This extend abstract is a contribution to the Online Symposium on Mobile Accessibility. The contents of this paper has not been developed by W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) and does not necessarily represent the consensus view of its membership.
The ongoing research work described in this article aims to reduce accessibility problems in the Mobile Web environment, particularly those problems related to text entry. So far, most accessibility research has focused on solving problems for desktop Web users and it is necessary to extend these studies to the Mobile Web field.
The RIAM (Reciprocal Interoperability of Accessible and Mobile Webs) project  probed the relationship between the Accessible Web and the Mobile Web , investigating the extent to which common accessibility problems were experienced by both disabled Desktop Web users and Mobile Web users, and thus the possibility of migrating existing solutions from the (desktop) Accessible Web to the Mobile Web.
The research was based on the assertion that small device users and motor-impaired desktop users make the same types of errors in text entry and cursor movements, and accessibility solutions from one user domain would therefore apply to the other. The work focused on previous research from Trewin and Pain , which showed that users with impaired hand and finger control due to stroke, radial palsy, muscle loss or wrist stiffness, make six types of typing error and three types of pointing error.
When users unintentionally press a key longer than the default key repeat delay, the key repeats itself, causing a long key press error. If users fail to press two keys simultaneously, they generate dropping errors. Other typing errors include additional key error (a key adjacent to the intended key is activated), bounce error (users unintentionally press the intended key more than once), missing key error (users fail to activate the intended key) and remote key error (users press a different key to the intended one). Users also have difficulties pointing, clicking and dragging the mouse. It transpires that these errors also affect Mobile Web users, who use small devices under various conditions.
The aim of this ongoing research project is to improve and expand on the work of the RIAM project, which used the HP iPAQ HW 6515 device to prove the occurrence of the various errors and test techniques to solve some of them. Our work will analyse text input tasks in a rich set of diverse mobile devices in order to obtain a list of errors. Some of them will coincide with those defined in the RIAM project and new ones might also appear after analyzing the obtained results. Our aim will be twofold. On the one hand, we will try to find out if the techniques defined in RIAM could be applied in a multi-device environment. Notice that some of the techniques already implemented in RIAM, that covers long key press error, additional key error, bounce error and key ambiguity error, might need to be re-implemented to reach a great range of target devices. On the other hand, we will try to discover new techniques to mitigate the rest of the errors. In order to cover multi-device Web development, it will use MyMobileWeb , an existing software framework that generates multi-device user interfaces.
The research will investigate the feasibility of moving user input error correction technology from the desktop to the Mobile Web using the MyMobileWeb platform. In order to achieve this, two steps are necessary:
Current mobile phones use distinct types of keyboards with behaviors that are rather different so modeling the relationship between keys and characters is a major challenge.
We anticipate two outcomes. The primary outcome will be tools that help developers to create multi-device Mobile Web applications enabling users to interact with UIs more efficiently. This has important economic and social benefits, as it will assist existing users and potentially encourage older users to embrace mobile technology.
A secondary outcome will be the opportunity to generate additional industrial investment. If mobile applications generated using this novel software framework are successful, then future work would investigate how the input techniques can be migrated to native applications so that all applications can use them. Such an undertaking would be technically complex and require additional funding.
So far, the integration of UsaProxy within MyMobileWeb platform has been performed. Moreover, a prototype has been developed in order to extract logs related to the text input actions. Nowadays, we are analyzing these logs to extract useful information about the user errors. While finishing this analysis, we have elaborated a draft report related to the applicability of the techniques that has been previously covered in RIAM towards a multidevice environment.
In what regards to future work, a first step will be to produce a table with all the existing keyboards and variants, the errors which may occur when using them, and the techniques required to correct them. Such a table must be considered alongside statistics about the popularity of operating systems and device models, to decide which errors/techniques to cover first. This would provide a prioritised list of errors/techniques to be covered in sequence, thus providing usability improvements which would iteratively benefit more and more Mobile Web users.
In addition to investigating the application of the techniques used by the RIAM prototype to new software keyboards such as Swype and Swiftkey, we envisage in future studying the feasibility of other approaches outlined in the RIAM project, but not yet implemented: target expansion, steady clicks, sticky icons with adaptive gain control, and SUPPLE/SUPPLE++. Furthermore, the two techniques already developed in RIAM should be improved (dynamic keyboard and true keys).
Lastly, we will analyze in depth the data gathered by means of our prototype. This will allow us to discover other possible errors not considered in RIAM. Furthermore, we would like to compare our information with data coming from other experiments  and to further investigate if the techniques proposed in RIAM could be applied to solve/mitigate new types of errors detected. Finally, we will study if our work would be extensible to other fields rather than mobile Web, e.g native development, spell checkers, keyboards improvements, etc.
The authors want to thank previous researchers in this field, particularly Dr. Tianyi Chen, for his efforts in the application of desktop accessibility techniques to the mobile domain.