Proceedings from RDIG Discussion of Making Collaboration Technologies Accessible for Persons with Disabilities
This discussion was held on 28 April 2003.
Mark Hakkinen - Chair of Research and Development Interest Group,
Jan Richards - University of Toronto ATRC
Social Interaction Web Sites and Web Adaptation
Alison Lee- IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Labs
- Transcript: Social Interaction Web Sites and Web Adaptation
- Slides: Social Interaction Web Sites and Web Adaptation (@@link)
- Paper: Social Interaction Web Sites and Web Adaptation
CRUNCH - Web-based Collaboration for Persons with Disabilities
Suhit Gupta and Gail Kaiser - Columbia University
- Transcript: CRUNCH - Web-based Collaboration for Persons with Disabilities
- Slides: CRUNCH - Web-based Collaboration for Persons with Disabilities (@@link)
- Paper: CRUNCH - Web-based Collaboration for Persons with Disabilities
Translation, Modality Transformation and Assistance Services -- Research and Infrastructure Development
Gottfried Zimmermann, Trace R&D Center, University of Wisconsin
- Transcript: Translation, Modality Transformation and Assistance Services -- Research and Infrastructure Development
- Slides: Translation, Modality Transformation and Assistance Services -- Research and Infrastructure Development
- Paper: Translation, Modality Transformation and Assistance Services -- Research and Infrastructure Development
1) Computer mediated collaborative tools, both synchronous and asynchronous, can support accessibility in many ways.
Existing W3C WAI guidelines, such as WCAG 1.0, UAAG 1.0 and AUUG 1.0, are suitable for collaborative tools although some additional guidelines may also be needed. Sample accessibility barriers in the current tools:
- missing alternatives to the media used for communication e.g. captions for audio discussions, alt text and long desc for discussed, images, descriptive voice for video information, explanations for white board drawings
- easy navigation needed both within and between different tools by different media
- users with cognitive disabilities may need images explaining text in text chat or other similar tools
Research question: What additional guidelines are needed?
2) Users need easy control mechanisms of all synchronous information streams
Collaborative tools often provide inadequate means for control when information in one media need to be transformed to an alternative media. This is especially true with when going from spatial e.g. visual media to sequential e.g. audio media. Examples:
- audio users need to be able to control when to hear text chat lines or captions so that it does not mix with presenter's speech
- a nonvisual user needs to be able to navigate a drawing to gain understanding of its structure and components while also being able to follow the discussion on phone, text irc etc.
Research question: What kinds of controls are needed to best support alternative media in synchronous communication tools?
3) Accessible design principles for social interfaces are needed.
Social interfaces tell users real time information about the communities they belong to. Some important information may not be available to users with disabilities as tools offer it only via one media. For instance, users who don't see might not know who is talking, that someone just left the meeting room, or that others are looking you through a camera. Examples of information that might be important:
- Information about people in the communities, including awareness
- who is communicating/speaking right now (on a phone bridge, in a portal, in an instant messaging system ...)
- who is in speaker queue, who is speaking right now
- who is available for a chat
- who belongs to this group
- whose opinions I trust
- who is located near me
- Accessible information about history and future activities, also authoring
- Accessible information about documents that are created/reviewed by the community, also authoring
Research question: What information is important in social interfaces? How to provide that information in alternative media?
Research question: What guidelines are needed to ensure information about privacy also in alternative media?
4) Some communities can support accessibility collaboratively
Communities may be able to provide accessibility information collaboratively. For instance, Gottfried had an example of correcting captions in real time by the user community. Other similar examples:
- adding explanations to drawings or images
- adding explanations to video e.g. if someone is coming to visit me I can look from the video or GPS and map info that is sent via their cell phone and give directions when he/she is lost
- people in the same bus/train/location may volunteer to answer questions
- people in the same bus route may vonlunteer to add explanations of surroundings to a database, based on GPS
Research question: What kinds of tasks are suitable for providing accessibility information collaboratively? What kinds of tools are needed?
5) More research and examples and guidelines are needed for using visualizations especially presenting them in alternative media
Visualizations try to show connections and differences in huge amounts of information often in innovative ways. For instance, in Alison's last slide users can notice the groups of dots and the dots with different colors almost immediately and ask more information about the ones that look interesting.
It would be interesting to develop automatic audio descriptions of the visualized scenes based on what the users usually are interested in. Also the visualizations may be associated with a list of questions that users can ask. CORDA has some examples of automatically created descriptions from scientific data. However, it is often useful for humans to also give some comparisons and not just exact values e.g. mortality for lung cancer is abt. 5 units, while the next cancer types are less than 2 units, and the rest are a less than 1/5 uni
Research question: How could innovative visualizations be presented for people who don't see them?
WAI WCAG WG is discussing about "accessible graphics" and what that means. There are some guidelines forreading and writing text descriptions of complex data and some research links about accessibility of visualizations and scientific data:
- Excerpts from the NBA Tape Recording Manual, Third Edition
- University of Corvallis has research on visualization for blind people and smart figures using SVG (list of publications)
Research question: What are the differences when creating graphics intended to be viewed, spoken or printed? How to integrate the information so that it is suitable for all these tasks?
Often users with cognitive disabilities might benefit of even more visualizations or images associated with the words in the text. Some visualization might show the users in the virtual conference and change their appearance when they are talking or when they are in a line waiting to ask questions. Other visualizations might help to understand the documents or slides that are being currently discussed or waiting to be discussed.
Research question: What other information could be visualized to help user's with cognitive disabilities?
Some research also exists on using gestures and sound, touch etc. to present the spatial relations.
6) Segmentation heuristics of Web documents important to support navigation, handheld devices
Gupta used information about the pages and some heuristics to understand the stucture and different information areas.
- DOM tree can add information about the structure of the Web page
- link ratio may define if something is main text or a navigation bar
It was important that content is not lost in the page transformations so that user's can always get everything they want.
Research question: What kind of metadata vocabulary would be helpful to use on the pages itself to make segmentation easier and more accurate? Are there changes that should be done to the languages themselves?
7) Design principles are needed for accessibility related Web services to help integrate services together
It should be easy to adjust the services to different user needs and used devices
Research question: How to best adjust the services to different user needs and devices so that the user has the ultimate control? What kind of vocabulary (e.g. in CC/PP) is needed?
If information is presented via different media the other media should adjust so that the user can concentrate on the content. For instance, having many services that offer content simultaneously in audio is not acceptable, they need to negotiate and let user have the final control.
Research question: What kinds of mechanisms are needed in Web services to automatically negotiate what service has control of the media streams and let user manually override that when necessary?
- What additional guidelines are needed?
- What kinds of controls are needed to best support alternative media in synchronous communication tools?
- What information is important in social interfaces? How to provide that information in alternative media?
- What guidelines are needed to ensure information about privacy also in alternative media?
- What kinds of tasks are suitable for providing accessibility information collaboratively? What kinds of tools are needed?
- How could innovative visualizations be presented for people who don't see them?
- What are the differences when creating graphics intended to be viewed, spoken or printed? How to integrate the information so that it is suitable for all these tasks?
- What other information could be visualized to help user's with cognitive disabilities?
- What kind of metadata vocabulary would be helpful to use on the pages itself to make segmentation easier and more accurate? Are there changes that should be done to the languages themselves?
- How to best adjust the services to different user needs and devices so that the user has the ultimate control? What kind of vocabulary (e.g. in CC/PP) is needed?
- What kinds of mechanisms are needed in Web services to automatically negotiate what service has control of the media streams and let user manually override that when necessary?
Additional Position Papers
discussions: advance planning, cultural sensitivity, and thinking
Beth Archibald, UserWorks, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
Content Delivery to Assist Blind Students in Accessing Course
M. Emin Donderler, K. Selcuk Candan, T. Hedgpeth, S. Panchanathan, Arizona State University
Software Development Communityware: e-Duet
*Atsuo Hazeyama, *Masatoshi Shimakage, and **Tsutomu Ishide * Tokyo Gakugei University, Japan ** Sakurabashi Junior High School, Tokyo, Japan
Collaboratories for Users with Special Needs: Human-Computer Interaction
(HCI) Framework to Support the Disabled
Vesper Owei, Abiodun Bada and Manny Aniebonam, Geroge Washington University
- Software for
K. M. Swigger, Ferda Alpaslan, R.P.Brazile, and Brian Harrington, Department of Computer Science University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 2 Department of Computer Engineering , Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
[summary of IPR from RDIG charter?]