REC-CSS2-19980512Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 CSS2revision 1
CSS 2.1 Specification

W3C Candidate Recommendation 12-May-199825 February 2004

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Bert Bos < bbos@w3.org ><bert @w3.org>
Tantek Çelik <tantekc @microsoft.com>
Ian Hickson <ian @hixie.ch>
Håkon Wium Lie < howcome@w3.org > Chris Lilley < chris@w3.org > Ian Jacobs < ij@w3.org ><howcome @opera.com>

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: plain text, gzip'ed tar file, zip file, gzip'ed PostScript, PDF. See also translations.


This specification defines Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2). CSS2level 2 revision 1 (CSS 2.1). CSS 2.1 is a style sheet language that allows authors and users to attach style (e.g., fonts, spacing,fonts and aural cues)spacing) to structured documents (e.g., HTML documents and XML applications). By separating the presentation style of documents from the content of documents, CSS2CSS 2.1 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance.

CSS 2.1 builds on CSS2 [CSS2] which builds on CSS1 (see[CSS1] ) and, with very few exceptions, all valid CSS1 style sheets are valid CSS2 style sheets. CSS2. It supports media-specific style sheets so that authors may tailor the presentation of their documents to visual browsers, aural devices, printers, braille devices, handheld devices, etc. This specificationIt also supports content positioning, downloadable fonts,table layout, features for internationalization, automatic counters and numbering,internationalization and some properties related to user interface.

StatusCSS 2.1 corrects a few errors in CSS2 (the most important being a new definition of this document This document has been reviewed by W3C Membersthe height/width of absolutely positioned elements, more influence for HTML's "style" attribute and other interested partiesa new calculation of the 'clip' property), and hasadds a few highly requested features which have already been endorsed by the Director aswidely implemented. But most of all CSS 2.1 represents a W3C Recommendation."snapshot" of CSS usage: it is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited as a normative reference from another document. W3C's role in makingconsists of all CSS features that are implemented interoperably at the Recommendation is to draw attention todate of publication of the specification and to promote its widespread deployment.Recommendation.

Status of this document

This enhancessection describes the functionality and interoperabilitystatus of this document at the Web.time of its publication. Other documents may supersede it. A list of current W3C Recommendationspublications and otherthe latest revision of this technical documentsreport can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR . Public discussion of CSS features takes place on www-style@w3.orghttp://www.w3.org/TR/.

Available formats The CSS2 specificationThis is available in the following formats: HTML: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512a plain text file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.txt , HTML as a gzip'ed tar file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.tgz , HTMLW3C Candidate Recommendation, which means the specification has been widely reviewed and W3C recommends that it be implemented. It will remain Candidate Recommendation at least until 1 September 2004.

Publication as a zip file (this is a '.zip' fileCandidate Recommendation does not an '.exe'): http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.zip , as wellimply endorsement by the W3C Membership. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

A gzip'ed PostScript file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.ps.gz ,test suite and a PDF file: http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/css2.pdf . In case ofreport on implementations will be provided before the document becomes a discrepancy betweenProposed Recommendation.

The various forms(archived) public mailing list www-style@w3.org (see instructions) is preferred for discussion of this and other specifications in the specification, http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512 is consideredStyle area. When commenting on this document, please put the definitive version. Available languagestext "CSS21" in the English versionsubject, preferably like this: "[CSS21] <summary of comment>"

This specificationdocument is produced by the only normative version. However,CSS working group (part of the Style Activity, see summary).

Patent disclosures relevant to CSS may be found on the Working Group's public patent disclosure page.

Candidate Recommendation Exit Criteria

For translationsthis specification to exit the CR stage, the following conditions must be met:

  1. There must be at least two interoperable implementations for every feature. For the purposes of this criterion, we define the following terms:


    A section or subsection of the specification.


    passing the respective test cases in the test suite, or, if the implementation is not a web browser, equivalent tests. Every relevant test in the test suite should have an equivalent test created if such a UA is to be used to claim interoperability. In addition if such a UA is to be used to claim interoperability, then there must one or more additional UAs which can also pass those equivalent tests in the same way for the purpose of interoperability. The equivalent tests must be made publicly available for the purposes of peer review.


    a user agent which:

    1. implements the feature.
    2. is available (i.e. publicly downloadable or available through some other languages see http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/translations.html . Erratapublic point of sale mechanism). This is the list"show me" requirement.
    3. is shipping (i.e. development, private or unofficial versions are insufficient).
    4. is not experimental (i.e. is intended for a wide audience and could be used on a daily basis).
  2. A minimum of known errors insix months of the CR period must have elapsed. This specificationis available at http://www.w3.org/Style/css2-updates/REC-CSS2-19980512-errata.html . Please reportto ensure that enough time is given for any remaining major errors in this documentto css2-editors@w3.org .be caught.

  3. The CR period will be extended if implementations are slow to appear.

  4. Features that were not in CSS1 will be dropped (thus reducing the list of "all" features mentioned above) if two or more interoperable implementations of those features are not found by the end of the CR period.

  5. Features will also be dropped if sufficient and adequate tests (by judgment of the working group) have not been produced for those features by the end of the CR period.

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