W3C W3C Member Submission

PRISM Inline Markup Specification

W3C Member Submission 10 September 2020

This version:
https://www.w3.org/Submission/2020/SUBM-prism-20200910/
Latest version:
https://www.w3.org/Submission/prism/
Authors:
Dianne Kennedy (Idealliance)

Abstract

This PRISM Inline Markup Specification describes the XML elements contained in the PRISM Specification to add metadata inline with article content; includes normative material.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

By publishing this document, W3C acknowledges that the Submitting Members have made a formal Submission request to W3C for discussion. Publication of this document by W3C indicates no endorsement of its content by W3C, nor that W3C has, is, or will be allocating any resources to the issues addressed by it. This document is not the product of a chartered W3C group, but is published as potential input to the W3C Process. A W3C Team Comment has been published in conjunction with this Member Submission. Publication of acknowledged Member Submissions at the W3C site is one of the benefits of W3C Membership. Please consult the requirements associated with Member Submissions of section 3.3 of the W3C Patent Policy. Please consult the complete list of acknowledged W3C Member Submissions.

1    Status

1.1    Document Status

The status of this document is:

Draft

11/04/2011

Released for Public Comment

12/15/2012

Final Draft Released for Comment

06/12/2012

Final Specification

10/04/2012

1.2    Document Location

The location of this document is:

prism-inline.html

1.3    Version History

Version Number

Release Date

Editor

Description

1.2

1/26/05

McConnell

Converted from unmodularized PRISM spec v 1.2

2.0 Release

2/19/08

Kennedy

Final for Release

2.1 Final

05/15/09

Kennedy

Final Spec with Comments Resolved

3.0 Draft

12/15/11

Kennedy

Released for Public Comment

3.0 Final Draft

06/12/2012

Kennedy

Final Draft w Comments Resolved

3.0 Final

10/04/2012

Kennedy

Final Specification

2    PRISM Documentation Structure

The PRISM Documentation Package has been reorganized and some specifications renamed to more accurately reflect the nature of each specification module.  The PRISM documentation package includes the following specifications and documents:

2.1    Compliance Specification

This document provides compliance specification.

Document

Description

PRISM Compliance [PRISMCOMP]

Describes three profiles of PRISM compliance for content and systems; includes normative material.

2.2    PRISM Metadata Specifications

This is the set of documents that outline the prism metadata fields and values by PRISM metadata category.  PRISM has modularized its metadata specification by namepace so users may pick those modules that meet their unique business requirements without having to implement the entire PRISM specification.

Document

Description

PRISM Advertising Metadata Specification [PRISMADMS]

Describes advertising metadata elements including those drawn from AdsML, GWG and Ad-ID; includes normative material.

The PRISM Basic Metadata Specification [PRISMBMS]

Describes the basic metadata elements contained in the PRISM namespace to describe article content; includes normative material.

The PRISM Contract Management Metadata Specification [PRISMCMMS]

Describes metadata elements from the PRISM Contract Management Metadata (pccm:)  namespace that are used to describe contracts and legal documents.

The PRISM Crafts Metadata Specification [PRISMCMS]

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Crafts Metadata Namespace (pcm:).  Includes normative material.

The PRISM Subset of Dublin Core Metadata Specification [PRISMDCMS]

Describes the metadata elements from the Dublin Core namespace that are included in PRISM; includes normative material.

The PRISM Image Metadata Specification [PRISMIMS]

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Metadata for Images Namespace and other related image namespaces, includes normative material.

The PRISM Recipe Metadata Specification [PRISMRMS]

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Recipe Metadata Namespace (prm:).  Includes normative material.

The PRISM Rights Summary Metadata Specification [PRISMRSMS]

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Rights Summary Metadata Namespace (prsm:).  Includes normative material.

The PRISM Usage Rights Metadata Specification [PRISMURMS]

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Usage Rights Namespace; includes normative material. This namespace will supersede elements in both the prism: and prl: namespaces in version 3.0 of the specification.

Some elements from PUR are referenced from the newer, more comprehensive PRISM Rights Summary Metadata Specification [PRISMRSMS].

2.3    PRISM Aggregator Message Markup Specifications

This module documents the PRISM Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message (PAM) and other aggregator messages.     This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM PAM Markup Specification [PRISMPAMMS]

Describes the XML elements and attributes used to encode the PRISM Aggregator Message from both the pam: and pim: namespaces; includes normative material.

The PRISM PAM Markup for Web Content Specification [PRISMPAMWMS]

Describes the XML elements and attributes used to encode the PRISM Aggregator Message for Web Content.  This Specification draws from both the pam: and pim: namespaces and includes normative material. PAMW is used to automate the harvesting of Web Content so that it may be sent to aggregators or stored in a publishers PAM-based content management system.

2.4    PRISM Inline Markup Specification

This module documents the PRISM Inline Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message.  This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM Inline Markup Specification [PRISMIMS]

Describes the XML elements used to encode the inline markup for the PRISM Aggregator Message. Includes normative material.

2.5    PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specifications

These modules are new with PRISM 3.0.  All controlled vocabularies and their terms are documented in this publication set. 

Document

Description

The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Markup Specification [PRISMCVMS]

Describes the metadata fields in the PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Namespace that can be used to describe a controlled vocabulary.   Actual PRISM controlled vocabularies are now placed in the PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies are now documented in this document.

 

2.6    Additional PRISM Documentation (Non-Normative Guides)

•       The Guide to the PRISM Aggregator Message [PAMGUIDE] documents the PRISM Aggregator Message (PAM), an XML-based application of PRISM.

•       The Guide to the PRISM Aggregator Message for Web Content [PAMWGUIDE] documents the PRISM Aggregator Message (PAM), an XML-based application of PRISM.

•       Guide to the PSV Aggregator/Distributor Message Package [PAMPGUIDE] documents how to use the PRISM metadata fields and pamP XML messaging tags to deliver content to content aggregators/distributors.  The Guide documents the pamP XML message structure and provides the pamP XSD and document samples.

•       The Guide to PRISM Contract Management [CONTRACTSGUIDE] documents an XML-based PRISM contract management model.  The Guide is accompanied by an XSD that can be used as the basis for developing a contract management system that interfaces with the PRISM Rights Summary to populate ODRL policy statements. Reference [ODRLRSGUIDE]

•       The Guide to PRISM Metadata for Images [IMAGEGUIDE] documents an XML-based PRISM Profile 1 application for the expression of the structure and use of PRISM Metadata for Images and can be used as the basis for developing an image management system based on PRISM Metadata for Images and for implementing PMI in XML.

•       The Guide to PRISM Recipe Metadata and XML Encoding [RECIPEGUIDE] documents the XML-based recipe model for developing a recipe database, for tagging a wide variety of recipes in XML and for tagging recipes within a PAM Message.

•       The Guide to PRISM Usage Rights [RIGHTSGUIDE] documents an XML-based PRISM application for the expression of PRISM Usage Rights.  The Guide is accompanied by an XSD that can be used as the basis for developing a digital rights management system based on PRISM Usage Rights.

•       PAM to PSV_Guide [PAMPSVGUIDE] documents mappings from PAM XML to PSV XML.

2.7    PRISM Source Vocabulary Specifications

In 2010, Idealliance developed a series of specifications collectively known as the PRISM Source Vocabulary.  The use case for PSV is to encode semantically rich content for transformation and delivery to any platform. This Specification is made up of a modular documentation package that builds on PRISM 3.0 and HTML5.  Over time new modules may be added to the documentation package.  The documentation package for PSV, PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Version 1.0 consists of:

Document

Description

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Overview [PSVSO]

The Introduction to the PRISM Source Vocabulary provides an introduction and a non-technical overview of the PRISM Source Vocabulary.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification [PSVS]

The PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification defines semantically rich for source metadata and content markup that can be transformed and served to a wide variety of output devices including eReaders, mobile tablet devices, smart phones and print.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Markup Specification [PSVMS]

The PSV Markup Specification documents the XML tags in the PSV namespace that are used to encode XML Source Content.

2.8    PRISM Schemas

While PRISM is primarily a metadata specification, it also includes some XML schemas that define encoding of specific kinds of content for publication and interchange.  The PRISM schemas include:

•       Contracts_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode publication contracts.

•       Crafts_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode crafts.

•       Image_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode images.

•       PAM_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode a PRISM aggregator message.

•       pamW_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode a PRISM aggregator message for Web content.

•       pamP_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode a PRISM aggregator/distributor message package.

•       PSV_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode content in PRISM Source Vocabulary.

•       Recipe_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode recipes.

•       Rights_xsd.zip contains a schema that can be used to encode usage rights.

2.9    PRISM Controlled Vocabularies

PRISM has defined 38 controlled vocabularies using PRISM controlled vocabulary markup.  See The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specification [PRISMCVS].  All CVs are available in CVs.zip.

2.10 PRISM Namespaces

PRISM namespace declarations can be found in Namespaces.zip.  The following are the recommended Namespaces for PRISM metadata:

Usage Vocabulary

Namespace

PRISM Basic Metadata

basic:

PRISM Aggregator Message (PAM) Markup

pam:

PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Markup

pcv:

PRISM Source Vocabulary

psv”

PRISM Inline Markup

psm

Dublin Core metadatap

dc:

RDF

rdf:

PAM aggregator/distributor package

pamp:

PRISM Crafts metadata

pcm:

PRISM Contract Management metadata

pccm:

PRISM advertising metadata

prism-ad:

PRISM rights language metadata

prl:

PRISM recipe metadata

prm:

PRISM usage rights metadata

pur:

2.11 PSV Content Management Schema

In order to assist implementers develop a PSV-based federated content management solution, the nextPub Working Group is providing an XML Schema (XSD) that can serve as the basis for the design of a PSV content repository. 

Note: The PSV CM schema is not designed for tagging content.  It is provided simply to serve as a basis for the design of a content repository.  Metadata building blocks from this schema can be combined with HTML5 by publishers who wish to develop a hybrid PSV metadata and content tagging schema.

2.12 Other PSV Schemas

Because PSV is a flexible framework, it supports many different use case scenarios.  A different schema, using the PSV metadata fields and content encoding can be developed for each different use case.  In order to assist PSV implementers, the nextPub Working Group is planning to provide a number of XML Schemas (XSDs) to support common use cases including tagging an article and transmitting articles to content aggregators.

3    Introduction

3.1    Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this document is to describe the basic metadata elements that the PRISM Working Group has defined and included in the PRISM Inline Markup namespace. All of section 4 of this document is normative.

All the element definitions appear in a uniform format. Each element definition begins with two fields – the Name and the Identifier of the element. The Name is a human-readable string that can be translated into different languages. Also, note that PRISM does NOT require that users be presented with the same labels. The Identifier is a protocol element. It is an XML element type and MUST be given as shown, modulo the normal allowance for variations in the namespace prefix used.

Note: PRISM Inline Markup is XML markup used with the PAM article tagging schema. It does not follow the rules of RDF/XML, even for profile 2 PRISM Compliance (that documents encoding content using the PRISM Profile of RDF). PRISM Inline Markup is never expressed using XMP [XMP] markup. PRISM Inline Markup is not used for PSV content encoding.  See the nextPub PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification for details about how to encode inline markup using PSV.

3.2    New in this Version

Changes in this document include:

•       The addition of a new metadata elements pim:academicField, pim:link, pim:profession, pim:sport.

•       Fields to indicate whether an element is used in the PAM XML tag set or the nextPub XML tag set or both.


4    Element Definitions: The PRISM Inline Markup

All of the content models used in this section describing the PRISM inline Markup follow a model we will call %content.mix; This model is a mix of elements for representing content, such as #PCDATA, <p>, <bold>, <quote>, etc. The details of the parameter entity will depend on the context in which the PRISM namespace is being used.

The recommended namespace for PRISM Inline Markup is:
xmlns:pim=”http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/pim/2.2/”

4.1    PRISM Inline Markup

Metadata is typically considered as out-of-line information. Fields such as Author, Title, and Subject are stereotypical examples of information that is descriptive of the whole of a resource and is frequently held separately from it. However, the publisher members of the PRISM Working Group consistently identified a need for inline markup of organizations, locations, product names, personal names, quotations, etc. Therefore, the PRISM Specification defines a namespace of XML elements and attributes for inline metadata. Such inline metadata was needed for a number of applications and is made use of in the PRISM Aggregator Message Guide [PAMGUIDE].

Developers of XML specifications for the publishing industry can use the following DTD fragment to incorporate PRISM's inline markup elements into their DTDs. The fragment assumes that the basic textual content markup is described in another parameter entity known as %content.mix; Content mix is made up of ***

4.1.1  pim:academicField

Name

Academic Field

Identifier

pim:academicField

Definition

Used to tag mentions of an academic field of study such as archeology or paleontology within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>He studied <pim:academicField>Health Economics<.pim:academicField> before completing his Masters of Science. </p>

4.1.2  pim:event

Name

Event

Identifier

pim:event

Definition

Used to tag mentions of events within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>During the <pim:event>Toronto Film Festival</pim:event>, films from 17 countries were shown.</p>

 

<p>Recent conflicts in the region include the <pim:event>Iran-Iraq War</pim:event>, the <pim:event>First Gulf War</pim:event>, and the <pim:event>Second Gulf War</pim:event>.</p>

4.1.3  pim:industry

Name

Industry

Identifier

pim:industry

Definition

Used to tag mentions of industry sectors within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>The <pim:industry>records industry</pim:industry> attributes the recent slump in CD sales to rampant piracy of their intellectual content.</p>

 

<p><pim:industry>Forestry</pim:industry>, pardon the pun, is the new growth industry.</p>

4.1.4  pim:keyword

Name

Keyword

Identifier

pim:keyword

Definition

Used to tag keywords within the text of an article that are likely to be used in search queries.

Comment

Be sure to differentiate between tagging a keyword and tagging an event, industry, location, object, organization or person that is the subject of an article. Keywords are specifically used to aid search.

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>The <pim:keyword>avian flu</pim:keyword> outbreak in <pim:location>Asia</pim:location> is constantly being monitored.</p>

4.1.5  pim:link

Name

Link

Identifier

pim:link

Definition

Used to tag a link to other information such as a URL, email or twitter hash tag.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>You can learn more at <pim:link>#xmlconference</pim:link></p>

4.1.6  pim:location

Name

Location

Identifier

pim:location

Definition

Used to tag mentions of geographic locations such as “New York City”, “Georgetown”, or “Canada” within the content of an article.

Comment

Even at the simplest level, the location element helps to distinguish, for example, the Scottish city “Paisley” from the fabric design, or the country “China” from the tableware.

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>He spoke on the history of the<pim:location>Great Lakes basin</pim:location> at the Royal Ontario Museum in <pim:location>Toronto</pim:location>.</p>

 

<p>China patterns were selected before their honeymoon in <pim:location href= ”http://prismstandard.org/vocabs/ISO-3166/CN”>China</pim:location>.</p>

4.1.7  pim:object

Name

Object

Identifier

pim:object

Definition

Used to tag mentions of a physical object such as a book, a horse, or a house within the content of an article.

Comment

Use for both living and non-living objects. Should not be used for concepts, diseases, sports, or other concepts that are not truly physical objects.

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference to a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>Some analysts compared the recent events to the film <pim:object>Wag the Dog</pim:object>.</p>

4.1.8  pim:organization

Name

Organization

Identifier

pim:organization

Definition

Used to tag the name of any organization, such as a government, department, ministry, corporation, charity, private company, or club within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference to a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p><pim:organization href=”http://prismstandard.org/vocabs/NYSE:NT”>Nortel Networks</pim:organization> saw its stock fall in the face of the Brazilian devaluation.</p>

4.1.9  pim:person

Name

Person

Identifier

pim:person

Definition

Used to tag the name of a human individual (real or imaginary) in the text of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference to a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>Prime Minister <pim:person>Tony Blair</pim:person> will meet with the other <pim:organization>EU</pim:organization> leaders to discuss agricultural policy.</p>

 

<p>Catch-22 is <pim:person href=”http://lc.gov/catdir/LC-NAF? Heller,+Joseph”>Joseph Heller</pim:person>’s best-known work.</p>

4.1.10            pim:profession

Name

Profession

Identifier

pim:profession

Definition

Used to tag mentions of a profession such as educator or physician within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>He studied to be an <pim:profession>educator</pim:educator> before completing his Masters of Science. p>

4.1.11            pim:quote

Name

Quote

Identifier

pim:quote

Definition

Marks the words attributed to a specific person in the text.

Comment

Note that quotes may contain other quotes.

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

 

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<pim:quote speakerRef=”USPres#JFK” placeRef=”city/Berlin” occasion=”Address to West Berlin” xml:lang=”de”>Ich bin ein Berliner</pim:quote>

4.1.12            pim:sport

Name

Sport

Identifier

pim:sport

Definition

Used to tag mentions of a sport such as soccer or baseball within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>The Stanley Cup <pim:sport>Hockey</pim:sport> playoff games were broadcast in late April.

4.1.13            pim:ticker

Name

Ticker Symbol

Identifier

pim:ticker

Definition

Marks the appearance of stock ticker symbols in the text.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

 href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<pim:ticker>TWX</pim:ticker>

4.1.14            pim:timePeriod

Name

Time Period

Identifier

pim:timePeriod

Definition

Used to tag mentions of a temporal time frame such as “Dark Ages”, “Roaring Twenties”, or “Golden Age” within the content of an article.

Comment

 

Included in PAM?

Yes

Included in PSV?

No

Attributes

href – (for an authority file reference for a controlled vocabulary)

Model

(%content.mix;)

Example

<p>Flappers were the rage during the <pim:timePeriod>Roaring Twenties</pim:timePeriod></p>