WebGPIO and WebI2C implementations for Node.js have been released.
Using these, you will be able to build headless applications on low-power board computers like the Raspberry Pi Zero.
There are also CHIRIMEN tutorials for several models (Raspberry Pi, Pi Zero, micro:bit, ty51822r3) that have been put together as a development environment. The tutorial homepage is here.
The tutorial includes a device driver library using WebI2C for easy use of dozens of I2C devices.
And there are resources available for beginners to enjoy easier prototyping.