W3C DOM 4.1

W3C Working Draft,

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Abstract

DOM defines a platform-neutral model for events and node trees.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document was published by the Web Platform Working Group as a Working Draft. This document is intended to become a W3C Recommendation.

This document is the Second Public Working Draft of an update to the DOM 4 Recommendation. The goals of this revision are to update the W3C’s DOM specification to cover what is interoperably implemented as a core part of the Web Platform.

Feedback and comments on this specification are welcome, please send them to public-webapps@w3.org (subscribe, archives) with [dom41] at the start of your email’s subject.

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 March 2017 W3C Process Document.

1. Conformance

All diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative, as are all sections explicitly marked non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. For readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification. [RFC2119]

Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms (such as "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and terminate these steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the keywords ("must", "should", "may", etc.) used in introducing the algorithm.

Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is equivalent. (In particular, the algorithms defined in this specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to be performant.)

User agents may impose implementation-specific limits on otherwise unconstrained inputs, e.g. to prevent denial of service attacks, to guard against running out of memory, or to work around platform-specific limitations.

When a method or an attribute is said to call another method or attribute, the user agent must invoke its internal API for that attribute or method so that e.g. the author can’t change the behavior by overriding attributes or methods with custom properties or functions in JavaScript.

Unless otherwise stated, string comparisons are done in a case-sensitive manner.

1.1. Dependencies

The IDL fragments in this specification must be interpreted as required for conforming IDL fragments, as described in the Web IDL specification. [WEBIDL]

Some of the terms used in this specification are defined in Encoding, Selectors, WEBIDL, XML, and Namespaces in XML. [ENCODING][SELECTORS4][WEBIDL][XML][XML-NAMES]

1.2. Extensibility

Vendor-specific proprietary extensions to this specification are strongly discouraged. Authors must not use such extensions, as doing so reduces interoperability and fragments the user base, allowing only users of specific user agents to access the content in question.

When extensions are needed, the DOM Standard can be updated accordingly, or a new standard can be written that hooks into the provided extensibility hooks for applicable specifications.

2. Terminology

The term context object means the object on which the algorithm, attribute getter, attribute setter, or method being discussed was called. When the context object is unambiguous, the term can be omitted.

2.1. Trees

A tree is a finite hierarchical tree structure. In tree order is preorder, depth-first traversal of a tree.

An object that participates in a tree has a parent, which is either another object or null, and an ordered list of zero or more child objects. An object A whose parent is object B is a child of B.

The root of an object is itself, if its parent is null, or else it is the root of its parent.

An object A is called a descendant of an object B, if either A is a child of B or A is a child of an object C that is a descendant of B.

An inclusive descendant is an object or one of its descendants.

An object A is called an ancestor of an object B if and only if B is a descendant of A.

An inclusive ancestor is an object or one of its ancestors.

An object A is called a sibling of an object B, if and only if B and A share the same non-null parent.

An object A is preceding an object B if A and B are in the same tree and A comes before B in tree order.

An object A is following an object B if A and B are in the same tree and A comes after B in tree order.

The first child of an object is its first child or null if it has no children.

The last child of an object is its last child or null if it has no children.

The previous sibling of an object is its first preceding sibling or null if it has no preceding sibling.

The next sibling of an object is its first following sibling or null if it has no following sibling.

The index of an object is its number of preceding siblings.

2.2. Strings

Comparing two strings in a case-sensitive manner means comparing them exactly, code point for code point.

Comparing two strings in a ASCII case-insensitive manner means comparing them exactly, code point for code point, except that the characters in the range U+0041 to U+005A (i.e. LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A to LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z), inclusive, and the corresponding characters in the range U+0061 to U+007A (i.e. LATIN SMALL LETTER A to LATIN SMALL LETTER Z), inclusive, are considered to also match.

Converting a string to ASCII uppercase means replacing all characters in the range U+0061 to U+007A (i.e. LATIN SMALL LETTER A to LATIN SMALL LETTER Z), inclusive, with the corresponding characters in the range U+0041 to U+005A (i.e. LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A to LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z).

Converting a string to ASCII lowercase means replacing all characters in the range U+0041 to U+005A (i.e. LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A to LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z), inclusive, with the corresponding characters in the range U+0061 to U+007A (i.e. LATIN SMALL LETTER A to LATIN SMALL LETTER Z).

A string pattern is a prefix match for a string s when pattern is not longer than s and truncating s to pattern’s length leaves the two strings as matches of each other.

2.3. Ordered sets

An ordered set is a list that it must not contain the same item twice.

The ordered set parser takes a string input and then runs these steps:

  1. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.
  2. Let tokens be an ordered set of tokens, initially empty.
  3. Skip ASCII whitespace.
  4. While position is not past the end of input:

    1. Collect a code point sequence of code points that are not ASCII whitespace.
    2. If the collected string is not in tokens, append the collected string to tokens.
    3. Skip ASCII whitespace.
  5. Return tokens.

To replace within an ordered set set, given item and replacement, if item or replacement is in set, then replace the first instance of either with replacement and remove all other instances.

Replacing "a" with "c" within the ordered set « "a", "b", "c" » gives « "c", "b" ». Within « "c", "b", "a" » it gives « "c", "b" » as well.

To collect a code point sequence of code points, run these steps:

  1. Let input and position be the same variables as those of the same name in the algorithm that invoked these steps.
  2. Let result be the empty string.
  3. While position does not point past the end of input and the code point at position is one of code points, append that code point to the end of result and advance position to the next code point in input.
  4. Return result.

To skip ASCII whitespace means to collect a code point sequence of ASCII whitespace and discard the return value.

The ordered set serializer takes a set and returns the concatenation of the strings in set, separated from each other by U+0020, if set is non-empty.

2.4. Selectors

To scope-match a selectors string selectors against a node, run these steps:

  1. Let s be the result of parse a selector selectors. [SELECTORS4]
  2. If s is failure, then throw a SyntaxError.

  3. Return the result of evaluate a selector s against node’s root using scoping root node. [SELECTORS4].

Support for namespaces within selectors is not planned and will not be added.

2.5. Namespaces

To validate a qualifiedName, run these steps:

  1. If qualifiedName does not match the Name production, then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. If qualifiedName does not match the QName production, then throw a NamespaceError.

To validate and extract a namespace and qualifiedName, run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.
  2. Validate qualifiedName. Rethrow any exceptions.
  3. Let prefix be null.
  4. Let localName be qualifiedName.
  5. If qualifiedName contains a ":" (U+003E), then split the string on it and set prefix to the part before and localName to the part after.
  6. If prefix is non-null and namespace is null, then throw a NamespaceError.
  7. If prefix is "xml" and namespace is not the XML namespace, then throw a NamespaceError.
  8. If either qualifiedName or prefix is "xmlns" and namespace is not the XMLNS namespace, then throw a NamespaceError.
  9. If namespace is the XMLNS namespace and neither qualifiedName nor prefix is "xmlns", then throw a NamespaceError.
  10. Return namespace, prefix, and localName.

The HTML namespace is http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml.

The SVG namespace is http://www.w3.org/2000/svg.

The XML namespace is http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace.

The XMLNS namespace is http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/.

3. Events

3.1. Introduction to "DOM Events"

Throughout the web platform events are dispatched to objects to signal an occurrence, such as network activity or user interaction. These objects implement the EventTarget interface and can therefore add event listeners to observe events by calling addEventListener():

obj.addEventListener("load", imgFetched)
function imgFetched(ev) {
  // great success
  …
}

Event listeners can be removed by utilizing the removeEventListener() method, passing the same arguments.

Events are objects too and implement the Event interface (or a derived interface). In the example above ev is the event. It is passed as argument to event listener’s callback (typically a JavaScript Function as shown above).

Event listeners key off the event’s type attribute value ("load" in the above example). The event’s target attribute value returns the object to which the event was dispatched (obj above).

Now while typically events are dispatched by the user agent as the result of user interaction or the completion of some task, applications can dispatch events themselves, commonly known as synthetic events:

// add an appropriate event listener
obj.addEventListener("cat", function(e) { process(e.detail) })

// create and dispatch the event
var event = new CustomEvent("cat", {"detail":{"hazcheeseburger":true}})
obj.dispatchEvent(event)

Apart from signaling, events are sometimes also used to let an application control what happens next in an operation. For instance as part of form submission an event whose type attribute value is "submit" is dispatched. If this event’s preventDefault() method is invoked, form submission will be terminated. Applications who wish to make use of this functionality through events dispatched by the application (synthetic events) can make use of the return value of the dispatchEvent() method:

if(obj.dispatchEvent(event)) {
  // event was not canceled, time for some magic
  …
}

When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree (e.g. an element), it can reach event listeners on that object’s ancestors too. First all object’s ancestor event listeners whose capture variable is set to true are invoked, in tree order. Second, object’s own event listeners are invoked. And finally, and only if event’s bubbles attribute value is true, object’s ancestor event listeners are invoked again, but now in reverse tree order.

Lets look at an example of how events work in a tree:

<!doctype html><html>
 <head>
  <title>Boring example</title>
 </head>
 <body>
  <p>Hello <span id=x>world</span>!</p>
  <script>
   function test(e) {
     debug(e.target, e.currentTarget, e.eventPhase)
   }
   document.addEventListener("hey", test, {capture: true})
   document.body.addEventListener("hey", test)
   var ev = new Event("hey", {bubbles:true})
   document.getElementById("x").dispatchEvent(ev)
  </script>
 </body>
</html>

The debug function will be invoked twice. Each time the event’s target attribute value will be the span element. The first time currentTarget attribute’s value will be the document, the second time the body element. eventPhase attribute’s value switches from CAPTURING_PHASE to BUBBLING_PHASE. If an event listener was registered for the span element, eventPhase attribute’s value would have been AT_TARGET.

3.2. Interface Event

[Constructor(DOMString type, optional EventInit eventInitDict),
 Exposed=(Window,Worker)]

interface Event {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? target;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? currentTarget;

  const unsigned short NONE = 0;
  const unsigned short CAPTURING_PHASE = 1;
  const unsigned short AT_TARGET = 2;
  const unsigned short BUBBLING_PHASE = 3;
  readonly attribute unsigned short eventPhase;

  void stopPropagation();
  attribute boolean cancelBubble;
  void stopImmediatePropagation();

  readonly attribute boolean bubbles;
  readonly attribute boolean cancelable;
  void preventDefault();
  readonly attribute boolean defaultPrevented;

  [Unforgeable] readonly attribute boolean isTrusted;
  readonly attribute DOMTimeStamp timeStamp;

  void initEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles, optional boolean cancelable);
};

dictionary EventInit {
  boolean bubbles = false;
  boolean cancelable = false;
};

An Event object is simply named an event. It allows for signaling that something has occurred, e.g., that an image has completed downloading. It is represented by the Event interface or an interface that inherits from the Event interface.

event = new Event(type [, eventInitDict])

Returns a new event whose type attribute value is set to type. The optional eventInitDict argument allows for setting the bubbles and cancelable attributes via object members of the same name.

event . type

Returns the type of event, e.g. "click", "hashchange", or "submit".

event . target

Returns the object to which event is dispatched.

event . currentTarget

Returns the object whose event listener’s callback is currently being invoked.

event . eventPhase

Returns the event’s phase, which is one of NONE, CAPTURING_PHASE, AT_TARGET, and BUBBLING_PHASE.

event . stopPropagation()

When dispatched in a tree, invoking this method prevents event from reaching any objects other than the current object.

event . stopImmediatePropagation()

Invoking this method prevents event from reaching any registered event listeners after the current one finishes running and, when dispatched in a tree, also prevents event from reaching any other objects.

event . bubbles

Returns true or false depending on how event was initialized. True if event goes through its target attribute value’s ancestors in reverse tree order, and false otherwise.

event . cancelable

Returns true or false depending on how event was initialized. Its return value does not always carry meaning, but true can indicate that part of the operation during which event was dispatched, can be canceled by invoking the preventDefault() method.

event . preventDefault()

If invoked when the cancelable attribute value is true, and while executing a listener for the event with passive set to false, signals to the operation that caused event to be dispatched that it needs to be canceled.

event . defaultPrevented

Returns true if preventDefault() was invoked successfully to indicate cancellation, and false otherwise.

event . isTrusted

Returns true if event was dispatched by the user agent, and false otherwise.

event . timeStamp

Returns the creation time of event as the number of milliseconds that passed since 00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970.

The type attribute’s getter must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to the empty string.

The target attribute’s getter and currentTarget attribute’s getter must return the values they were initialized to. When an event is created the attributes must be initialized to null.

The eventPhase attribute’s getter must return the value it was initialized to, which must be one of the following:

NONE (numeric value 0)

Events not currently dispatched are in this phase.

CAPTURING_PHASE (numeric value 1)

When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree it will be in this phase before it reaches its target attribute value.

AT_TARGET (numeric value 2)

When an event is dispatched it will be in this phase on its target attribute value.

BUBBLING_PHASE (numeric value 3)

When an event is dispatched to an object that participates in a tree it will be in this phase after it reaches its target attribute value.

Initially the attribute must be initialized to NONE.


Each event has the following associated flags that are all initially unset:

The stopPropagation() method, when invoked, must set the context object’s stop propagation flag.

The cancelBubble attribute’s getter must return true if context object’s stop propagation flag is set, and false otherwise.

The cancelBubble attribute’s setter must set context object’s stop propagation flag if the given value is true, and do nothing otherwise.

The stopImmediatePropagation() method must set both the stop propagation flag and stop immediate propagation flag.

The bubbles and cancelable attributes must return the values they were initialized to.

The preventDefault() method, when invoked, must set the canceled flag if the cancelable attribute value is true and the in passive listener flag is unset.

This means there are scenarios where invoking preventDefault() has no effect. User agents are encouraged to log the precise cause in a developer console, to aid debugging.

The defaultPrevented attribute must return true if the canceled flag is set and false otherwise.


The isTrusted attribute’s getter must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to false.

Note: isTrusted is a convenience that indicates whether an event is dispatched by the user agent (as opposed to using dispatchEvent()). The sole legacy exception is click(), which causes the user agent to dispatch an event whose isTrusted attribute is initialized to false.

The timeStamp attribute’s getter must return the value it was initialized to. When an event is created the attribute must be initialized to the number of milliseconds that have passed since 00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970, ignoring leap seconds.


To initialize an event, with type, bubbles, and cancelable, run these steps:

  1. Set the initialized flag.

  2. Unset the stop propagation flag, stop immediate propagation flag, and canceled flag.

  3. Set the isTrusted attribute to false.

  4. Set the target attribute to null.

  5. Set the type attribute to type.

  6. Set the bubbles attribute to bubbles.

  7. Set the cancelable attribute to cancelable.

The initEvent(type, bubbles, cancelable) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If context object’s dispatch flag is set, terminate these steps.

  2. Initialize the context object with type, bubbles, and cancelable.

Note: As events have constructors initEvent() is superfluous. However, it has to be supported for legacy content.

3.3. Interface CustomEvent

[Constructor(DOMString type, optional CustomEventInit eventInitDict),
 Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface CustomEvent : Event {
  readonly attribute any detail;

  void initCustomEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles = false, optional boolean cancelable = false, optional any detail = null);
};

dictionary CustomEventInit : EventInit {
  any detail = null;
};

Events using the CustomEvent interface can be used to carry custom data.

event = new CustomEvent(type [, eventInitDict])

Works analogously to the constructor for Event except that the optional eventInitDict argument now allows for setting the detail attribute too.

event . detail

Returns any custom data event was created with. Typically used for synthetic events.

The detail attribute must return the value it was initialized to.

The initCustomEvent(type, bubbles, cancelable, detail) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If context object’s dispatch flag is set, terminate these steps.
  2. Initialize the context object with type, bubbles, and cancelable.
  3. Set context object’s detail attribute to detail.

3.4. Constructing events

When a constructor of the Event interface, or of an interface that inherits from the Event interface, is invoked, these steps must be run:

  1. Create an event that uses the interface the constructor was invoked upon.

  2. Set its initialized flag.

  3. Initialize the type attribute to the type argument.

  4. If there is an eventInitDict argument then for each dictionary member present, find the attribute on event whose identifier matches the key of the dictionary member and then set the attribute to the value of that dictionary member.

  5. Return the event.

To create an event using eventInterface, which must be either Event or an interface that inherits from it, and optionally given a Realm realm, run these steps:

  1. Create a new object event using eventInterface. If realm is given, use that Realm; otherwise, use the default behavior defined in Web IDL.

  2. Set event’s initialized flag.

  3. Let defaultEventInitDict be the result of converting the JavaScript value undefined to the dictionary type accepted by eventInterface’s constructor. (This dictionary type will either be EventInit or a dictionary that inherits from it.)

  4. For each dictionary member present in defaultEventInitDict, find the attribute on event whose identifier matches the key of the dictionary member and then set the attribute to the default value of that dictionary member.
  5. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to true.

  6. Return event.

Create an event is meant to be used by other specifications which need to separately create and dispatch events, instead of simply firing them. It ensures the event’s attributes are initialized to the correct defaults.

3.5. Defining event interfaces

In general, when defining a new interface that inherits from Event please always ask feedback from the WHATWG or the W3C www-dom@w3.org mailing list.

The CustomEvent interface can be used as starting point. However, do not introduce any init*Event() methods as they are redundant with constructors. Interfaces that inherit from the Event interface that have such a method only have it for historical reasons.

3.6. Interface EventTarget

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface EventTarget {
  void addEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (AddEventListenerOptions or boolean) options);
  void removeEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (EventListenerOptions or boolean) options);
  boolean dispatchEvent(Event event);
};

callback interface EventListener {
  void handleEvent(Event event);
};

dictionary EventListenerOptions {
  boolean capture = false;
};

dictionary AddEventListenerOptions : EventListenerOptions {
  boolean passive = false;
  boolean once = false;
};

The EventTarget object represents the target to which an event is dispatched when something has occurred.

Each EventTarget object has an associated list of event listeners.

An event listener can be used to observe a specific event.

An event listener consists of these fields:

Although callback is an EventListener, as can be seen from the fields above, an event listener is a broader concept.

Each EventTarget object also has an associated get the parent algorithm, which takes an event event, and returns an EventTarget object. Unless specified otherwise it returns null.

Nodes and documents override the get the parent algorithm.

Each EventTarget object can have an associated activation behavior algorithm. The activation behavior algorithm is passed an event, as indicated in the dispatch algorithm.

This exists because user agents perform certain actions for certain EventTarget objects, e.g., the area element, in response to synthetic MouseEvent events whose type attribute is click. Web compatibility prevented it from being removed and it is now the enshrined way of defining an activation of something. [HTML51]

Each EventTarget object that has activation behavior, can additionally have both (not either) a legacy-pre-activation behavior algorithm and a legacy-canceled-activation behavior algorithm.

These algorithms only exist for checkbox and radio input elements and are not to be used for anything else. [HTML51]

target . addEventListener(type, callback [, options])
Appends an event listener for events whose type attribute value is type. The callback argument sets the callback that will be invoked when the event is dispatched.

The options argument sets listener-specific options. For compatibility this can be just a boolean, in which case the method behaves exactly as if the value was specified as optionscapture member.

When set to true, optionscapture member prevents callback from being invoked when the event’s eventPhase attribute value is BUBBLING_PHASE. When false (or not present), callback will not be invoked when event’s eventPhase attribute value is CAPTURING_PHASE. Either way, callback will be invoked if event’s eventPhase attribute value is AT_TARGET.

When set to true, optionspassive member indicates that the callback will not cancel the event by invoking preventDefault(). This is used to enable performance optimizations described in §3.7 Observing event listeners.

When set to true, options’s once member indicates that the callback will only be invoked once after which the event listener will be removed.

The event listener is appended to target’s list of event listeners and is not appended if it is a duplicate, i.e., having the same type, callback, and capture values.

target . removeEventListener(type, callback [, options])
Remove the event listener in target’s list of event listeners with the same type, callback, and options.
target . dispatchEvent(event)
Dispatches a synthetic event event to target and returns true if either event’s cancelable attribute value is false or its preventDefault() method was not invoked, and false otherwise.

To flatten options, run these steps:

  1. Let capture be false.

  2. If options is a boolean, set capture to options.

  3. If options is a dictionary, then set capture to options’s capture.

  4. Return capture.

To flatten more options, run these steps:

  1. Let capture be the result of flattening options.

  2. Let once and passive be false.

  3. If options is a dictionary, then set passive to options’s passive and once to options’s once.

  4. Return capture, passive, and once.

The addEventListener(type, callback, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If callback is null, then return.

  2. Let capture, passive, and once be the result of flattening more options.

  3. If context object’s associated list of event listener does not contain an event listener whose type is type, callback is callback, and capture is capture, then append a new event listener to it, whose type is type, callback is callback, capture is capture, passive is passive, and once is once.

The removeEventListener(type, callback, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let capture be the result of flattening options.

  2. If there is an event listener in the associated list of event listeners whose type is type, callback is callback, and capture is capture, then set that event listener’s removed to true and remove it from the associated list of event listeners.

The dispatchEvent(event) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If event’s dispatch flag is set, or if its initialized flag is not set, throw an "InvalidStateError" exception.[WEBIDL]

  2. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to false.

  3. Dispatch the event and return the value that returns.

3.7. Observing event listeners

In general, developers do not expect the presence of an event listener to be observable. The impact of an event listener is determined by its callback. That is, a developer adding a no-op event listener would not expect it to have any side effects.

Unfortunately, some event APIs have been designed such that implementing them efficiently requires observing event listeners. This can make the presence of listeners observable in that even empty listeners can have a dramatic performance impact on the behavior of the application. For example, touch and wheel events which can be used to block asynchronous scrolling. In some cases this problem can be mitigated by specifying the event to be cancelable only when there is at least one non-passive listener. For example, non-passive TouchEvent listeners must block scrolling, but if all listeners are passive then scrolling can be allowed to start in parallel by making the TouchEvent uncancelable (so that calls to preventDefault() are ignored). So code dispatching an event is able to observe the absence of non-passive listeners, and use that to clear the cancelable property of the event being dispatched.

Ideally, any new event APIs are defined such that they do not need this property (use public-script-coord@w3.org for discussion).

3.8. Dispatching events

To dispatch an event to a target, with an optional legacy target override flag, and an optional legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag, run these steps:

  1. Set event’s dispatch flag.
  2. Initialize event’s target attribute to target, if legacy target override flagis not given, and target’s associated Document otherwise. [HTML51]
  3. If event’s target attribute value is participating in a tree, let event path be a static ordered list of all its ancestors in tree order, and let event path be the empty list otherwise.
  4. Let isActivationEvent be true, if event is a MouseEvent object and event’s type attribute is "click", and false otherwise.

  5. Let activationTarget be target, if isActivationEvent is true and target has activation behavior, and null otherwise.

  6. Initialize event’s eventPhase attribute to CAPTURING_PHASE.
  7. If activationTarget is non-null and activationTarget has legacy-pre-activation behavior, then run activationTarget’s legacy-pre-activation behavior.

  8. For each object in event path, invoke its event listeners with event event, as long as event’s stop propagation flag is unset.
  9. Initialize event’s eventPhase attribute to AT_TARGET.
  10. Invoke the event listeners of event’s target attribute value with event, if event’s stop propagation flag is unset.
  11. If event’s bubbles attribute value is true, run these substeps:
    1. Reverse the order of event path.

    2. Initialize event’s eventPhase attribute to BUBBLING_PHASE.

    3. For each object in event path, invoke its event listeners, with event event as long as event’s stop propagation flag is unset.

  12. Unset event’s dispatch flag, stop propagation flag, and stop immediate propagation flag.
  13. Set event’s eventPhase attribute to NONE.
  14. Set event’s currentTarget attribute to null.
  15. If activationTarget is non-null, then:

    1. If event’s canceled flag is unset, then run activationTarget’s activation behavior with event.

    2. Otherwise, if activationTarget has legacy-canceled-activation behavior, then run activationTarget’s legacy-canceled-activation behavior.

  16. Return false if event’s canceled flag is set, and true otherwise.

To invoke an object with event and optional legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag, run these steps:

  1. If event’s stop propagation flag is set, then return.

  2. Let listeners be a copy of the event listeners associated with the object.
  3. Initialize event’s currentTarget attribute to the object.
  4. For each event listener in listeners, whose removed is false:
    1. Let listener be the event listener.

    2. If event’s type attribute value is not listener’s type, terminate these substeps (and run them for the next event listener).

    3. If event’s eventPhase attribute value is CAPTURING_PHASE and listener’s capture is false, terminate these substeps (and run them for the next event listener).

    4. If event’s eventPhase attribute value is BUBBLING_PHASE and listener’s capture is true, terminate these substeps (and run them for the next event listener).

    5. If listener’s once is true, then remove listener from object’s associated list of event listeners.

    6. If listener’s passive is true, then set event’s in passive listener flag.

    7. Call listener’s callback’s handleEvent, with the event passed to this algorithm as the first argument and event’s currentTarget attribute value as callback this value. If this throws any exception, report the exception.

      1. Report the exception.

      2. Set legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag if given.

        The legacyOutputDidListenersThrowFlag is only used by Indexed Database API. [INDEXEDDB]

    8. Unset event’s in passive listener flag.

    9. If event’s stop immediate propagation flag is set, then return found.

3.9. Firing events

To fire an event named e at target, optionally using an eventConstructor, with a description of how IDL attributes are to be initialized, and a legacy target override flag, run these steps:

  1. If eventConstructor is not given, then let eventConstructor be Event.

  2. Let event be the result of creating an event given eventConstructor, in the relevant Realm of target.

  3. Initialize event’s type attribute to e.

  4. Initialize any other IDL attributes of event as described in the invocation of this algorithm.

    This also allows for the isTrusted attribute to be set to false.

  5. Return the result of dispatching event at target, with legacy target override flag set if set.

Fire in the context of DOM is short for creating, initializing, and dispatching an event. Fire an event makes that process easier to write down.

If the event needs its bubbles or cancelable attribute initialized, one could write "fire an event named submit at target with its cancelable attribute initialized to true".

Or, when a custom constructor is needed, "fire an event named click at target using MouseEvent with its detail attribute initialized to 1".

Occasionally the return value is important:

  1. Let doAction be the result of firing an event named like at target.

  2. If doAction is true, then …

3.10. Action versus occurrence

An event signifies an occurrence, not an action. Phrased differently, it represents a notification from an algorithm and can be used to influence the future course of that algorithm (e.g., through invoking preventDefault()). Events must not be used as actions or initiators that cause some algorithm to start running. That is not what they are for.

This is called out here specifically because previous iterations of the DOM had a concept of "default actions" associated with events that gave folks all the wrong ideas. Events do not represent or cause actions, they can only be used to influence an ongoing one.

4. Nodes

4.1. Introduction to "The DOM"

In its original sense, "The DOM" is an API for accessing and manipulating documents (in particular, HTML and XML documents). In this specification, the term "document" is used for any markup-based resource, ranging from short static documents to long essays or reports with rich multimedia, as well as to fully-fledged interactive applications.

These documents are presented as a node tree. Some of the nodes in the tree can have children, while others are always leaves.

To illustrate, consider this HTML document:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html class=e>
 <head><title>Aliens?</title></head>
 <body>Why yes.</body>
</html>

It is represented as follows:

Note that, due to the magic of HTML parser, not all ASCII whitespace were turned into Text nodes, but the general concept is clear. Markup goes in, a tree of nodes comes out.

Note: The most excellent Live DOM Viewer can be used to explore this matter in more detail.

4.2. Node tree

Objects implementing the Document, DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment interface (simply called nodes) participate in a tree, simply named the node tree.

A node tree is constrained as follows, expressed as a relationship between the type of node and its allowed children:

Document

In tree order:

  1. Zero or more nodes each of which is either ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

  2. Optionally one DocumentType node.

  3. Zero or more nodes each of which is either ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

  4. Optionally one Element node.

  5. Zero or more nodes each of which is either ProcessingInstruction or Comment.

DocumentFragment
Element

Zero or more nodes each of which is one of Element, ProcessingInstruction, Comment, or Text.

DocumentType
Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

None.

To determine the length of a node node, switch on node:

DocumentType

Zero.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

The number of code units in its data.

Any other node

Its number of children.

A node is considered empty if its length is zero.

4.2.1. Document tree

A document tree is a node tree whose root is a document.

The document element of a document is the element whose parent is that document if it exists, and null otherwise.

Per the node tree constraints, there can be only one such element.

An element is in a document tree if its root is a document.

An element is in a document if it is in a document tree.

It’s NOT suggested to use the term in a document, as it may cause confusion with the term in a shadow tree.

4.2.2. Mutation algorithms

To ensure pre-insertion validity of a node into a parent before a child, run these steps:

  1. If parent is not a Document, DocumentFragment, or Element node, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  2. If node is a host-including inclusive ancestor of parent, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  3. If child is not null and its parent is not parent, throw a NotFoundError.

  4. If node is not a DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  5. If either node is a Text node and parent is a document, or node is a doctype and parent is not a document, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  6. If parent is a document, and any of the statements below, switched on node, are true, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

    DocumentFragment node

    If node has more than one element child or has a Text node child.

    Otherwise, if node has one element child and either parent has an element child, child is a doctype, or child is not null and a doctype is following child.

    element

    parent has an element child, child is a doctype, or child is not null and a doctype is following child.

    doctype

    parent has a doctype child, child is non-null and an element is preceding child, or child is null and parent has an element child.

To pre-insert a node into a parent before a child, run these steps:

  1. Ensure pre-insertion validity of node into parent before child.

  2. Let reference child be child.

  3. If reference child is node, set it to node’s next sibling.

  4. Adopt node into parent’s node document.

  5. Insert node into parent before reference child.

  6. Return node.

Specifications may define insertion steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed newNode, as indicated in the insert algorithm below.

To insert a node into a parent before a child with an optional suppress observers flag, run these steps:

  1. Let count be the number of children of node if it is a DocumentFragment node, and one otherwise.

  2. If child is non-null, run these substeps:

    1. For each range whose start node is parent and start offset is greater than child’s index, increase its start offset by count.

    2. For each range whose end node is parent and end offset is greater than child’s index, increase its end offset by count.

  3. Let nodes be node’s children if node is a DocumentFragment node, and a list containing solely node otherwise.

  4. If node is a DocumentFragment node, remove its children with the suppress observers flag set.

  5. If node is a DocumentFragment node, queue a mutation record of "childList" for node with removedNodes nodes.

    Note: This step intentionally does not pay attention to the suppress observers flag.

  6. For each newNode in nodes, in tree order, run these substeps:

    1. Insert newNode into parent before child or at the end of parent if child is null.

    2. Run the insertion steps with newNode.

    3. For each inclusive descendant inclusiveDescendant of node, in tree order, run the insertion steps with inclusiveDescendant and parent.

  7. If suppress observers flag is unset, queue a mutation record of "childList" for parent with addedNodes nodes, nextSibling child, and previousSibling child’s previous sibling or parent’s last child if child is null.

To append a node to a parent, pre-insert node into parent before null.

To replace a child with node within a parent, run these steps:

  1. If parent is not a Document, DocumentFragment, or Element node, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  2. If node is a host-including inclusive ancestor of parent, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  3. If child’s parent is not parent, throw a NotFoundError.

  4. If node is not a DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  5. If either node is a Text node and parent is a document, or node is a doctype and parent is not a document, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

  6. If parent is a document, and any of the statements below, switched on node, are true, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

    DocumentFragment node

    If node has more than one element child or has a Text node child.

    Otherwise, if node has one element child and either parent has an element child that is not child or a doctype is following child.

    element

    parent has an element child that is not child or a doctype is following child.

    doctype
    parent has a doctype child that is not child, or an element is preceding child.

    Note: The above statements differ from the pre-insert algorithm.

  7. Let reference child be child’s next sibling.

  8. If reference child is node, set it to node’s next sibling.

  9. Let previousSibling be child’s previous sibling.

  10. Adopt node into parent’s node document.

  11. Let removedNodes be the empty list.
  12. If child’s parent is not null, run these substeps:

    1. Set removedNodes to a list solely containing child.

    2. Remove child from its parent with the suppress observers flag set.

    The above can only be false if child is node.

  13. Let nodes be node’s children if node is a DocumentFragment node, and a list containing solely node otherwise.
  14. Insert node into parent before reference child with the suppress observers flag set.

  15. Queue a mutation record of "childList" for target parent with addedNodes nodes, removedNodes a list solely containing child, nextSibling reference child, and previousSibling previousSibling.

  16. Return child.

To replace all with a node within a parent, run these steps:

  1. If node is not null, adopt node into parent’s node document.

  2. Let removedNodes be parent’s children.

  3. Let addedNodes be the empty list if node is null, node’s children if node is a DocumentFragment node, and a list containing node otherwise.

  4. Remove all parent’s children, in tree order, with the suppress observers flag set.

  5. If node is not null, insert node into parent before null with the suppress observers flag set.

  6. Queue a mutation record of "childList" for parent with addedNodes addedNodes and removedNodes removedNodes.

Note: This algorithm does not make any checks with regards to the node tree constraints. Specification authors need to use it wisely.

To pre-remove a child from a parent, run these steps:

  1. If child’s parent is not parent, throw a NotFoundError.

  2. Remove child from parent.

  3. Return child.

Specifications may define removing steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed removedNode, and optionally oldParent, as indicated in the remove algorithm below.

To remove a node from a parent with an optional suppress observers flag set, run these steps:

  1. Let index be node’s index.

  2. For each range whose start node is an inclusive descendant of node, set its start to (parent, index).

  3. For each range whose end node is an inclusive descendant of node, set its end to (parent, index).

  4. For each range whose start node is parent and start offset is greater than index, decrease its start offset by one.

  5. For each range whose end node is parent and end offset is greater than index, decrease its end offset by one.

  6. For each NodeIterator object iterator whose root’s node document is node’s node document, run the NodeIterator pre-removing steps given node and iterator.

  7. Let oldPreviousSibling be node’s previous sibling.

  8. Let oldNextSibling be node’s next sibling.

  9. Remove node from its parent.

  10. Run the removing steps with node and parent.

  11. For each inclusive ancestor inclusiveAncestor of node, if inclusiveAncestor has any registered observers whose options' subtree is true, then for each such registered observer registered, append a transient registered observer whose observer and options are identical to those of registered and source which is registered to node’s list of registered observers.

  12. If suppress observers flag is unset, queue a mutation record of "childList" for parent with removedNodes a list solely containing node, nextSibling oldNextSibling, and previousSibling oldPreviousSibling.

4.2.3. Interface NonElementParentNode

Web compatibility prevents the getElementById() method from being exposed on elements (and therefore on ParentNode).

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface NonElementParentNode {
  Element? getElementById(DOMString elementId);
};
Document implements NonElementParentNode;
DocumentFragment implements NonElementParentNode;
node . getElementById(elementId)

Returns the first element within node’s descendants whose ID is elementId.

The getElementById(elementId) method, when invoked, must return the first element, in tree order, within context object’s descendants, whose ID is elementId, and null if there is no such element otherwise.

4.2.4. Interface ParentNode

To convert nodes into a node, given nodes and document, run these steps:

  1. Let node be null.
  2. Replace each string in nodes with a new Text node whose data is the string and node document is document.
  3. If nodes contains one node, set node to that node.
  4. Otherwise, set node to a new DocumentFragment whose node document is document, and then append each node in nodes, if any, to it.
  5. Return node.
[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface ParentNode {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute HTMLCollection children;
  readonly attribute Element? firstElementChild;
  readonly attribute Element? lastElementChild;
  readonly attribute unsigned long childElementCount;

  [Unscopable] void prepend((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void append((Node or DOMString)... nodes);

  Element? querySelector(DOMString selectors);
  [NewObject] NodeList querySelectorAll(DOMString selectors);
};
Document implements ParentNode;
DocumentFragment implements ParentNode;
Element implements ParentNode;
collection = node . children

Returns the child elements.

element = node . firstElementChild

Returns the first child that is an element, and null otherwise.

element = node . lastElementChild

Returns the last child that is an element, and null otherwise.

node . prepend(nodes)
Inserts nodes before the first child of node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a HierarchyRequestError if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . append(nodes)
Inserts nodes after the last child of node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a HierarchyRequestError if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . querySelector(selectors)

Returns the first element that is a descendant of node that matches selectors.

node . querySelectorAll(selectors)

Returns all element descendants of node that match selectors.

The children attribute’s getter must return an HTMLCollection collection rooted at the context object matching only element children.

The firstElementChild attribute’s getter must return the first child that is an element, and null otherwise.

The lastElementChild attribute’s getter must return the last child that is an element, and null otherwise.

The childElementCount attribute’s getter must return the number of children of the context object that are elements.

The prepend(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node given nodes and context object’s node document.

  2. Pre-insert node into context object before the context object’s first child.

The append(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node given nodes and context object’s node document.

  2. Append node to context object.

The querySelector(selectors) method, when invoked, must return the first result of running scope-match a selectors string selectors against the context object, and null if the result is an empty list otherwise.

The querySelectorAll(selectors) method, when invoked, must return the static result of running scope-match a selectors string selectors against the context object.

4.2.5. Interface NonDocumentTypeChildNode

Web compatibility prevents the previousElementSibling and nextElementSibling attributes from being exposed on doctypes (and therefore on ChildNode).

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface NonDocumentTypeChildNode {
  readonly attribute Element? previousElementSibling;
  readonly attribute Element? nextElementSibling;
};
Element implements NonDocumentTypeChildNode;
CharacterData implements NonDocumentTypeChildNode;
element = node . previousElementSibling

Returns the first preceding sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

element = node . nextElementSibling

Returns the first following sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

The previousElementSibling attribute’s getter must return the first preceding sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

The nextElementSibling attribute’s getter must return the first following sibling that is an element, and null otherwise.

4.2.6. Interface ChildNode

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface ChildNode {
  [Unscopable] void before((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void after((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void replaceWith((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void remove();
};
DocumentType implements ChildNode;
Element implements ChildNode;
CharacterData implements ChildNode;
node . before(nodes)
Inserts nodes just before node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a HierarchyRequestError if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . after(nodes)
Inserts nodes just after node, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a HierarchyRequestError if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . replaceWith(nodes)
Replaces node with nodes, while replacing strings in nodes with equivalent Text nodes.

Throws a HierarchyRequestError if the constraints of the node tree are violated.

node . remove()

Removes node.

The before(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be context object’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viablePreviousSibling be context object’s first preceding sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and context object’s node document.

  5. If viablePreviousSibling is null, set it to parent’s first child, and to viablePreviousSibling’s next sibling otherwise.

  6. Pre-insert node into parent before viablePreviousSibling.

The after(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be context object’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viableNextSibling be context object’s first following sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and context object’s node document.

  5. Pre-insert node into parent before viableNextSibling.

The replaceWith(nodes) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be context object’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, then return.

  3. Let viableNextSibling be context object’s first following sibling not in nodes, and null otherwise.

  4. Let node be the result of converting nodes into a node, given nodes and context object’s node document.

  5. If context object’s parent is parent, replace the context object with node within parent.

    Context object could have been inserted into node.

  6. Otherwise, pre-insert node into parent before viableNextSibling.

The remove() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If the context object does not have a parent, terminate these steps.

  2. Remove the context object from the context object’s parent.

4.2.7. Old-style collections: NodeList and HTMLCollection

A collection is an object that represents a lists of DOM nodes. A collection can be either live or static. Unless otherwise stated, a collection must be live.

If a collection is live, then the attributes and methods on that object must operate on the actual underlying data, not a snapshot of the data.

When a collection is created, a filter and a root are associated with it.

The collection then represents a view of the subtree rooted at the collection’s root, containing only nodes that match the given filter. The view is linear. In the absence of specific requirements to the contrary, the nodes within the collection must be sorted in tree order.

4.2.7.1. Interface NodeList

A NodeList object is a collection of nodes.

[Exposed=Window]
interface NodeList {
  getter Node? item(unsigned long index);
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  iterable<Node>;
};
collection . length

Returns the number of nodes in the collection.

element = collection . item(index)
element = collection[index]

Returns the node with index index from the collection. The nodes are sorted in tree order.

The object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to one less than the number of nodes represented by the collection. If there are no such elements, then there are no supported property indices.

The length attribute’s getter must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

The item(index) method must return the indexth node in the collection. If there is no indexth node in the collection, then the method must return null.

4.2.7.2. Interface HTMLCollection
[Exposed=Window]
interface HTMLCollection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter Element? item(unsigned long index);
  getter Element? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

An HTMLCollection object is a collection of elements.

Note: HTMLCollection is an historical artifact we cannot rid the web of. While developers are of course welcome to keep using it, new API standard designers ought not to use it (use sequence<T> in IDL instead).

collection . length

Returns the number of elements in the collection.

element = collection . item(index)
element = collection[index]

Returns the element with index index from the collection. The elements are sorted in tree order.

element = collection . namedItem(name)
element = collection[name]

Returns the first element with ID or name namefrom the collection.

The object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to one less than the number of elements represented by the collection. If there are no such elements, then there are no supported property indices.

The length attribute’s getter must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

The item(index) method, when invoked, must return the indexth element in the collection. If there is no indexth element in the collection, then the method, when invoked, must return null.

The supported property names are the values from the list returned by these steps:

  1. Let result be an empty list.

  2. For each element represented by the collection, in tree order, run these substeps:

    1. If element has an ID which is not in result, append element’s ID to result.

    2. If element is in the HTML namespace and has a name attribute whose value is neither the empty string nor is in result, append element’s name attribute value to result.

  3. Return result.

The namedItem(key) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If key is the empty string, return null.
  2. Return the first element in the collection for which at least one of the following is true:

    or null if there is no such element.

4.3. Mutation observers

Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts has a mutation observer compound microtask queued flag, which is initially unset, and an associated list of MutationObserver objects, which is initially empty.

To queue a mutation observer compound microtask, run these steps:

  1. If mutation observer compound microtask queued flag is set, terminate these steps.

  2. Set mutation observer compound microtask queued flag.

  3. Queue a compound microtask to notify mutation observers.

To notify mutation observers, run these steps:

  1. Unset mutation observer compound microtask queued flag.

  2. Let notify list be a copy of unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts' list of MutationObserver objects.

  3. For each MutationObserver object mo in notify list, execute a compound microtask subtask to run these steps:

    1. Let queue be a copy of mo’s record queue.

    2. Empty mo’s record queue.

    3. Remove all transient registered observers whose observer is mo.

    4. If queue is non-empty, call mo’s callback with queue as first argument, and mo (itself) as second argument and callback this value. If this throws an exception, report the exception.


Each node has an associated list of registered observers.

A registered observer consists of an observer (a MutationObserver object) and options (a MutationObserverInit dictionary). A transient registered observer is a specific type of registered observer that has a source which is a registered observer.

Transient registered observers are used to track mutations within a given node’s descendants after node has been removed so they do not get lost when subtree is set to true on node’s parent.

4.3.1. Interface MutationObserver

[Constructor(MutationCallback callback)]
interface MutationObserver {
  void observe(Node target, optional MutationObserverInit options);
  void disconnect();
  sequence<MutationRecord> takeRecords();
};

callback MutationCallback = void (sequence<MutationRecord> mutations, MutationObserver observer);

dictionary MutationObserverInit {
  boolean childList = false;
  boolean attributes;
  boolean characterData;
  boolean subtree = false;
  boolean attributeOldValue;
  boolean characterDataOldValue;
  sequence<DOMString> attributeFilter;
};

A MutationObserver object can be used to observe mutations to the tree of nodes.

Each MutationObserver object has these associated concepts:

observer = new MutationObserver(callback)

Constructs a MutationObserver object and sets its callback to callback. The callback is invoked with a list of MutationRecord objects as first argument and the constructed MutationObserver object as second argument. It is invoked after nodes registered with the observe() method, are mutated.

observer . observe(target, options)

Instructs the user agent to observe a given target (a node) and report any mutations based on the criteria given by options (an object).

The options argument allows for setting mutation observation options via object members. These are the object members that can be used:

childList

Set to true if mutations to target’s children are to be observed.

attributes

Set to true if mutations to target’s attributes are to be observed. Can be omitted if attributeOldValue and/or attributeFilter is specified.

{{MutationObserverInit/characterData

Set to true if mutations to target’s data are to be observed. Can be omitted if characterDataOldValue is specified.

subtree

Set to true if mutations to not just target, but also target’s descendants are to be observed.

attributeOldValue

Set to true if attributes is true or omitted and target’s attribute value before the mutation needs to be recorded.

characterDataOldValue

Set to true if characterData is set to true or omitted and target’s data before the mutation needs to be recorded.

attributeFilter

Set to a list of attribute local names (without namespace) if not all attribute mutations need to be observed and attributes is true or omitted.

observer . disconnect()

Stops observer from observing any mutations. Until the observe() method is used again, observer’s callback will not be invoked.

observer . takeRecords()

Empties the record queue and returns what was in there.

The MutationObserver(callback) constructor must create a new MutationObserver object with callback set to callback, append it to the unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts' list of MutationObserver objects, and then return it.

The observe(target, options) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If either optionsattributeOldValue or attributeFilter is present and optionsattributes is omitted, set optionsattributes to true.

  2. If optionscharacterDataOldValue is present and optionscharacterData is omitted, set optionscharacterData to true.

  3. If none of optionschildList, attributes, and characterData is true, throw a TypeError.

  4. If optionsattributeOldValue is true and optionsattributes is false, throw a JavaScript TypeError.

  5. If optionsattributeFilter is present and optionsattributes is false, throw a JavaScript TypeError.

  6. If optionscharacterDataOldValue is true and optionscharacterData is false, throw a JavaScript TypeError.

  7. For each registered observer registered in target’s list of registered observers whose observer is the context object:

    1. Remove all transient registered observers whose source is registered.

    2. Replace registered’s options with options.

  8. Otherwise, add a new registered observer to target’s list of registered observers with the context object as the observer and options as the options, and add target to context object’s list of nodes on which it is registered.

The disconnect() method, when invoked, must, for each node node in the context object’s list of nodes, remove any registered observer on node for which the context object is the observer, and also empty context object’s record queue.

The takeRecords() method, when invoked, must return a copy of the record queue and then empty the record queue.

4.3.2. Queuing a mutation record

To queue a mutation record of type for target with one or more of (depends on type) name name, namespace namespace, oldValue oldValue, addedNodes addedNodes, removedNodes removedNodes, previousSibling previousSibling, and nextSibling nextSibling, run these steps:

  1. Let interested observers be an initially empty set of MutationObserver objects optionally paired with a string.

  2. Let nodes be the inclusive ancestors of target.

  3. Then, for each node in nodes, and then for each registered observer (with registered observer’s options as options) in node’s list of registered observers, run these substeps:

    1. If none of the following are true

      • node is not target and optionssubtree is false
      • type is "attributes" and optionsattributes is false
      • type is "attributes", optionsattributeFilter is present, and optionsattributeFilter does not contain name or namespace is non-null
      • type is "characterData" and optionscharacterData is false
      • type is "childList" and optionschildList is false

      then run these subsubsteps:

      1. If registered observer’s observer is not in interested observers, append registered observer’s observer to interested observers.

      2. If either type is "attributes" and optionsattributeOldValue is true, or type is "characterData" and optionscharacterDataOldValue is true, set the paired string of registered observer’s observer in interested observers to oldValue.

  4. Then, for each observer in interested observers:

    1. Let record be a new MutationRecord object with its type set to type and target set to target.

    2. If name and namespace are given, set record’s attributeName to name, and record’s attributeNamespace to namespace.

    3. If addedNodes is given, set record’s addedNodes to addedNodes.

    4. If removedNodes is given, set record’s removedNodes to removedNodes,

    5. If previousSibling is given, set record’s previousSibling to previousSibling.

    6. If nextSibling is given, set record’s nextSibling to nextSibling.

    7. If observer has a paired string, set record’s oldValue to observer’s paired string.

    8. Append record to observer’s record queue.

  5. Queue a mutation observer compound microtask.

4.3.3. Interface MutationRecord

[Exposed=Window]
interface MutationRecord {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute Node target;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList addedNodes;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList removedNodes;

  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;

  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeName;
  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeNamespace;
  readonly attribute DOMString? oldValue;
};
record . type

Returns "attributes" if it was an attribute mutation. "characterData" if it was a mutation to a CharacterData node. And "childList" if it was a mutation to the tree of nodes.

record . target

Returns the node the mutation affected, depending on the type. For "attributes", it is the element whose attribute changed. For "characterData", it is the CharacterData node. For "childList", it is the node whose children changed.

record . addedNodes
record . removedNodes

Return the nodes added and removed respectively.

record . previousSibling
record . nextSibling

Return the previous and next sibling respectively of the added or removed nodes, and null otherwise.

record . attributeName

Returns the local name of the changed attribute, and null otherwise.

record . attributeNamespace

Returns the namespace of the changed attribute, and null otherwise.

record . oldValue

The return value depends on type. For "attributes", it is the value of the changed attribute before the change. For "characterData", it is the data of the changed node before the change. For "childList", it is null.

The type attribute’s getter and target attribute’s getter must return the values they were initialized to.

The addedNodes attribute’s getter and removedNodes attribute’s getter must return the values they were initialized to. Unless stated otherwise, when a MutationRecord object is created, they must both be initialized to an empty NodeList.

The previousSibling attribute’s getter, nextSibling attribute’s getter, attributeName attribute’s gettr, attributeNamespace attribute’s getter, and oldValue attribute’s getter must return the values they were initialized to. Unless stated otherwise, when a MutationRecord object is created, they must be initialized to null.

4.3.4. Garbage collection

Nodes have a strong reference to registered observers in their list of registered observers.

Registered observers in a node’s list of registered observers have a weak reference to the node.

4.4. Interface Node

[Exposed=Window]
interface Node : EventTarget {
  const unsigned short ELEMENT_NODE = 1;
  const unsigned short ATTRIBUTE_NODE = 2;
  const unsigned short TEXT_NODE = 3;
  const unsigned short CDATA_SECTION_NODE = 4;
  const unsigned short ENTITY_REFERENCE_NODE = 5; // historical
  const unsigned short ENTITY_NODE = 6; // historical
  const unsigned short PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE = 7;
  const unsigned short COMMENT_NODE = 8;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_NODE = 9;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE = 10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE = 11;
  const unsigned short NOTATION_NODE = 12; // historical
  readonly attribute unsigned short nodeType;
  readonly attribute DOMString nodeName;

  readonly attribute USVString baseURI;

  readonly attribute Document? ownerDocument;
  readonly attribute Node? parentNode;
  readonly attribute Element? parentElement;
  boolean hasChildNodes();
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList childNodes;
  readonly attribute Node? firstChild;
  readonly attribute Node? lastChild;
  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;

  attribute DOMString? nodeValue;
  attribute DOMString? textContent;
  void normalize();

  [NewObject] Node cloneNode(optional boolean deep = false);
  boolean isEqualNode(Node? other);

  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED = 0x01;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING = 0x02;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING = 0x04;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS = 0x08;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY = 0x10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC = 0x20;
  unsigned short compareDocumentPosition(Node other);
  boolean contains(Node? other);

  DOMString? lookupPrefix(DOMString? namespace);
  DOMString? lookupNamespaceURI(DOMString? prefix);
  boolean isDefaultNamespace(DOMString? namespace);

  Node insertBefore(Node node, Node? child);
  Node appendChild(Node node);
  Node replaceChild(Node node, Node child);
  Node removeChild(Node child);
};

Note: Node is an abstract interface and does not exist as node. It is used by all nodes (Document, DocumentFragment, DocumentType, Element, Text, ProcessingInstruction, and Comment).

Each node has an associated node document, set upon creation, that is a document.

Note: A node’s node document can be changed by the adopt algorithm.


node . nodeType

Returns the type of node, represented by a number from the following list:

Node . ELEMENT_NODE (1)
node is an element.
Node . ATTRIBUTE_NODE (2)
node is an attribute.
Node . TEXT_NODE (3)
node is a Text node.
Node . CDATA_SECTION_NODE (4)
node is a CDATASection node.
Node . PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE (7)
node is a ProcessingInstruction node.
Node . COMMENT_NODE (8)
node is a Comment node.
Node . DOCUMENT_NODE (9)
node is a document.
Node . DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE (10)
node is a doctype.
Node . DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE (11)
node is a DocumentFragment node.
node . nodeName

Returns a string appropriate for the type of node, as follows:

Element
Its tagName attribute value.
Attr
Its qualified name.
Text
"#text".
CDATASection
"#cdata-section".
ProcessingInstruction
Its target.
Comment
"#comment".
Document
"#document".
DocumentType
Its name.
DocumentFragment
"#document-fragment".

The nodeType attribute’s getter, when invoked, must return the first matching statement, switching on the context object:

Element
ELEMENT_NODE (1);
Attr
ATTRIBUTE_NODE (2);
Text
TEXT_NODE (3);
CDATASection
CDATA_SECTION_NODE (4);
ProcessingInstruction
PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE (7);
Comment
COMMENT_NODE (8);
Document
DOCUMENT_NODE (9);
DocumentType
DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE (10);
DocumentFragment
DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE (11).

The nodeName attribute’s getter must return the first matching statement, switching on the context object:

Element

Its tagName attribute value.

Attr
Its qualified name.
Text

"#text".

CDATASection
"#cdata-section".
ProcessingInstruction

Its target.

Comment

"#comment".

Document

"#document".

DocumentType

Its name.

DocumentFragment

"#document-fragment".


node . baseURI

Returns node’s node document’s document base URL.

The baseURI attribute’s getter must return node document’s document base URL.


node . ownerDocument

Returns the node document.

Returns null for documents.

node . parentNode

Returns the parent.

node . parentElement

Returns the parent element.

node . hasChildNodes()

Returns whether node has children.

node . childNodes

Returns the children.

node . firstChild

Returns the first child.

node . lastChild

Returns the last child.

node . previousSibling

Returns the previous sibling.

node . nextSibling

Returns the next sibling.

The ownerDocument attribute’s getter must return null, if the context object is a document, and the context object’s node document otherwise.

The node document of a document is that document itself. All nodes have a document at all times.

The parentNode attribute’s getter must return the context object’s parent.

An Attr node has no parent.

The parentElement attribute’s getter must return the context object’s parent element.

The hasChildNodes() method, when invoked, must return true if the context object has children, and false otherwise.

The childNodes attribute’s getter must return a NodeList rooted at the context object matching only children.

The firstChild attribute’s getter must return the context object’s first child.

The lastChild attribute’s getter must return the context object’s last child.

The previousSibling attribute’s getter must return the context object’s previous sibling.

An Attr node has no siblings.

The nextSibling attribute’s getter must return the context object’s next sibling.


The nodeValue attribute’s getter must return the following, depending on the context object:

Attr

context object’s value.

Text
Comment
ProcessingInstruction

The context object’s data.

Any other node

Null.

The nodeValue attribute’s setter must, if the new value is null, act as if it was the empty string instead, and then do as described below, depending on the context object:

Attr

Set an existing attribute value with context object and new value.

Text
Comment
ProcessingInstruction

Replace data with node context object, offset 0, count context object’s length, and data new value.

Any other node

Do nothing.

The textContent attribute’s getter must return the following, switching on context object:

DocumentFragment
Element

The concatenation of data of all the Text node descendants of the context object, in tree order.

Attr

context object’s value.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

The context object’s data.

Any other node

Null.

The textContent attribute’s setter must, if the new value is null, act as if it was the empty string instead, and then do as described below, depending on the context object:

DocumentFragment
Element
  1. Let node be null.

  2. If new value is not the empty string, set node to a new Text node whose data is new value.

  3. Replace all with node within the context object.

Attr

Set an existing attribute value with context object and new value.

Text
ProcessingInstruction
Comment

Replace data with node context object, offset 0, count context object’s length, and data new value.

Any other node

Do nothing.


node . normalize()

Removes empty exclusive Text nodes and concatenates the data of remaining contiguous exclusive Text nodes into the first of their nodes.

The normalize() method, when invoked, must run these steps for each descendant exclusive Text node node of context object:

  1. Let length be node’s length.
  2. If length is zero, then remove node and continue with the next exclusive Text node, if any.
  3. Let data be the concatenation of the data of node’s contiguous exclusive Text nodes (excluding itself), in tree order.
  4. Replace data with node node, offset length, count 0, and data data.
  5. Let currentNode be node’s next sibling.
  6. While currentNode is an exclusive Text node:

    1. For each range whose start node is currentNode, add length to its start offset and set its start node to node.

    2. For each range whose end node is currentNode, add length to its end offset and set its end node to node.

    3. For each range whose start node is currentNode’s parent and start offset is currentNode’s index, set its start node to node and its start offset to length.

    4. For each range whose end node is currentNode’s parent and end offset is currentNode’s index, set its end node to node and its end offset to length.

    5. Add currentNode’s length to length.

    6. Set currentNode to its next sibling.

  7. Remove node’s contiguous exclusive Text nodes (excluding itself), in tree order.

node . cloneNode([deep = false])

Returns a copy of node. If deep is true, the copy also includes the node’s descendants.

node . isEqualNode(other)

Returns whether node and other have the same properties.

Specifications may define cloning steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed copy, node, document, and an optional clone children flag, as indicated in the clone algorithm.

Note: HTML defines cloning steps for script and input elements. SVG ought to do the same for its script elements, but does not call this out at the moment.

To clone a node, with an optional document and clone children flag, run these steps:

  1. If document is not given, let document be node’s node document.

  2. If node is an element, then:

    1. let copy be a node that implements the same interfaces as node.
    2. Set copy’s local name, namespace, namespace prefix, to those of node.

    3. For each attribute in node’s attribute list, in order, run these substeps:

      1. Let copyAttribute be a clone of attribute.

      2. Append copyAttribute to copy.

  3. Otherwise, let copy be a node that implements the same interfaces as node, and fulfills these additional requirements, switching on node:

    Document

    Set copy’s encoding, content type, URL, origin, type, and mode, to those of node.

    DocumentType

    Set copy’s name, public ID, and system ID, to those of node.

    Attr

    Set copy’s namespace, namespace prefix, local name, and value, to those of node.

    Text
    Comment
    Set copy’s data, to that of node.
    ProcessingInstruction
    Set copy’starget and data to those of node.
    Any other node

  4. Set copy’s node document and document to copy, if copy is a document, and set copy’s node document to document otherwise.

  5. Run any cloning steps defined for node in other applicable specifications and pass copy, node, document and the clone children flag if set, as parameters.

  6. If the clone children flag is set, clone all the children of node and append them to copy, with document as specified and the clone children flag being set.

  7. Return copy.

The cloneNode(deep) method, when invoked, must return a clone of the context object, with the clone children flag set if deep is true.

A node A equals a node B if all of the following conditions are true:

The isEqualNode(other) method, when invoked, must return true if other is not null and context object equals other, and false otherwise.


node . compareDocumentPosition(other)

Returns a bitmask indicating the position of other relative to node. These are the bits that can be set:

Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED (1)
Set when node and other are not in the same tree.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING (2)
Set when other is preceding node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING (4)
Set when other is following node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS (8)
Set when other is an ancestor of node.
Node . DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY (16, 10 in hexadecimal)
Set when other is a descendant of node.
node . contains(other)

Returns true if other is an inclusive descendant of node, and false otherwise.

These are the constants compareDocumentPosition() returns as mask:

The compareDocumentPosition(other) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If context object is other, then return zero.

  2. Let node1 be other and node2 be context object.

  3. Let attr1 and attr2 be null.

  4. If node1 is an attribute, then set attr1 to node1 and node1 to attr1’s element.

  5. If node2 is an attribute, then:

    1. Set attr2 to node2 and node2 to attr2’s element.

    2. If attr1 and node1 are non-null, and node2 is node1, then:

      1. For each attribute attr in node2’s attribute list:

        1. If attr equals attr1, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC and DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

        2. If attr equals attr2, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC and DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

  6. If node1 or node2 is null, or node1’s root is not node2’s root, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED, DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC, and either DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING or DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING, with the constraint that this is to be consistent, together.

    Whether to return DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING or DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING is typically implemented via pointer comparison. In JavaScript implementations a cached Math.random() value can be used.

  7. If node1 is an ancestor of node2 and attr1 is null, or node1 is node2 and attr2 is non-null, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS to DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

  8. If node1 is a descendant of node2 and attr2 is null, or node1 is node2 and attr1 is non-null, then return the result of adding DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY to DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

  9. If node1 is preceding node2, then return DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING.

    Due to the way attributes are handled in this algorithm this results in a node’s attributes counting as preceding that node’s children, despite attributes not participating in a tree.

  10. Return DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING.

The contains(other) method, when invoked, must return true if other is an inclusive descendant of context object, and false otherwise (including when other is null).


To locate a namespace prefix for an element using namespace, run these steps:

  1. If element’s namespace is namespace and its namespace prefix is not null, then return its namespace prefix.

  2. If element has an attribute whose namespace prefix is "xmlns" and value is namespace, then return element’s first such attribute’s local name.

  3. If element’s parent element is not null, then return the result of running locate a namespace prefix on that element using namespace.

  4. Return null.

To locate a namespace for a node using prefix switch on node:

Element
  1. If its namespace is not null and its namespace prefix is prefix, then return namespace.

  2. If it has an attribute whose namespace is the XMLNS namespace, namespace prefix is "xmlns", and local name is prefix, or if prefix is null and it has an attribute whose namespace is the XMLNS namespace, namespace prefix is null, and local name is "xmlns", then return its value if it is not the empty string, and null otherwise.

  3. If its parent element is null, then return null.

  4. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its parent element using prefix.

Document
  1. If its document element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its document element using prefix.

DocumentType
DocumentFragment

Return null.

Attr
  1. If its element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its element using prefix.

Any other node
  1. If its parent element is null, then return null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace on its parent element using prefix.

The lookupPrefix(namespace) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If namespace is null or the empty string, then return null.

  2. Switch on the context object:

    Element

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for it using namespace.

    Document

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its document element, if its document element is non-null, and null otherwise.

    DocumentType
    DocumentFragment

    Return null.

    Attr

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its element, if its element is non-null, and null otherwise.

    Any other node

    Return the result of locating a namespace prefix for its parent element, if its parent element is non-null, and null otherwise.

The lookupNamespaceURI(prefix) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If prefix is the empty string, then set it to null.

  2. Return the result of running locate a namespace for the context object using prefix.

The isDefaultNamespace(namespace) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, then set it to null.

  2. Let defaultNamespace be the result of running locate a namespace for context object using null.

  3. Return true if defaultNamespace is the same as namespace, and false otherwise.


The insertBefore(node, child) method, when invoked, must return the result of pre-inserting node into context object before child.

The appendChild(node) method, when invoked, must return the result of appending node to context object.

The replaceChild(node, child) method, when invoked, must return the result of replacing child with node within context object.

The removeChild(child) method, when invoked, must return the result of pre-removing child from context object.

The list of elements with local name localName for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If localName is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches only elements.

  2. Otherwise, if root’s node document is an HTML document, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches the following descendant elements:

  3. Otherwise, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose local name is localName.

When invoked with the same argument, and as long as root’s node document’s type has not changed, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

The list of elements with namespace namespace and local name localName for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.

  2. If both namespace and localName are "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements.

  3. Otherwise, if namespace is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose local name is localName.

  4. Otherwise, if localName is "*" (U+002A), return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose namespace is namespace.

  5. Otherwise, return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName.

When invoked with the same arguments, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

The list of elements with class names classNames for a node root is the HTMLCollection returned by the following algorithm:

  1. Let classes be the result of running the ordered set parser on classNames.

  2. If classes is the empty set, return an empty HTMLCollection.

  3. Return a HTMLCollection rooted at root, whose filter matches descendant elements that have all their classes in classes.

    The comparisons for the classes must be done in an ASCII case-insensitive manner if root’s node document’s mode is "quirks", and in a case-sensitive manner otherwise.

When invoked with the same argument, the same HTMLCollection object may be returned as returned by an earlier call.

4.5. Interface Document

[Constructor,
 Exposed=Window]
interface Document : Node {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute DOMImplementation implementation;
  readonly attribute USVString URL;
  readonly attribute USVString documentURI;
  readonly attribute USVString origin;
  readonly attribute DOMString compatMode;
  readonly attribute DOMString characterSet;
  readonly attribute DOMString charset; // for legacy use, alias of .characterSet
  readonly attribute DOMString inputEncoding; // for legacy use, alias of .characterSet
  readonly attribute DOMString contentType;

  readonly attribute DocumentType? doctype;
  readonly attribute Element? documentElement;
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagName(DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagNameNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByClassName(DOMString classNames);

  [NewObject] Element createElement(DOMString localName);
  [NewObject] Element createElementNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName);
  [NewObject] DocumentFragment createDocumentFragment();
  [NewObject] Text createTextNode(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] CDATASection createCDATASection(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] Comment createComment(DOMString data);
  [NewObject] ProcessingInstruction createProcessingInstruction(DOMString target, DOMString data);

  [NewObject] Node importNode(Node node, optional boolean deep = false);
  Node adoptNode(Node node);

  [NewObject] Attr createAttribute(DOMString localName);
  [NewObject] Attr createAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName);

  [NewObject] Event createEvent(DOMString interface);

  [NewObject] Range createRange();

  // NodeFilter.SHOW_ALL = 0xFFFFFFFF
  [NewObject] NodeIterator createNodeIterator(Node root, optional unsigned long whatToShow = 0xFFFFFFFF, optional NodeFilter? filter = null);
  [NewObject] TreeWalker createTreeWalker(Node root, optional unsigned long whatToShow = 0xFFFFFFFF, optional NodeFilter? filter = null);
};

[Exposed=Window]
interface XMLDocument : Document {};

Document nodes are simply known as documents.

Each document has an associated encoding (an encoding), content type (a string), URL (a URL), origin (an origin), type ("xml" or "html"), and mode ("no-quirks", "quirks", or "limited-quirks"). [ENCODING] [URL] [HTML51]

Unless stated otherwise, a document’s encoding is the utf-8 encoding, its content type is "application/xml", its URL is "about:blank", origin is an opaque origin, type is "xml", and its mode is "no-quirks".

A document is said to be an XML document if its type is "xml", and an HTML document otherwise. Whether a document is an HTML document or an XML document affects the behavior of certain APIs.

A document is said to be in no-quirks mode if its mode is "no-quirks", quirks mode if its mode is "quirks", and limited-quirks mode if its mode is "limited-quirks".

The mode is only ever changed from the default for documents created by the HTML parser based on the presence, absence, or value of the DOCTYPE string, and by a new browsing context (initial "about:blank"). [HTML51]

No-quirks mode was originally known as "standards mode" and limited-quirks mode was once known as "almost standards mode". They have been renamed because their details are now defined by standards. (And because Ian Hickson vetoed their original names on the basis that they are nonsensical.)


document = new Document()

Returns a new document.

document . implementation

Returns document’s DOMImplementation object.

document . URL
document . documentURI

Returns document’s URL.

document . origin

Returns document’s origin.

document . compatMode

Returns the string "BackCompat" if document’s mode is "quirks mode", and "CSS1Compat" otherwise.

document . characterSet

Returns document’s encoding.

document . contentType

Returns document’s content type.

The Document() constructor must return a new document whose origin is the origin of the global object’s associated document. [HTML51]

Note: Unlike createDocument(), this constructor does not return an XMLDocument object, but a document (Document object).

The implementation attribute’s getter must return the DOMImplementation object that is associated with the document.

The URL’s getter and documentURI attribute’s getter must return the URL.

The origin attribute’s getter must return the Unicode serialization of context object’s origin.

The compatMode attribute’s getter must return "BackCompat" if the context object’s mode is "quirks", and "CSS1Compat" otherwise.

The characterSet attribute’s getter, charSet attribute’s getter, and inputEncoding attribute’s getter, must return context object’s encoding’s name.

The contentType attribute’s getter must return the content type.


document . doctype

Returns the doctype or null if there is none.

document . documentElement

Returns the document element.

collection = document . getElementsByTagName(localName)

If localName is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements.

Otherwise, returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose local name is localName. (Matches case-insensitively against elements in the HTML namespace within an HTML document.)

collection = document . getElementsByTagNameNS(namespace, localName)

If namespace and localName are "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements.

If only namespace is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose local name is localName.

If only localName is "*" returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose namespace is namespace.

Otherwise, returns a HTMLCollection of all descendant elements whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName.

collection = document . getElementsByClassName(classNames)
collection = element . getElementsByClassName(classNames)

Returns a HTMLCollection of the elements in the object on which the method was invoked (a document or an element) that have all the classes given by classes.

The classes argument is interpreted as a space-separated list of classes.

The doctype attribute’s getter must return the child of the document that is a doctype, and null otherwise.

The documentElement attribute’s getter must return the document element.

The getElementsByTagName(localName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with local name localName for the context object.

Note: Thus, in an HTML document, document.getElementsByTagName("FOO") will match FOO elements that are not in the HTML namespace, and foo elements that are in the HTML namespace, but not FOO elements that are in the HTML namespace.

The getElementsByTagNameNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with namespace namespace and local name localName for the context object.

The getElementsByClassName(classNames) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with class names classNames for the context object.

Given the following XHTML fragment:

<div id="example">  <p id="p1" class="aaa bbb"/>
  <p id="p2" class="aaa ccc"/>
  <p id="p3" class="bbb ccc"/>
</div>

A call to document.getElementById(example).getElementsByClassName(aaa) would return a HTMLCollection with the two paragraphs p1 and p2 in it.

A call to getElementsByClassName('ccc bbb') would only return one node, however, namely p3. A call to document.getElementById(example).getElementsByClassName('bbb  ccc ') would return the same thing.

A call to getElementsByClassName('aaa,bbb') would return no nodes; none of the elements above are in the aaa,bbb class.


element = document . createElement(localName)

Returns an element in the HTML namespace [see bug 19431] with localName as local name. (In an HTML document localName is lowercased.)

element = document . createElement(localName)
element = document . createElementNS(namespace, qualifiedName)

Returns an element with namespace namespace. Its namespace prefix will be everything before ":" (U+003E) in qualifiedName or null. Its local name will be everything after ":" (U+003E) in qualifiedName or qualifiedName.

If localName does not match the Name production an InvalidCharacterError will be thrown.

If one of the following conditions is true a NamespaceError will be thrown:

documentFragment = document . createDocumentFragment()

Returns a DocumentFragment node.

text = document . createTextNode(data)

Returns a Text node whose data is data.

cdataSection = document . createCDATASection(data)

Returns a CDATASection node whose data is data.

comment = document . createComment(data)

Returns a Comment node whose data is data.

processingInstruction = document . createProcessingInstruction(target, data)

Returns a ProcessingInstruction node whose target is target and data is data.

If target does not match the Name production an InvalidCharacterError will be thrown.

If data contains "?>" an InvalidCharacterError will be thrown.

The element interface for any name and namespace is Element, unless stated otherwise.

Note: The HTML Standard will e.g. define that for html and the HTML namespace, the HTMLHtmlElement interface is used. [[!HTML5]

The createElement(localName) method, when invoked, must run the these steps:

  1. If localName does not match the Name production, throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. If the context object is an HTML document, let localName be converted to ASCII lowercase.

  3. Let interface be the element interface for localName and the HTML namespace.

  4. Return a new element that implements interface, with no attributes, namespace set to the HTML namespace [see bug 19431], local name set to localName, and node document set to the context object.

The createElementNS(namespace, qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let namespace, prefix, and localName be the result of passing namespace and qualifiedName to validate and extract. Rethrow any exceptions.

  2. Let interface be the element interface for localName and namespace.

  3. Return a new element that implements interface, with no attributes, namespace set to namespace, namespace prefix set to prefix, local name set to localName, and node document set to the context object.

The createDocumentFragment() method, when invoked, must return a new DocumentFragment node with its node document set to the context object.

The createTextNode(data) method, when invoked, must return a new Text node with its data set to data and node document set to the context object.

Note: No check is performed that data consists of characters that match the Char production.

The createCDATASection(data) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If context object is an HTML document, then throw a NotSupportedError.

  2. If data contains the string "]]>", then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  3. Return a new CDATASection node with its data set to data and node document set to the context object.

The createComment(data) method, when invoked, must return a new Comment node with its data set to data and node document set to the context object.

Note: No check is performed that data consists of characters that match the Char production or that it contains two adjacent hyphens or ends with a hyphen.

The createProcessingInstruction(target, data) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If target does not match the Name production, throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. If data contains the string "?>", throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  3. Return a new ProcessingInstruction node, with target set to target, data set to data, and node document set to the context object.

Note: No check is performed that target contains "xml" or ":", or that data contains characters that match the Char production.


clone = document . importNode(node [, deep = false])

Returns a copy of node. If deep is true, the copy also includes the node’s descendants.

If node is a document throws a NotSupportedError.

node = document . adoptNode(node)

Moves node from another document and returns it.

If node is a document throws a NotSupportedError.

The importNode(node, deep) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node is a document, throw a NotSupportedError.

  2. Return a clone of node, with context object and the clone children flag set if deep is true.

Specifications may define adopting steps for all or some nodes. The algorithm is passed node and oldDocument, as indicated in the adopt algorithm.

To adopt a node into a document, run these steps:

  1. Let oldDocument be node’s node document.

  2. If node’s parent is not null, remove node from its parent.

  3. If document is not the same as oldDocument, run these substeps:

    1. For each inclusiveDescendant in node’s inclusive descendants, run these subsubsteps:

      1. Set inclusiveDescendant’s node document to document.

      2. If inclusiveDescendant is an element, then set the node document of each attribute in inclusiveDescendant’s attribute list to document.

    2. For each inclusiveDescendant in node’s inclusive descendants, in tree order, run the adopting steps with inclusiveDescendant and oldDocument.

The adoptNode(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node is a document, throw a NotSupportedError.

  2. Adopt node into the context object.

  3. Return node.


The createAttribute(localName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If localName does not match the Name production in XML, then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. If the context object is an HTML document, then set localName to localName in ASCII lowercase.
  3. Return a new attribute whose local name is localName and node document is context object.

The createAttributeNS(namespace, qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let namespace, prefix, and localName be the result of passing namespace and qualifiedName to validate and extract.

  2. Return a new attribute whose namespace is namespace, namespace prefix is prefix, local name is localName, and node document is context object.


The createEvent(interface) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let constructor be null.

  2. If interface is an ASCII case-insensitive match for any of the strings in the first column in the following table, then set constructor to the interface in the second column on the same row as the matching string:

    String Interface Notes
    "compositionevent" CompositionEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "customevent" CustomEvent
    "event" Event
    "event" Event
    "events" Event
    "hashchangeevent" HashChangeEvent [HTML51]
    "htmlevents" Event
    "keyboardevent" KeyboardEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "messageevent" MessageEvent [WEBMESSAGING]
    "mouseevent" MouseEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "mouseevents" MouseEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "storageevent" StorageEvent [WEBSTORAGE]
    "uievent" UIEvent [UIEVENTS]
    "uievents" UIEvent [UIEVENTS]
  3. If constructor is null, throw a NotSupportedError.

  4. If the interface indicated by constructor is not exposed on the relevant global object of the context object, then throw a NotSupportedError.

    Typically user agents disable support for touch events in some configurations, in which case this clause would be triggered for the interface TouchEvent.

  5. Let event be the result of creating an event given constructor.

  6. Initialize event’s type attribute to the empty string.

  7. Initialize event’s isTrusted attribute to false.

  8. Unset event’s initialized flag.

  9. Return event.

Note: Event constructors ought to be used instead.


The createRange() method, when invoked, must return a new range with (context object, 0) as its start and end.

Note: The Range() constructor ought to be used instead.


The createNodeIterator(root, whatToShow, filter) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Create a NodeIterator object.

  2. Set root to root and initialize the referenceNode attribute to the root argument.

  3. Initialize the pointerBeforeReferenceNode attribute to true.

  4. Set whatToShow to the whatToShow argument.

  5. Set filter to filter.

  6. Return the newly created NodeIterator object.

The createTreeWalker(root, whatToShow, filter) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Create a TreeWalker object.

  2. Set root to root and initialize the currentNode attribute to the root argument.

  3. Set whatToShow to the whatToShow argument.

  4. Set filter to filter.

  5. Return the newly created TreeWalker object.

4.5.1. Interface DOMImplementation

User agents must create a DOMImplementation object whenever a document is created and associate it with that document.

[Exposed=Window]
interface DOMImplementation {
  [NewObject] DocumentType createDocumentType(DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString publicId, DOMString systemId);
  [NewObject] XMLDocument createDocument(DOMString? namespace, [TreatNullAs=EmptyString] DOMString qualifiedName, optional DocumentType? doctype = null);
  [NewObject] Document createHTMLDocument(optional DOMString title);

  boolean hasFeature(); // useless; always returns true
};
doctype = document . implementation . createDocumentType(qualifiedName, publicId, systemId)

Returns a doctype, with the given qualifiedName, publicId, and systemId. If qualifiedName does not match the Name production, an InvalidCharacterError is thrown, and if it does not match the QName production, a NamespaceError is thrown.

doc = document . implementation . createDocument(namespace, qualifiedName [, doctype = null])

Returns an XMLDocument [see bug 22960], with a document element whose local name is qualifiedName and whose namespace is namespace (unless qualifiedName is the empty string), and with doctype, if it is given, as its doctype.

This method throws the same exceptions as the createElementNS() method, when invoked with the same arguments.

doc = document . implementation . createHTMLDocument(title)

Returns a document, with a basic tree already constructed including a title element, unless the title argument is omitted.

The createDocumentType(qualifiedName, publicId, systemId) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Validate qualifiedName.

  2. Return a new doctype, with qualifiedName as its name, publicId as its public ID, and systemId as its system ID, and with its node document set to the associated document of the context object.

Note: No check is performed that publicId matches the PublicChar production or that systemId does not contain both a '"' and "'".

The createDocument(namespace, qualifiedName, doctype) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let document be a new XMLDocument [see bug 22960].

  2. Let element be null.

  3. If qualifiedName is not the empty string, set element to the result of invoking the createElementNS() method with the arguments namespace and qualifiedName on document. Rethrow any exceptions.

  4. If doctype is not null, append doctype to document.

  5. If element is not null, append element to document.

  6. document’s origin is context object’s associated document’s origin.

  7. document’s content type is determined by namespace:

    HTML namespace
    application/xhtml+xml
    SVG namespace
    image/svg+xml
    Any other namespace
    application/xml
  8. Return document.

The createHTMLDocument(title) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let doc be a new document that is an HTML document.

  2. Set doc’s content type to "text/html".

  3. Create a doctype, with "html" as its name and with its node document set to doc. append the newly created node to doc.

  4. Create a html element in the HTML namespace, and append it to doc.

  5. Create a head element in the HTML namespace, and append it to the html element created in the previous step.

  6. If the title argument is not omitted:

    1. Create a title element in the HTML namespace, and append it to the head element created in the previous step.

    2. Create a Text node, set its data to title (which could be the empty string), and append it to the title element created in the previous step.

  7. Create a body element in the HTML namespace, and append it to the html element created in the earlier step.

  8. document’s origin is context object’s associated document’s origin.

  9. Return doc.

The hasFeature() method, when invoked, must return true.

Note: hasFeature() originally would report whether the user agent claimed to support a given DOM feature, but experience proved it was not nearly as reliable or granular as simply checking whether the desired objects, attributes, or methods existed. As such, it should no longer be used, but continues to exist (and simply returns true) so that old pages don’t stop working.

4.6. Interface DocumentFragment

[Constructor,
 Exposed=Window]
interface DocumentFragment : Node {
};

A DocumentFragment node can have an associated element named host.

An object A is a host-including inclusive ancestor of an object B, if either A is an inclusive ancestor of B, or if B’s root has an associated host and A is a host-including inclusive ancestor of B’s root’s host.

Note: The DocumentFragment node’s host concept is useful for HTML’s template element and impacts the pre-insert and replace algorithms.

tree = new DocumentFragment()

Returns a new DocumentFragment node.

The DocumentFragment() constructor must return a new DocumentFragment node whose node document is current global object’s associated Document.

4.7. Interface DocumentType

[Exposed=Window]
interface DocumentType : Node {
  readonly attribute DOMString name;
  readonly attribute DOMString publicId;
  readonly attribute DOMString systemId;
};

DocumentType nodes are simply known as doctypes.

Doctypes have an associated name, public ID, and system ID.

When a doctype is created, its name is always given. Unless explicitly given when a doctype is created, its public ID and system ID are the empty string.

The name attribute’s getter must return the context object’s name.

The publicId attribute’s getter must return the context object’s public ID.

The systemId attribute’s getter must return the context object’s system ID.

4.8. Interface Element

[Exposed=Window]
interface Element : Node {
  readonly attribute DOMString? namespaceURI;
  readonly attribute DOMString? prefix;
  readonly attribute DOMString localName;
  readonly attribute DOMString tagName;

           attribute DOMString id;
           attribute DOMString className;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute DOMTokenList classList;

  boolean hasAttributes();
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NamedNodeMap attributes;
  DOMString? getAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  DOMString? getAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  void setAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString value);
  void setAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString qualifiedName, DOMString value);
  void removeAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  void removeAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  boolean hasAttribute(DOMString qualifiedName);
  boolean hasAttributeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);

  Attr? getAttributeNode(DOMString qualifiedName);
  Attr? getAttributeNodeNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  Attr? setAttributeNode(Attr attr);
  Attr? setAttributeNodeNS(Attr attr);
  Attr removeAttributeNode(Attr attr);

  Element? closest(DOMString selectors);
  boolean matches(DOMString selectors);
  boolean webkitMatchesSelector(DOMString selectors); // historical alias of .matches

  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagName(DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByTagNameNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
  HTMLCollection getElementsByClassName(DOMString classNames);

  Element? insertAdjacentElement(DOMString where, Element element); // historical
  void insertAdjacentText(DOMString where, DOMString data); // historical
};

Element nodes are simply known as elements.

Elements have an associated namespace, namespace prefix, and local name. When an element is created, its local name is always given. Unless explicitly given when an element is created, its namespace and namespace prefix are null.

An element’s qualified name is its local name if its namespace prefix is null, or its namespace prefix, followed by ":", followed by its local name.

Elements also have an attribute list, which is a list exposed through a NamedNodeMap. Unless explicitly given when an element is created, its attribute list is empty. An element has an attribute A if A is in its attribute list.

This and other specifications may define attribute change steps for elements. The algorithm is passed element, localName, oldValue, value, and namespace.


To replace an attribute oldAttr by an attribute newAttr in an element element, run these steps:

  1. Queue a mutation record of "attributes" for element with name oldAttr’s local name, namespace oldAttr’s namespace, and oldValue oldAttr’s value.

  2. Run the attribute change steps with element, oldAttr’s local name, oldAttr’s value, newAttr’s value, and oldAttr’s namespace.

  3. Replace oldAttr by newAttr in the element’s attribute list.

  4. Set oldAttr’s element to null.

  5. Set newAttr’s element to element.

To get an attribute by name given a qualifiedName and element element, run these steps:

  1. If element is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, then set qualifiedName to qualifiedName in ASCII lowercase.

  2. Return the first attribute in element’s attribute list whose qualified name is qualifiedName, and null otherwise.

To get an attribute by namespace and local name given a namespace, localName, and element element, run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.
  2. Return the attribute in element’s attribute list whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName, if any, and null otherwise.

To get an attribute value given element element, localName, and an optional namespace (null unless stated otherwise), run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.

  2. If attr is null, then return the empty string.

  3. Return attr’s value.

To set an attribute given an attr and element, run these steps:

  1. If attr’s element is neither null nor element, throw an InUseAttributeError.

  2. Let oldAttr be the result of getting an attribute given attr’s namespace, attr’s local name, and element.

  3. If oldAttr is attr, return attr.

  4. If oldAttr is non-null, replace it by attr in element.

  5. Otherwise, append attr to element.

  6. Return oldAttr.

To set an attribute value for an element element using a localName and value, and an optional prefix, and an optional namespace, run these steps:

  1. If prefix is not given, set it to null.
  2. If namespace is not given, set it to null.
  3. Let attribute be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.
  4. If attribute is null, create an attribute whose namespace is namespace, namespace prefix is prefix, local name is localName, value is value, and node document is element’s node document, then append this attribute to element, and then terminate these steps.
  5. Change attribute from element to value.

To change an attribute attribute from an element element to value, run these steps:

  1. Queue a mutation record of "attributes" for element with name attribute’s local name, namespace attribute’s namespace, and oldValue attribute’s value.

  2. Run the attribute change steps with element, attribute’s local name, attribute’s value, value, and attribute’s namespace.

  3. Set attribute’s value to value.

To append an attribute attribute to an element element, run these steps:

  1. Queue a mutation record of "attributes" for element with name attribute’s local name, namespace attribute’s namespace, and oldValue null.

  2. Run the attribute change steps with element, attribute’s local name, attribute’s value, value, and attribute’s namespace.

  3. Append the attribute to the element’s attribute list.

  4. Set attribute’s element to element.

To remove an attribute attribute from an element element, run these steps:

  1. Queue a mutation record of "attributes" for element with name attribute’s local name, namespace attribute’s namespace, and oldValue attribute’s value.

  2. Run the attribute change steps with element, attribute’s local name, attribute’s value, value, and attribute’s namespace.

  3. Remove attribute from the element’s attribute list.

  4. Set attribute’s element to null.

To remove an attribute by name given a qualifiedName and element element, run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given qualifiedName and element.

  2. If attr is non-null, remove it from element.

  3. Return attr.

To remove an attribute by namespace and local name given a namespace, localName, and element element, run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.
  2. If attr is non-null, remove it from element.

  3. Return attr.


An element can have an associated unique identifier (ID).

Historically elements could have multiple identifiers e.g., by using the HTML id attribute and a DTD. This specification makes ID a concept of the DOM and allows for only one per element, given by an id attribute.

Use these attribute change steps to update an element’s ID:

  1. If the given attribute’s localName is id, namespace is null, and value is null or the empty string, then unset element’s ID.

  2. Otherwise, if localName is id, namespace is null, then set element’s ID to value.

While this specification defines requirements for class and id attributes on any element, it makes no claims as to whether using them is conforming or not.


A node’s parent of type Element is known as a parent element. If the node has a parent of a different type, its parent element is null.

The document element of a document is the element whose parent is that document, if it exists, and null otherwise.

Note: Per the node tree constraints, there can only be one such element.


namespace = element . namespaceURI

Returns the namespace.

prefix = element . prefix

Returns the namespace prefix.

localName = element . localName

Returns the local name.

qualifiedName = element . tagName
Returns the qualified name. (The return value is uppercased in an HTML document.)

The namespaceURI attribute’s getter must return the context object’s namespace.

The prefix attribute’s getter must return the context object’s namespace prefix.

The localName attribute’s getter must return the context object’s local name.

The tagName attribute’s getter must run these steps:

  1. Let qualifiedName be context object’s qualified name.

  2. If the context object is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, let qualified name be converted to ASCII uppercase.

  3. Return qualifiedName.


IDL attributes that are defined to reflect a content attribute of a given name, must have a getter and setter that follow these steps:

getter

Return the result of running get an attribute value given context object and name.

setter

Set an attribute value for the context object using name and the given value.

The id attribute must reflect the "id" content attribute.

The className attribute must reflect the "class" content attribute.

The classList attribute’s getter must return the associated DOMTokenList object representing the context object’s classes.


The hasAttributes() method, when invoked, must return false if context object’s attribute list is empty, and true otherwise.

The attributes attribute’s getter must return a NamedNodeMap.

The getAttribute(qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of getting an attribute given qualifiedName and the context object.

  2. If attr is null, return null.

  3. Return attr’s value.

The getAttributeNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the following steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.

  2. Return getting an attribute for the context object using localName and namespace.

The setAttribute(qualifiedName, value) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If name does not match the QName production in XML, throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. If the context object is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, let qualifiedName be converted to ASCII lowercase.

  3. Let attribute be the first attribute in the context object’s attribute list whose name is qualifiedName, or null if there is no such attribute.

  4. If attribute is null, create an attribute whose local name is qualifiedName, value is value, and node document is context object’s node document, and then append this attribute to the context object and terminate these steps.

  5. Change attribute from context object to value.

The setAttributeNS(namespace, qualifiedName, value) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let namespace, prefix, and localName be the result of passing namespace and qualifiedName to validate and extract. Rethrow any exceptions.

  2. Set an attribute value for the context object using localName, value, and also prefix and namespace.

The removeAttribute(qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must remove an attribute given qualifiedName and the context object, and then return undefined.

The removeAttributeNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must remove an attribute given namespace, localName, and context object, and then return undefined.

The hasAttribute(name) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If the context object is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, let name be converted to ASCII lowercase.

  2. Return true if the context object has an attribute whose qualifiedName is qualifiedName, and false otherwise.

The hasAttributeNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If namespace is the empty string, set it to null.

  2. Return true if the context object has an attribute whose namespace is namespace and local name is localName, and false otherwise.


element . closest(selectors)
Returns the first (starting at element) inclusive ancestor that matches selectors, and null otherwise.
element . matches(selectors)
Returns true if matching selectors against element’s root yields element, and false otherwise.

The closest(selectors) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let s be the result of parse a selector from selectors. [SELECTORS4]
  2. If s is failure, throw a SyntaxError.
  3. Let elements be context object’s inclusive ancestors that are elements, in reverse tree order.
  4. For each element in elements, if match a selector against an element, using s, element, and :scope element context object, returns success, return element. [SELECTORS4]
  5. Return null.

The matches(selectors) and webkitMatchesSelector(selectors) methods, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let s be the result of parse a selector from selectors. [SELECTORS4]
  2. If s is failure, throw a SyntaxError.
  3. Return true if the result of match a selector against an element, using s, element, and :scope element context object, returns success, and false otherwise. [SELECTORS4]

The getAttributeNode(name) method, when invoked, must return the result of getting an attribute given qualifiedName and the context object.

The getAttributeNodeNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and the context object.

The setAttributeNode(attr) and settAttributeNodeNS(attr) method, when invoked, must return the result of setting an attribute given attr and the context object.

The removeAttributeNode(attr) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If context object’s attribute list doesn’t contain attr, attribute list, throw a NotFoundError.

  2. Remove attr from context object.

  3. Return attr.

The getElementsByTagName(localName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with local name localName for the context object.

The getElementsByTagNameNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with namespace namespace and local name localName for the context object.

The getElementsByClassName(classNames) method, when invoked, must return the list of elements with class names classNames for context object.


To insert adjacent, given an element element, string where, and a node node, run the steps associated with the first ASCII case-insensitive match for where:

"beforebegin"

If element’s parent is null, return null.

Return the result of pre-inserting node into element’s parent before element. Rethrow any exceptions.

"afterbegin"

Return the result of pre-inserting node into element before element’s first child. Rethrow any exceptions.

"beforeend"

Return the result of pre-inserting node into element before null. Rethrow any exceptions.

"afterend"

If element’s parent is null, return null.

Return the result of pre-inserting node into element’s parent before element’s next sibling. Rethrow any exceptions.

Otherwise

Throw a SyntaxError.

The insertAdjacentElement(where, element) method, when invoked, must return the result of running insert adjacent, given context object, where, and element. Rethrow any exceptions.

The insertAdjacentText(where, data) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let text be a new Text object whose data is data.

  2. Run insert adjacent, given context object, where, and text. Rethrow any exceptions.

This method returns nothing because it existed before we had a chance to design it.

4.8.1. Interface NamedNodeMap

[Exposed=Window, LegacyUnenumerableNamedProperties]
interface NamedNodeMap {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;

  getter Attr? item(unsigned long index);
  getter Attr? getNamedItem(DOMString qualifiedName);
  Attr? getNamedItemNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);

  Attr? setNamedItem(Attr attr);
  Attr? setNamedItemNS(Attr attr);

  Attr removeNamedItem(DOMString qualifiedName);
  Attr removeNamedItemNS(DOMString? namespace, DOMString localName);
};

A NamedNodeMap has an associated element (an element).

A NamedNodeMap object’s attribute list is its element’s attribute list.

A NamedNodeMap object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to the number of attributes in its attribute list map minus one, unless the attribute list is empty, in which case there are no supported property indices.


The length attribute’s getter must return the number of attributes in the attribute list.

The item(index) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If index is equal to or greater than the number of attributes in the attribute list, return null.

  2. Otherwise, return the indexth attribute in the attribute list.

A NamedNodeMap object’s supported property names are the return value of running these steps:

  1. Let names be the qualified names of the attributes in this NamedNodeMap object’s attribute list, with duplicates omitted, in order.

  2. If this NamedNodeMap object’s element is in the HTML namespace and its node document is an HTML document, then for each name in names, run these substeps:

    1. Let lowercaseName be name, in ASCII lowercase.

    2. If lowercaseName is not equal to name, remove name from names.

  3. Return names.

The getNamedItem(qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must return the result of getting an attribute given qualifiedName and element.

The getNamedItemNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must return the result of getting an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.

The setNamedItem(attr) and setNamedItemNS(attr) methods, when invoked, must return the result of setting an attribute given attr and element. Rethrow any exceptions.

The removeNamedItem(qualifiedName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of removing an attribute given qualifiedName and element.

  2. If attr is null, then throw a NotFoundError.

  3. Return attr.

The removeNamedItemNS(namespace, localName) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let attr be the result of removing an attribute given namespace, localName, and element.

  2. If attr is null, then throw a NotFoundError.

  3. Return attr.

4.8.2. Interface Attr

[Exposed=Window]
interface Attr : Node {
  readonly attribute DOMString? namespaceURI;
  readonly attribute DOMString? prefix;
  readonly attribute DOMString localName;
  readonly attribute DOMString name;
  readonly attribute DOMString nodeName; // for legacy use, alias of .name
           attribute DOMString value;

  readonly attribute Element? ownerElement;

  readonly attribute boolean specified; // useless; always returns true
};

Attr nodes are simply known as attributes. They are sometimes referred to as content attributes to avoid confusion with IDL attributes.

Attributes have a namespace (null or a non-empty string), namespace prefix (null or a non-empty string), local name (a non-empty string), name (a non-empty string), value (a string), and element (null or an element).

Note: If designed today they would just have a name and value.

An attribute’s qualified name is its local name if its namespace prefix is null, and its namespace prefix, followed by ":", followed by its local name, otherwise.

When an attribute is created, its local name and value are always given. Unless explicitly given when an attribute is created, its name is identical to its local name, and its namespace and namespace prefix are null.

An A attribute is an attribute whose local name is A and whose namespace and namespace prefix are null.

The namespaceURI attribute’s getter must return the namespace.

The prefix attribute’s getter must return the namespace prefix.

The localName attribute’s getter must return the local name.

The name attribute’s getter and nodeName attribute’s getter must return the name.

The value attribute’s getter must both return the value.

To set an existing attribute value, given an attribute attribute and string value, run these steps:

  1. If attribute’s element is null, then set attribute’s value to value.
  2. Otherwise, change attribute from attribute’s element to value.

The value attribute’s setter must set an existing attribute value with context object and the given value.

The ownerElement attribute’s getter must return context object’s element.

The specified attribute’s getter must return true.

4.9. Interface CharacterData

[Exposed=Window]
interface CharacterData : Node {
  [TreatNullAs=EmptyString] attribute DOMString data;
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;

  DOMString substringData(unsigned long offset, unsigned long count);
  void appendData(DOMString data);
  void insertData(unsigned long offset, DOMString data);
  void deleteData(unsigned long offset, unsigned long count);
  void replaceData(unsigned long offset, unsigned long count, DOMString data);
};

Note: CharacterData is an abstract interface and does not exist as node. It is used by Text, Comment, and ProcessingInstruction nodes.

Each node inheriting from the CharacterData interface has an associated mutable string called data.

To replace data of node node with offset offset, count count, and data data, run these steps:

  1. Let length be node’s length attribute value.

  2. If offset is greater than length, throw an IndexSizeError.

  3. If offset plus count is greater than length let count be length minus offset.

  4. Queue a mutation record of "characterData" for node with oldValue node’s data.

  5. Insert data into node’s data after offset code units.

  6. Let delete offset be offset plus the number of code units in data.

  7. Starting from delete offset code units, remove count code units from node’s data.

  8. For each range whose start node is node and start offset is greater than offset but less than or equal to offset plus count, set its start offset to offset.

  9. For each range whose end node is node and end offset is greater than offset but less than or equal to offset plus count, set its end offset to offset.

  10. For each range whos start node is node and start offset is greater than offset plus count, increase its start offset by the number of code units in data, then decrease it by count.

  11. For each range whose end node is node and end offset is greater than offset plus count, increase its end offset by the number of code units in data, then decrease it by count.

To substring data with node node, offset offset, and count count, run these steps:

  1. Let length be node’s length.

  2. If offset is greater than length, throw an IndexSizeError.

  3. If offset plus count is greater than length, return a string whose value is the code units from the offsetth code unit to the end of node’s data, and then terminate these steps.

  4. Return a string whose value is the code units from the offsetth code unit to the offset+countth code unit in node’s data.


The data attribute’s getter must return context object’s data, and on setting, must replace data with node context object offset 0, count context object’s length, and data new value.

The length attribute’s getter must return context object’s length.

The substringData(offset, count) method, when invoked, must substring data with node context object, offset offset, and count count.

The appendData(data) method, when invoked, must replace data with node context object, offset context object’s length, count 0, and data data.

The insertData(offset, data) method, when invoked, must replace data with node context object, offset offset, count 0, and data data.

The deleteData(offset, count) method, when invoked, must replace data with node context object, offset offset, count count, and data the empty string.

The replaceData(offset, count, data) method, when invoked, must replace data with node context object, offset offset, count count, and data data.

4.10. Interface Text

[Constructor(optional DOMString data = ""),
 Exposed=Window]
interface Text : CharacterData {
  [NewObject] Text splitText(unsigned long offset);
  readonly attribute DOMString wholeText;
};

An exclusive Text node is a Text node that is not a CDATASection node.

The contiguous Text nodes of a node node are node, node’s previous sibling Text node, if any, and its contiguous Text nodes, and node’s next sibling Text node, if any, and its contiguous Text nodes, avoiding any duplicates.

The contiguous exclusive Text nodes of a node node are node, node’s previous sibling exclusive Text node, if any, and its contiguous exclusive Text nodes, and node’s next sibling exclusive Text node, if any, and its contiguous exclusive Text nodes, avoiding any duplicates.


text = new Text([data = ""])

Returns a new Text node whose data is data.

text . splitText(offset)

Splits data at the given offset and returns the remainder as Text node.

text . wholeText

Returns the combined data of all direct Text node siblings.

The Text(data) constructor, when invoked, must return a new Text node whose data is data and node document is the global object’s associated document.


To split a Text node node with offset offset, run these steps:

  1. Let length be node’s length.

  2. If offset is greater than length, throw an IndexSizeError.

  3. Let count be length minus offset.

  4. Let new data be the result of substringing data with node node, offset offset, and count count.

  5. Let new node be a new Text node, with the same node document as node. Set new node’s data to new data.

  6. Let parent be node’s parent.

  7. If parent is not null, run these substeps:

    1. Insert new node into parent before node’s next sibling.

    2. For each range whose start node is node and start offset is greater than offset, set its start node to new node and decrease its start offset by offset.

    3. For each range whose end node is node and end offset is greater than offset, set its end node to new node and decrease its end offset by offset.

    4. For each range whose start node is parent and start offset is equal to the index of node + 1, increase its start offset by one.

    5. For each range whose end node is parent and end offset is equal to the index of node + 1, increase its end offset by one.

  8. Replace data with node node, offset offset, count count, and data the empty string.

  9. Return new node.

The splitText(offset) method, when invoked, must split the context object with offset offset.

The wholeText attribute’s getter must return a concatenation of the data of the contiguous Text nodes of the context object, in tree order.

4.11. Interface CDATASection

[Exposed=Window]
interface CDATASection : Text {
};

4.12. Interface ProcessingInstruction

[Exposed=Window]
interface ProcessingInstruction : CharacterData {
  readonly attribute DOMString target;
};

ProcessingInstruction nodes have an associated target.

The target attribute must return the target.

4.13. Interface Comment

[Constructor(optional DOMString data = ""),
 Exposed=Window]
interface Comment : CharacterData {
};
comment = new Comment([data = ""])

Returns a new Comment node whose data is data.

The Comment(data) constructor, when invoked, must return a new Comment node whose data is data and node document is current global object’s associated Document.

5. Ranges

5.1. Introduction to "DOM Ranges"

A Range object (range) represents a sequence of content within a node tree. Each range has a start and an end which are boundary points. A boundary point is a tuple consisting of a node and a non-negative numeric offset. So in other words, a range represents a piece of content within a node tree between two boundary points.

Ranges are frequently used in editing for selecting and copying content.

In the node tree above, a range can be used to represent the sequence “syndata is awes”. Assuming p is assigned to the p element, and em to the em element, this would be done as follows:

var range = new Range(),    firstText = p.childNodes[1],
    secondText = em.firstChild
range.setStart(firstText, 9) // do not forget the leading space
range.setEnd(secondText, 4)
// range now stringifies to the aforementioned quote

Note: Attributes such as src and alt in the node tree above cannot be represented by a range. The ranges concept is only useful for nodes.

Ranges are affected by mutations to the node tree. Such mutations will not invalidate a range and will try to ensure that the range still represents the same piece of content. Necessarily, a range might itself be modified as part of the mutation to the node tree when e.g. part of the content it represents is mutated.

Note: See the insert and remove algorithms, the normalize() method, and the replace data and split algorithms for the hairy details.

5.2. Interface Range

[Constructor,
 Exposed=Window]
interface Range {
  readonly attribute Node startContainer;
  readonly attribute unsigned long startOffset;
  readonly attribute Node endContainer;
  readonly attribute unsigned long endOffset;
  readonly attribute boolean collapsed;
  readonly attribute Node commonAncestorContainer;

  void setStart(Node node, unsigned long offset);
  void setEnd(Node node, unsigned long offset);
  void setStartBefore(Node node);
  void setStartAfter(Node node);
  void setEndBefore(Node node);
  void setEndAfter(Node node);
  void collapse(optional boolean toStart = false);
  void selectNode(Node node);
  void selectNodeContents(Node node);

  const unsigned short START_TO_START = 0;
  const unsigned short START_TO_END = 1;
  const unsigned short END_TO_END = 2;
  const unsigned short END_TO_START = 3;
  short compareBoundaryPoints(unsigned short how, Range sourceRange);

  void deleteContents();
  [NewObject] DocumentFragment extractContents();
  [NewObject] DocumentFragment cloneContents();
  void insertNode(Node node);
  void surroundContents(Node newParent);

  [NewObject] Range cloneRange();
  void detach();

  boolean isPointInRange(Node node, unsigned long offset);
  short comparePoint(Node node, unsigned long offset);

  boolean intersectsNode(Node node);

  stringifier;
};

Range objects are simply known as ranges.

A boundary point is a (node, offset) tuple, where offset is a non-negative integer.

Note: Generally speaking, a boundary point’s offset will be between zero and the boundary point’s node length, inclusive. Algorithms that modify a tree (in particular the insert, remove, replace data, and split algorithms) also modify ranges associated with that tree.

If the two nodes of boundary points (node A, offset A) and (node B, offset B) have the same root, the position of the first relative to the second is either before, equal, or after, as returned by the following algorithm:

  1. If node A is the same as node B, return equal if offset A is the same as offset B, before if offset A is less than offset B, and after if offset A is greater than offset B.
  2. If node A is following node B, compute the position of (node B, offset B) relative to (node A, offset A). If it is before, return after. If it is after, return before.
  3. If node A is an ancestor of node B:
    1. Let child equal node B.

    2. While child is not a child of node A, set child to its parent.

    3. If the index of child is less than offset A, return after.

  4. Return before.

Each range has two associated boundary points — a start and end.

For convenience, start node is start’s node, start offset is start’s offset, end node is end’s node, and end offset is end’s offset.

The root of a range is the root of its start node.

A node node is contained in a range range if node’s root is the same as range’s root, and (node, 0) is after range’s start, and (node, length of node) is before range’s end.

A node is partially contained in a range if it is an inclusive ancestor of the range’s start node but not its end node, or vice versa.

Some facts to better understand these definitions:


range = new Range()

Returns a new range.

The Range() constructor must return a new range with (current global object’s associated Document, 0) as its start and end.


node = range . startContainer

Returns range’s start node.

offset = range . startOffset

Returns range’s start offset.

node = range . endContainer

Returns range’s end node.

offset = range . endOffset

Returns range’s end offset.

collapsed = range . collapsed

Returns true if range’s start and end are the same, and false otherwise.

container = range . commonAncestorContainer

Returns the node, furthest away from the document, that is an ancestor of both range’s start node and end node.

The startContainer attribute’s getter must return the start node.

The startOffset attribute’s getter must return the start offset.

The endContainer attribute’s getter must return the end node.

The endOffset attribute’s getter must return the end offset.

The collapsed attribute’s getter must return true if start is the same as end, and false otherwise.

The commonAncestorContainer attribute’s getter must run these steps:

  1. Let container be start node.

  2. While container is not an inclusive ancestor of end node, let container be container’s parent.

  3. Return container.


To set the start or end of a range to a boundary point (node, offset), run these steps:

  1. If node is a doctype, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.
  2. If offset is greater than node’s length, throw an IndexSizeError.
  3. Let bp be the boundary point (node, offset).
  4. If these steps were invoked as "set the start"
    1. If bp is after the range’s end, or if range’s root is not equal to node’s root, set range’s end to bp.

    2. Set range’s start to bp.

    If these steps were invoked as "set the end"
    1. If bp is before the range’s start, or if range’s root is not equal to node’s root, set range’s start to bp.

    2. Set range’s end to bp.

The setStart(node, offset) method, when invoked, must set the start of the context object to boundary point (node, offset).

The setEnd(node, offset) method, when invoked, must set the end of the context object to boundary point (node, offset).

The setStartBefore(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Set the start of the context object to boundary point (parent, node’s index).

The setStartAfter(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Set the start of the context object to boundary point (parent, node’s index plus one).

The setEndBefore(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Set the end of the context object to boundary point (parent, node’s index).

The setEndAfter(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Set the end of the context object to boundary point (parent, node’s index plus one).

The collapse(toStart) method, when invoked, must if toStart is true, set end to start, and set start to end otherwise.

To select a node node within a range range, run these steps:

  1. Let parent be node’s parent.

  2. If parent is null, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Let index be node’s index.

  4. Set range’s start to boundary point (parent, index).

  5. Set range’s end to boundary point (parent, index plus one).

The selectNode(node) method, when invoked, must select node within context object.

The selectNodeContents(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node is a doctype, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  2. Let length be the length of node.

  3. Set start to the boundary point (node, 0).

  4. Set end to the boundary point (node, length).


The compareBoundaryPoints(how, sourceRange) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If how is not one of

    throw a NotSupportedError.

  2. If context object’s root is not the same as sourceRange’s root, throw a WrongDocumentError.

  3. If how is:

    START_TO_START:

    Let this point be the context object’s start.

    Let other point be sourceRange’s start.

    START_TO_END:

    Let this point be the context object’s end.

    Let other point be sourceRange’s start.

    END_TO_END:

    Let this point be the context object’s end.

    Let other point be sourceRange’s end.

    END_TO_START:

    Let this point be the context object’s start.

    Let other point be sourceRange’s end.

  4. If the position of this point relative to other point is

    before
    Return −1.
    equal
    Return 0.
    after
    Return 1.

The deleteContents()method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If start is end, terminate these steps.

  2. Let original start node, original start offset, original end node, and original end offset be the context object’s start node, start offset, end node, and end offset, respectively.

  3. If original start node and original end node are the same, and they are a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, replace data with node original start node, offset original start offset, count original end offset minus original start offset, and data the empty string, and then terminate these steps.

  4. Let nodes to remove be a list of all the nodes that are contained in the context object, in tree order, omitting any node whose parent is also contained in the context object.

  5. If original start node is an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set new node to original start node and new offset to original start offset.

  6. Otherwise:

    1. Let reference node equal original start node.

    2. While reference node’s parent is not null and is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set reference node to its parent.

    3. Set new node to the parent of reference node, and new offset to one plus the index of reference node.

      Note: If reference node’s parent were null, it would be the root of the context object, so would be an inclusive ancestor of original end node, and we could not reach this point.

  7. If original start node is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, replace data with node original start node, offset original start offset, count original start node’s length minus original start offset, data the empty string.

  8. For each node in nodes to remove, in tree order, remove node from its parent.

  9. If original end node is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node, replace data with node original end node, offset 0, count original end offset and data the empty string.

  10. Set start and end to (new node, new offset).

To extract a range range, run these steps:

  1. Let fragment be a new DocumentFragment node whose node document is range’s start node’s node document.

  2. If range’s start is its end, return fragment.

  3. Let original start node, original start offset, original end node, and original end offset be range’s start node, start offset, end node, and end offset, respectively.

  4. If original start node is original end node, and they are a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    1. Let clone be a clone of original start node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original start node, offset original start offset, and count original end offset minus original start offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

    4. Replace data with node original start node, offset original start offset, count original end offset minus original start offset, and data the empty string.

    5. Return fragment.

  5. Let common ancestor be original start node.

  6. While common ancestor is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set common ancestor to its own parent.

  7. Let first partially contained child be null.

  8. If original start node is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set first partially contained child to the first child of common ancestor that is partially contained in range.

  9. Let last partially contained child be null.

  10. If original end node is not an inclusive ancestor of original start node, set last partially contained child to the last child of common ancestor that is partially contained in range.

    Note: These variable assignments do actually always make sense. For instance, if original start node is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, original start node is itself partially contained in range, and so are all its ancestors up until a child of common ancestor. common ancestor cannot be original start node, because it has to be an inclusive ancestor of original end node. The other case is similar. Also, notice that the two children will never be equal if both are defined.

  11. Let contained children be a list of all children of common ancestor that are contained in range, in tree order.

  12. If any member of contained children is a doctype, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

    Note: We do not have to worry about the first or last partially contained node, because a doctype can never be partially contained. It cannot be a boundary point of a range, and it cannot be the ancestor of anything.

  13. If original start node is an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set new node to original start node and new offset to original start offset.

  14. Otherwise:

    1. Let reference node equal original start node.

    2. While reference node’s parent is not null and is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set reference node to its parent.

    3. Set new node to the parent of reference node, and new offset to one plus reference node’s index.

      Note: If reference node’s parent is null, it would be the root of range, so would be an inclusive ancestor of original end node, and we could not reach this point.

  15. If first partially contained child is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    Note: In this case, first partially contained child is original start node.

    1. Let clone be a clone of original start node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original start node, offset original start offset, and count original start node’s length minus original start offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

    4. Replace data with node original start node, offset original start offset, count original start node’s length minus original start offset, and data the empty string.

  16. Otherwise, if first partially contained child is not null:

    1. Let clone be a clone of first partially contained child.

    2. Append clone to fragment.

    3. Let subrange be a new range whose start is (original start node, original start offset) and whose end is (first partially contained child, first partially contained child’s length).

    4. Let subfragment be the result of extracting subrange.

    5. Append subfragment to clone.

  17. For each contained child in contained children, append contained child to fragment.

  18. If last partially contained child is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    Note: In this case, last partially contained child is original end node.

    1. Let clone be a clone of original end node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original end node, offset 0, and count original end offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

    4. Replace data with node original end node, offset 0, count original end offset, and data the empty string.

  19. Otherwise, if last partially contained child is not null:

    1. Let clone be a clone of last partially contained child.

    2. Append clone to fragment.

    3. Let subrange be a new range whose start is (last partially contained child, 0) and whose end is (original end node, original end offset).

    4. Let subfragment be the result of extracting subrange.

    5. Append subfragment to clone.

  20. Set range’s start and end to (new node, new offset).

  21. Return fragment.

The extractContents() method, when invoked, must return the result of extracting context object.

To clone the contents of a range range, run these steps:

  1. Let fragment be a new DocumentFragment node whose node document is range’s start node’s node document.

  2. If range’s start is its end, return fragment.

  3. Let original start node, original start offset, original end node, and original end offset be range’s start node, start offset, end node, and end offset, respectively.

  4. If original start node is original end node, and they are a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    1. Let clone be a clone of original start node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original start node, offset original start offset, and count original end offset minus original start offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

    4. Return fragment.

  5. Let common ancestor be original start node.

  6. While common ancestor is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set common ancestor to its own parent.

  7. Let first partially contained child be null.

  8. If original start node is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, set first partially contained child to the first child of common ancestor that is partially contained in range.

  9. Let last partially contained child be null.

  10. If original end node is not an inclusive ancestor of original start node, set last partially contained child to the last child of common ancestor that is partially contained in range.

    Note: These variable assignments do actually always make sense. For instance, if original start node is not an inclusive ancestor of original end node, original start node is itself partially contained in range, and so are all its ancestors up until a child of common ancestor. common ancestor cannot be original start node, because it has to be an inclusive ancestor of original end node. The other case is similar. Also, notice that the two children will never be equal if both are defined.

  11. Let contained children be a list of all children of common ancestor that are contained in range, in tree order.

  12. If any member of contained children is a doctype, throw a HierarchyRequestError.

    Note: We do not have to worry about the first or last partially contained node, because a doctype can never be partially contained. It cannot be a boundary point of a range, and it cannot be the ancestor of anything.

  13. If first partially contained child is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    Note: In this case, first partially contained child is original start node.

    1. Let clone be a clone of original start node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original start node, offset original start offset, and count original start node’s length minus original start offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

  14. Otherwise, if first partially contained child is not null:

    1. Let clone be a clone of first partially contained child.

    2. Append clone to fragment.

    3. Let subrange be a new range whose start is (original start node, original start offset) and whose end is (first partially contained child, first partially contained child’s length).

    4. Let subfragment be the result of cloning subrange.

    5. Append subfragment to clone.

  15. For each contained child in contained children:

    1. Let clone be a clone of contained child with the clone children flag set.

    2. Append clone to fragment.

  16. If last partially contained child is a Text, ProcessingInstruction, or Comment node:

    Note: In this case, last partially contained child is original end node.

    1. Let clone be a clone of original end node.

    2. Set the data of clone to the result of substringing data with node original end node, offset 0, and count original end offset.

    3. Append clone to fragment.

  17. Otherwise, if last partially contained child is not null:

    1. Let clone be a clone of last partially contained child.

    2. Append clone to fragment.

    3. Let subrange be a new range whose start is (last partially contained child, 0) and whose end is (original end node, original end offset).

    4. Let subfragment be the result of cloning subrange.

    5. Append subfragment to clone.

  18. Return fragment.

The cloneContents() method, when invoked, must return the result of cloning the contents of context object.

To insert a node node into a range range, run these steps:

  1. If range’s start node is a ProcessingInstruction or Comment node, is a Text node whose parent is null, or is node, then throw an HierarchyRequestError.

  2. Let referenceNode be null.

  3. If range’s start node is a Text node, set referenceNode to that Text node.

  4. Otherwise, set referenceNode to the child of start node whose index is start offset, and null if there is no such child.

  5. Let parent be range’s start node if referenceNode is null, and referenceNode’s parent otherwise.

  6. Ensure pre-insertion validityof node into parent before referenceNode.

  7. If range’s start node is a Text node, split it with offset range’s start offset, set referenceNode to the result, and set parent to referenceNode’s parent.

  8. If node is referenceNode, set referenceNode to its next sibling.

  9. If node’s parent is not null, remove node from its parent.

  10. Let newOffset be parent’s length if referenceNode is null, and referenceNode’s index otherwise.

  11. Increase newOffset by node’s length if node is a DocumentFragment node, and one otherwise.

  12. Pre-insert node into parent before referenceNode.

  13. If range’s start and end are the same, set range’s end to (parent, newOffset).

The insertNode(node) method, when invoked, must range insert node into context object.

The surroundContents(newParent) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If a non-Text node is partially contained in the context object, throw an InvalidStateError.

  2. If newParent is a Document, DocumentType, or DocumentFragment node, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. Let fragment be the result of extracting context object.

  4. If newParent has children, replace all with null within newParent.

  5. Range insert newParent into context object.

  6. Append fragment to newParent.

  7. Select newParent within context object.

The cloneRange() method, when invoked, must return a new range with the same start and end as the context object.

The detach() method, when invoked, must do nothing. Note: Its functionality (disabling a Range object) was removed, but the method itself is preserved for compatibility.


position = range . comparePoint(node, offset)

Returns −1 if the point is before the range, 0 if the point is in the range, and 1 if the point is after the range.

intersects = range . intersectsNode(node)

Returns whether range intersects node.

The isPointInRange(node, offset) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node’s root is different from the context object’s root, return false.

  2. If node is a doctype, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. If (node, offset) is before start or after end, return false.

  4. Return true.

The comparePoint(node, offset) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node’s root is different from the context object’s root, throw a WrongDocumentError.

  2. If node is a doctype, throw an InvalidNodeTypeError.

  3. If offset is greater than node’s length, throw an IndexSizeError.

  4. If (node, offset) is before start, return −1.

  5. If (node, offset) is after end, return 1.

  6. Return 0.


The intersectsNode(node) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If node’s root is different from the context object’s root, return false.

  2. Let parent be node’s parent.

  3. If parent is null, return true.

  4. Let offset be node’s index.

  5. If (parent, offset) is before end and (parent, offset + 1) is after start, return true.

  6. Return false.


The stringification behavior must run these steps:

  1. Let s be the empty string.

  2. If start node is end node, and it is a Text node, return the substring of that Text node’s data beginning at start offset and ending at end offset.

  3. If start node is a Text node, append to s the substring of that node’s data from the start offset until the end.

  4. Append to s the concatenation, in tree order, of the data of all Text nodes that are contained in the context object.

  5. If end node is a node, append to s the substring of that node’s data from its start until the end offset.

  6. Return s.


Note: The createContextualFragment(), getClientRects(), and getBoundingClientRect() methods are defined in other specifications.[DOM-PARSING][CSSOM-VIEW-1]

6. Traversal

NodeIterator and TreeWalker objects can be used to filter and traverse node trees.

Each NodeIterator and TreeWalker object also has an associated root node, whatToShow bitmask, and filter callback.

To filter node run these steps:

  1. Let n be node’s nodeType attribute value minus 1.

  2. If the nth bit (where 0 is the least significant bit) of whatToShow is not set, return FILTER_SKIP.

  3. If filter is null, return FILTER_ACCEPT.

  4. Let result be the return value of calling filter’s acceptNode with node as argument. Rethrow any exceptions.

  5. Return result.

6.1. Interface NodeIterator

[Exposed=Window]
interface NodeIterator {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute Node root;
  readonly attribute Node referenceNode;
  readonly attribute boolean pointerBeforeReferenceNode;
  readonly attribute unsigned long whatToShow;
  readonly attribute NodeFilter? filter;

  Node? nextNode();
  Node? previousNode();

  void detach();
};

Note: NodeIterator objects can be created using the createNodeIterator() method.

Each NodeIterator object has an associated iterator collection, which is a collection rooted at root, whose filter matches any node.

Note: As mentioned earlier NodeIterator objects have an associated root node, whatToShow bitmask, and filter callback as well.

The NodeIterator pre-removing steps given a nodeIterator and toBeRemovedNode, are as followings:

  1. If toBeRemovedNode is not an inclusive ancestor of the referenceNode attribute value, then return.

  2. If the pointerBeforeReferenceNode attribute value is true, then:

    1. Let next be toBeRemovedNode’s first following node that is an inclusive descendant of nodeIterator’s root and is not an inclusive descendant of toBeRemovedNode, and null if there is no such node.

    2. If next is non-null, then set nodeIterator’s referenceNode attribute to next and return.

    3. Otherwise, set nodeIterator’s pointerBeforeReferenceNode attribute to false.

      Steps are not terminated here.

  3. Set nodeIterator’s referenceNode attribute to toBeRemovedNode’s parent, if toBeRemovedNode’s previous sibling is null, and to the inclusive descendant of toBeRemovedNode’s previous sibling that appears last in tree order otherwise.


The root attribute’s getter must return root.

The referenceNode and pointerBeforeReferenceNode attributes must return what they were initialized to.

The whatToShow attribute’s getter must return whatToShow.

The filter attribute’s getter must return filter.

To traverse in direction direction run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the referenceNode attribute.

  2. Let before node be the value of the pointerBeforeReferenceNode attribute.

  3. Run these substeps:

    1. If direction is next

      If before node is false, let node be the first node following node in the iterator collection. If there is no such node return null.

      If before node is true, set it to false.

      If direction is previous

      If before node is true, let node be the first node preceding node in the iterator collection. If there is no such node return null.

      If before node is false, set it to true.

    2. Filter node and let result be the return value.

    3. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, go to the next step in the overall set of steps.

      Otherwise, run these substeps again.

  4. Set the referenceNode attribute to node, set the pointerBeforeReferenceNode attribute to before node, and return node.

The nextNode() method, when invoked, must traverse in direction next.

The previousNode() method, when invoked, must traverse in direction previous.

The detach() method, when invoked, must do nothing. Note: Its functionality (disabling a NodeIterator object) was removed, but the method itself is preserved for compatibility.

6.2. Interface TreeWalker

[Exposed=Window]
interface TreeWalker {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute Node root;
  readonly attribute unsigned long whatToShow;
  readonly attribute NodeFilter? filter;
           attribute Node currentNode;

  Node? parentNode();
  Node? firstChild();
  Node? lastChild();
  Node? previousSibling();
  Node? nextSibling();
  Node? previousNode();
  Node? nextNode();
};

Note: TreeWalker objects can be created using the createTreeWalker() method.

Note: As mentioned earlier TreeWalker objects have an associated root node, whatToShow bitmask, and filter callback.

The root attribute’s getter must return root.

The whatToShow attribute’s getter must return whatToShow.

The filter attribute’s getter must return filter.

The currentNode attribute’s getter must return what it was initialized to.

Setting the currentNode attribute must set it to the new value.

The parentNode() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the currentNode attribute.

  2. While node is not null and is not root, run these substeps:

    1. Let node be node’s parent.

    2. If node is not null and filtering node returns FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node, return node.

  3. Return null.

To traverse children of type type, run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the currentNode attribute.

  2. Set node to node’s first child if type is first, and node’s last child if type is last.

  3. If node is null, return null.

  4. Main: Repeat these substeps:

    1. Filter node and let result be the return value.

    2. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

    3. If result is FILTER_SKIP, run these subsubsteps:

      1. Let child be node’s first child if type is first, and node’s last child if type is last.

      2. If child is not null, set node to child and goto Main.

    4. Repeat these substeps:

      1. Let sibling be node’s next sibling if type is first, and node’s previous sibling if type is last.

      2. If sibling is not null, set node to sibling and goto Main.

      3. Let parent be node’s parent.

      4. If parent is null, parent is root, or parent is currentNode attribute’s value, return null.

      5. Otherwise, set node to parent.

The firstChild() method, when invoked, must traverse children of type first.

The lastChild() method, when invoked, must traverse children of type last.

To traverse siblings of type type run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the currentNode attribute.

  2. If node is root, return null.

  3. Run these substeps:

    1. Let sibling be node’s next sibling if type is next, and node’s previous sibling if type is previous.

    2. While sibling is not null, run these subsubsteps:

      1. Set node to sibling.

      2. Filter node and let result be the return value.

      3. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

      4. Set sibling to node’s first child if type is next, and node’s last child if type is previous.

      5. If result is FILTER_REJECT or sibling is null, then set sibling to node’s next sibling if type is next, and node’s previous sibling if type is previous.

    3. Set node to its parent.

    4. If node is null or is root, return null.

    5. Filter node and if the return value is FILTER_ACCEPT, then return null.

    6. Run these substeps again.

The nextSibling() method, when invoked, must traverse siblings of type next.

The previousSibling() method, when invoked, must traverse siblings of type previous.

The previousNode() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the currentNode attribute.

  2. While node is not root, run these substeps:

    1. Let sibling be the previous sibling of node.

    2. While sibling is not null, run these subsubsteps:

      1. Set node to sibling.

      2. Filter node and let result be the return value.

      3. While result is not FILTER_REJECT and node has a child, set node to its last child and then filter node and set result to the return value.

      4. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

      5. Set sibling to the previous sibling of node.

    3. If node is root or node’s parent is null, return null.

    4. Set node to its parent.

    5. Filter node and if the return value is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

  3. Return null.

The nextNode() method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. Let node be the value of the currentNode attribute.

  2. Let result be FILTER_ACCEPT.

  3. Run these substeps:

    1. While result is not FILTER_REJECT and node has a child, run these subsubsteps:

      1. Set node to its first child.

      2. Filter node and set result to the return value.

      3. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

    2. If a node is following node and is not following root, set node to the first such node.

      Otherwise, return null.

    3. Filter node and set result to the return value.

    4. If result is FILTER_ACCEPT, then set the currentNode attribute to node and return node.

    5. Run these substeps again.

6.3. Interface NodeFilter

[Exposed=Window]
callback interface NodeFilter {
  // Constants for acceptNode()
  const unsigned short FILTER_ACCEPT = 1;
  const unsigned short FILTER_REJECT = 2;
  const unsigned short FILTER_SKIP = 3;

  // Constants for whatToShow
  const unsigned long SHOW_ALL = 0xFFFFFFFF;
  const unsigned long SHOW_ELEMENT = 0x1;
  const unsigned long SHOW_ATTRIBUTE = 0x2;
  const unsigned long SHOW_TEXT = 0x4;
  const unsigned long SHOW_CDATA_SECTION = 0x8;
  const unsigned long SHOW_ENTITY_REFERENCE = 0x10; // historical
  const unsigned long SHOW_ENTITY = 0x20; // historical
  const unsigned long SHOW_PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION = 0x40;
  const unsigned long SHOW_COMMENT = 0x80;
  const unsigned long SHOW_DOCUMENT = 0x100;
  const unsigned long SHOW_DOCUMENT_TYPE = 0x200;
  const unsigned long SHOW_DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT = 0x400;
  const unsigned long SHOW_NOTATION = 0x800; // historical

  unsigned short acceptNode(Node node);
};

NodeFilter objects can be used as filter callback and provide constants for the whatToShow bitmask.

Note: It is typically implemented as a JavaScript function.

These constants can be used as callback return value:

These constants can be used for the whatToShow bitmask:

7. Sets

Note: Yes, the name DOMTokenList is an unfortunate legacy mishap.

7.1. Interface DOMTokenList

interface DOMTokenList {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter DOMString? item(unsigned long index);
  boolean contains(DOMString token);

  void add(DOMString... tokens);
  void remove(DOMString... tokens);

  boolean toggle(DOMString token, optional boolean force);
  void replace(DOMString token, DOMString newToken);

  boolean supports(DOMString token);

  stringifier attribute DOMString value;
  iterable<DOMString>;
};

A DOMTokenList object has an associated of token set (an ordered set), which is initially empty.

A DOMTokenList object also has an associated element and an attribute’s local name.

Specifications may define supported tokens for a DOMTokenList's associated attribute’s local name.

A DOMTokenList object’s validation steps for a given token are:

  1. If the associated attribute’s local name does not define supported tokens, then throw a "TypeError".
  2. Let lowercase token be a copy of token, in ASCII lowercase.
  3. If lowercase token is present in supported tokens, return true.
  4. Return false.

A DOMTokenList object’s update steps are to set an attribute value for the associated element using associated attribute’s local name and the result of running the ordered set serializer for token set.

A DOMTokenList object’s serialize steps are to return the result of running get an attribute value given the associated element and the associated attribute’s local name.

tokenlist . length

Returns the number of tokens.

tokenlist . item(index)
tokenlist[index]

Returns the token with index index.

tokenlist . contains(token)

Returns true if token is present, and false otherwise.

tokenlist . add(tokens…)

Adds all arguments passed, except those already present.

Throws a SyntaxError if one of the arguments is the empty string.

Throws an InvalidCharacterError if one of the arguments contains any ASCII whitespace.

tokenlist . remove(tokens…)

Removes arguments passed, if they are present.

Throws a SyntaxError if one of the arguments is the empty string.

Throws an InvalidCharacterError if one of the arguments contains any ASCII whitespace.

tokenlist . toggle(token [, force])

If force is not given, "toggles" token, removing it if it’s present and adding it if it’s not. If force is true, adds token (same as add()). If force is false, removes token (same as remove()).

Returns true if token is now present, and false otherwise.

Throws a SyntaxError if token is empty.

Throws an InvalidCharacterError if token contains any spaces.

tokenlist . replace(token, newToken)

Replaces token with newToken.

Throws a SyntaxError if one of the arguments is the empty string.

Throws an InvalidCharacterError if one of the arguments contains any ASCII whitespace.

tokenlist . supports(token)

Returns true if token is in the associated attribute’s supported tokens. Returns false otherwise.

Throws a TypeError if the associated attribute has no supported tokens defined.

tokenlist . value

Returns the associated set as string.

Can be set, to change the associated set.

The length attribute’s getter must return the number of tokens in the context object’s token set.

The object’s supported property indices are the numbers in the range zero to the number of tokens in token set minus one, unless token set is empty, in which case there are no supported property indices.

The item(index) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If index is equal to or greater than the number of tokens in token set, then return null.

  2. Return the indexth token in the context object’s token set.

The contains(token) method, when invoked, must return true if token is in token set, and false otherwise.

The add(tokens…) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. For each token in tokens:

    1. If token is the empty string, then throw a SyntaxError.

    2. If token contains any ASCII whitespace, then throw an "InvalidCharacterError.

  2. For each token in tokens, append token to token set.

  3. Run the update steps.

The remove(tokens…) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. For each token in tokens:

    1. If token is the empty string, then throw a SyntaxError.

    2. If token contains any ASCII whitespace, then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  2. For each token in tokens, remove token from token set.

  3. Run the update steps.

The toggle(token, force) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If token is the empty string, then throw a SyntaxError.

  2. If token contains any ASCII whitespace, then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  3. Let result be false.

  4. If token is in token set, then:

    1. If force is either not given or is false, then remove token from token set.

    2. Otherwise, set result to true.

  5. Otherwise, if force is either not given or is true, append token to token set and set result to true.

  6. Run the update steps.

  7. Return result.

The replace(token, newToken) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

  1. If token is the empty string, then throw a SyntaxError.

  2. If token contains any ASCII whitespace, then throw an InvalidCharacterError.

  3. Replace token in token set with newToken.

  4. Run the update steps.

The supports(token) method, when invoked, must return the result of running validation steps for the given token.

The value attribute’s getter must return the result of running context object’s serialize steps for token set.

Setting the value attribute must run the ordered set parser for the given value and set token set to the result.

8. Historical

This section outlines *notable* changes between Working Drafts. A complete history of revisions for this version is available in the W3C DOM 4.1 repository.

8.1. Changes between this draft and the 2nd Working Draft of DOM 4.1

8.2. Changes between the 2nd Working Draft of DOM 4.1 and the First Public Working Draft of DOM 4.1.

8.3. Changes between the First Public Working Draft of DOM 4.1 and the DOM 4 Recommendation

8.4. DOM Specification History

The W3C produced the first Working Draft of a "Document Object Model Specification" in October 1997, and a year later a version 1.0 Recommendation.

Between 2000 and 2003 a set of Recommendations collectively forming DOM 2.0 was published, and in 2004 a set of DOM 3.0 Recommendations were published.

The Element Traversal Recommendation was published in 2008, and the Selectors API Recommendation was published in February 2013. The UI Events specification, and its predecessors, have been in development since around 2000.

Other DOM specifications have been in development during that time, and continue to be developed.

Around 2009 some employees of Opera software began to write a new version of a DOM specification, which was then worked on by the "Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group", and subsequently developed jointly with the W3C. The eventual goals of that works were described in the DOM 4 Recommendation. In November 2013 W3C produced a W3C First Public Working draft based on that work, and after subsequent development that became the W3C Recommendation DOM 4, in November 2015.

The current DOM 4.1 revision is produced by W3C, with the primary aim of documenting what is interoperably implemented and is, or is likely to become, a core part of the Web Platform. An important secondary goal is to minimise incompatibility with the ongoing work at WHATWG.

Acknowledgements

Very many people that have contributed to earlier versions of DOM, to the WHATWG’s version, and to making DOM implementations more interoperable, over many years.

Some contributions are are acknowledged in particular specification versions and implementations, some are not. Without all of them this specification would be much poorer.

For specific contributions to this version, thanks are due to: Cindy Wu Xiaoqian, Donglei Wu "wucongdonglai", Guangzhen Li "kurli", Hongbo Min "hmin", Honghao Jin "jinhoward", Rick Byers, Philippe Le Hégaret, Zhiping Lin "linzhiping", Zhiqiang Zhang "zqzhang".

Conformance

Document conventions

Conformance requirements are expressed with a combination of descriptive assertions and RFC 2119 terminology. The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in the normative parts of this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. However, for readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification.

All of the text of this specification is normative except sections explicitly marked as non-normative, examples, and notes. [RFC2119]

Examples in this specification are introduced with the words “for example” or are set apart from the normative text with class="example", like this:

This is an example of an informative example.

Informative notes begin with the word “Note” and are set apart from the normative text with class="note", like this:

Note, this is an informative note.

Conformant Algorithms

Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms (such as "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and abort these steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the key word ("must", "should", "may", etc) used in introducing the algorithm.

Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps can be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is equivalent. In particular, the algorithms defined in this specification are intended to be easy to understand and are not intended to be performant. Implementers are encouraged to optimize.

.

Index

Terms defined by this specification

Terms defined by reference

References

Normative References

[DOM]
Anne van Kesteren. DOM Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/
[ECMASCRIPT]
ECMAScript Language Specification. URL: https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/
[ENCODING]
Anne van Kesteren. Encoding Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://encoding.spec.whatwg.org/
[FETCH]
Anne van Kesteren. Fetch Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://fetch.spec.whatwg.org/
[HTML]
Anne van Kesteren; et al. HTML Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/
[HTML51]
Steve Faulkner; et al. HTML 5.1 2nd Edition. 3 October 2017. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/html51/
[INFRA]
Anne van Kesteren; Domenic Denicola. Infra Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://infra.spec.whatwg.org/
[RFC2119]
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Best Current Practice. URL: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2119
[SELECTORS4]
Elika Etemad; Tab Atkins Jr.. Selectors Level 4. 2 May 2013. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/selectors4/
[UIEVENTS]
Gary Kacmarcik; Travis Leithead. UI Events. 4 August 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/uievents/
[URL]
Anne van Kesteren. URL Standard. Living Standard. URL: https://url.spec.whatwg.org/
[WEBIDL]
Cameron McCormack; Boris Zbarsky; Tobie Langel. Web IDL. 15 December 2016. ED. URL: https://heycam.github.io/webidl/
[XML]
Tim Bray; et al. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition). 26 November 2008. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml
[XML-NAMES]
Tim Bray; et al. Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Third Edition). 8 December 2009. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names

Informative References

[CSSOM-VIEW-1]
Simon Pieters. CSSOM View Module. 17 March 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/cssom-view-1/
[DOM-PARSING]
Travis Leithead. DOM Parsing and Serialization. 17 May 2016. WD. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Parsing/
[INDEXEDDB]
Nikunj Mehta; et al. Indexed Database API. 8 January 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
[WEBMESSAGING]
Ian Hickson. HTML5 Web Messaging. 19 May 2015. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webmessaging/
[WEBSTORAGE]
Ian Hickson. Web Storage (Second Edition). 19 April 2016. REC. URL: https://www.w3.org/TR/webstorage/

IDL Index

[Constructor(DOMString type, optional EventInit eventInitDict),
 Exposed=(Window,Worker)]

interface Event {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? target;
  readonly attribute EventTarget? currentTarget;

  const unsigned short NONE = 0;
  const unsigned short CAPTURING_PHASE = 1;
  const unsigned short AT_TARGET = 2;
  const unsigned short BUBBLING_PHASE = 3;
  readonly attribute unsigned short eventPhase;

  void stopPropagation();
  attribute boolean cancelBubble;
  void stopImmediatePropagation();

  readonly attribute boolean bubbles;
  readonly attribute boolean cancelable;
  void preventDefault();
  readonly attribute boolean defaultPrevented;

  [Unforgeable] readonly attribute boolean isTrusted;
  readonly attribute DOMTimeStamp timeStamp;

  void initEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles, optional boolean cancelable);
};

dictionary EventInit {
  boolean bubbles = false;
  boolean cancelable = false;
};

[Constructor(DOMString type, optional CustomEventInit eventInitDict),
 Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface CustomEvent : Event {
  readonly attribute any detail;

  void initCustomEvent(DOMString type, optional boolean bubbles = false, optional boolean cancelable = false, optional any detail = null);
};

dictionary CustomEventInit : EventInit {
  any detail = null;
};

[Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface EventTarget {
  void addEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (AddEventListenerOptions or boolean) options);
  void removeEventListener(DOMString type, EventListener? callback, optional (EventListenerOptions or boolean) options);
  boolean dispatchEvent(Event event);
};

callback interface EventListener {
  void handleEvent(Event event);
};

dictionary EventListenerOptions {
  boolean capture = false;
};

dictionary AddEventListenerOptions : EventListenerOptions {
  boolean passive = false;
  boolean once = false;
};

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface NonElementParentNode {
  Element? getElementById(DOMString elementId);
};
Document implements NonElementParentNode;
DocumentFragment implements NonElementParentNode;

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface ParentNode {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute HTMLCollection children;
  readonly attribute Element? firstElementChild;
  readonly attribute Element? lastElementChild;
  readonly attribute unsigned long childElementCount;

  [Unscopable] void prepend((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void append((Node or DOMString)... nodes);

  Element? querySelector(DOMString selectors);
  [NewObject] NodeList querySelectorAll(DOMString selectors);
};
Document implements ParentNode;
DocumentFragment implements ParentNode;
Element implements ParentNode;

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface NonDocumentTypeChildNode {
  readonly attribute Element? previousElementSibling;
  readonly attribute Element? nextElementSibling;
};
Element implements NonDocumentTypeChildNode;
CharacterData implements NonDocumentTypeChildNode;

[NoInterfaceObject,
 Exposed=Window]
interface ChildNode {
  [Unscopable] void before((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void after((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void replaceWith((Node or DOMString)... nodes);
  [Unscopable] void remove();
};
DocumentType implements ChildNode;
Element implements ChildNode;
CharacterData implements ChildNode;

[Exposed=Window]
interface NodeList {
  getter Node? item(unsigned long index);
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  iterable<Node>;
};

[Exposed=Window]
interface HTMLCollection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  getter Element? item(unsigned long index);
  getter Element? namedItem(DOMString name);
};

[Constructor(MutationCallback callback)]
interface MutationObserver {
  void observe(Node target, optional MutationObserverInit options);
  void disconnect();
  sequence<MutationRecord> takeRecords();
};

callback MutationCallback = void (sequence<MutationRecord> mutations, MutationObserver observer);

dictionary MutationObserverInit {
  boolean childList = false;
  boolean attributes;
  boolean characterData;
  boolean subtree = false;
  boolean attributeOldValue;
  boolean characterDataOldValue;
  sequence<DOMString> attributeFilter;
};

[Exposed=Window]
interface MutationRecord {
  readonly attribute DOMString type;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute Node target;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList addedNodes;
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList removedNodes;

  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;

  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeName;
  readonly attribute DOMString? attributeNamespace;
  readonly attribute DOMString? oldValue;
};

[Exposed=Window]
interface Node : EventTarget {
  const unsigned short ELEMENT_NODE = 1;
  const unsigned short ATTRIBUTE_NODE = 2;
  const unsigned short TEXT_NODE = 3;
  const unsigned short CDATA_SECTION_NODE = 4;
  const unsigned short ENTITY_REFERENCE_NODE = 5; // historical
  const unsigned short ENTITY_NODE = 6; // historical
  const unsigned short PROCESSING_INSTRUCTION_NODE = 7;
  const unsigned short COMMENT_NODE = 8;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_NODE = 9;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_TYPE_NODE = 10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_FRAGMENT_NODE = 11;
  const unsigned short NOTATION_NODE = 12; // historical
  readonly attribute unsigned short nodeType;
  readonly attribute DOMString nodeName;

  readonly attribute USVString baseURI;

  readonly attribute Document? ownerDocument;
  readonly attribute Node? parentNode;
  readonly attribute Element? parentElement;
  boolean hasChildNodes();
  [SameObject] readonly attribute NodeList childNodes;
  readonly attribute Node? firstChild;
  readonly attribute Node? lastChild;
  readonly attribute Node? previousSibling;
  readonly attribute Node? nextSibling;

  attribute DOMString? nodeValue;
  attribute DOMString? textContent;
  void normalize();

  [NewObject] Node cloneNode(optional boolean deep = false);
  boolean isEqualNode(Node? other);

  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_DISCONNECTED = 0x01;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_PRECEDING = 0x02;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_FOLLOWING = 0x04;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINS = 0x08;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_CONTAINED_BY = 0x10;
  const unsigned short DOCUMENT_POSITION_IMPLEMENTATION_SPECIFIC = 0x20;
  unsigned short compareDocumentPosition(Node other);
  boolean contains(Node? other);

  DOMString? lookupPrefix(DOMString? namespace);
  DOMString? lookupNamespaceURI(DOMString? prefix);
  boolean isDefaultNamespace(DOMString? namespace);

  Node insertBefore(Node node, Node? child);
  Node appendChild(Node node);
  Node replaceChild(Node node, Node child);
  Node removeChild(Node child);
};

[Constructor,
 Exposed=Window]
interface Document : Node {
  [SameObject] readonly attribute DOMImplementation implementation;
  readonly attribute USVString URL;
  readonly attribute USVString documentURI;
  readonly attribute USVString origin;
  readonly attribute DOMString