Last modified: $Date: 2000/11/08 08:27:05 $
WAI Web Content Accessibility Techniques:
Record of Working Draft Revisions
This page is for maintaining a record of changes between each revision of
the working draft for the page author techniques. If you find the list is
incomplete or inaccurate please contact the editor, Wendy Chisholm.,
- Added entry in references for WAI-UA-SUPPORT since referred to in doc
but was not in refs
- Moved the HTML LINK example from the "providing alternative" section
(5.3) to the HTML tech niques.
- Changed the order of the suggestions in section 5.7 (content
negotiation. Edtited to clarif y that it wasn't suggested that the author
do only one of the 3 choices, but that all are possible to implement.
Added an intro to this section.
- In the validation section (5.11.3) it suggests that author try accessing
their web sites wi th alternative browsing software. it only lists a few
of the many that are available. I added a link to the alternative web
browsing resource maintained by EO as well as added a cautionary note that
says that if a site is accessible w/these tools does not imply that it is
accessible with all alternative browsing to ols.
- Made sure that all deprecated examples end with "end example"
- Made sure that references to HTML 4 were to HTML 4.01
- Noted in section 2.1 that the example is from an english speech
- Noted in section 3.4 that auditory LaTeX tools work primarily in
- In section 6.3: corrected reference to accesskey (used to say tabindex)
as well as deleted refernce to "see previous example for tabindex" since
we commented out use of tabindex in the grouping links MAP example.
- Dividing the section on colors into 2 sections: "Color Contrast" and
"Ensuring information is not in color alone"
- Deleted references to checkpoint 11.3 from "Using style sheet
positioning and markup to transform gracefully"
- deleted all of the checkpoints except 13.2 from the list of checkpoints
"in this section" at the beginning of the Metadata section.
- Deleted the link to checkpoint 13.2 in "the LINK element and navigation
- Deleted the link to checkpoint 13.6 in "Structrual grouping"
- Included a link to "Grouping and bypassing links" from the bulleted list
under "Structural Grouping"
- Divided the "Language Information" section into two sections:
"Identifying changes in language" and "Indentifying the primary
- Divided the "Tables of data" section into: "Providing summary
information" and "Identifyin g rows and column information" and moved some
of the info to the "Linearizing tables" section .
- Created a subsection called "Text for images used as links" in the "Link
- Deleted the suggestions to use "tabindex" in the "Grouping and bypassing
- Divided the "Image maps" section into: "Text equivalents for client-side
image maps", "Redundant text links for client-side image maps",
"Client-side versus server-side image maps ", and "Server-side image
maps". This required moving some content around, merging, dividing..et
- Linked to the "Grouping and bypassing links" section from the "Redundant
text links for c lient-side image maps" section.
- Deleted the "Audio and Video produced by dynamic objects" section and
incorporated it into the "Directly accessible applets" section.
- Moved things around in the Scripts section to create the following
sections: "Graceful transformation of scripts", "Scripts that cause
flickering", "Scripts that cause mo vement and blinking", "Directly
accessible scripts", "Alternative presentation of scripts", " Page updates
and new windows". A couple of these sections existed already, but there
was a lot of merging, separating, and merging.
- fixed typo in example of link types
- fixed typos. created link to CSS techs for positioning table effects
from table section
- Cleaned up the references sections.
- Updated links to WAI Technical Activity and removed WAI links from
- Updated the copyright
- Divided the section called, ""Creating style sheets that transform
gracefully" into two sections:
- Using style sheet positioning and markup to transform gracefully -
includes new examples, screen shots and a link to a file with working
- Creating movement with style sheets and scripts
- Dispersed section: "Guidelines for creating style sheets." these were
general topics and ex amples that seemed to make the most sense
incorporated into existing sections.
- Added new section: decrease maintenance and increase consistency -
bullets from deleted "guidelines..." section.
- Added new section: user override of styles. this is almost copied
verbatim from the Accessibility
Features of CSS Note with a couple additions.
- Added new section: units of measure. these are bullets and examples from
the deleted "guidel ines..." section.
- Added new section: generated content. this is mostly copied verbatim
from Accessibility Features of
CSS Note .
- Added new section: providing contextual clues in HTML lists. this is
proposal from 19 March 1999 "accessible lists" as discussed in the
open issues and resolved during the 15 june 2000 telecon.
- Added new section: aural cascading style sheets. this is copied
verbatim from Accessibility
Features of CSS Note .
- Added example showing use of ABBR in a TH, with an explanation. To
satisfy the resolution from the
15 June 2000 telecon.
- Use example.org for examples
Non-W3C Technologies Techniques
- Made links from main Techniques module to nonW3C module.
- Fixed broken links to variants that were broken in 15 June release.
- Added link to
the non-w3c technologies module, still need to incorporate links from
main module checkpoints to sections in non-w3c technologies. It's pretty
- Added the 3rd bullet point to section 5.7
6.2 to reflect group's consensus on use of MAP to group navigation
- Added an example to section
11.3 showing how labels could be implicitly associated with their form
- Added text to section 5
that says that if background color is specified, foreground color must
Version 9 March 2000
captured in an e-mail to the list, 9 March 2000.
- HTML 4.0 strict
- Revised section on Math, moved to section on *text markup*.
- Some edits to section on table linearization since document order not
the only sensible linearization
- some edits to 4.5.3 on wrapped text.
- Fixed what I think is a bug in 4.5.4 about TFOOT backwards compat.
- Reordered info in 4.6
- Cleaned up 4.6.1
- Put brackets '' outside of link text in examples
- Made clear in 4.7.2 that invisible dlinks are deprecated .
- added longdesc for ascii chart and skip link.
- In 4.7.6, in server-side map example, example didn't do what technique
said. So added "Text links follow" in alt text. If this is wrong,
technique needs fixing.
- In 4.10.4, put good example first.
- Edits to 4.4 (lists)
- Moved deprecated examples to back of 4.4.1
- Fixes (some content deleted since in appropriate, copied, etc.)
- Edits to Section 3.
- Added some abbr's
- Added subsections to 3.6
- Cut FOG INDEX details.
- In 3.8, reordered examples based on what to do first.
- Some editing to 3.10, but it still needs work
- In 3.11, moved disclaimer up front. Also, Added links to vendors.
- Some edits to 3.12, but needs work.
- Moved html grouping to 4.1.4
- New 4.1.3 with example
- Changed style for that of NOTE
- Fixed broken links and markup
- reworked table section
- reworked audio/video section
- added jason's ideas to changes in language
- added info re: searches
- Email fixes
- Replaced email addresses with affiliations
- Fixed broken links
- Fixed some markup bugs, removed examples of active/passive voice
- Local links to alternative formats, made status of a NOTE, replaced
Hypermedia direct link with a link to [HYPERMEDIA]
- heavily edited math and comprehension sections
- Removed file suffixes (for content neg), added a little link
- Minor tweak to avoid broken link due to section anchor in comment
- Removed section on XML techniques since empty
- s/graphics/images where appropriate for consistency (see comment by
- Added more information about description links.
- Made our own description links more descriptive
- Substituted ascii chart for cow (and don't use OBJECT in example)
- Changed "other topics" to more specific topics
- Added link to WAI-UA-SUPPORT to 3.12
- Removed links to browser support pages since will be on WAI browser
- changed class for css examples to css-example
- ensured "deprecated" where appropriate
- Capitalization change
- Added section on examples (namely: warning about deprecated
- Added statement about accessibility of site map to 3.5
- Added default bullet ('disc') to list-style examples and explained
- Changed alt text in some examples based on L. David Baron and Jason
- Added information about table column bidi in 4.5 bullet 4.
- Changed case from upper to lower for attribs in some examples.
- Added a statement about equivalent text for style sheet generated
content to 5.1 (proposed to editors, chairs, but not approved yet).
- Minor spacing fix
- Split redundant-links to redundant-client-links and
- Spell fix, remove alt-ascii-art, added explanation of links from
checkpoint map to guidelines
- Removed imap-buttons
- Added anchors to a few attribs
- Changes for addition of linearized index tables
- New checkpoint map with full checkpoint text
- New element/attribute tables, with linearized alternatives, and have
been moved from "Accessibility themes" section towards the end of the
- New section "How Techniques are Organized"
- New section (with old stuff) about CSS.
- Added new links to services
- "Accessibility Themes for HTML" became a more general section on
- Removed the "To implement" sections. For example, "To implement
alt-text, use the "alt" attribute. In HTML 4.0, applies to: IMG, AREA,
etc." This information is included in the element and attribute
- Moved as many examples as we could from the "Accessibilty themes"
section to the appropriate HTML sections (i.e., example using accesskey on
forms to the forms section).
- Substantial content was added to and/or reorganized in the following
subsections of "accessibility themes": Other topics, Validation, Browser
Support, and Language information
- Substantial content was added to and/or reorganized in the following
subsections of "HTML techniques": Links, Images and Image maps, Applets
and other programmatic objects, Forms, Scripts
This version accompanies (but is not part of) the Proposed Recommendation.
Please note that this version has lagged behind the guidelines while the
guidelines were being prepared for Proposed Rec. The editors expect to update
it during the PR period.
- Added more information about support for elements, support for keyboard
- removed a piece about META and linked to discussion of no
- Fixed (in part) the frame example showing changing contents. T he
example needs more work because the point is rather small and still
unclear from the example.
- Added text from Eric Hansen about simple-and-straightforward.
- Changed list examples in 3.4,
- Mixed broken markup in other examples to make them conform to HTML 4.0
- Reviewed the section (2.10.8) on good css style section: make one list,
put examples after list
- Worked on the section on meangful links (3.6, meaningful-links), added
some examples, mentioned content negotiation, gave more user context
- Added a new piece to the section on comprehension, added new generic
checkpoint on grouping information with links to specific sections on HTML
- Added a note to explain front-loading more,
- clarified use of HTTP status codes for content neg based on NIR
- better id values for table examples,
- mentioned SMIL and SAMI synchronization,
- added example of how not to use color only,
- added more information about checking graceful transformation with
This is a revision of the Feb 26, 1999 revision in last call. This draft is
meant to indicate progress in accounting for resolved issues and editorial
changes. This document still requires lots of editing and validation, which
will take place most likely once the guidelines advance to proposed
There have been a lot of editorial changes (too many to list exhaustively)
based on very helpful comments from many reviewers. Some more important
- Use of "content developer" rather than author in most places.
Document usability changes
- Added a "checkpoint map" (section 7) that lists all the checkpoints and
where they are discussed in the techniques document (by section name and
- Removed links from techniques sections back to the guidelines since
confusing. Instead, the checkpoint map contains those links. This makes
reading the techiques easier.
- Longdescs added for images.
- Removed links from body of document to external sites. Instead, added a
new list of services (section 6) that has all these links.
- Removed techniques and examples about brief descriptions.
- In "Always make the source of a frame an HTML document", some small
fixes to correct example. Still needs work.
- In 2.4, added info about support for keyboard shortcuts varying across
- Added text to 2.5 about link types.
- Added text to 2.6 from Eric Hansen.
- New text in 2.7 corresponding to new checkpoints.
- Added new pieces to 2.10 based on Eric Hansen comments, but
- In 2.11, Added some information (to be completed) from Chetz on support
for new elements/attributes
- In 3.1, metadata, added note that "title" should be used as described in
the HTML 4.0 spec.
- In 3.1, removed part about auto-refresh with META and added
cross-reference to pertinent technique.
- In 3.1, "Section headers", added information about proper nesting
(removed from checkpoint 5.2)
- In "Visual information and motion" (under 3.9), removed reference to
Mark Novak's example and put that reference in section 6.
- Fixed "alt text" bug in section "Layout, positioning, layering, and
alignment" (under 3.10).
- Added fallback-page to list of techniques in alt-pages. then included
links to noframes and scripts-alt.
- Commented out checkpoint text-markup, included link from style-sheets to
- Touched up discussion of alternative pages,
- Added navigation discussions
- Added layering to css list
- Example of grouped links and tabindex
- Syntax fix to EMBED example
- Added heading for EMBED stuff
- Added EMBED text and example
- Added rough text from Eric about writing suggestions.
- Added new section on automatic p age refresh with two checkpoints
- Added intro to section on frames and downsides of frames.
- Added section on alternatives to frames.
- Added reminder about avoiding tables for layout (to be completed).
- Added section on device-independent event handlers.
- Added vertical alignment to tables.
- Added event handler attributes.
- Added first draft of Daniels CSS guidelines.
- Added section on device-independent event handl ers (frist draft).
- Added table in index of attribs for accessibility (first draf t, still
missing links to topics in techniques).
- Title change: "Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines"
- Edits to acknowledgments
- Additional references to UAGL, AUGL, Trace
- 1. added to end of the forms section (b.12): "Backwards compatibility
issues for forms. The BUTTON element does not appear and <INPUT
type="button"> will appear as a text input field in HTML3.2
- added to the end of tables section (b.5): "Backwards compatibility
issues for tables. Rows of a TFOOT element will appear before the BODY of
the document in an HTML3.2 browser.
- Commented out comment about HTML 4 suggesting that UA's can ignore
leading or trailing spaces (in discussion about null alt-text).
- Updated ASCII art section to reflect 4 Feb minutes
- Edited the examples for use of OBJECT and alt-text so that "title" is
not replacement for "alt" rather it is supplementary to providing
- Edited examples for frames and longdesc. gave more copmlicated used of
frames where descriptions are needed for three frames.
- Added a badly worded paragraph about bypassing groups of links.
- Changed title to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
- Added the term "content developers" to prose
- Added statement about title change to status sections
- Markup for examples has been cleaned up. One example moved to work
around a Navigator bug.
- Index removed, replaced by the checklist.
- HTML examples have been validated.
- All of the HTML examples have been validated (including the OPTGROUP
example, taken from the HTML 4.0 spec).
- Place holders have been added for the new techniques in the
- Several comments from the editors are scattered throughout the document
proceded by "Editor:" These will disappear as the issues are
- The ASCII representation of the "Cups of coffee consumed by each
senator" table has been replaced with an image and alt-text.
- section A.5 added to "Accessibility Themes for HTML" called
- The techniques sorted by priorities appear at the end of this document
rather than the guidelines.
No major changes to this version.
- In discussing deprecated elements (that they are marked in red with an
asterisk in this document) a note was added to say, "Most presentation
elements have been deprecated in HTML 4.0."
- STYLE was added to the list of presentational elements with a note that
says, "Note 2. While the STYLE element is presentational, it may be used
to enhance the presentation of structural elements. The other presentation
elements are often used instead of structural elements."
- Two techniques pertaining to LABEL position were combined into one since
the technique presented an either/or situation.
- Several technical errors in the examples were corrected.
- Although there is still ongoing discussion, the NOFRAMES example was
changed so that the NOFRAME only appears in a FRAMESET not in BODY
- A list of techniques relating to alternative text was added at the end
of that section.