line box align with respect to the line box's left and right sides; alignment is not with respect to the viewport. In the case of 'justify', the UA may stretch the inline boxes in addition to adjusting their positions. (See also 'letter-spacing' and 'word-spacing'.)

Note:

The actual justification algorithm used is user agent and written language dependent.

Conforming user agents may interpret the value 'justify' as 'left' or 'right', depending on whether the element's default writing direction is left-to-right or right-to-left, respectively.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

Values have the following meanings:

start

Specifies that the content is to be aligned on the start-edge in the inline-progression-direction.

center

Specifies that the content is to be centered in the inline-progression-direction.

end

Specifies that the content is to be aligned on the end-edge in the inline-progression-direction.

justify

Specifies that the contents is to be expanded to fill the available width in the inline-progression-direction.

inside

If the page binding edge is on the start-edge, the alignment will be start. If the binding is the end-edge, the alignment will be end. If neither, use start alignment.

outside

If the page binding edge is on the start-edge, the alignment will be end. If the binding is the end-edge, the alignment will be start. If neither, use end alignment.

left

Interpreted as "text-align='start'".

right

Interpreted as "text-align='end'".

<string>

Specifies a string on which content of cells in a table column will align (see the section, in the CSS2 Recommendation, on horizontal alignment in a column for details and an example). This value applies only if the formatting object is a descendant of a table cell. If set on other formatting objects, it will be treated as "start".

This property describes how inline content of a block is aligned. For fo:external-graphic, fo:instream-foreign-object, and fo:table-and-caption it specifies the alignment of other areas as described in the constraint section for these formatting objects.

7.16.10 "text-align-last"

XSL Definition:

Value: relative | start | center | end | justify | inside | outside | left | right | inherit
Initial: relative
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

relative

If text-align is justify, then the alignment of the last line, and of any line ending in U+000A, will be start. If text-align is not justify, text-align-last will use the value of text-align.

start

Specifies that the content is to be aligned on the start-edge in the inline-progression-direction.

center

Specifies that the contents is to be centered in the inline-progression-direction.

end

Specifies that the content is to be aligned on the end-edge in the inline-progression-direction.

justify

Specifies that the contents is to be expanded to fill the available width in the inline-progression-direction.

inside

If the page binding edge is on the start-edge, the alignment will be start. If the binding is the end-edge, the alignment will be end. If neither, use start-side.

outside

If the page binding edge is on the start-edge, the alignment will be end. If the binding is the end-edge the alignment will be start. If neither, use end alignment.

left

Interpreted as "text-align-last='start'".

right

Interpreted as "text-align-last='end'".

Specifies the alignment of the last line-area child of the last block-area generated and returned by the formatting object, and to any line-area generated by the formatting object whose following sibling is a block-area that is not a line-area, and any lines in the block ending in U+000A.

7.16.11 "text-indent"

CSS2 Definition: as amended by http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html#x76

Value: <length> | <percentage> | inherit
Initial: 0pt
Inherited: yes
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "text-indent" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-text-indent

This property specifies the indentation of the first line of text in a block. More precisely, it specifies the indentation of the first box that flows into the block's first line box. The box is indented with respect to the left (or right, for right-to-left layout) edge of the line box. User agents should render this indentation as blank space.

Values have the following meanings:

<length>

The indentation is a fixed length.

<percentage>

The indentation is a percentage of the containing block width

The value of 'text-indent' may be negative, but there may be implementation-specific limits. If the value of 'text-indent' is negative, the value of 'overflow' will affect whether the text is visible.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The "text-indent" property specifies an adjustment to the start-indent of the first child L of the first block-area generated and returned by the formatting object, provided L is a line-area.

A negative value specifies a hanging indent (outdent) on the first line.

7.16.12 "white-space-collapse"

XSL Definition:

Value: false | true | inherit
Initial: true
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

false

Specifies no special action.

true

Specifies, for any character flow object such that:

  • its character is classified as white space in XML, and

  • it is not, however, a U+000A (linefeed) character, and

  • the immediately preceding flow object is a character flow object with a character classified as white space in XML or the immediately following flow object is a linefeed,

that flow object shall not generate an area.

The "white-space-collapse" property specifies the treatment of consecutive white space during area tree construction. The overall effect of handling the white-space-treatment and linefeed-treatment properties during refinement and the white-space-collapse property during area tree generation is as follows: after refinement, where some white space characters may have been discarded or turned into space characters, all remaining runs of two or more consecutive spaces are replaced by a single space, then any remaining space immediately adjacent to a remaining linefeed is also discarded.

An implementation is free to use any algorithm to achieve an equivalent effect.

7.16.13 "wrap-option"

XSL Definition:

Value: no-wrap | wrap | inherit
Initial: wrap
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

no-wrap

No line-wrapping will be performed.

In the case when lines are longer than the available width of the content-rectangle, the overflow will be treated in accordance with the "overflow" property specified on the reference-area.

wrap

Line-breaking will occur if the line overflows the available block width. No special markers or other treatment will occur.

Specifies how line-wrapping (line-breaking) of the content of the formatting object is to be handled.

Implementations must support the "no-wrap" value, as defined in this Recommendation, when the value of "linefeed-treatment" is "preserve".

7.17 Character Properties

7.17.1 "character"

XSL Definition:

Value: <character>
Initial: N/A, value is required
Inherited: no, a value is required
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

Values have the following meanings:

<character>

Specifies the Unicode character to be presented.

7.17.2 "letter-spacing"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: normal | <length> | <space> | inherit
Initial: normal
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "letter-spacing" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-letter-spacing

This property specifies spacing behavior between text characters. Values have the following meanings:

normal

The spacing is the normal spacing for the current font. This value allows the user agent to alter the space between characters in order to justify text.

<length>

This value indicates inter-character space in addition to the default space between characters. Values may be negative, but there may be implementation-specific limits. User agents may not further increase or decrease the inter-character space in order to justify text.

Character-spacing algorithms are user agent dependent. Character spacing may also be influenced by justification (see the "text-align" property).

When the resultant space between two characters is not the same as the default space, user agents should not use ligatures.

Conforming user agents may consider the value of the 'letter-spacing' property to be 'normal'.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The following value type has been added for XSL:

<space>

This allows the user to specify a range of adjustments in addition to the default space between characters.

The minimum and maximum values specify the limits of the adjustment.

Default space between characters is defined to be 0pt, i.e., glyph-areas stacked with no extra space between the allocation-rectangles of the glyph-areas. The inline-progression-dimension of the glyph-area is obtained by formatting the fo:character.

For an fo:character that in the Unicode database is classified as "Alphabetic", unless the treat-as-word-space trait has the value "true", the space-start and space-end traits are each set to a value as follows:

  • For "normal": .optimum = "the normal spacing for the current font" / 2, .maximum = auto, .minimum = auto, .precedence = force, and .conditionality = discard. A value of auto for a component implies that the limits are User Agent specific.

  • For a <length>: .optimum = <length> / 2, .maximum = .optimum, .minimum = .optimum, .precedence = force, and .conditionality = discard.

  • For a <space>: a value that is half the value of the "letter-spacing" property for the numeric components and the value for the .precedence and .conditionality components. The initial values for .precedence is "force" and for .conditionality "discard".

The CSS statement that "Conforming user agents may consider the value of the 'letter-spacing' property to be 'normal'." does not apply in XSL, if the User Agent implements the "Extended" property set.

Note:

If it is desired that the letter space combine with other spaces that have less than forcing precedence, then the value of the "letter-space" should be specified as a <space> with precedence less than force which implies that space combines according to the space resolution rules described in 4.3 Spaces and Conditionality.

The algorithm for resolving the adjusted values between word spacing and letter spacing is User Agent dependent.

7.17.3 "suppress-at-line-break"

XSL Definition:

Value: auto | suppress | retain | inherit
Initial: auto
Inherited: no
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

This property applies only to fo:character and determines whether the character's representation shall be suppressed when it would occur adjacent to a formatter-generated line break. Multiple characters may be so suppressed.

This property has the following values:

auto

The value of this property is determined by the Unicode value of the object's character property. The character at code point U+0020 is treated as if 'suppress' had been specified. All other characters are treated as if 'retain' had been specified.

This value does not automatically suppress the presentation of the non-breaking-space (U+00A0), the fixed spaces (U+2000 through U+200A), or the ideographic-space (U+3000).

suppress

The glyph area generated by the fo:character is eligible to be suppressed at the start or end of a line-area depending on the white-space-treatement property. (q.v.)

retain

The glyph area generated by the fo:character shall be placed in the area tree whether or not it first or last in a line-area.

7.17.4 "text-decoration"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: none | [ [ underline | no-underline] || [ overline | no-overline ] || [ line-through | no-line-through ] || [ blink | no-blink ] ] | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no, but see prose
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "text-decoration" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-text-decoration

This property describes decorations that are added to the text of an element. If the property is specified for a block-level element, it affects all inline-level descendants of the element. If it is specified for (or affects) an inline-level element, it affects all boxes generated by the element. If the element has no content or no text content (e.g., the IMG element in HTML), user agents must ignore this property.

Values have the following meanings:

none

Produces no text decoration.

underline

Each line of text is underlined.

overline

Each line of text has a line above it.

line-through

Each line of text has a line through the middle

blink

Text blinks (alternates between visible and invisible). Conforming user agents are not required to support this value.

The color(s) required for the text decoration should be derived from the "color" property value.

This property is not inherited, but descendant boxes of a block box should be formatted with the same decoration (e.g., they should all be underlined). The color of decorations should remain the same even if descendant elements have different "color" values.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

In XSL, the specification of the "underline" value is expanded as follows: The placement of the underline depends on whether the "inline-progression-direction" is oriented horizontally or vertically and on the "language" property. For horizontal text the underline is placed below the text. For vertical text the placement depends on the value of the "language" property: the underline is placed on or close to either the before-edge or the after-edge of the underlined text.

Note:

This specification does not specify the dependence of the placement of the vertical underline on the "language". It is possible for two conforming XSL processors to place the underline on different sides of the vertical text. For Japanese, the placement of the underline is typically close to the before-edge of the underlined text. For other languages, such as Chinese, the typical placement is close to the after-edge of the underlined text. Implementers should not make any assumptions about how underlines are placed in particular languages and should properly research the languages that they wish to support.

Note:

Some fonts have an attribute that suggests where to place the underline for text in that font. That value is likely to apply only when the "inline-progression-direction" is oriented horizontally.

XSL adds the following values with the following meanings:

no-underline

Turns off underlining, if any.

no-overline

Turns off overlining, if any.

no-line-through

Turns off line-through, if any.

no-blink

Turns off blinking, if any.

7.17.5 "text-shadow"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: none | [<color> || <length> <length> <length>? ,]* [<color> || <length> <length> <length>?] | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: no, see prose
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "text-shadow" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-text-shadow

This property accepts a comma-separated list of shadow effects to be applied to the text of the element. The shadow effects are applied in the order specified and may thus overlay each other, but they will never overlay the text itself. Shadow effects do not alter the size of a box, but may extend beyond its boundaries. The stack level of the shadow effects is the same as for the element itself.

Each shadow effect must specify a shadow offset and may optionally specify a blur radius and a shadow color.

A shadow offset is specified with two "length" values that indicate the distance from the text. The first length value specifies the horizontal distance to the right of the text. A negative horizontal length value places the shadow to the left of the text. The second length value specifies the vertical distance below the text. A negative vertical length value places the shadow above the text.

A blur radius may optionally be specified after the shadow offset. The blur radius is a length value that indicates the boundaries of the blur effect. The exact algorithm for computing the blur effect is not specified.

A color value may optionally be specified before or after the length values of the shadow effect. The color value will be used as the basis for the shadow effect. If no color is specified, the value of the "color" property will be used instead.

XSL modifications to the CSS definition:

The "text-shadow" property is not inherited, it is converted into a rendering trait. This rendering trait specifies that a rendering effect is to be applied, collectively, to the glyph images within the area forest returned by the children of the formatting object on which the property is specified. That is, for any given glyph area, the glyph image, the marked portion of that area not including background, is copied, shifted by the shadow offset, then colored and blurred (if so specified) and rendered after any background is rendered and prior to rendering the glyph image itself. The shadow is colored with the color that will be used to color the glyph image itself if no color is specified as part of the shadow effect and with the specified color if a color is specified as part of the shadow effect. If more than one shadow effect is specified that last specified effect is rendered first and preceding effects are rendered in the reverse of the order in which they were specified in the list of shadow effects.

Note:

Since the entire forest of normal areas returned by the formatting object on which the property applies is affected by the rendering effect it appears that the shadow effect is inherited. Inheritance would not work however, because that would not allow all the images of one shadow effect to be rendered prior to all the glyph images or images or shadow effect specified before the given shadow effect.

7.17.6 "text-transform"

CSS2 Definition:

Value: capitalize | uppercase | lowercase | none | inherit
Initial: none
Inherited: yes
Percentages: N/A
Media: visual

CSS2 Reference: "text-transform" property
http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/text.html#propdef-text-transform

This property controls capitalization effects of an element's text. Values have the following meanings:

capitalize

Puts the first character of each word in uppercase.

uppercase

Puts all characters of each word in