W3CWeb Accessibility initiative

WAI: Strategies, guidelines, resources to make the Web accessible to people with disabilities

Editors Draft: $Date: 2009/12/08 00:48:40 $ [changelog]
Status: This document is a draft and should not be referenced or quoted under any circumstances. A published version of a similar document is at: www.w3.org/WAI/eval/users.html. Please send comments to wai-eo-editors@w3.org (a publicly archived list).

[Draft] Involving Users in Web Projects for Better, Easier Accessibility

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Involving people with disabilities from the beginning of a project helps you better understand accessibility issues and implement more effective accessibility solutions. It also broadens your perspective in a way that can lead you to discover new ways of thinking about your product that will make it work better for more people in more situations.

This applies when designing and developing:

This page gets you started reaping the benefits of involving people with disabilities and older people with accessibility needs due to aging, throughout your projects.

How Involving Users Early Helps

Including users early in projects helps you understand real-world accessibility issues, such as how people with disabilities and older people use the Web with adaptive strategies and assistive technologies. This results in better products for users, more efficient development, and other benefits to project stakeholders.

Better Accessibility and Better Usability for All Users

When developers understand accessibility issues, they can implement more effective accessibility solutions; for example, their website will work better and be more usable for people with disabilities, older users, and other target groups. Making websites and web tools more usable for people with a range of disabilities improves general usability for everybody, including people without disabilities. (You could say that involving users with disabilities in your development project gives you improved usability for free.)

This benefits not only users, but also stakeholders; for example, when websites get increased use and other business benefits from increased accessibility.

More Efficient Development

Including users in the development process helps you more efficiently develop accessible products that work well for real users in real situations, thus maximizing your return on investment (ROI) in accessibility.

When you understand how people use the Web and your particular product, you can:

All these benefit developers, project managers, and other stakeholders.


When designers and developers see people with disabilities use products like theirs, most are highly motivated by a new understanding of accessibility. Rather than seeing accessibility as only a checklist item, the real-life experience shows the human side of accessibility. Designers and developers get a different level of understanding of the opportunity for their work to impact lives.

When managers and stakeholders share such experiences of people with disabilities using their products, it often helps get resources budgeted and scheduled to address accessibility well.

How to Involve Users throughout Your Project

This section focuses on including real people in the process. Note that accessibility considerations should be addressed even earlier in the project; really from project inception so that accessibility is considered early in project planning, budgeting, scheduling, and such. Accessibility should also be included in your user-centered design processes (UCD) or other design methodologies and techniques; for example, ensure that the use cases, user analysis, personas, scenarios, workflows, design walkthroughs, etc. include people with disabilities and older users.

Below are the basics that you can do yourself to include users in developing websites and other web products. If you have the resources, consider getting assistance from accessibility, disability, and user-centered design specialists.

Including Users to Understand the Issues

As early as possible in your project:

  1. Learn the basics of how people with disabilities use the web by reading online resources and watching videos.
  2. Find people with disabilities, with a range of characteristics. See Getting a Range of Users and Working with Users below.
  3. Early on, learn about general issues related to what you are developing, e.g., websites, web tools, standards, or other products. Ask people to show you websites or related products that work well for them. Then, ask them to show you problems in products that do not work well. Ask lots of questions to help you understand the accessibility issues.

Including Users in Implementation

For example, for websites, web applications, and web tools:

  1. When you are considering a specific design aspect, such as expanding/collapsing navigation, find other products that are already doing it and have users explore with you what works well and what does not.
  2. Throughout your design and development, ask users to review prototypes. Give them specific tasks to complete and see how the different aspects of the design and coding could be improved. Ask lots of questions.
    For more in this, see Involving Users in Evaluating Web Accessibility, especially the sections on Analyzing Accessibility Issues and Drawing Conclusions and Reporting.

Carefully Consider Input

Caution: Carefully consider all input and avoid assuming that input from one person with a disability applies to all people with disabilities. A person with a disability does not necessarily know how other people with the same disability interact with the web, nor know enough about other disabilities to provide valid guidance on other accessibility issues. Getting input from a range of users is best.

Getting a Range of Users

People with disabilities are as diverse as any people. They have diverse experiences, expectations, and preferences. They use diverse interaction techniques, adaptive strategies, and assistive technology configurations. People have different disabilities: auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, and visual — and some have multiple disabilities. Even within one category, there is extreme variation; for example, "visual disability" includes people who have been totally blind since birth, people who have distortion in their central vision from age-related degeneration, and people who temporarily have blurry vision from an injury or disease.

Include users with a variety of disabilities and user characteristics. Most projects have limited time and budget and cannot include many different users. Selecting the optimum number of users with the best suited characteristics can be difficult. There are resources on the web that provide guidance on selecting participants with disabilities; for example, determining participant characteristics and finding participants with disabilities.

Users' Experience Interacting with the Web

A primary consideration in selecting users is their experience interacting with the web. For example, some assistive technologies (AT) are complicated and difficult to learn. A user with insufficient experience may not know how to use the AT effectively. On the other hand, a very advanced user might know uncommon work-arounds to overcome problems in a website that the "average" user would not be able to handle.

In the early stages when you are first learning how people with disabilities interact with the web, it is usually best to get people with a fairly high experience level. (Involving Users in Evaluating Web Accessibility says more about different experience levels in later evaluation phases.)

Working with Users

Follow common practices for working with people informally and formally, for example:

There are resources on the web that provide detailed guidance on working with users; for example, Interacting with People with Disabilities, Assistive Technology and Location, and The RESPECT Code of Practice.

Combine User Involvement with Standards

While including users with disabilities and older users with accessibility needs is key to making your accessibility efforts more effective and more efficient, that alone cannot address all issues. Even large projects cannot cover the diversity of disabilities, adaptive strategies, and assistive technologies. That is the role of accessibility standards.

More Information and Guidance

This document briefly addresses a few points of a very complex topic. Many resources on other aspects of involving users throughout projects are available on the web, such as:


adaptive strategies
Adaptive strategies are techniques that people with disabilities use to improve interaction with the web, such as increasing the font size in a common browser. Adaptive strategies include techniques with mainstream browsers or with assistive technologies.
assistive technologies
Assistive technologies are software or equipment that people with disabilities use to improve interaction with the web, such as screen readers that read aloud web pages for people who cannot read text, screen magnifiers for people with some types of low vision, and voice recognition software and selection switches for people who cannot use a keyboard or mouse.
user characteristics
User characteristics typically include things like age, job responsibilities, software, hardware, environment (for example, home, shared office, private office, shared public terminal), computer experience, and web experience.User characteristics can also include type of disability, adaptive strategies used, and experience with specific assistive technologies.
web content
Web "content" generally refers to the information in a web page or web application, including text, images, forms, sounds, and such. More specific definitions are available in the WCAG documents, which are linked from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Overview.