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Review Teams for Evaluating Web Site Accessibility


This document describes the optimum composition, training, and operation of teams of reviewers evaluating accessibility of Web sites, based on experience from individuals and organizations who have been evaluating accessibility of Web sites for a number of years. The combination of perspectives afforded by a team rather than individual approach to Web site evaluation can improve the quality of evaluation. It provides links to potential training resources related to types of expertise needed in Web site evaluation, and suggests practices for effective coordination and communication during the review process.

The description of Web accessibility review teams in this document is informative, and not associated with any certification of review teams. Operation of Web accessibility review teams according to the description in this document does not guarantee evaluation results consistent with any given law or regulation pertaining to Web accessibility.

This document does not address repair of inaccessible Web sites. The recommended process for evaluation of Web site accessibility, and selection of software for evaluation, is addressed in a separate document, Evaluating Web Sites for Accessibility.

Composition of Review Teams

Areview team, rather than individuals, is the optimum approach for evaluating accessibility of Web sites because of the advantages that the different perspectives on a review team can bring. It is possible for individuals to evaluate Web site accessibility effectively, particularly if they have good training and experience in a variety of areas, including expertise with the increasing number of semi-automated evaluation tools for Web accessibility. However, it is less likely that one individual will have all the training and experience that a team approach can bring.

Affiliations among members of review teams may vary. For instance, a team might be a group of colleagues working in the same physical office space, or they might be a team of volunteers communicating consistently by email but located in different countries and working for different organizations.

Likewise the nature of review teams as organizations may vary. For instance, the review team might operate as a for-profit business enterprise; or as an assigned monitoring and oversight group within a corporation or government ministry; or strictly on a voluntary basis.

Expertise of Review Teams

Review teams should have expertise in the following areas. Links to potential training resources are provided, although in areas such as use of assistive technologies and adaptive strategies, the most effective review approach can be inclusion of users with different disabilities.

Operation of Review Teams

Communicate review process and expectations in advance

Depending upon the type of review, the review process may start with advance communication about how the review will be conducted, whether the results will be public or private, how the results will be presented, how much follow-up guidance will be given, etc. In instances where review teams are fulfilling a monitoring, oversight, or advocacy function, this advance notice may not be necessary.

Coordinate review process and communication of results

Most review teams will maintain a private e-mail discussion list for internal exchange of preliminary results during the process of reviewing a site, and for coordinating on one summary of the results from the review team.

Reference specific checkpoints when explaining results

Reports from review teams are most effective when they cite and link to specific WCAG 1.0 checkpoints which are not conformed to.

Compare evaluation results with other review teams

Review teams can benefit from periodically comparing summaries of Web site reviews with other teams as a quality check.

Provide feedback on guidelines and implementation support resources

Feedback on implementation support resources contributes to improving the quality of review tools and processes for all. Where possible, provide feedback on accessibility guidelines and implementation support resources, including the following:

Nominate Web sites for WAI Gallery

Review teams with the composition and training described in this document, that evaluate Web sites using the conformance assessment method described in Evaluating Web Sites for Accessibility, may nominate Web sites for the WAI Gallery. Such nominations will be either reviewed by WAI staff or cross-reviewed by another review team that meets the criteria decribed here. As W3C/WAI establishes a gallery framework, information on how to nominate Web sites for the WAI Gallery will be posted here.

Level Double-A conformance icon, Last revised: $Date: 2005/01/11 11:02:56 $

Editors: Judy Brewer, with assistance from participants of the EOWG

Note: This is a WAI Resource developed by W3C/WAI's Education and Outreach Working Group (EOWG). We invite review and discussion. Please address your feedback to, a mailing list with a public archive.
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