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W3C Payments workshop identity


W3C gratefully acknowledges the ingenico, for hosting this workshop.


HTMl5Apps Thanks also to support from the European Union through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2013-2015) under grant agreement n° 611327 - HTML5 Apps.


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If you're interested in being a sponsor, please contact Bernard Gidon at bgidon@w3.org. For additional information, please visit the Sponsorship program.

Important dates

8 February 2014:
Deadline for expressions of
interest or position papers
for possible presentation
(via email)

1 March 2014:
Program and position papers posted on the workshop website

14 March 2014:
Deadline for registration
(statement of interest required,
no participation fee)

24-25 March 2014:

The list of expressions of interest is available below. Selected position papers are available on the agenda page.

Expressions of Interest

The list below shows the expression of interests and position papers received so far. If you have sent a paper or an expression of interest as described in the participation page, and you don't see it listed here, please let us know.

Note that being listed in the list below does not guarantee the participation in the workshop. There is a seat limitation (100 places) and the program committee will select the participants after February 8.

Sebastian Kippe, Appcache Ltd / 5apps
We offer a deployment platform for HTML5 apps, which, among other features, seeks to make it easy to distribute hosted web apps to users via as many channels as possible, including Open Web App stores as well as proprietary channels and formats. Obviously monetization of hosted web apps is one of the core problems our users and we as a company face, and we’ve actually been postponing integrated monetization features due to a lack of open standards that work beyond single platforms and payment methods. So we’re extremely interested in any developments in this area, and we’re able to contribute from the point of view of service providers and app developers.
Mountie Lee, Paygate
as the payment service provider, I have deep interest for this workshop I have suggested my idea to discuss further more with experts see : Electronic Commerce Interoperability Standard
I have interest for any kind of issues related for payments.
Jean-Yves Rossi, CANTON Consulting
Canton-Consulting is a company established in 2009 to accompany the set-up of innovative payment solutions. We have been involved in the conception and development of 3 payment institutions pursuant to PSD 2007/64/EU ; our team gathers professionals offering in-depth experience in the field of payment services . Our consultancy offer is detailed on our web site http://www.cantonconsulting.eu/en . As an engineering team, we are working on innovative research and projects about integrating control rules or imputation mechanisms upstream of payment transactions.
We believe that payments are at the very heart of all commerce and we know that transformations under way in the world of payment will be fostered from outside the banking sector, through a mix of leveraging oportunities : a new legal framework and the new industrial and technical context of a highly connected society. Our contribution to this workshop would be in the feed-back of how new legal frameworks, especially in Europe, are making successfully innovative initiatives, not only technical ones but about new business models as well.
My personal experience is a practical mix of these angles : as a member of the French Advisory Committee on Financial Legislation and Regulation (CCLRF) as of 2007, and directly involved in the process of PSD transposition ; as an executive officer of two French banking groups and member of board of payment schemes. These experiences drove me to set up this little consultancy company, in awaiting of upcoming revolutions. My interest in attending this workshop is to understand, identify and anticipate how new open standards that will enable new technical solutions, new payment services, new schemes and business models and make them successful.
Patrice BERNARD, Stéphane SCHULTZ, 15marches
Our talk plans to address the following key questions :
  • What are the scenarios for payments on the Web and where do they currently break down ? How can both legacy business models and new business models involving payment be better enabled on the Web ?
  • What alternative platforms, technologies and business models are developing in this area ?
  • And the following topics :
  • Use cases
  • Mobile apps and webapps
  • Payment-related APIs
  • User interaction
  • Wonsuk Lee and Jungkee Song, Samsung Electronics
    Payment is an intrinsic part of commercial services and thus is already a part of the Web but in non-standards way thus far. The fact that no payment standard is at our hands prevents us - users, developers and merchants - from having some easy, lucid, secure and more importantly consistent purchase experience on the web. It is a reality that users rather have to be encountered with different payment solutions for every service they visit. Moreover, the trend of evolving device form factors including smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, etc. makes a lot of different scenarios where the attainment of some consistent experience is hard. Having considered the situation, it would apparently be a huge loss for humanity to make redundent efforts in non-standardized solutions on and on. As one of the leading electronics manufacturers, Samsung makes and deploys huge amount of devices and appliances in different form factors. To deliver easy, lucid, secure and consistent purchase experience to our customers, we definitely would like to participate in developing the standards payment platform for the web. With this expectation, we are eager to have a chance to join this workshop and make a concrete progress.
    Steve Bratt, GS1
    Below is an expression of interest from GS1. Though I am on the PC, I unfortunately will not be able to participate in the workshop because in coincides with GS1’s version of W3C’s Tech Plenary. More importantly, the CEO of GS1 France, Pierre Georget, would like to attend. Pierre is also on GS1’s Global Management Board, and is one of the very creative thinkers at the global level. His s will be quite complementary to the contributions of most other participants.
    Ezra C. Levine, Morrison & Foerster
    I am currently Senior Of Counsel at Morrison & Foerster, one of the leading international law firms with a significant expertise in all aspects of financial regulation. This expertise includes all aspects of non-bank money transmitter regulation, including the application of both state and federal laws to traditional, high tech, mobile payment versions of money transmission.
    My expertise in the area of the regulation of non-bank money transmitters is detailed on the Morrison & Foerster website. In short, I have been involved in this area at both the state and federal level since the late 1980’s. At the state level, I have worked with the state regulators on the enactment of over 25 state money transmitter laws—this has involved drafting, negotiation and testimony before many state legislative committees. I was integrally involved with the drafting of both the NCCUSAL Monsey Services Business model legislation as well as the Money Transmitter Regulators Association model legislation outline. At the federal level, I have been a member of the US Treasury’s Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group (BSAAG) since its founding and at the international level have continued to be an active participant at the Financial Action Task Force ( FATF). In fact, in that regard, I chaired the FATF committee that drafted the Money Services Risk Based Compliance Guidance adopted by the FATF plenary a few years ago.
    Based on my discussions with Manu, I believe that I can provide both a valuable resource for the Web Payments Workshop on issues relating to the applicability of money transmitter laws to various forms of electronic money transmission. As indicated, I have significant expertise in this area, both in terms of safety and soundness regulation as well as from the standpoint of anti-money laundering/terrorist financing considerations. In short, I am eager to participate in the forum and will be an active participant who can provide valuable perspective on the non-bank money transmitter legal and policy perspective.
    Emil Johansson, Swedbank
    Swedbank has a longstanding track-record as a participant and contributor to development of payment market standards; payments, clearing & settlement etc. as well as reporting. As a retail bank with a strong consumer customer based and as a frontrunner in the e- and m- payment market Swedbank consider standards which support end user requirements and cater for a easy to use service to be of utmost importance. However the creation of standards, when justified, should be as open as possible and allow and support innovation and development and always be limited to the competitive space.
    Connie Theien, US Federal Reserve Banks
    The Federal Reserve Banks updated their strategic direction in payments in 2012. At the heart is a vision to improve the speed and efficiency of the U.S. payment system from end-to-end over the next decade while maintaining a high level of safety and accessibility. This expanded vision seeks to ensure that payment system improvements meet the needs of end users who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the payment system. End users have access to powerful communications technologies, and this is changing not only how they want to make payments, but also how they manage their finances. The next-generation payment system must accommodate these evolving end-user payment preferences. The vision encompasses all organizations involved in delivering payment services to end users, including depository institutions and their trade associations, nonbank service providers, payment processing companies, and payment consultants. An inclusive vision is important because industry collaboration and engagement is essential to any enduring strategic improvements to the payment system. Moreover, the most promising ideas for payment innovations and strategic change often result from ongoing dialogue among diverse industry participants.
    History shows that it is sometimes beneficial for central coordinating bodies to take steps to facilitate cooperation to address network or coordination challenges that otherwise impede innovation, efficiency, and other public benefits. The Federal Reserve Banks believe that ubiquitous, open payment networks and/or broadly interoperable networks best serve the public interest. The Reserve Banks laud the efforts of W3C to facilitate industry coordination around Web payment standards. The objectives of the W3C Workshop “How Do You Want to Pay?” strongly align with the Reserve Banks’ desire for industry collaboration and will provide a valuable forum for advancing dialogue on payment system improvement. We would welcome the opportunity to send two delegates to the workshop and share what we’ve learned about payment system stakeholders’ desires and priorities during the past 12 months of input and information gathering. Your consideration of our participation is greatly appreciated.
    Evan Schwartz, Ripple Labs
    The world of payments is at an important and exciting juncture, where internet technologies and advances in security are finally making it possible to take financial transactions and personal identities online. These developments offer the potential to reduce unnecessary barriers to commerce, facilitate new exchanges and business models, and spur economic growth around the world. As the chief web standards body, the W3C plays an instrumental role in promoting collaboration and outlining how all of the various payment technologies can work together. We believe that Ripple’s technology can further these goals by providing an open source, distributed protocol for financial settlement and personal identity. We are excited to share and work with the other Web Payments workshop participants to start laying the groundwork for a digital world that is accessible and beneficial to all.
    Ernesto Jimenez and Ricardo Varela
    We worked in Bluevia, the global payments platform of Telefonica and Telenor Group. Together with our team we were responsible for working with partners and developers to use the Charge To Mobile Payments API to help their users pay with their phone across different platforms, including not only "native" players like Google Play, Microsoft Windows Phone Store or Nokia but also web experiences like Mozilla FirefoxOS. All with a single API integration across Telefonica and Telenor's local Operating Businesses.
    We have hands-on experience in the advantages and pitfalls of integrating heterogeneous mechanisms of payment as well as on the internals of some of the modern web payment platforms and the business issues associated with them, particularly on mobile and carrier billing. We hope we can help by sharing our experience in the discussion going on during this workshop.
    Bülent Ünal, net mobile AG
    As one of the pioneers in the mobile payment area, and market leader in mobile payment (direct carrier billing & Google carrier billing) in Europe we are interested to participate in your workshop. Our participation will bring the positive influence and feedback for the stakeholders of web/mobile payment's communities.
    Christophe Godefroi, European Payments Council (EPC)
    The European Payments Council (EPC) is the coordination and decision-making body of the European banking industry in relation to payments. EPC members represent banks, banking communities and payment institutions. The purpose of the EPC is to support and promote the Single Euro Payment Area (SEPA). The EPC develops payment schemes (i.e. SEPA Direct Debit (SDD) & SEPA Credit Transfer (SCT)) and frameworks which help to realise the integrated euro payments market.
    In particular, the EPC, working together with all stakeholders active in the mobile payments ecosystem, is willing to contribute to the development of a reliable and secure ecosystem for the initiation and receipt of SEPA payments by mobile phone. The intention is to help establishing an ecosystem, which could enable all payers and payees to make and receive mobile payments (m-payments) across SEPA, and creating a secure environment for the multiple stakeholders active in the field. In 2012, the EPC published a White Paper on Mobile payments which provides an analysis on how these ecosystems could evolve and interact to support SEPA card payments and SEPA credit transfers. In its recently published White Paper on Mobile wallet payments, the EPC elaborated on the concept of mobile wallets (residing in the mobile device or remotely) to accommodate mobile payments next to non-payment services. This paper concludes with the identification of a number of key challenges to be addressed through collaboration in a multi-stakeholder environment including:
  • Harmonisation of wallet user interfaces to enable a consistent user experience (easy to use, intuitive, etc...);
  • Interoperability of mobile wallet interfaces;
  • Execution of proximity payments with remote mobile wallets.
  • Since similar topics are listed to be dealt with in the future roadmap by W3C, the EPC would very much welcome the opportunity to participate in this workshop. More detailed information on the work of the EPC concerning mobile payments (including the White Paper on Mobile Payments and Mobile Wallet payments) can be found on the EPC Website
    Jörg Heuer, Deutsche Telekom
    In real life we may visit a shop or service counter anonymously – or enjoy being treated like a well-known customer by presenting a loyalty card; we may make our picks and conduct our business and then decide to pay, whatever way we like, as long as it is supported on site. The shop will most likely have rented a payment terminal and with it some options to allow the customer to pay. A few payment networks, hundreds of issuers and thousands of payment products may be supported this way. Security is implemented in smart cards on plastic carriers, the user might be asked to sign a piece of paper or key in a PIN at the payment terminal for secure authentication.
    In the web we only find elements of this – and they are usually disconnected in some way. Some of these ‘disconnections’ pose security threats: submitting credit card numbers over the network, storing credentials connected with an account somewhere at a web site, creating yet another user account with passwords that can be stolen and be used to implicitly trigger payments based on credentials stored at the service. Often, convenience is limited and many purchases are not made in the end, because payment credentials or personal information is requested which the user doesn’t want to provide lightheartedly. Online payment services can take away some of the pain and professionalize the process, but we are far from transferring our wallets into the digital space. (Meaning: entirely and with proper security). Little is in place to pass along coupons or loyalty cards when making web payments and why shouldn’t we take into account the transformation of proximity payments to fully digital transactions?
    In modern smart phones we find everything to let the physical and the virtual world meet to provide a joint metaphor – a converged wallet. Over the last years almost all big mobile operators have started to introduce SIM- and NFC-based payment or ‘wallet’ services. Work at T-Labs has produced a user-centric wallet concept which makes use of the very same assets, but is deeply rooted in web- and identity technology. With the help of a set of interfaces, protocols and data structures a wallet framework could allow future issuers to create virtual credit cards which work in the shop as well as in the Internet, using specific security technology for their respective purpose. The same way coupons can be stored read out via NFC or optical scanners, but also be used in a web-based purchase. Loyalty cards are no different from login credential cards in this wallet. Almost all loyalty cards allow access to the account via Internet. The wallet abstraction can store the credentials like a password store – or even better – be a first step into login processes using cryptographic keys. All login credentials could – vice versa – be handled like virtual loyalty, or customer cards.
    Tickets and keys can be handled likewise, but all of them will gain additional benefits from a transfer to the convergent wallet. Improved fraud handling, emergency functions like backup/ restore or eased management of keys for enterprises, more attractive marketing tools and overall eased handling for the end user are just some of them. Openness with respect to how security is implemented (secure elements might not always be adequate) and by what means communication takes place, turns the concept into a paradigm of significant extent. Such wallets can run on all kinds of digital devices or in the cloud. Naturally, we couldn’t implement all of this yet, but there are plenty of functional samples available, following this approach. Some embrace existing technologies, others have already created new protocol drafts, but many interfaces and APIs are still undefined or unassigned. Many concessions had to be made, work-arounds to be created for different platforms, operating systems and specific technology. We found plenty of useful functionality in web technology to create our first implementations, but so much is still open…
    Eriko Hondo, KDDI
    I work for a Japanese telecommunication company, KDDI. I have based in London from June 2012 to see what European operators (especially mobile) have their strategies in the future. Both markets have a lot of mobile payment services, but the services and usages are a little bit different. I am very interested in the features in European region and would like to get information as much as possible at the W3C workshop.
    In Japan, mobile payment is very popular as in European region and people enjoy shopping, games, etc. We provide our customers a good payment service, which is called carrier-billing. This is based on the concept that telecom operators can have win-win relation between users and service providers. Further, we can make profit from carrier-billing.
  • Carrier-billing: Carrier billing is that operators collect mobile payment charge from customers directly and transfer the service fee to service providers after excluding a certain commission. Telecom operators send invoices to their customers every month. The mobile payment service fee is included in the invoice. KDDI also has launched a dedicated contents service which is available for the carrier-billing. Our customers simply enjoy digital or physical goods at our portal site with their mobile and pay the fee by carrier-billing.
  • On the contrary, in Europe, SIM card plays one of the most important key factors to all services – roaming, simple data service, and mobile payment. In some countries, SIM card is used to identify users for their access to banking and government service. In order to seek the possibility to provide a seamless payment service in multilateral countries, I would like to hear both presenters and participants’ view at the workshop.
    Etienne HAYEM, OUIShare
    I'm the ouishare connector on the money topic, I facilitate the OuiShare money group on facebook. I'm also starting a regional currency in Région Ile de France called Symba.
    I'm involved with complementary currencies since 2008 and would be delighted to attend the workshop.
    My questions / interest :
  • how to include payments/micropayments for the local currencies?
  • how to facilitate and capacitate the intertrade between conventional and alternative currencies?
  • what are the services available to reach local businesses and/or credit card possibilities outside the VISA network.
  • Hannes Tschofenig, co-chair of the IETF Web Authorization (OAuth) working group
    my interest in your workshop is from a standardization point of view. I co-chair the IETF Web Authorization (OAuth) working group in the IETF, which standardized a delegated authorization protocol. The goal of that effort, which started several years ago already, substantially reduced password sharing between websites and introduced a privacy-enhancing consent dialogue that informs users about the data that is shared and solicits their consent. Since larger companies try to re-use their existing authentication and authorization infrastructure investment for a wide range of applications payment extensions have also been added to OAuth as well. Since the IETF has not started to standardize any OAuth-based payment extensions those deployments remain proprietary and non-interoperable at the moment.
    I am interested to engage with those deploying payment mechanisms to understand their standardization requirements. I am also interested to learn more about the W3C efforts regarding payment protocols and what level of cooperation is possible between the IETF and the W3C.
    In addition to my OAuth involvement I am also co-chairing a Birds of a Feather (BOF) session at the upcoming IETF meeting (early March) concerning authentication and authorization for constraint environments / Internet of Things (IoT). While the range of IoT use cases is very large, ranging from IP-enabled door locks to health care monitoring, some of the use cases also envision (micro) payments. In case there is experience among the workshop participants with such constraint environments for payments I would like to collect requirements and convey them back to the group.
    Joseph Potvin, Doctoral Candidate, University of Quebec
    For any potential W3C specification on web payments, this paper outlines various options for associating the roles of buyers, sellers and payment intermediaries with the authority to determine basic attributes of price. Reasons and methods for each approach are provided, with some examples.
    Robert Kleinfeld, FP7 project COMPOSE
    The COMPOSE project aims at unleashing the full potential harboured by the Internet of Things by creating a complete ecosystem around it to enable the flourishing of a resulting Internet of Services, by seamlessly integrating real and virtual worlds. COMPOSE will achieve this through the provisioning of an open and scalable marketplace infrastructure, in which physical objects are associated to services that can be traded, shared and integrated in a standardized way to easily and quickly build innovative applications. COMPOSE will support open payment solutions to facilitate seamless transactions across multiple devices and stakeholders by adapting the concept of a virtual wallet in the Web browser. This is reflected in the integration of existing payment solutions in one unified infrastructure based on APIs for payment requests to a wallet and between the wallet and the payment solution provider. Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems FOKUS and W3C are partners of the EU funded FP7 project COMPOSE. Both are working on scenarios for a unified marketplace for services. COMPOSE will contribute open payment scenarios and the concept of a virtual wallet for the Internet of Services to the workshop.
    Vidya Chandy, Mahindra Comviva
    Mahindra Comviva's Mobile Financial Services (MFS) business unit is a recognized leader with unrivalled experience in the mobile financial technology space, enabling service providers including Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and financial institutions, globally, to meet the diverse needs of customers in both developed and emerging markets. Its suite of products encompass solutions ranging from digital wallets, mobile money, mobile banking, mobile POS, international remittance and electronic prepaid recharge. With over 120 deployments of PreTUPS(tm) and mobiquity, our platforms have processed a total of $20+ B payment flows, handling millions of transactions every day and serve 700+ million consumers globally across subscriber prepaid recharge and mobile money.
    Our products and experiences span a wide range of businesses (telecom, banking, retail), technology (mobile, web, platforms, API, contactless, devices and form factors), payments & related areas (prepaid, banking, cards, POS, loyalty and offers, operator billing, remittances, ticketing, micro-payments, disbursements, etc) and end-user target segments (consumers, distribution channel and retail merchants across all categories). As such, we are conversant with the complexities prevalent in the financial technology industry that have traditionally existed due to partnering ecosystems, regulations, legacy platforms and business reasons, as well as those that are emerging due to disruptions in technology, consumer consumption behavior & expectations and currencies themselves. We are interested in participating in the workshop to contribute our experiences, learnings and insights that can serve to help influence the outcome and roadmap for web payments standards.
    Danny Jeong, CEO of NBREDS
    NBREDS is business partner of SK Telecom for DCB(Direct Carrier Billing) and Payment system. My interest is in the global standard payment tech based on web os/browsers and Micro Billing going to be integrated and evolved through applying the web tech. Here is a number of new opportunities, including the O2O Commerce.
    Cyril Vignet, BPCE
    To propose a new payment standard on the web via the W3C is a very good opportunity to formalize and propose principles to comply with for the purchase and payment relationship between merchants and customers.
    Working on the basis of these principles, it will be possible to analyse the mark of current means of payment and, if they are not compliant enough, to invent new payment ways that would be more universal.
    Jean Claude Barbezange, Worldline
    Worldline - an Atos subsidiary - is an international company present in Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific in particularly India. It is the European leader and a global player in the payments and transactional services industry. Worldline delivers new generation services, enabling its customers to offer smooth and innovative solutions to the end consumer. As a key actor for B2B2C industries and with over 40 years of experience, Worldline is positioned to support and contribute to the success of all businesses and administrative services in a perpetually evolving market. Worldline offers a flexible business model built around a global and growing portfolio, thus enabling end-to-end support. Its activities are organized around three axes: Merchant Services & Terminals, Mobility & e-Transactional Services, Financial Processing & Software Licensing. In 2012, Worldline's activities within the Atos Group generated pro forma revenues of 1.1 billion euros. The company employs more than 7,100 people worldwide.
    Interest in Web Payment
    Worldline has been providing e-commerce payment solutions since 1995. These solutions evolve permanently to meet the market requirements, the government, industry and financial rules and the rapid evolution of technologies including Web trends, mobility, security, cryptography… Other Worldline solutions have appeared since around MPI, ACS, wallets, loyalty, POS, fraud detection, Cloud services...
    Harry Halpin, W3C
    In order for work of a universal payment API to proceed, it must develop an overall architecture that solves the authentication problem: How do we bind a particular identifier to a particular user so they can authorize transactions? In fact, solving the authentication problem is the very first problem that must be solved before any other system can continue. Given the fallibility of computational systems, authentication is not easily solved with perfect accuracy, but it can be solved with higher accuracy than it is currently. The W3C Web Cryptography API, created by the Web Cryptography Working Group, is a unified cross-browser API for cryptographic primitives, provides much-needed primitives, ranging to digital signatures to key derivation, to that can make real progress on the authentication problem.
    Philippe Cabos, Gemalto
    Gemalto is a digital security company, rolling out financial services and payment solutions across the world. We have been investigating on the area of on line payment and more specifically web payment since few years now. In order to tackle the fragmentation of the end user devices, we have been experiencing payment performed on line from a PC or from a mobile device. The payment methods that we are supporting cover a wide range of scenarios:
  • Web payment with the usage of the end-user banking card (namely card present transaction). The possible scenarios include the usage of a reader connected to the device or the leverage of the contactless technology, in order to allow the web site to interact with the banking card, et trigger the payment transaction.
  • Mobile based payment, based on a mobile wallet, offering various payment methods with payment card details managed either on a secure element or on the cloud. Payment methods managed in that case can be related to a pre-paid payment account or debit card or direct debit, a credit transfer, including remittances. Those payments methods have use cases for person to person, person to business, person to a small business, person to government mobile or on-line payment.
  • Mobile based payment, relying on MNO billing. In that specific case, the end user purchases good and when clicking on buying, he is billed on operator’s billing.

  • In addition we have been analyzing the value of the couponing and ticketing in the end-user customer journey in those different scenarios.
    Harish Natarajan, World Bank

    The Payment Systems Development Group (PSDG) of the World Bank has an experienced team which has supported comprehensive payment system reforms in more than 100 countries around the world, including many specific projects related to: implementation of large-value payment systems, retail payment systems; development of legal, regulatory and oversight framework; and, supporting the creation and implementation of National Payments System (NPS) development strategy.
    For a number of years, the World Bank has also been involved in preparing international guidance in the areas of payments and securities settlement systems, including in retail payments and government payments and in fostering global initiatives in these areas. The World Bank’s PSDG co-chaired the task force that produced the CPSS-World Bank General Principles for International Remittance Services published in 2007. In 2012 the World Bank, in consultation with an international advisory group, developed the General Guidelines for the Development of Government Payment Programs. Also in 2012, the World Bank developed the Guidelines for Developing a Comprehensive Retail Payments Strategy. Additionally, in 2009, the World Bank played a critical role in developing the 5x5 initiative in the area of international remittances – endorsed by the G8 and G20 – which aims to reduce the cost of international remittances by 5 percentage points in 5 years (ending in 2014). To support this initiative the World Bank has developed an active technical assistance program, has developed monitoring tools like the Remittances Prices Worldwide database and has leveraged public-private-partnership mechanisms in the form of the Global Remittances Working Group. In 2009, the World Bank in association with the CPSS has convened a forum to deliberate on contemporary topics in the area of retail payments; this forum has met four times since then.

    Interest in standards and innovation
    As part of the work in the retail payments area, the World Bank has a keen interest in promoting adoption of standards and innovations. The World Bank believes the adoption of common technical and usage standards for payment services facilitate interoperability and thereby widespread adoption of electronic payment instruments. The World Bank recognizes the role that innovative payment mechanisms can play in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of payment mechanisms and also the positive role they can play in enhancing financial inclusion and reduction in prices of international remittances.

    What we will cover at the workshop
    At the Web Payments Workshop, we would like to discuss our perspective on the policy considerations in the area of payment systems and the findings from the recent Global Payments Survey.
    Giri Mandyam, Qualcomm
    Qualcomm Innovation Center, a subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, is interested in participating in the W3C Web and Payment Workshop. Mobile technology has been used to assist the web payment process, but web payments can benefit from some of the recent advances in HTML5. The W3C should consider the best way to leverage new browser features that leverage mobile device hardware, while still satisfying the necessary security requirements for end users, online merchants, and payment service providers.
    Mauro Nunez, PCI Security Standards Council
    We are looking forward to attend the workshop to discuss the potential for standards covering Web payments. We support the goal of improving the end user experience and give users greater freedom in how they pay, and as such we understand that security of card holder data is an important component in this respect. The Council has issued several guidance documents related to card not present and cloud environments and it would be great if we could leverage those documents or incorporate in future updates lessons learned from activity coming out of this workshop.
    Gregory Estrade, Lyra Network
    Allow us to be a bit provocative: all card-based payment schemes are broken. They basically fail at understanding the need of both identity and anonymity, which are the critical topics that should be addressed at the Web level. Recent issues highlighted in the news about privacy, stories about sensitive data theft and global surveillance, should alert us, as citizens of the world, to how we want the future of information processing to be.
    We need to get rid of insufficient data protection schemes, avoid whenever possible the use of trust models relying on a single central authority. The problem is global, and is way beyond the scope of this document, but we still can do something about it for the subject addressed in this workshop.
    Our main concern is to find ways to enforce good practices, by participating in the definition of a set of standards that would allow seamless introduction of distributed, networked trust models, as we can find nowadays in cryptocurrencies schemes like Bitcoin or Dogecoin.
    As we are also pragmatic, and aware that such changes will take years, we will address existing payment scenarios, and hopefully pave the way for safer traditional schemes.
    Rafael Hernandez Maestro, BBVA
    The shift in consumer behaviour obliges companies to adapt or be pushed into obsolescence. The banking industry is migrating to new digital environments to compete with digital players that are consolidating financial offer based on their competences: Technology, balance sheet and customer data. Same as Banks.
    Today, competing in the online merchant acquiring industry requires understanding customers and competitors and delivering your value proposition with excellence. At BBVA, we believe that the market offers opportunities for positioning the new service successfully coupling a transactional offering with financial services.
    Cho MoonOk, SK Telecom
    I work at SK Telecom as Engineering Manager for DCB(Direct Carrier Billing) and Payment Tech. My interest is in the convergence and openness of payment tech. based on web os/browsers (Javascript APIs, HTML5 markups.. so on.). Mobile payment & wallet services are going to be integrated and evolved through applying the web tech. Here is a number of new opportunities, including the O2O Commerce.
    Bryan Sullivan, AT&T
    Making payments is already a widely familiar user experience on the web. Further integrating payment capabilities into web browsers/runtimes (e.g. via Javascript APIs or markup) or abstracting payment provider systems through virtual wallets provides new opportunities to unify/simplify the user and application developer experience. As these opportunities are considered, W3C should also promote an open payment environment in which user choice and integration of existing payment systems are key goals.
    Denis Roio, Dyne.org
    My name is Denis Roio, also known on-line as Jaromil, and I’m the executive director of the Dyne.org non-profit research organization, a foundation based in Amsterdam. Together with W3C, we are part of the EU FP7 funded project D-CENT, whose second pilot focuses on value transaction systems in the age of crypto currencies.
    The contribution of my organization to the field of socio-technical development for payment technologies and value transaction systems has been mostly theoretical and is publicly visible through the website http://DYNDY.net which gathers reflections from two ongoing Ph.D. research paths in humanities and in economy and management. It might be also worthed noting that since the year 2011 I’ve myself contributed to the Bitcoin reference implementation and to a corollary of other applications supporting the decentralized P2P protocol of such next-generation cryptocurrencies.
    Stephane Boyera, W3C
    The overall ecosystem of payments on the Web is very complex. It involves lots of building blocks (protocols, messages, APIs, authentication, identity, etc.), and this complexity is a major barrier for interoperability. This lack of interoperability and the growing number of PSP is an important threat for the Web as a global market place. It is therefore essential to work, as soon as possible, towards a set of standards that will be beneficial to all actors, and enable even further innovation in the domain.
    However, given the complexity of the architecture, standardizing and building consensus on each and every block will be a long process. As a first step, it is critical to identify key bottlenecks, and quick wins that could impact the domain in the very near future.
    As of today, one area looks quite promising: client-side API. A standardized client-side API that would support multiple PSP, a standardized messaging protocol and a minimal agreement on token description would be a major step towards global interoperability. Such model will have multiple benefits:
  • Each PSP can decide what a safe authentication is for them (SSL, mobile native apps, SIMcard auth., etc.).
  • Each user can decide the PSP he trusts, and ensure that all his personal information is only shared between him and his PSP
  • Each merchant can support very easily a growing number of PSP at very low-cost, addressing the needs of all potential customers around the world.
  • Given the approach taken by many PSP today, an initiative around these items could deliver results and impact in a very near future.
    Fernando Jimenez, Telefonica - Kumar McMillan, Mozilla
    Over the last two years Mozilla and Telefónica have been closely working on payments for Firefox OS and the web. We built an end to end payment protocol that is controlled on a user agent with the experimental navigator.mozPay() API. But we learnt in the process that this kind of end to end protocol might be too restrictive for the web. The web needs lower level building blocks to make payments more secure, easier to implement, easier to use and open to all parties. This paper outlines these lessons learned and potential alternatives to improve payments in the web.
    Andy McKay, Mozilla
    I’d like to attend the Workshop on Web Payments in Paris in March. I work at Mozilla on the Firefox Marketplace team as Engineering Manager for Payments. I’m helping shepherd Mozilla’s efforts on payments and figuring out browser vendors can help out developers, users and payment providers. I’ve helped implement the current payment technologies at Mozilla.
    Michele Sartori, Oberthur Technologies
    OT is a world leader in digital security solutions for the mobility space. OT has always been at the heart of mobility, from the first smart cards to the latest contactless payment technologies which equip millions of smartphones. Present in the Payment, Telecommunications and Identity markets, OT offers end-to-end solutions in the Smart Transactions, Mobile Financial Services, Machine-to-Machine, Digital Identity and Transport & Access Control fields. OT employs over 6 000 employees worldwide, including 600 R&D people. With more than 50 sales offices across 5 continents and 10 facilities, OT’s international network serves clients in 140 countries. For more information: www.oberthur.com.
    Lars Erik Bolstad, Opera Software
    Opera's products enable more than 350 million internet consumers to discover and connect with the content and services that matter most to them, no matter what device, network or location. We consider an open standards-based payment solution to be one of the most important pieces missing in the web platform, and see this workshop as a very good opportunity to meet some of the main stakeholders.
    Curtis Young, Shanghai Hongchuang WEB Technology Service Co., Ltd.
    This document describes an online-paying method (HIEP Paying Network) that realizes the paying addressing on the basis of HTTP protocol. It is for the purpose to setup a normative and safe E-paying system formulation, and specify the definition of E-paying. The special char for hiep Identifier is named in the overall situation and is cited as an unique one, that is used to mark the paying add. or paying domain name on the WEB Service module. By making a special char for hiep extension mark for HTML, and designing of definition template, it can realize the online-paying solution by comprehensive services of communication, calculation, control and mass data operation on the base of an E-Wallet frame by special char for hiep paying add. space data and internet storage
    Alex Waters, CoinValidation
    The Internet was developed as a way of sharing information and it has revolutionized our ability to do so. As it was originally developed, however, the protocols underlying the Internet were not focused on financial transfers and global finance. To a large extent, much of the infrastructure of the banking system has been built on top of existing web structures. The Bitcoin network is another network created in 2009 that was designed specifically to address the concerns of global finance in a digital world. While the currency and its volatility has attracted much media attention, the protocol for creating a decentralized system of value transfer has even greater potential and can solve many problems. Bitcoin is a big step forward in terms of applying technology to money and its implications are vast. This paper seeks to both give an overview of Bitcoin, as well as address some of the regulatory concerns and how our company has been working with governments to ensure the greatest leveraging of these advances.
    Neil Mason-Jones, Trans Africa Solutions
    Trans Africa Solutions is a Sub-Saharan African-based internet payment solution provider that focuses on reaching consumers in emerging markets. We have an unusual set of use cases relating to markets with limited integration into formal banking systems. Our contribution will provide insight into challenges in markets that are rarely considered.
    Robin Berjon, W3C
    Payment is a broad and innovative domain and in integrating it more closely with the Web we need to ensure that we do not impede its creative and potentially disruptive nature by enshrining specific payment solutions as they exist today. This paper outlines an architectural approach that enables the integration of powerful payment systems in today's Web without preventing radical innovation in future.
    The position outlined in this paper is solely my own and does not necessarily reflect that of the W3C as an organisation.
    Karl Johan V Heimark, Telenor
    The Telenor Group is one of the world’s major mobile operators with more than 160 million mobile subscriptions. We have mobile operations in 13 markets spanning from highly developed markets in Scandianavia to developing markets in Eastern Europe and Asia.
    The payment team in Telenor Digital main focus has been to enable payment solutions through mobile payment for Telenor customers inn all Telenor Group markets. Now we also focus on creating universial web payment solutions integrated with Telenors global id. We want to create seamless solutions for all web devices.
    Kris Ketels, SWIFT
    SWIFT is the financial industry’s cooperative. It provides the global financial community with a highly secure and reliable network to exchange electronic financial messages. The essential components of the SWIFT system are:
  • An electronic messaging service spanning 209 countries enabling financial institutions to exchange data securely, reliably and quickly.
  • ISO 20022 based message standards for the financial industry. By providing these standardised messages, SWIFT enables financial institutions to automate their data processing, thereby lowering operational risks, cutting costs and improving efficiency in their businesses. All information about this free and open standard can be found at http://www.iso20022.org.
  • SWIFT is extending its offering of supporting services (Reference Data, KYC etc) by exposing them also as web services:
  • on a common API platform,
  • using open APIs based on ISO 20022 components,
  • fostering interoperability between its core financial messaging services and these supporting web services, as they are both based on the same ISO 20022 concepts.
  • We strongly believe that ISO 20022's unique methodology, separating the financial semantics from their implementation is perfectly suited to serve both SWIFT’s traditional messages and its API based web services, and for that matter, in wider scope any web based financial services.
    David Ezell, NACS
    NACS[1] is an international trade association representing more than 2,200 retail and 1,600 supplier company members. NACS member companies do business in nearly 50 countries worldwide, with the majority of members based in the United States. The U.S. convenience store industry, with more than 149,000 stores across the country, posted $700 billion in total sales in 2012, of which $501 billion were motor fuels sales.
    While 47 of the top 50 convenience store companies in the United States are members of NACS, the majority of its members are small, independent operators.
    Advocacy with regard to Payment Systems is a key focus for NACS. As part of our advocacy mission, NACS continues to work with merchant and other industry organizations to build a broad coalition to support and educate Congress and federal agencies on the need for a uniform standard in the area of personal identification and payment authentication for all payment platforms. In light of recent news stories regarding security breaches, now more than ever leadership in Congress is needed, and NACS is playing an active role in working to share our unique perspective as policy makers consider data breach and cybersecurity legislation.
    NACS believes that the Web Payments initiative could have substantial value for its members and their customers.

    [1] previously known as the "National Association of Convenience Stores."
    Gerard P. Hammarlund, End Result group
    The primary purpose of to this discussion paper is to begin a dialog around the concept of Sky Peer-to- Peer banking in order to uncover and further define its underlying principles and the necessary steps to make it a reality for everyone around the globe. A further goal is to gain a robust understanding of the innovators in this area and thus evaluate them with the intention of making an informed decision as to how each should be viewed and understand what role they will eventually play within the overall scheme.
    Ye Tian, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)
    In our paper, we propose to start the standardization of information management and exchange based on ID, which standardize the way of using and supporting IDs in different aspects of e-commerce. As well, it standardizes the communication among all the roles. This standardization can not only provide customers more information of products but also provide stakeholders a way of authenticating and communicating with each other.
    Manu Sporny, W3C Web Payments Community Group
    The Web Payments Community Group provides an inclusive venue where web payment solutions, regardless of their origin, can be incubated, evaluated, refined, and tested. The focus of the group is to promote open Web payment innovations based primarily on their technical merit. Members of the group include Bloomberg, Mozilla, Yandex, Telefonica, Opera, Citigroup, UK Government Digital Service, Ripple Labs, and over 129 other people and organizations that are innovating payment solutions for the Web. The group brings together individuals with decades of payment experience and has identified key payment problem areas on the Web where standardization could greatly improve the speed, security, ease of use, and accuracy of financial transactions. The group would like to present the payment problem areas it has identified that could be helped by standardized solutions to the Web Payments Workshop participants. These problem areas include: Products, Transactions, Receipts, Identity, Payment Security, and Web Services.
    Sean Safahi, Yoyocard
    Yoyocard is a financial tech startup focused on bringing liquidity to digital currency. Currently, accessing digital currency assets for real world spending is difficult. Only a handful of retailers accept digital currency directly, and converting digital assets to fiat funds is clunky and time consuming. Yoyocard bridges gap by creating an instant, convenient and recognizable solution for real world spending.

    Yoyocard's CEO, Sean Safahi, has an extensive background in payments and alternative spending solutions. By working in the current system he has identified the opportunities and benefits of implementing a unified, global payment system. With the recent interest in alternative currencies such as Bitcoin, it is increasingly apparent that the desire for better payment solutions is widespread. Yoyocard believes that building a bridge that connects the new solutions to the current system is integral in gaining mainstream acceptance and adoption of any new technology.

    With strong knowledge and contacts in both the current payments world as well as the emerging markets, Yoyocard will be a valuable asset to the W3C workshop. We have been participating in discussions around revolutionizing payments at industry events, as well as engaging directly with regulators and key players.
    Dave Raggett, W3C
    The burden on developers to support an increasing range of payment solutions, and the desire by users for greater freedom of choice and improved usability point to the need for an intermediary between web applications requesting payments, and payment solutions. This intermediary can be thought of as a virtual wallet. Users should be free to install and uninstall payment solutions just as for a real (physical) wallet.

    Standards work could be initiated first for the interface between a web application and the browser, and then for the interface between the browser and the wallet, and the wallet and the payment solutions. These standards should aim to improve the user experience, and must ensure a level playing field for payment solutions, as any bias will negatively impact free competition amongst payment solution providers. Future work could address person to person payments, and offline payments.
    Harrie Vollaard, Rabobank
    A global standard for the purchasing process is going to have an impact on global business from several perspectives:
    A global set of standards will help with the interoperability of moving funds from one individual/value platform to another, enable users to have the added transparency of knowing where their payment is within the overall process, support the unbanked in becoming part of the regulated financial landscape, enable new retail business models, improve convenience and at the same time making the process more cost effective.

    The invoicing process has been a headache for businesses for years. A global standard for moving information around a specific purchase of products via the web would be a very welcome outcome of this initiative not only for businesses but also for banks. A unified global standard would not only allow banks to offer better standard services to its corporate customers, but also enable the banks to offer more specialized financing options that will help with a company’s working capital and all in an environment of better cost efficiency.

    The purchasing process of retail customers begins well before they login to a website to purchase a product and ends well after the customer logs out. In a sense, it is a continual process that can be and will be supported by the implementation of a global standard of purchasing on the web. By fully understanding the end customers’ needs banks will be able to implement new business models and lower the overall transaction costs to the end customer.

    As an innovator in the international payments industry, Rabobank is well place to give an insider’s view on what the international needs are of the customer. If these standards are put together only from either a customer, or a technology, or a retail perspective, it would be lacking many needed ingredients to be a global success for all customer segments and service providers worldwide. Therefore, it is important for Rabobank and for many banks for that matter, to be involved in this process from the beginning in order to add the experiences they have had in this area to the initial foundational phases of this discuss. From a specific Rabobank perspective, it is to discuss and validate the resulting business model for the bank.
    Ori Eiden, 41st Parameter
    Over the last 15 years I have held positions in both merchant and issuer, as well as starting 41st Parameter which was acquired by Experian recently. My expertise in both security, fraud and payment will allow me to add value and bring visionary ideas to the discussion. My bio
    Natasha Rooney, GSMA
    The GSMA represents the interests of mobile operators worldwide. Spanning more than 220 countries, the GSMA unites nearly 800 of the world’s mobile operators with 250 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem. Collaboratively with our members the GSMA runs and manages the Mobile Commerce programme. The programme covers a range of areas in an effort to accelerating the global deployment of open and interoperable mobile commerce services whilst offering security through embedded secure elements such as the SIM. In addition to working on standards and implementations of Near Field Communications (NFC) the programme also addresses the business opportunities for mobile payments within the Retail and Transport ecosystems.
    Of most interest to the Workshop on Payments will be the mCommerce work on online payments, finance and mobile wallets; these topics lend themselves to advanced security measures, necessary innovations in ease of use and a deep understanding of trust between a consumer and a provider. The GSMA would therefore like to express its interest in attending the Workshop on Payments, and would also like to provide a position paper entitled “Future of Payments utilising the Web and Mobile Operator Technology Enablers”.
    Evgeny Vinogradov, Yandex Money
    Yandex.Money is the largest electronic payment service in Russia. It has offered easy, safe, and reliable methods of paying for purchases online for more than 15 years. As of mid-2013, the system had over 16 million accounts and handled more than more than 150,000 payments per day. According to TNS, Yandex.Money is Russia’s best-known payment service: 84% of Russians are familiar with it. Accepted by over 50,000 internet stores, primarily in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and China, it is also usable in "brick and mortar" settings such as taxis and ATMs. We believe that a global standard for web payments must address:
  • A complete payment flow scheme:
    • offer acceptance format;
    • payment type selection;
    • confirmation;
    • declined or cancelled payments; and
    • recurring/repeated payment.
  • Universal markup for the receiver's account details (something like “mailto:” for money transfers)
  • Documentation of security, data storage, and international regulatory issues.
  • User Interface guidelines
  • We propose to present on the issues of markup for description of the receiver's account details and payment type selection at the upcoming workshop. A particular aim of our participation is to share our experience in the Russian-speaking market. This is a very diverse area, with distinct regulatory frameworks.
    Rafael Otero, CTO and founder of payleven
    Naming the top-three most boring business segments, chances are high that payment is one of them. Consider big banks – don’t they seem as ancient as the Egyptian pyramids? Now, with a little help from the digital revolution – namely the rise of mobile, fast data connectivity and the development of powerful smart phones/tablets – the old face of payment is getting a makeover. mPOS (mobile point of sale), often broadly referred to as Mobile Payment, is a new, disruptive solution challenging traditional point of sale card solutions. And this is just the beginning...
    Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München
    My group is developing and maintaining GoodRelations, a comprehensive Web vocabulary for e-commerce on the Web, which has been adopted by tens of thousands of sites and is the new, official e-commerce data model for schema.org. I would like to participate in the workshop and related work, because I see a need for incorporating support for modeling payment-related information in RDFa or Microdata or JSON-LD in Web site content and transactions into GoodRelations and schema.org.We are planning to submit a position paper in due time, likely entitled "Payment Information and Structured Data in Web Content: Issues and Recommendations" A result of this contribution could be extended support for expressing payment choices in offers, and payment information in transaction data, via GoodRelations and schema.org.
    Eric Tak, Global head of Cards and eCommerce Solutions, ING Commercial Banking
    ING - both in Commercial Banking as in Consumer Banking actively strives for ever more reliable, easy and safe payments options for existing and emerging channel's for buying/selling. Being active in over 40 countries we have a good overview of what solutions are deployed in different countries and to date this has not delivered any consistent solution that is globally accepted, endorsed or deployed while simultaneously being of good value to both payers and payees. While we have local successes like with the ePayments schemes iDeal in the Netherlands that was co-developed by three large Dutch banks and gained a 60% market share all of these successes are local. This means that internationally active merchants and service providers must integrate and accept a multitude of widely different payment solutions in all the countries they are active in leading to
  • high integration and maintenance cost for merchants
  • Acceptance issues for consumers when making purchases (online) in other countries
  • Lack of scale that could yield efficiencies and would drive low prices for end-users
  • ING has always played an active role at the forefront of payments standardization through active participation in workgroups and boards of European Payments Council, MasterCard/Visa, PCI SSC, SWIFT, EBA, ISO etc. We would like to use the knowledge acquired and ideas developed in our international knowledge groups on these subjects to further the aims of w3.org and specifically the workshops (and subsequent activities) on Web Payments.
    Mark D EVANS , Global Payments and cash management, HSBC
    HSBC recognises that the use of standards to support web-payment capabilities is important to our customers, and would welcome the opportunity to be involved in the W3C Workshop on Web Payments in March. HSBC Group continues to place increasing emphasis on the development of web-based and digital services for its four Global Businesses, and the development of a common/standard web-based protocol for payments has benefits for our customers, and for our customer's customer. HSBC is an active participant in setting payment standards, having been a member of SWIFT for many years and regularly in the top 3 of banks globally for SWIFT volume. Today, we support clients that transact with us via numerous standards including BAI, FINSTA, MT940, CRG PAYMUL and XML. We are an active participant in the development of the ISO 20022 XML messaging standard, and have embraced the collaboration/standardisation of Payment Messages for Corporate/Commercial Banking, which we would like to extend to Web-Payments. In more recent times, HSBC has deployed mobile payment capabilities for both our consumer and corporate customers. See these examples: http://www.finextra.com/news/fullstory.aspx?newsitemid=25569 http://www.hsbcnet.com/online/rich_media/hsbcnet-mobile-promo/mobile_promo.html
    Lei Zhibin James, Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute (ASTRI)
    As the designated Research and Development Centre for Information and Communications Technologies in Hong Kong, ASTRI is responsible for formulating the strategies, setting up the standards, developing the core technology platforms, and promoting the adoption of the ICT technologies for the local and regional industry and market. Mobile and web technologies are among the central themes of ASTRI R&D effort. And payment technologies have significant impact for Hong Kong industry not only because Hong Kong is one of the world's largest financial center, but also because it is the springboard to the vast market in mainland China. Many of our customers, partners, and stake holders aim at the Chinese market for next generation e-commerce and web technologies in order to leverage the booming economy and market development. Payment technologies have close relationship to many of our ICT technology platforms and solutions.
    Johan Gellatly, Altron
    In the existing portfolio we have the capability to transact real-time financial transactions via an independent fully PCI and EMV compliant financial transaction switch connected to all the financial institutions in our country. We provide this capability as a white label service or an independent aggregator service to the SME and SMME business sector. As part of this service we offer a fully compliant PCI and EMV secure web payment gateway for any type of EFT payment transaction. Additional to this straight through processing capability we have a range of early debit order products that range from authorised (card present) to normal (card not present) transactions against pay back contracts. We have recently embarked on adding the mobile channel for the range of products which in itself poses security and authorisation challenges by not having a set of agreed to industry standards for this technology channel. We also provide secure data transaction to the medical industry whereby we provide medical practitioners with practice management software that connect to our data switch that connects to all the medical aid funders to securely facilitate electronic submission of member claims. We have various projects that have embarked on providing our various services as a hosted cloud service hence it would be extremely beneficial to us should we be afforded the opportunity to participate in this world leading event.
    Angeles Marzo, ING DIRECT
    ING direct is the most recommended bank in Spain, with no fees and a fair value for money proposition, perceived as the most innovative bank. It has won the top employer award for the last 2 years. As part of my responsibilities I am in charge of leading a group focusing on innovation in payment needs. The team is focusing on p2p solutions, mobile payments in store and e-wallet alternatives, both locally and globally. On top of these technical solutions, we are also doing a design thinking process to focus more on customer needs in order to integrate the technical solutions with true value added services. Being a leading Technology bank but still with a limited market share (4%) we are very interested in finding world standard solutions that offer easy and convenient solutions to our customers.
    Dr Louise Bennett, Chair of the BCS - Security Community of Expertise andIdentity Assurance Working Group.
    Our interest is in the whole field of Identity Governance on the Internet, including transactions involving payments and the associated standards and liability models. We have been working on this topic internationally through EURODIG and UNIGF among other Fora for the last three years.
    Bailey Reutzel, technology reporter at PaymentsSource
    Position Paper abstract: Bitcoin may have been built on the idea that cryptography is more efficient than trust, but as the digital currency continues to grow out of enterprising startups, trust isn't displaced; it's redistributed in the cryptography itself. In its first several years, the digital currency may have been an underground means of transacting, but Bitcoin is now above ground. And micropayments-there's a direct impact on my livelihood as a journalist-is one of the more intriguing cases for the new digital payments system.