W3C

Requirements for Japanese Text Layout

W3C Working Group Note 3 April 2012

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/NOTE-jlreq-20120403/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/jlreq/
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-jlreq-20111129/
Editors (first edition):
Yasuhiro Anan (阿南 康宏), Microsoft
Hiroyuki Chiba (千葉 弘幸), Invited Expert
Junsaburo Edamoto (枝本 順三郎), Invited Expert
Richard Ishida, W3C
Keiichiro Ishino (石野 恵一郎), Antenna House
Tatsuo Kobayashi (小林 龍生), JustSystems
Toshi Kobayashi (小林 敏), Invited Expert
Kenzou Onozawa (小野澤 賢三), Invited Expert
Felix Sasaki, University of Applied Sciences Potsdam
Editors (second edition):
Hiroyuki Chiba (千葉 弘幸), Invited Expert
Junsaburo Edamoto (枝本 順三郎), Invited Expert
Richard Ishida, W3C
Keiichiro Ishino (石野 恵一郎), Antenna House
Seiichi Kato (加藤 誠一), Microsoft
Tatsuo Kobayashi (小林 龍生), Invited Expert
Toshi Kobayashi (小林 敏), Invited Expert
Kenzou Onozawa (小野澤 賢三), Invited Expert
Felix Sasaki, DFKI GmbH
Hajime Shiozawa (塩澤 元), Invited Expert

A Japanese version of this document is also available. See also translations. The English version of this document is the authoritative version.


Abstract

This document describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. This second version of the document contains a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc.

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is a second version of a document that describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG, XSL-FO and eBook standards. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051, however, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. This second version of the document contains a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc.

This document was developed by participants in the Japanese Layout Task Force, with input from four W3C Working Groups, CSS, Internationalization Core, SVG and XSL.

The document was originally authored in Japanese, then translated to English under the guidance of the Japanese authors. In order to reach the largest international audience, the W3C works in English, so this English version of the document is the authoritative version. However, the Japanese version of this document is also available.

Feedback about the content of this document can be sent to public-i18n-cjk@w3.org. Use "[JLReq]" in the subject line of your email, followed by a brief subject. The archive for this list is public.

Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This document may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. Therefore, quotes or references to specific information in the document should include the publication date of this version, 03 April 2012. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than a Working Group Note, which is not an endorsed W3C Recommendation.

This document was produced by groups operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of disclosures for each group: CSS Working Group disclosures, i18n Core Working Group disclosures, SVG Working Group disclosures, and XSL Working Group disclosures. Those pages also include instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.


Table of Contents


1 Introduction


1.1 Purpose of This Document

Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.

As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document describes issues of text composition in the Japanese writing system. The goal of the task force is not to propose actual solutions but describe important issues as basic information for actual implementations.

1.2 How This Document was Created

This document was created by the W3C Japanese Layout Task Force. The Task Force has discussed many issues and harmonized the requirements from user communities and solutions from technological experts. It includes the following participants:

  1. Japanese text composition experts (The editors of "JIS X 4051 : Formatting rules for Japanese documents").

  2. Internationalization and standardization experts in Japan (from Microsoft, Antenna House, JustSystems).

  3. Members of the W3C CSS, SVG, XSL and i18n Core, Working Groups.

This task force also constitutes an important innovation due to its bilingual work-flow. Discussion is mainly conducted in Japanese, because of the Japanese composition issues, but minutes and one mailing list were in English. To support development, the task force held face-to-face meetings with participating Working Groups.

The document itself was also developed bilingually, and is published bilingually. We carefully avoided using jargon for technical terms. Even if there were English words corresponding to the Japanese, we carefully studied any potential differences in the nuances of meaning, and if there were differences between corresponding concepts, we provided the Japanese jargon in romaji (Latin transliteration) for future discussion. Moreover, we prepared as many figures as possible, with clear and understandable English, to help non-Japanese readers.

1.3 Basic Principles for Development of This Document

Japanese composition exhibits several differences from Western composition. Major differences include:

  1. The use of not only horizontal writing mode but also vertical writing mode.

  2. In principle, all character frames of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters used in Japanese composition are designed in a square box, and these characters are composed without intervening spaces (i.e. set solid). In this document, notations such as ideographic (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) characters indicate character classes (see 3.9 About Character Classes).

This document mainly explains the characteristics of Japanese composition along the lines of the following policy.

  1. It does not fully cover all issues of the Japanese composition system, but mainly discusses the differences from Western composition systems.

  2. It focuses on the requirements for the Japanese visual presentation form of text composition. Technology-specific interpretations of the requirements and/or how to implement them are out of scope for this document.

  3. It explicitly refers to JIS X 4051 "Formatting rules for Japanese documents" as much as possible. This document focuses on fundamental and important issues of Japanese layout as much as possible, and for more detail references the corresponding clause of JIS X 4051. The JIS X 4051 topics that are not described in this document, are only for exceptional, corner cases or to provide some specific line composition algorithms. On the other hand, some topics that are not described in JIS X 4051 are described in detail. Accordingly, this document is sufficient to implement Japanese layout processing for most parts of the Japanese market.

    In accordance with the stated policy, this document provides tutorial- or summary-like, supplementary explanations, related background, and additional descriptions for JIS X 4051 information. This document covers all the fundamental issues of Japanese text layout, but the reader will need to refer to JIS X 4051 for advanced discussion of exceptional topics.

  4. It provides typical examples of actual use for key composition features, to enable better understanding of their usage.

  5. For non-Japanese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Japanese text readers; however, for non-Japanese readers it may be difficult to imagine without explicit information. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues. A couple of examples:

    "warichu (inline cutting note) is not frequently used, but is useful to simply annotate persons, things, and so on, at the place where the text appears, especially in classic texts or translations.", or "ruby is frequently used in modern documents, including newspapers."

  6. In consideration of non-Japanese readers of this document, figures are used for explanations wherever possible.

  7. Text layout rules and recommendations for readable design are different things, however these two issues are difficult to discuss independently. In this document, these two aspects are carefully separated. The aesthetic design recommendations are mainly described using notes.

  8. The main target of this document is common books. The authors' experiences are mainly related to common books, and the quality required for common books is the highest in the market. There are many kinds of books in the market, and the requirements are quite diverse. The task force has a lot of accumulated experience in requirements and solutions for Japanese text composition. Nonetheless, many issues, which have been discussed over a long period of time, are applicable for other kinds of publication.

    In terms of frequency of use, the importance of magazines, technical manuals, and Web documents rates alongside common books. However, there are several characteristics in these publications, which are different from common books. These issues should be treated more fully in future documents.

1.4 The Structure of This Document

This document consists of four parts:

1 Introduction

2 Basics of Japanese Composition

3 Line Composition

4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs

2 Basics of Japanese Composition explains the characteristics of letters and symbols which are used in Japanese composition, their differences in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, and the design and adaptation of the kihon-hanmen.

3 Line Composition explains line composition methods for ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) characters and punctuation marks, together with ruby (inter-line pronunciation information and annotation) and Japanese and Western mixed text composition, i.e. mixtures of Japanese characters and Western characters (cl-27).

4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs describes construction methods and composition methods for headings, notes, illustrations and tables.

In principle, characters in Japanese composition are designed in a square box and positioned without spaces, i.e. solid setting. This is taken as a basic premise for the design of the kihon-hanmen, the basis of book layout. Furthermore, to understand Japanese layout, it is important to understand the design of the kihon-hanmen and how to position illustrations, characters, symbols etc. in relation to it. Hence, 2 Basics of Japanese Composition describes in detail the design of the kihon-hanmen and its dependencies. In particular, 2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements provides prototypical patterns for the three guidelines listed after this paragraph: what recommendations need to be strictly taken into account, and what exceptions are possible. (The goal of these explanations is an understanding of Japanese composition. Since detailed explanations of the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are given in 3 Line Composition and 4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs, some explanations are repeated.)

  1. Keep to the basic size and column numbers of multi-column format that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

  2. Keep to the line positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

  3. Keep to the letter positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

1.5 Reference of Definition and Others

The definitions of technical terms are described in the Appendix G Terminology appendix. Terms are linked to corresponding places in the Terminology appendix only at first appearance and in important places. If there is no appropriate English terminology for Japanese terminology, or the English terminology may possibly cause misunderstanding, the Japanese terminology is only transliterated to Hepburn style romaji notation (except that "m", not "n", is used before "b", "m" and "p").

Also, the definitions of terminology in the Terminology appendix are basically the same as the definitions of JIS X 8125 or JIS X 4051, with respect to common Japanese usage of terminology.

Each character class has its own character class number in parentheses. Members of each character class are listed in Appendix A Character Classes, except for CJK Ideographs. Each character in this document is named and referred to using the character names of ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS).

The formal title of the frequently mentioned Japanese Industrial Standard JIS X 4051 is as follows:

JIS X 4051 : 2004 Formatting rules for Japanese documents

JIS X 4051 is available from the Japan Standards Association (http://www.jsa.or.jp/), but a PDF version is not available from JSA. The PDF version is accessible from the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee site (http://www.jisc.go.jp/), however it is not possible to download it.

2 Basics of Japanese Composition


2.1 Characters and the Principles of Setting them for Japanese Composition

2.1.1 Characters Used for Japanese Composition

Japanese letters used for composing Japanese text mainly consist of ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters (see Fig. 2.1).

Kanji, hiragana and katakana.
Fig. 2.1: Kanji, hiragana and katakana.

(note 1)

In addition to ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters, various punctuation marks (see Fig. 2.2) as well as Western characters (cl-27), such as European numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters, may be used in Japanese text. In this document these characters are classified into character classes, for which explanations are given describing their behavior in type-setting.

Examples of punctuation marks.
Fig. 2.2: Examples of punctuation marks.

(note 2)

The details of character classes used in this document will be explained in 3.9 About Character Classes, as well as in Appendix A Character Classes. Also, in "Spacing between Characters" all non-Kanji characters included in ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS) Annex A collection 285 (Basic Japanese character set) and collection 286 (Extended non-Kanji character set) are explicitly classified by character class.

2.1.2 Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana

Ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters are the same size, and have square character frames of equal dimensions. Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame, there is a smaller box called the letter face, which contains the actual symbol. Character size is measured by the size of the character frame (see Fig. 2.3). "Character advance" is a term used to describe the advance width of the character frame of a character. By definition, it is equal to the "width" of a character in horizontal writing mode, whereas it is the height of a character in vertical writing mode (see Fig. 2.3).

The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames.
Fig. 2.3: The size of kanji and hiragana, and the character frames.

(note 1)

In vertical writing mode, the letter face of small kana (cl-11) characters (ぁぃぅァィゥ etc.) is placed at the vertical center and to the right of the horizontal center of the character frame; in horizontal writing mode, it is placed at the horizontal center and below the vertical center (see Fig. 2.4). Also there are punctuation marks with letter faces that are not placed at the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame.

Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame.
Fig. 2.4: Small kana and the position of their letter face in the character frame.

2.1.3 Principles of Arrangement of Kanji and Kana Characters

In principle, when composing a line with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters no extra space appears between their character frame. This is called solid setting (see Fig. 2.5).

Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode.
Fig. 2.5: Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode.

(note 1)

In the letterpress printing era ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters were designed so that they were easy to read in solid setting, regardless of text direction. However, unlike the letterpress printing era, when several sizes of the original pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, in today's digital era the same original pattern is used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust the inter-character space when composing lines at large character sizes. When composing lines at small character sizes, hinting data is used to ensure that the width of the strokes that make up a character look correct.

(note 2)

Depending on the context, there are several setting methods used in addition to solid setting, as shown below.

  1. Fixed inter-character spacing: Text set with a fixed size space between each character frame (see Fig. 2.6).

    Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode.
    Fig. 2.6: Examples of fixed inter-character spacing in horizontal writing mode.

    Fixed inter-character spacing is used in books for the following cases: (Fixed inter-character spacing, including also even tsumegumi, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1 b.)

    1. To achieve a balance between running heads with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the running heads with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for running heads are given in JIS X 4051, annex 5.

    2. To achieve a balance between headings with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used for the headings with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-character spacing for headings are given in JIS X 4051, annex 6.

    3. For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters. Fixed inter-character spacing is used to balance with the size of the illustration or table.

    4. In some cases, fixed inter-character spacing is used for Chinese and Japanese poetry where one line has only a few characters.

  2. Even inter-character spacing: Text set with equal inter-character spacing between characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end (see Fig. 2.7).

    Example of even inter-character space setting in horizontal writing mode.
    Fig. 2.7: Example of even inter-character space setting in horizontal writing mode.

    Even inter-character space setting is used in books for unifying the length of table headings with Japanese text (see Fig. 2.8). There are also examples (e.g. lists of names) in which parts of a person names receive inter-character spacing. (Even inter-character spacing, including processing of jidori, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1.)

    Example of a table with inter-character spacing.
    Fig. 2.8: Example of a table with inter-character spacing.
  3. Tsumegumi (kerning / tracking): Text is set with negative inter-character space by arranging characters so that a portion of two character frames overlap each other. This is divided further into two types, depending on the methods used for inter-character space reduction. One method involves reducing by the same amount of inter-character space (even tsumegumi or tracking, see Fig. 2.9) and the other involves determining the amount of space to reduce based on the distance between the two letter faces of adjacent characters (face tsumegumi or letter face kerning, see Fig. 2.10).

    Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Fig. 2.9: Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)
    Fig. 2.10: Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode. (The 1st line is the same text with solid setting, for comparison.)

    In the main text of books, the most reader-friendly approach is to use solid setting. However, if the character size is larger, the distance between characters may become unbalanced, and tsumegumi will be applied. For example, there are books where tsumegumi is used with headings set in large character sizes. These methods are rarely used in books, since ease of reading is very important, but in magazines or advertisements there are many more examples of tsumegumi. Magazines tend to use type to differentiate themselves from others, and so devices like this are sometimes used for that purpose.

2.2 Page Formats for Japanese Documents

2.2.1 Specification of Page Formats

The page format of a Japanese document is specified by:

  • Firstly, preparing a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of pages of the document;

  • Then, specifying the details of actual page elements based on the templates.

2.2.2 Basic Templates of Page Formats

Generally, books use only one template for page format, whereas magazines often use several templates.

Although in books, as will be mentioned in c of 2.2.5 Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format, there tends to be one template for the page format, the basic pattern is typically adapted. For example, the table of contents may contain small modifications. Furthermore, there are many examples of indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and vertically set books often have indexes in horizontal writing mode and sometimes multiple columns. This still holds true where the goal is to make the size of the hanmen for indexes close to the size of hanmen in the basic page format.

Magazines gather articles of different kinds. Often the page format will differ depending on the content of the article. For example, one part may have 9 point character size and 3 columns, and another part 8 point character size and 4 columns.

2.2.3 Elements of Page Formats

Example of a page format in vertical writing mode.
Fig. 2.11: Example of a page format in vertical writing mode.

The following are the basic elements of a page format. Fig. 2.11 illustrates an example of a page format in vertical writing mode).

  1. Trim size and binding side (vertically set Japanese documents are bound on the right-hand side, and horizontally set documents are bound on the left-hand side. See Fig. 2.12.)

  2. Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).

  3. Appearance of the kihon-hanmen and its position relative to the trim size.

  4. Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and kihon-hanmen.

Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side).
Fig. 2.12: Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side).

(note 1)

Establishing a kihon-hanmen may be seen as defining not only a rectangular area on a page, but also within that area an underlying, logical grid, to guide the placement of such things as characters, headings, and illustrations. However, once a kihon-hanmen is established, there is no absolute requirement to align characters with the grid, especially when setting characters inside a line. The only factors that influence the placement of characters are strong gravitational forces that (i) attract the first and last characters on a line to align with the border of the kihon-hanmen, and (ii) attract each line position to the line positions on which the kihon-hanmen is based.

It may help in understanding the basic concepts of Japanese layout and kihon-hanmen to think in terms of a slit-based model, rather than a grid-based model. Each slit is the full length of the lines on which the kihon-hanmen is based.

2.2.4 Elements of Kihon-hanmen

The kihon-hanmen is the hanmen style designed as the basis of a book. The following are the basic elements of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.13).

  1. Character size and typeface name

  2. Text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode)

  3. Number of columns and column gap when using multi-column format

  4. Length of a line

  5. Number of lines per page (number of lines per column when using multi-column format)

  6. Line gap

Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.)
Fig. 2.13: Elements of kihon-hanmen. (Example in vertical writing mode.)

(note 1)

To understand the characteristics of Japanese composition, it is important to understand how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are applied to a real page. The details will be explained in 2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements.

(note 2)

The normative definition of kihon-hanmen is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.

(note 3)

Format examples (including running heads and page numbers) and composition examples for kihon-hanmen in different trim sizes are available in JIS X 4051, annexes 3 and 4.

(note 4)

Depending on the application, character sizes can be specified in multiple ways. For books, character size is mainly specified using points or Q/q. Points are used for letterpress printing. In JIS Z 8305 (size units of printing type), one point is determined to be 0.3514mm. This is the size that is usually used. However, some commonly used applications adopt one point as 1/72 inch, ca. 0.3528mm. Q was used for photo typesetting. One Q is 0.25mm. It is very difficult to unify the unit sizes for character size specifications, because actual users prefer the unit to which they are accustomed. In some companies, multiple types of unit are used together.

2.2.5 Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format

Below are several examples of how the basic page format is created, and how then various elements are placed on a real text page. (This and other aspects of how the various elements of the kihon-hanmen are arranged on each page are explained in 2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements.)

  1. Realm and position of headings

    To set a heading, first establish a rectangular space based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '3 line space' means (3 * the size of the character frame used for the kihon-hanmen + 2 * the line gap in the kihon-hanmen). (Details of this processing are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.3.3.d). The heading text is usually set in the centre of the rectangular space in the block direction, and indented from the line head. The size of the indent is usually specified as a number of characters in the kihon-hanmen. For example, a '4 character indent' means (4 * the size of the character frames used for establishing the kihon-hanmen). (See the example at Fig. 2.14.)

    Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen.
    Fig. 2.14: Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established by the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    Details of the different types of heading, creation of headings, methods for placing headings, etc. is explained in 4.1 Handling of Headings (including Page Breaks).

  2. Size of illustrations

    In horizontal writing mode with two columns, for example, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the width of one kihon-hanmen column or the width of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.15). The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page (see Fig. 2.15).

    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode.
    Fig. 2.15: Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode.

    Also, in vertical writing mode, for example with three columns, the height of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the height of one kihon-hanmen column or the height of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.16). The illustrations are usually set at the right side or left side of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.16).

    Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode.
    Fig. 2.16: Example of illustrations in three columns, vertical writing mode.

    (note 1)

    Details of illustration positioning is explained in 4.3 Positioning of Illustrations.

  3. Hanmen size for the table of contents

    The hanmen size for the table of contents of books is based on the size of the kihon-hanmen. There are many examples of tables of contents in vertical writing mode where the left-to-right size is identical to that of the kihon-hanmen, but the top-to-bottom size is a little bit smaller (see Fig. 2.17).

    Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode.
    Fig. 2.17: Example of the design of the table of contents (TOC) in vertical writing mode.

    (note 1)

    There are cases when a different hanmen than the kihon-hanmen is used for positioning of running heads and page numbers. This will be discussed in 2.6.2 Principles of Arrangement of Running Heads and Page Numbers (see Fig. 2.51).

2.3 Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

2.3.1 Directional Factors in Japanese Composition

Japanese composition has two text directions. One is vertical direction (vertical writing mode), the other is horizontal direction (horizontal writing mode).

(note 1)

Ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters for Japanese composition have basically been designed to have a square character frame from the letterpress printing era on. Thus the same collection of printing types can be used in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, simply by changing the direction of text, (see Fig. 2.18). There were some attempts to develop printing types designed exclusively for horizontal writing mode, but they were not widely accepted.

Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.)
Fig. 2.18: Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.)

(note 2)

There is little market data comparing the number of pages with vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, but it is said that both are almost the same.

(note 3)

For official (e.g. governmental) documentation, horizontal writing mode is recommended. Educational material (with the exception of certain topics) is mostly in horizontal writing mode. Readers of "mobile novels" are increasing, and it is expected that in the future horizontal writing mode will increase in this area as well. However, most of the large newspapers are written completely in vertical writing mode, and most of the large journals for ordinary readers are almost completely set in vertical writing mode. In addition, novels, which are the most widely read kind of book publication, are almost completely in vertical writing mode (some readers say that they cannot read a novel if it is not in vertical writing mode). Hence it can be expected that the importance of vertical writing mode for Japanese will not change for the time being.

(note 4)

There is usually only one direction for all text throughout a book, but there are cases where horizontal writing mode is used in certain parts of vertically composed books (see Fig. 2.19). Tables, captions for illustrations, running heads, and page numbers are usually composed horizontally in a page with a vertical writing mode.

Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books.
Fig. 2.19: Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically set books.

2.3.2 Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

The following are major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode.

  1. Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.

    (note 1)

    The positioning of characters, lines and paragraphs in vertical and horizontal writing mode is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.4.

    1. Vertical writing mode. See Fig. 2.20 for an example of vertical writing mode with two columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode.
      Fig. 2.20: Direction of arrangement of characters in vertical writing mode.
      1. Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.

      2. Columns are arranged from top to bottom. A book starts with the left (recto) side and progresses from right to left (see Fig. 2.21).

        Progression of pages for a vertically set books.
        Fig. 2.21: Progression of pages for a vertically set books.
    2. Horizontal composition. See Fig. 2.22 for an example of horizontal text layout with two-columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode.
      Fig. 2.22: Direction of arrangement of characters in horizontal writing mode.
      1. Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.

      2. Columns are arranged from left to right. A book starts with the right (recto) side and progresses from left to right (see Fig. 2.23).

        Progression of pages for a horizontally set book.
        Fig. 2.23: Progression of pages for a horizontally set book.
  2. Orientation of Latin alphanumeric characters in a line.

    1. There are three ways to arrange Latin alphanumerics in vertical writing mode:

      1. One by one with the same normal orientation as that of Japanese characters. This is usually applied to one-letter alphanumerics or capitalized abbreviations (see Fig. 2.24).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation.
        Fig. 2.24: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation.

        (note 1)

        The alphanumeric characters used for this arrangement have different typographic features than those with proportional width used for Western text. They are of fixed-width and full-width design, and have been used this way since the letterpress printing era.

      2. Rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This is usually applied to English words or sentences (see Fig. 2.25).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
        Fig. 2.25: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise.

        (note 1)

        In Fig. 2.25, there are spaces before and after the character frame for the Western word "editor". These spaces are necessary for composition of mixed Japanese and Western text, and details will be provided in 3.2.6 Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using Proportional Western Fonts.

      3. Set horizontally without changing orientation (called tate-chu-yoko, which means horizontal-in-vertical composition) (see Fig. 2.26). This is usually applied to two-digit numbers (see JIS X 4051, sec. 4.8 for the definition).

        Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko.
        Fig. 2.26: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tate-chu-yoko.
    2. In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, i.e. normal orientation.

  3. Arrangement of tables and/or illustrations rotated 90 degrees clockwise or counter-clockwise for reasons of size. (This processing is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.3.).

    1. In vertical writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the right of the page (see Fig. 2.27).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
      Fig. 2.27: Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.
    2. In horizontal writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the left of the page (see Fig. 2.28).

      Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode.
      Fig. 2.28: Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode.

      (note 1)

      The orientation is chosen to minimize interference with the overall reading flow of the book.

  4. Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break or other reasons. (The processing of new recto and page break is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.1.1.).

    1. In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends ("nariyuki"). The number of lines in each column is not uniform (see Fig. 2.29).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book).
      Fig. 2.29: How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (vertically set book).
    2. In horizontal writing mode, re-arrange columns so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines (see Fig. 2.30).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book).
      Fig. 2.30: How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page (horizontally set book).

      (note 1)

      Neither horizontal nor vertical balance of column arrangement would break the stability of vertical page layout very much, while horizontal balance of column arrangement is determinant for horizontal page layout. In vertical text it doesn't matter too much whether columns are balanced or not. For horizontally set text it is best to balance columns wherever possible.

2.4 Specifying the Kihon-hanmen

2.4.1 Procedure for Defining the Kihon-hanmen

In Japanese composition, first the size of the kihon-hanmen is defined, using the square character frames of characters in solid setting. Taking this as a base, the position of the kihon-hanmen with regards to the trim size is then specified. The following are procedures for determining the size and position of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.31).

  1. Specifying the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen.

    1. For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per page, and the line gap.

    2. For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per column, the line-gap, and the number of columns and the column gap.

      Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1.
      Fig. 2.31: Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 1.
  2. Determining the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size.

    There are various alternative methods for specifying the position of the kihon-hanmen relative to the trim size:

    1. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    2. Position vertically by specifying the space size at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    3. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by specifying the space size of the gutter.

    4. Position vertically by specifying the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the space size of the gutter.

    Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2.
    Fig. 2.32: Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2.

    (note 1)

    In most cases the kihon-hanmen is set at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size, which should be the default positioning, but depending on the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen there may be cases where the default needs to be changed; for example, by moving the kihon-hanmen up, down, to the left or to the right of the default position.

    (note 2)

    It is technically possible to determine the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen by specifying the trim size and margins of all sides, but this method is not common in the tradition of Japanese composition. If this is the only way an implementation allows, the margins of each side need to be determined beforehand in relation to the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen and its position in the trim size.

2.4.2 Considerations in Designing the Kihon-hanmen

The following are considerations to take into account when designing the kihon-hanmen. (This topic is not about processing, but rather an explanation of design preferences. The definition of kihon-hanmen is given in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.1.)

  1. Trim size and margins. It would be best if the shape of the kihon-hanmen could be made similar to that of the trim size.

  2. Character size. Generally 9 point (about 3.2mm) type is common. Except for specialized publications such as dictionaries, the minimum size of type is 8 point (about 2.8mm).

    (note 1)

    In Western text layout, 10 point (about 3.5mm) or 12 point (about 4.2mm) type is common. This is mainly because of a difference in design principles between Japanese and Latin characters.

  3. Line length should be multiples of the character size (see Fig. 2.33).

    Line length should be multiples of the character size.
    Fig. 2.33: Line length should be multiples of the character size.

    (note 1)

    There are basically two reasons why line length should be multiples of the character size.

    1. For Japanese composition, all line lengths except that of the last line of the paragraph should, in principle, be the same.

    2. In principle, for printing, Japanese characters like ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters are uniformly designed in the same square character frame and they are set solid (no extra space between adjacent character frames).

    (note 2)

    The best line length (number of characters per line) is around 52 characters, maximum, in vertical writing mode, and 40 characters, maximum, in horizontal writing mode. If the trim size would take lines beyond the recommended length, consider using a multi-column format and making the line length shorter.

  4. Use the same amount of line gap throughout the book, except for special cases. The size of the kihon-hanmen in the block direction is specified using the number of lines and the size of the line-gap.

    (note 1)

    In Japanese composition, there are cases where ruby or emphasis (emphasis dots, bousen, underlines, etc.) are inserted between lines. In such cases the line gap is not changed but is kept constant (see Fig. 2.34). It is also possible to insert reference marks to notes between lines within the main text. This case is handled in the same manner. If these elements are likely to occur in text, the line gap established during the kihon-hanmen design needs to be of an adequate size to accommodate them. Further explanations about the placement of ruby will be given in 3 Line Composition.

    Inserting ruby or other items between lines.
    Fig. 2.34: Inserting ruby or other items between lines.

    (note 2)

    Warichu (inline cutting note) juts into the line gap on either side of a line. The basic line gap isn't changed where warichu occurs (the line gap between warichu itself and the adjacent lines looks narrower than for the rest of the line), so when warichu is likely to occur in text, the line gap for the kihon-hanmen may be set slightly larger than normal to accommodate it. The same is true for tate-chu-yoko or subscript and superscript (ornament characters). Further explanation of the placement of warichu and other items is provided in 3 Line Composition.

    Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines.
    Fig. 2.35: Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines.

    (note 3)

    It is common that the line gap for the kihon-hanmen is set to a value between a half em space and the one em space of the character frame used for the kihon-hanmen. A half em space can be chosen in cases where the line length is short, but a one em space or close to it is more appropriate when the line length is longer than 35 characters.

    (note 4)

    Unless ruby or other design elements are placed in the space between lines (e.g. for books such as classics, with many annotations), there is no need to make the line-gap larger than full-width, since this would decrease legibility.

    (note 5)

    It is said that the standard line-gap in Western text layout is a one third em space, which is smaller than that in Japanese composition. This difference again comes from the different approach to the design of Latin and Japanese characters.

    (note 6)

    There is another method of specifying the kihon-hanmen that uses line feeds rather than line gaps. Line feed is the distance between two adjacent lines measured from their reference points (see Fig. 2.36). The reference point differs from implementation to implementation, however, in vertical writing mode the horizontal center of the character frame is usually used, and with horizontal writing mode, the vertical center of the character frame is used. When the character size is the same for every character, the following calculation is used:

    • line feed = character size / 2 + line gap + character size / 2 = character size + line gap

    • line gap = line feed - character size

    Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed.
    Fig. 2.36: Specifying kihon-hanmen with line feed.

The size of the kihon-hanmen in this case can be calculated by following method:

  • Vertical writing mode with one column

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    e.g.

    298 point = 9 point × 18 lines + 8 point × (18 lines − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    e.g.

    468 point = 9 point × 52 characters

  • Vertical writing mode with multi columns

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    e.g.

    309 point = 9 point × 21 lines + 6 point × (21 lines − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    e.g.

    468 point = 9 point × 25 characters × 2 columns + 18 point × (2 columns − 1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with one column

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line

    e.g.

    315 point = 9 point × 35 characters

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per page + line gap × (number of lines per page − 1)

    e.g.

    468 point = 9 point × 28 lines + 8 point × (28 lines − 1)

  • Horizontal writing mode with multi columns

    Width of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of characters per line × number of columns + column gap × (number of columns − 1)

    e.g.

    320 point = 8 point × 19 characters × 2 columns + 16 point × (2 columns − 1)

    Height of kihon-hanmen = character size × number of lines per column + line gap × (number of lines per column − 1)

    e.g.

    476 point = 8 point × 40 lines + 4 point × (40 lines − 1)

2.5 Page wise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements

2.5.1 Examples of Items Jutting Out of the Kihon-hanmen

The various elements of a page should remain inside the boundaries of the kihon-hanmen. However, there are exceptions such as the following:

  1. Ruby or emphasis marks (bousen, emphasis dots, etc.) at the before edge of the hanmen, are placed outside the hanmen (see Fig. 2.37). The same applies in cases where ruby, underline, etc. appear beyond the after edge of the hanmen. Like the handling of exceptions mentioned below, the purpose here is to preserve the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This technique can also be used for reference marks associated with lines of text.

    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen.
    Fig. 2.37: Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen.
  2. When there are inline elements whose dimensions extend beyond the before edge and the after edge of a line of characters as determined by the kihon-hanmen, and when those elements appear in the first or last line of the hanmen, the parts that jut out beyond the regular line of characters also jut out of the hanmen area. For example, this is the case when the width of a sequence of characters which are set to tate-chu-yoko is wider than the characters set for the kihon-hanmen. In addition, warichu (inline cutting note) or subscript and superscript (ornament characters) are handled in the same way. (The processing rules for this item and the previous item are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 12.1.1.)

  3. Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is only necessary for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) when they would otherwise need to be wrapped to the line head. The character is placed so that it touches the hanmen at the line end (see Fig. 2.38). (Hanging punctuation is not defined in JIS X 4051, but there is an explanation in sec. 8.1, c.)

    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen.
    Fig. 2.38: Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is a way of reducing the processing cost of line adjustment by reducing the need to change inter-character space.

    (note 2)

    A lot of books apply hanging punctuation.

  4. Illustrations and tables are normally placed inside the area defined by the kihon-hanmen. However, there may also be cases in which a particular illustration or table juts outside the kihon-hanmen.

    1. Cases in which it is necessary to make the illustration or table larger than the kihon-hanmen, because reducing its size would make it unreadable.

    2. For the sake of visual effect, the illustration may bleed into the complete paper area. This is not often used in books, but is often used in magazines (see Fig. 2.39).

      Example of bleeds.
      Fig. 2.39: Example of bleeds.
  5. Magazines may place the captions of illustrations outside the column area or in the column gap. (Some people regard this as bad style.)

2.5.2 Line Positioning based on the Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, pagewise positioning of lines relies on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This holds for lines with ruby or emphasis dots as shown in Fig. 2.34. Even when lines contain characters that are smaller than the character size used for the kihon-hanmen (as shown in Fig. 2.40), the line positions used for the kihon-hanmen continue to be used as the basic guide lines. This is so that following lines with normal-sized characters still naturally fall into the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen.

Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text.
Fig. 2.40: Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text.

(note 1)

Characters within brackets are made smaller, since the text is an additional explanation. Such cases are handled in the following three ways. The first method, making only characters in restricted places smaller, is the most commonly used.

  1. Make the characters smaller only in restricted places, for example for references.

  2. Make all characters within brackets smaller (as shown in Fig. 2.40).

  3. Make all characters within brackets the same size as the character size established for the kihon-hanmen.

The following are exceptions when handling line position:

  1. When inserting more than one illustration or table item in horizontal writing mode, assuming that there is no text to the left or right of the items, the items may either slip off the lines established for the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.41), or stick to the lines (see Fig. 2.42). The former approach is used, whenever possible, to achieve inter-character spacing before and after illustrations or tables constant. (This method is often used in books.) (This processing method is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 10.3.2., d.)

    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.
    Fig. 2.41: Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.
    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.
    Fig. 2.42: Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.
  2. The size of characters in endnotes inserted between paragraphs or those in footnotes at the bottom of the page (in horizontal writing mode) is smaller than the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. As a result, the character size and line gap are also smaller, and so the line positions are no longer identical to those established for the kihon-hanmen. As an example, Fig. 2.43 shows the position of an endnote between paragraphs in vertical writing mode. (The processing of endnotes is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 9.3, and the processing of footnotes in sec. 9.4.)

    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode.
    Fig. 2.43: Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode.
  3. As mentioned above, the position of a heading may not be identical to the lines established for the kihon-hanmen. Nevertheless, in the block direction, headings base their alignment on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.14).

2.5.3 Character Positioning based on Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, the characters in each line follow the solid setting positions of characters established for the kihon-hanmen. However, as already shown in some of the previous figures, there are examples where this is not the case. Such cases are rather common, and here we will show some prototypical examples (details will be given in 3 Line Composition).

(note 1)

Where character sizes differ from the solid set sizes established for the kihon-hanmen, line lengths may not be identical with the line length of the kihon-hanmen; it is necessary to align the ends of the lines, with the exception of the last line in a paragraph. The processing method for this is explained in 3.8 Line Adjustment.

  1. When 9pt is the character size used to establish the kihon-hanmen, characters smaller than 9pt may be inserted in part of a line (see Fig. 2.40). In such cases, the parts set at 9pt and any parts set at a smaller, say, 8pt size both use solid setting, with character frames at the respective sizes for each part.

  2. In cases where proportional Latin letters are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (see Fig. 2.25), the proportional letters are placed according to their proportional widths. Hence, they do not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.44). Japanese letters following the Latin letters consequently slip away from the default positions as well.

    Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line.
    Fig. 2.44: Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line.
  3. There are several methods for positioning opening brackets (cl-01) at the beginning of a line (details are explained in 3.1.5 Positioning of Opening Brackets at Line Head). Because an opening bracket is not a full-width character, in cases where the indentation of the first line of a paragraph is a one em space, or if the tentsuki position is used for the bracket (that is, there is no space at the line head), the character following the bracket will be in a position which does not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.45). However, the adaptations made during the alignment of line ends will ensure that the character at the end of a line is at a position that fits with the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head.
    Fig. 2.45: Example of positioning of characters off the kihon-hanmen position due to opening brackets at the line head.
  4. 3 Line Composition explains that full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) are half-width. If these punctuation marks and brackets are adjacent to ideographic (cl-19), katakana (cl-16) or hiragana (cl-15) characters, in principle there should be a half em space before or after the punctuation mark or brackets, so that these occupy in effect a full-width size. However, if they are adjacent to other punctuation marks or brackets, the half em space is not used. This is done to improve the visual appearance. In such cases, the character positions are different than the positions established when defining the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 2.46).

    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks.
    Fig. 2.46: Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks.
  5. 3 Line Composition explains the principle that closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) should not be placed at the line head. If by simple sequential placement these characters would appear at the line head or at the line end, some kind of adjustment becomes necessary. A similar adjustment is required for characters that should not be placed at the end of a line, such as opening brackets (cl-01). As a result of such adjustment, it may happen that other characters are placed at positions which are different from those established for the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line.
    Fig. 2.47: Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start and end a line.

2.6 Running Heads and Page Numbers

2.6.1 Positioning of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads (see 2.6.3 Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers) are as shown in Fig. 2.48.

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads.
Fig. 2.48: Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for vertically set books with double running heads.

Typical positions of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads (see 2.6.3 Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers) are as shown in Fig. 2.49.

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads.
Fig. 2.49: Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers for horizontally set books with double running heads.

In principle, positions of running heads and page numbers should be specified relative to the kihon-hanmen, not with absolute coordinates in the trim size. (Positioning of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.4. Positioning of page numbers is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.4.)

Example:

Positioning a horizontal running head above the top left corner (to head and fore-edge) of the kihon-hanmen in a typical vertically set book (see Fig. 2.50).

9 points above the kihon-hanmen (vertical space)

9 points from the left edge of the kihon-hanmen (horizontal space)

Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode).
Fig. 2.50: Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode).

The following recommendations should be taken into account when positioning running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen.

  1. When positioning horizontal running heads and page numbers with reference to the kihon-hanmen in vertically set books, the amount of vertical space between the edge of the kihon-hanmen and the running head is a one em space as established for the kihon-hanmen. If the kihon-hanmen of the book is horizontally set, take more vertical space than the character size in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Regardless of the direction of text in the kihon-hanmen of a book, horizontal running heads and page numbers on the left page should be aligned either at the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or one em space to the right of the left edge. On the right page, the tail of the running heads or page numbers should be aligned either at the right edge of the kihon-hanmen or one full-width space to left of the right edge.

  3. Regardless of the direction of text in a book, when arranging running heads and page numbers together on the same horizontal line, the space between the running head and the page number should be double or one and a half times the character size of the running head. On the left page, the page number should be set at the left side and the running head should be set at the right side. On right-hand pages, the page number should be set at the right side and the running head should be set at the left side. The exact positions of the page numbers are given by the instructions above (see b).

  4. When positioning running heads and page numbers vertically to the fore-edge of the kihon-hanmen in a vertically set book (see spread (e) in Fig. 2.48, for example), the minimum horizontal distance from the kihon-hanmen should be the same as that of the line gap of the kihon-hanmen. The top of the running head should be positioned approximately four kihon-hanmen characters below the head, and the bottom of the page numbers should be positioned approximately five kihon-hanmen characters above the foot.

    (note 1)

    In general, ideographic numerals (一二三四五六七八九〇) are used for vertically set page numbers, and European numerals for horizontal pagination. When using independent pagination for the front matter, small Roman numerals are used for horizontal pagination.

2.6.2 Principles of Arrangement of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Positioning of all running heads and page numbers in the same book should be consistent.

(note 1)

Even on a page with a text area smaller in size than that of the kihon-hanmen, such as for a table of contents or index, positioning of the running head and page number relative to the trim size will remain the same. Therefore, the positioning of running heads and page numbers relative to those areas smaller than the kihon-hanmen is different. Fig. 2.51 below demonstrates the respective positions of the hanmen for a table of contents and running heads or page numbers. As shown in Fig. 2.17, this hanmen is smaller than the kihon-hanmen. Fig. 2.52 demonstrates the related positions of running heads and page numbers and the hanmen of indexes. These hanmen are not only 4 points smaller at the left and right, but also 5 points smaller at the top and bottom.

Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Fig. 2.51: Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages for which the hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.
Fig. 2.52: Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages for which hanmen is smaller in size than the kihon-hanmen.

Because the start of a page will be on the recto side, the right-hand page of a spread in a vertically set book is always an even page and the left-hand page is always an odd page (see Fig. 2.53). Likewise, the left-hand page of a spread in a horizontally set book is always an even page and the right-hand page is always an odd page (see Fig. 2.54).

Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book.
Fig. 2.53: Page numbers on a spread in a vertically set book.
Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book.
Fig. 2.54: Page numbers on a spread in a horizontally set book.

2.6.3 Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers

There are two ways to arrange running heads. One is the single running head method and the other is the double running head method. (Arrangement of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.2. Page Numbers are defined in sec. 7.5.2.).

Double running head method.
Fig. 2.55: Double running head method.
Single running head method.
Fig. 2.56: Single running head method.

(note 1)

In general, there will be only one running head per page. However, in some cases, such as in dictionaries, multiple running heads are printed on each page to indicate contents.

(note 2)

In general, there will be only one page number per page. However in some cases multiple page numbers are printed on each page as in the following examples:

  1. When a horizontally set index and/or bibliography appears at the end of a volume in a vertically set book, both reverse pagination and continuous pagination are printed.

  2. For multivolume works, both serial page numbers throughout the work and page numbers per volume are printed.

  1. In the double running head method, a higher-level title, such as that of the chapter or book, is used for the running heads on the even pages, and a lower-level title, such as that for a section, on the odd pages. Where there are no differing levels of titles, such as on the page containing the table of contents, the same running head is used on both even and odd pages.

    (note 1)

    Which information is used for the running heads depends on the content of the book. Given that the main purpose of running heads is to signpost to readers what is written on each page, or the content of the current page, it does not make much sense to use the book title for the running head. The most common approach for a book with three levels of headings, such as chapter, section and subsection, is to use the highest level heading (i.e. chapter) and the second level heading (i.e. section).

  2. In the single running head method, one of the headings between the top and third levels is used.

  3. In principle, the contents of running heads will be the same as those of headings with the following differences:

    1. Numbers and words in Latin alphanumeric characters in vertically set headings in vertically set books should be changed to horizontal notation for horizontally set running heads (see 2.3.2 Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode).

    2. If headings are too long, they should be made shorter by paraphrasing them in fewer characters. Running heads with too many characters will not look good.

    3. For certain publications, such as a collection of monographs, the names of authors may be added in parentheses at the end of the running head.

  4. In principle, the text direction of running heads and page numbers should be the same as that of the kihon-hanmen. For vertically set books, however, it is more common to set running heads and page numbers horizontally.

  5. In principle, for the single running head method running heads are printed on all odd pages, and for the double running head method on all even and odd pages. However, for the sake of appearance, running heads may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which running heads should be hidden:

      1. Naka-tobira and han-tobira.

      2. Pages where a running head overlaps with other elements such as illustrations.

      3. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which running heads may be hidden:

      1. Pages where a figure or a table is positioned adjacent to the running head.

      2. Pages with a heading right after a new recto or new page.

  6. In principle, page numbers are printed on all pages. However, for the sake of appearance, they may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which page numbers should be hidden:

      1. Pages on which a illustration or a table is positioned adjacent to the page number.

      2. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which page numbers may be hidden:

      1. Divisional title and simplified divisional title pages.

      2. Pages in horizontally set books with a page number placed in the margin at the top of the page, and with a heading at the beginning of a new recto or new page. (In this case, it is also possible to move the page numbers to the center of the margin at the foot of the page.)

    (note 1)

    Pages are not counted in cases such as the following:

    • If a different type or color of paper is used for the main title page,

    • if a frontispiece is inserted in the opening page of a book; or

    • if an illustration of the enclosure or a divisional title is present in the main text.

  7. There are two types of page numbering. "Continuous pagination" means that page numbers continue throughout the whole book. "Independent pagination" means that page numbers start from "1" separately at beginning of the front matter and back matter. There is also, for example in manuals, the method of starting each chapter from page number "1". (In such cases, it is common that the name of the chapter is added as a prefix before the page number.)

    (note 1)

    If the front matter and the main text have different page numbers, each starts with page number "1". In this case, it is common to use Roman numerals for the pages of the front matter, in order to distinguish them from the main text.

    (note 2)

    For vertically set books with indexes in horizontal writing mode, the following methods are available.

    1. Reverse pagination. The index reads from the end of the book, and page numbers are added starting with "1" from the end of the book and flow in the same order as the index.

    2. Continuous pagination. The index reads from the end of the book, but page numbers start with "1" and flow in the same order as the book. (The index pages flow in the reverse order to the page numbers.)

    3. Both reverse pagination and continuous pagination. In this case, the page numbers for continuous pagination are in the same position as the page numbers of the main text, and page numbers in reverse pagination are in a different position (for example, if serial pagination is in the foot of the page, reverse pagination is in the head). Often other methods are applied to distinguish the different paginations. For example, Arabic numbers are used for both continuous pagination and reverse pagination, but for reverse pagination, brackets are added around the numbers.

3 Line Composition


3.1 Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks

3.1.1 Differences in Vertical and Horizontal Composition in Use of Punctuation Marks

There are some punctuation marks that are used uniquely in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode. In this document, characters and symbols are treated as members of a character class, classified by their behavior for composition. Each class name is followed by class id, such as opening brackets (cl-01). Details are explained in 3.9 About Character Classes. The following are some typical examples:

  1. Full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07)

    1. In vertical writing mode, IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" are used for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07).

    2. In horizontal writing mode, there are three conventions in choice of symbols for full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07):

      1. Using COMMA "," and FULL STOP "." (see Fig. 3.1).

        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP.
        Fig. 3.1: Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP.
      2. Using COMMA "," and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see Fig. 3.2).

        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
        Fig. 3.2: Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
      3. Using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" (see Fig. 3.3).

        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.
        Fig. 3.3: Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP.

      (note 1)

      In horizontal writing mode, there are many cases of composition that mixes Japanese and Western text. The convention shown in (i) is a way to apply the same comma and full stop to both Western and Japanese texts for consistency, and is common in books on science and technology. The convention shown in (ii) was invented because in (i) FULL STOP "." appears too small for Japanese texts and using IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP "。" for period looks better. This convention has been adopted for Japanese official publications. (In the past, COMMA "," and FULL STOP "." were used for some official publications.)

  2. LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」", LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”"

    1. In vertical writing mode, LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" are used for quotations (see Fig. 3.4).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET.
      Fig. 3.4: Examples of quoted text using LEFT CORNER BRACKET and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET.
    2. In horizontal writing mode, pairs of LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”" or pairs of LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "‘" and RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "’" may be used in place of LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" (see Fig. 3.5).

      Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK.
      Fig. 3.5: Examples of quoted text using LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK.

      (note 1)

      This is because LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and (especially) RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" may not look good in horizontal writing mode, but adoption of corner brackets for horizontal writing mode seems to be increasing.

      (note 2)

      Though REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK "〝" and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK "〟" are similar to double quotation marks in appearance (see Fig. 3.6) they are exclusively used for vertical writing mode and are not to be used in horizontal writing mode.

      Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK.
      Fig. 3.6: Examples of quoted text using REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK and LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK.

      (note 3)

      LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "“" and RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK "”" are exclusively for horizontal writing mode and not to be used in vertical writing mode. Also, LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "‘" and RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK "’" are exclusively for horizontal writing mode and not to be used in vertical writing mode. However, in vertical writing mode, when Western characters (cl-27) are composed rotated 90 degrees clockwise, these quotation marks are sometimes used.

  3. LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[", RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕"

    LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〔" and RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET "〕" are vertical variants of LEFT SQUARE BRACKET "[" and RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET "]", which are used in horizontal writing mode. Square brackets should be used in horizontal writing mode except for special cases.

(note 1)

The position of the letter face of commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) within the character frame differs in vertical and horizontal writing modes. The same letter face can be used for opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02) and hyphens (cl-03) in both vertical and horizontal writing mode by rotating clockwise 90 degrees to the inline direction. The position of the letter face of small kana (cl-11) symbols within the character frame is different in vertical and horizontal writing modes. For KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー", the difference between vertical and horizontal writing modes is not only in the orientation of the letter form to the inline direction, but also the shape of the symbol (see Fig. 3.7).

KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes.
Fig. 3.7: KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal writing modes.

3.1.2 Positioning of Punctuation Marks (Commas, Periods and Brackets)

The positioning of punctuation marks (commas, periods and brackets) in a line proceeds as follows.

(note 1)

Basic processing of characters and symbols, including punctuation marks, which are subject to considerations of line head wrapping, line end wrapping and inter-character space adjustment, will be described in detail in 3.9 About Character Classes. All combinations of character class are provided as a complete table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters.

The character advance of commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06), opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02) and middle dots (cl-05) is half-width (half em). But when those punctuation marks are placed side-by-side with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), or katakana (cl-16) characters, in principle, a given amount of space will be inserted before or after the symbols, which makes them appear as if they were intrinsically full-width (one em) (see Fig. 3.8). Space is inserted before and after middle dots (cl-05). This principle makes the symbols consistent with ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters in character width, and at the same time the space for punctuation helps to make the organization of text clearer. The space size added before or after punctuation marks is subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for that added after full stops (cl-06). (Details of line adjustment are discussed in 3.8 Line Adjustment).

Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
Fig. 3.8: Character widths of commas, periods, and the space size appended before and/or after the symbols.
  1. After commas (cl-07), a half em space is added, in principle.

  2. After full stops (cl-06), in the middle of a line, a half em space is added. At the end of a line, a half em space is added, in principle.

  3. Before opening brackets (cl-01), a half em space is added, in principle.

  4. After closing brackets (cl-02), a half em space is added, in principle.

  5. Before and after middle dots (cl-05), a quarter em space is added, in principle.

(note 1)

In font implementations, punctuation marks can be given a different character width, but it is expected that the font is capable of following the line composition rules explained here to produce the final result. For example, when opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) are implemented with full-width size, it is possible that a minus half em space is inserted between adjacent closing brackets (cl-02) and opening brackets (cl-01) (Some implementations prepare minus half em spaces and quarter em spaces). In letterpress printing, it was also common practice to combine punctuation marks with a half-width body and half em spaces in order to make it easier to remove the space later for adjustment. Because of that, the types were picked up except for the punctuation marks at the type-picking phase, following the manuscript, and the punctuation marks were picked only when they were necessary in composing a page. Later, with the increasing adoption of Monotype machines, punctuation marks with a full-width body became popular and both full-width and half-width punctuation marks have been used, mixed together, since then.

Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.)
Fig. 3.9: Positioning of parentheses and brackets. (The left-hand side shows an example of setting them solid.)

(note 2)

Among opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), LEFT PARENTHESIS "(", RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")", LEFT ANGLE BRACKET "〈" and RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET "〉" are used to indicate supplementary explanations, and in that case their usage differs slightly from other opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02). To reflect the difference, there is an alternative convention to not append a half em space before or after the parentheses and angle brackets, and instead just set them solid (see Fig. 3.9).

3.1.3 Exceptional Positioning of Ideographic Comma and Katakana Middle Dot

The space usually added after IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and the space before and after KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" are omitted, in principle, for cosmetic reasons in the following cases.

  1. In vertical writing mode, ideographic numerals and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" used as a decimal separator are set solid (as in the right line in Fig. 3.10).

    Example of  exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA.
    Fig. 3.10: Example of exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA.

    (note 1)

    In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits used with IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" to represent an approximate number are expected to be set solid too (as in the right line in Fig. 3.11).

    Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number.
    Fig. 3.11: Example of the positioning of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number.
  2. In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits and KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" representing a decimal point are set solid (as in the right line in Fig. 3.12).

    Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT.
    Fig. 3.12: Example of the exceptional positioning of KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT.

    (note 1)

    In vertical writing mode, when KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" is used as a member of unit symbols (cl-25) in unit symbols, grouped numerals (cl-24), and Western characters (cl-27) in mathematical and chemical formulae, before and after KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" is set solid.

3.1.4 Positioning of Consecutive Opening Brackets, Closing Brackets, Commas, Full Stops and Middle Dots

In cases where multiple punctuation marks, such as opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06) and middle dots (cl-05), come one after the other, the following space adjustments are made for aesthetic reasons (see Fig. 3.13). Note also that the half em and quarter em spaces added before or after punctuation marks, including the half em space after full stops (cl-06) appearing in the middle of a line, are subject, in principle, to line adjustment and may eventually be removed, except for those added after full stops (cl-06). (See 3.8 Line Adjustment for more about line adjustment.) For more information about the positioning of closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at line end, see 3.1.9 Positioning of Closing Brackets, Full Stops, Commas and Middle Dots at Line End.

  1. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06), remove the default half em space between them and, in principle, add a half em space after the closing brackets (see Fig. 3.13 ①).

  2. When commas (cl-07) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em space between them and, in principle, add a half em space after the comma. When full stops (cl-06) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), remove the default half em space between them and, in middle of a line, add a half em space after the full stop; at the end of a line, in principle, add a half em space after the full stop (see Fig. 3.13 ②).

  3. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after commas (cl-07), in principle, add a half em space between them (see Fig. 3.13 ③). When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after full stops (cl-06) in the middle of a line, add a half em space between them. Note that when full stops (cl-06) come in the bottom of lines, in principle, insert a half space after full stops (cl-06).

  4. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add a half em space between them (see Fig. 3.13 ④).

  5. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after other opening brackets (cl-01), set them solid and, in principle, add a half em space before the first one (see Fig. 3.13 ⑤).

  6. When closing brackets (cl-02) come immediately after other closing brackets (cl-02), set them solid and, in principle, add a half em space after the last closing bracket (see Fig. 3.13 ⑥).

  7. When middle dots (cl-05) come immediately after closing brackets (cl-02), in principle, add a quarter em space before the following middle dot (see Fig. 3.13 ⑦).

  8. When opening brackets (cl-01) come immediately after middle dots (cl-05), in principle, add a quarter em space after the preceding middle dot (see Fig. 3.13 ⑦).

Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.
Fig. 3.13: Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.

The line adjustment rules shown above have been established because the default half em space before or after consecutive punctuation marks, or quarter em space before and after them, makes the line look sparse and doesn't make the line appear well-proportioned (see Fig. 3.14).

Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.
Fig. 3.14: Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple opening brackets, closing brackets, commas, full stops or middle dots.

(note 1)

Japanese composition is based on the design of full-width characters, but strictly following full-width based composition sometimes produces an unbalanced appearance. In such exceptional cases, the appearance of the resulting composition must be given higher priority than the full-width design principle. When and how to invoke such exceptional procedures has a direct bearing on the quality of the text layout. In other words, it is a matter of how to resolve the conflicts between the principle and the products of it.

3.1.5 Positioning of Opening Brackets at Line Head

When starting a new line with opening brackets (cl-01) there are some patterns as shown in Fig. 3.15. Note that the amount of line indent after the line feed (the first line indent of a new paragraph) is assumed to be a one em space across all the patterns.

  1. The first line indent after the line feed is set full-width (one em) and the next line after the first line break starts with no space (so-called tentsuki) (see Fig. 3.15 ①).

  2. The first line indent after the line feed is set one and a half em and the next line indent after the first line break is set to a half em (see Fig. 3.15 ②).

  3. The first line indent after the line feed is set at a half em and the next line after the first line break is set tentsuki (see Fig. 3.15 ③).

Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head.
Fig. 3.15: Examples of positioning of opening brackets at line head.

(note 1)

Because the inherent character width of a bracket is half-width, Fig. 3.15 ① can be explained as the result of applying the principle that any line should start with no space. On the other hand, the principle represented by Fig. 3.15 ② is to assume that opening brackets should be always accompanied by the preceding half em space as if they were full-width and then apply the same principle as in Fig. 3.15 ①. JIS X 4051 adopts the principle shown in ① (the patterns shown in ② is offered as options) . The pattern shown in ③ was first invented in books such as novels, which use frequent line feeds and corner brackets in dialogues, for which the first line indent with one em space or one and a half em space (then this pattern was accepted and adopted by general books). Major Japanese publishers who deal with literature, such as Kodansha, Shinchosha, Bungei Shunju, Chuoh Kouronsha, and Chikuma Shobo, have adopted the pattern shown in ③. By contrast, Iwanami Shoten and other publishers adopted the pattern shown in ①. Because Iwanami Shoten once adopted pattern ② in vertical composition, there used to be many examples of it, but few examples of ② can be found today.

(note 2)

The first line indent of a new paragraph is full-width in principle. However, the following exceptions can be found.

  1. The most popular scheme is to set the first line indent of all new paragraphs to full-width. However, even if there is a paragraph break and the new line looks like the beginning of new paragraph, in contexts where the new line is a continuation of the preceding line, the new line is set tentsuki as shown in Fig. 3.16. (There are books such as novels which adopt full-width line indent without exception.) Similarly, in horizontal writing mode, the line indent is set tentsuki where the new line continues the preceding line of a mathematical expression connected by conjunctions such as "therefore".

    Examples of line indent followed by the preceding line with quoted text (as in dialogues).
    Fig. 3.16: Examples of line indent followed by the preceding line with quoted text (as in dialogues).
  2. When headings have no line indent, the first line indent of the first paragraph after the heading can be also set tentsuki, for cosmetic reasons. However, it is not recommended to set the first line indent to tentsuki for all paragraphs, because it would make paragraph breaks unclear.

3.1.6 Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks (Question Mark and Exclamation Mark) and Hyphens

The dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) (QUESTION MARK "?" and EXCLAMATION MARK "!") should be full-width, and they are typeset as follows.

  1. Basically, add no space before dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence and add a one em space after them (see Fig. 3.17). However when a closing bracket (cl-02) follows right after the dividing punctuation mark, add no space after the dividing punctuation mark and add a half em space after the closing bracket (see Fig. 3.17).

    Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode).
    Fig. 3.17: Positioning of dividing punctuation marks (Examples in vertical writing mode).

    (note 1)

    Many implementations use full-width ideographic space (cl-14) for the one em space appended after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04).

    (note 2)

    No full stops (cl-06) should be appended after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence.

    (note 3)

    There are some cases where dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) are used in the middle of a sentence, not at the end. In those cases, either add no space or a quarter em space before and after the dividing punctuation mark see Fig. 3.18).

    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode).
    Fig. 3.18: Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode).

    (note 4)

    The details of composition rules for dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) and hyphens (cl-03) are described in Appendix B Spacing between Characters as a complete table, in accordance with the descriptions of character classes in 3.9 About Character Classes.

  2. When dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) at the end of a sentence reach the end of a line, apply the following rules (see Fig. 3.19).

    Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode).
    Fig. 3.19: Examples of positioning of dividing punctuation marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode).
    1. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 12th character position, a one em space should be appended after it.

    2. If the line length is 13 character widths and a dividing punctuation mark (cl-04) occurs in the 13th character position, no space should be appended after it. In addition, do not carry over the one em space usually appended after the dividing punctuation marks to the line head of the next line; the line in this case should be set tentsuki.

The character width of hyphens (cl-03) varies according to the type of hyphen. HYPHEN "‐" should be quarter em width (i.e. one quarter of an em width), EN DASH "–" and KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN "゠" should be half-width (a half em width), WAVE DASH "〜" should be full-width. Basically there should be no space before and after hyphens (cl-03). However, a half em space should be appended, in principle, when opening brackets (cl-01) follow right after a hyphen (cl-03) and a quarter em space when middle dots (cl-05) follow a hyphen (cl-03).

3.1.7 Characters Not Starting a Line

In principle, no line should begin with closing brackets (cl-02), hyphens (cl-03), dividing punctuation marks (cl-04), middle dots (cl-05), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), iteration marks (cl-09), a prolonged sound mark (cl-10), small kana (cl-11) or warichu closing brackets (cl-29) (line-start prohibition rule). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

(note 1)

Not a small number of books adopt a less strict set of rules which allow IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" (one of the iteration marks (cl-09)), prolonged sound mark (cl-10) and small kana (cl-11) to start a line. There is another method whereby IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" is replaced by a kanji character when it would otherwise be set at the head of a line. For example, 家 (at the end of a line) + 々 (at the head of the next line) will be changed to 家 (at the end of a line) + 家 (at the head of the next line).

(note 2)

There is yet another less strict rule that allows KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" to start a line.

(note 3)

In the layout of newspaper text, in addition to the symbols above, dividing punctuation marks (cl-04) (QUESTION MARK "?" and EXCLAMATION MARK "!") are allowed to start a line. This is due to the fact that the line lengths are shorter in newspapers. When the line is very short, there are fewer opportunities for inter-character space adjustment, which makes it difficult to preserve the number of characters per line. It is thought that this is why the less strict set of line head wrapping rules was adopted in newspaper text layout.

(note 4)

The details of the line-start prohibition rules and line-end prohibition rules, including the relaxations specified above, are described in Appendix B Spacing between Characters as a complete table, in accordance with the description of character classes in 3.9 About Character Classes. The line-start prohibition rules and line-end prohibition rules can be considered as Appendix B Spacing between Characters. The details of these rules are also described in Appendix C Possibilities for Line-breaking between Characters. Furthermore, line-start prohibition rules and line-end prohibition rules have several variations, so four different levels of character classes are allowed at the line-start and line-end in Appendix C Possibilities for Line-breaking between Characters C.3 Addendum.

3.1.8 Characters Not Ending a Line

No line should end with opening brackets (cl-01) or warichu opening brackets (cl-28) (line-end prohibition rules). Otherwise the line would have an odd appearance.

(note 1)

The process of formatting lines to avoid non-starter characters at the line head, non-ending characters at the line end, spaces before and/or after inseparable characters, line breaking before and/or after unbreakable characters, etc., is generally called kinsokushori.

3.1.9 Positioning of Closing Brackets, Full Stops, Commas and Middle Dots at Line End

In principle, closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) or full stops (cl-06) at the line end have a half em space after them (see Fig. 3.20). This half em space can be deleted for line adjustment (for more about line adjustment, see 3.8 Line Adjustment). However, the possibilities are only half em space or solid. Other spaces, such as a quarter em space should not be used. In principle, the middle dot (cl-05) character at the line end also has a quarter em space before and after, and is handled like a full-width character (see Fig. 3.20). This quarter em space can also be deleted for line adjustment, namely middle dots (cl-05) can be set solid before and after (about line adjustment, see 3.8 Line Adjustment). However, in this case also, the only possibilities are quarter em space or solid setting. Other intermediate-sized spacing should not be used.

Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters.
Fig. 3.20: Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end like full-width characters.

(note 1)

With regard to closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at line end, the following processing is defined in JIS X 4051 (see Fig. 3.21).

full stops (cl-06)

After full stops (cl-06), there must be a half em space, including at the line end. This half em space must not be a target for reduction during line adjustment.

commas (cl-07)

After commas (cl-07),solid setting is applied.

closing brackets (cl-02)

After closing brackets (cl-02), solid setting is applied.

middle dots (cl-05)

In principal, before middle dots (cl-05) there is a quarter em space, and after middle dots (cl-05) solid setting is applied.

Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051.
Fig. 3.21: Example of handling closing brackets, full stops, commas and middle dots at the line end in JIS X 4051.

(note 2)

In the letterpress printing era, the following methods were common (see Fig. 3.22).

  1. For full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and closing brackets (cl-02), if possible, a half em space was preserved. Using a half em space was the general approach. For middle dots (cl-05), if possible, quarter em space was preserved. Using a quarter em space was the general approach.

  2. If the line length was not sufficient or too great and line adjustment processing became necessary (see 3.8 Line Adjustment), the first priority was to replace the half em space after full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) and closing brackets (cl-02) with solid setting. The reason was that this was at the line end, and no problems would arise, even though the half em space became set solid. The option of replacing the half em space after punctuation marks with a quarter em space, instead of removing the whole half em space was not used. That meant that there was the choice between either a half em space after punctuation marks or solid setting. The second priority was to replace quarter em spaces before and after middle dots (cl-05) with solid setting.

Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either a half em space after or set solid.
Fig. 3.22: Examples of closing brackets, commas and full stops at the end of a line with either a half em space after or set solid.

(note 3)

In some DTP systems etc., after full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02) at the line end, the line end is always set solid (see Fig. 3.23).

Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end.
Fig. 3.23: Example of always applying solid setting after closing brackets, full stops, and commas at the line end.

3.1.10 Unbreakable Character Sequences

If the following characters and symbols appear in sequence there will be no line break between them. The reason is that these characters and symbols are to be handled as one unit.

(note 1)

Both line head wrap and line end wrap mean that there will be no line break between characters or symbols. For line head wrap there is no break between the line head wrap character and the character or symbol before. For line end wrap, there is no break between the line end wrap character and the following character or symbol.

(note 2)

The details of unbreakable character sequences are described in Appendix C Possibilities for Line-breaking between Characters as a complete table, in accordance with the description of character classes in 3.9 About Character Classes.

  1. Between a sequence of EM DASH "—" characters (to be more specific, for a double dash, see Fig. 3.24). Note that some systems implement HORIZONTAL BAR "―" with very similar behavior to EM DASH "—".

    Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable.
    Fig. 3.24: Sequence of EM DASH characters is unbreakable.

    (note 1)

    Other characters and punctuation marks before and after EM DASH "—" are set solid. However, in the following cases some space should be set between EM DASH "—" and other characters. As mentioned in the next note, HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…", TWO DOT LEADER "‥", prefixed abbreviations (cl-12) and postfixed abbreviations (cl-13) behave similarly to EM DASH "—".

    1. Where closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07) are followed by EM DASH "—", a half em space is inserted between them, in principle. Also, in the middle of lines, where full stops (cl-06) are followed by EM DASH "—", a half em space is inserted between them. However, when full stops (cl-06) are placed at the end of a line a half em space is added after the full stops (cl-06).

    2. Where EM DASH "—" is followed by opening brackets (cl-01), a half em space is inserted between them, in principle.

    3. Where EM DASH "—" and middle dots (cl-05) are set side by side, a quarter em space is inserted between them, in principle.

    (note 2)

    A double dash is handled as one unit, hence a line break between them is forbidden. In letterpress printing, breaking of the double dash was forbidden very strongly by the fact that the double dash was created as a double full body (so it was actually not possible to break it). Nevertheless, if it was not possible to avoid a break, two EM DASH characters were used instead the double dash. That made it possible to have a line break between them.

  2. Between sequences of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" or TWO DOT LEADER "‥" (to be more specific, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "……" or double TWO DOT LEADER "‥‥").

    Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS.
    Fig. 3.25: Unbreakable sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS.

    (note 1)

    In the letterpress printing era, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS etc. was created as a sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS. Hence, compared to double dash, the line break between them was not so strongly forbidden.

  3. Between European numerals (see Fig. 3.26, Fig. 3.27, and Fig. 3.28.). European numerals indicate ranks via the position of a numeral.

    (note 1)

    It is possible to have a line break between ideographic numerals. Also it is possible to have a line break after IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" used as a decimal separator or an indicator for approximate number, and KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" as a decimal point. However, the position between ideographic numerals and IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" used as a decimal separator or an indicator for approximate number, and KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" used as a decimal point is unbreakable. The reason is that the natural usage of ideographic numerals is to write them like "二百三十五", that is with inserted rank indicators (Explanation: "二" means "two", "百" means "hundred". "二百" means "two hundred". "三" means "three", "十" means "ten". "三十" means "thirty"."五" means "five". The complete sequence "二百三十五" means "Two hundred and thirty five".). Hence, it is not necessary to express rank via position. In contrast, line breaks are forbidden for European numerals, since it is necessary to express the rank via the position. Furthermore, if in vertical writing mode European numerals are placed in an upright position like ordinary Japanese characters, they are used like the ideographic numerals, and it is possible to have a line break between them.

    (note 2)

    When writing European numerals, FULL STOP "." is used as a decimal point, COMMA "," or space is used as a rank indicator. Line breaks cannot occur before and after these characters (see Fig. 3.28: the space before "4" expresses a rank).

  4. Between prefixed abbreviations (cl-12) (YEN SIGN "¥"DOLLAR SIGN "$"CENT SIGN "¢" etc.) and the following arabic or ideographic numeral (see Fig. 3.26). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral.
    Fig. 3.26: Unbreakable sequences between prefixed abbreviations and the following European numeral.
  5. Between postfixed abbreviations (cl-13) (PERCENT SIGN "%", PER MILLE SIGN "‰" etc.) and the preceding European numeral or ideographic numeral (see Fig. 3.27). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral.
    Fig. 3.27: Unbreakable sequences between postfixed abbreviations and the preceding European numeral.

    (note 1)

    Some people think that it is appropriate to have a line break between the PERCENT SIGN "%" and the preceding arabic or ideographic numeral. The reason seems to be that PERCENT SIGN "%" has a high level of independence. Furthermore it is possible to have a line break between "0" and "パ" in cases like "50パーセント" (meaning "50 percent", where "percent" is written in katakana).

  6. Inter-letter space among Western characters (cl-27) in a word (or, sequence of letters, which it is not possible to hyphenate), or unit indicators (km, kg, mm etc.) in Latin letters (see Fig. 3.28).

    It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters.
    Fig. 3.28: It is not possible to break a line between letters in unit symbols using Latin letters.

    (note 1)

    When using HYPHEN "‐" at the end of a line, it becomes possible to have a line break within Western characters (cl-27).

    (note 2)

    In this document, description of units with proportional Western characters, such as km and kg, are treated as unit symbols (cl-25).

    (note 3)

    In Fig. 3.28, there is a quarter em space between "4" and "k", because of the convention to insert a quarter em between unit symbols (cl-25) and following European numerals or Western characters (cl-27). It is permitted to break a line between "4" and "k". In this case, there is no quarter em space in either the head or the end of the line. Note that the space size between "3" and "4" in Fig. 3.28 is explained in c of (note 2).

  7. Inter-letter space among ruby letters, when composed as mono-ruby. Note that it is possible to break a line between base characters with mono-ruby (see Fig. 3.29).

  8. Inter-letter space among ruby letters or base characters, composed as group-ruby (see Fig. 3.29).

    Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby.
    Fig. 3.29: Example of unbreakable sequences of ruby.

    (note 1)

    With ruby used for compound words (jukugo-ruby), a group of ruby characters is attached to each base character. It is possible to have a line break between such groups of ruby letters and base characters (see Fig. 3.30), however, a line break should not occur between ruby characters related to a given base character.

    Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby.
    Fig. 3.30: Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby.
  9. Between a subscript or superscript and an adjacent base character (preceding or following) (see Fig. 3.31), or between base characters with ornament characters, or between ornament characters themselves. The reason is that these character sequences are to be handled as one object.

    Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts.
    Fig. 3.31: Unbreakable sequences between a character and its related subscripts.
  10. In order to create a correspondence between notes and the related main text, reference marks (aijirushi) are often added. Line breaks are not allowed before the reference mark or between letters of the reference mark itself (see Fig. 3.32). The application of the no-line-break rule here is a matter of style.

    Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals).
    Fig. 3.32: Unbreakable sequences before an aijirushi (reference marks, European numerals or ideographic numerals).

    (note 1)

    In this document, characters in reference marks are treated as characters as reference marks (cl-20).

    (note 2)

    Often there are full stops (cl-06) after reference marks. In these cases, line breaks are not allowed between the reference marks and the full stops. The reason is that full stops should not be set at the head of lines (see Fig. 3.32).

  11. After warichu opening brackets (cl-28), which open warichu, or before warichu closing brackets (cl-29), which close warichu.

  12. A unit of furiwake. A unit of furiwake is handled as one object.

3.1.11 Character Sequences which Do Not Allow Space Insertion as Part of Line Adjustment Processing

For line adjustment processing, space must not be added between the following characters. (This is called the inseparable characters rule.) The reason is that these characters or symbols should appear as one unit (for more about line adjustment, see 3.8 Line Adjustment).

(note 1)

The main places where solid setting may be dropped for line adjustment processing are the spaces among hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16), and ideographic characters (cl-19). Furthermore, things such as the amount of space between words in Western text are also a target for space adaptation.

(note 2)

Combinations of character classes which allow spaces to be inserted for line alignment, are described as a complete table in Appendix E Opportunities for Inter-character Space Expansion during Line Adjustment, following 3.9 About Character Classes.

  1. There must be no space between any characters described in 3.1.10 Unbreakable Character Sequences.

    (note 1)

    Some people think that it is only permissible to increase space between letters in Western words for cases where there is no possibility of regular line adjustment processing.

  2. In addition to the cases mentioned above, the inseparable character rule has to be applied to the following cases.

    1. Before or after opening brackets (cl-01) or closing brackets (cl-02).

      (note 1)

      After opening brackets (cl-01) or before closing brackets (cl-02) the inseparable characters rule is always applied. In contrast, before opening brackets or after closing brackets the rule is not applied. Full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) are handled the same as closing brackets.

    2. Before or after full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07).

    3. Before or after middle dots (cl-05).

    4. Before or after dividing punctuation marks (cl-04).

    5. Before or after hyphens (cl-03).

    6. Before or after one em, etc. spaces between Japanese characters.

    7. Among base characters with jukugo-ruby.

3.1.12 Examples of Line Adjustment

Methods of line adjustment processing are discussed in 3.8 Line Adjustment. However, since layout processing of punctuation marks is one reason for the need for line adjustment processing, we will here introduce two main examples of cases where line adjustment processing is necessary, and show adjustment examples (see Fig. 3.33).

  1. The principal approach in Japanese composition is that with the exception of the last line of a paragraph, the length of all lines is the same, so all lines are aligned. As explained before, the line length is set to be n-times the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Hence, as long as only full-width characters are used, all lines have the same length (see ① at Fig. 3.33).

  2. In Fig. 3.33 at ②, there is an IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" followed by a LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「", and the total space taken by the two characters is one and a half em. That means that the line overshoots or runs short of the edge of the kihon-hanmen by a half em. To restore a uniform line length, line adjustment is applied as shown at ③ in Fig. 3.33. The half em space overshoot or shortage is recovered by reducing inter-character space to a quarter em before the LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and after the RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」".

  3. At ④ in Fig. 3.33, the 15th character is an opening bracket (cl-01). This should not appear at the line end. Ideally, a full width space reduction would be applied, and the character "前" on the second line would be moved onto the first line in the 15th position. In that way, the problem could be avoided. However, in this example a full-width space reduction is not possible, so line adjustment processing is applied as shown at ⑤ in Fig. 3.33. The opening bracket (cl-01) is moved to the second line, and line adjustment by inter-character space expansion is applied. That means that space is inserted in the first line at places where it is allowed.

    Examples of line adjustment.
    Fig. 3.33: Examples of line adjustment.

3.2 Japanese and Western Mixed Text Composition (including Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Composition)

3.2.1 Composition of Japanese and Western Mixed Texts

There are a lot of examples of Japanese text in which Western and/or Greek letters are mixed among Japanese letters. Examples are as follows:

  1. Using one Latin letter as a symbol for something, like "A" and "B".

  2. Using a Western word in a Japanese context, like "editor".

  3. Using acronyms of things and organization names, like "DTP" and "GDP".

  4. Writing Western book titles and authors in lists of referred books with original spelling.

Latin letters are also used in itemized lists and numbering of headings, as well as symbols for units, symbols for chemical elements, and mathematical symbols. As can be judged from these examples, mixtures of Latin letters among Japanese letters are in daily use in Japanese composition.

(note 1)

There are some examples which include whole Western paragraphs in Japanese documents. However, there are few ordinary books that include such paragraphs. There are a lot of examples of textbooks for foreign languages, in which one or more Western paragraphs are followed by annotations in Japanese language. Also, there are some examples in treatises and journals, which contain whole Western paragraphs.

(note 2)

In vertical writing mode, symbols for units are usually described with katakana (cl-16), such as センチメートル (centimeter) or センチ(abbreviation of centimeter in katakana, "senchi"). In horizontal writing mode, the International System of Units (SI) is usually used, such as "cm".

(note 3)

The treatment of mixtures of Japanese and Western characters is also described in JIS X 4051 4.7.

3.2.2 Mixed Text Composition in Horizontal Writing Mode

In horizontal writing mode the basic approach is to use proportional Western fonts (Fig. 3.34). For European numerals, both half-width fonts and proportional fonts are used. Note that Western word space (cl-26) is a one third em space, in principle, except at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu. Western word space (cl-26) at line head, line head of warichu, line end and line end of warichu, is set solid.

Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode.
Fig. 3.34: Example of proportional Western fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode.
Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.)
Fig. 3.35: Example of Western full-width fonts used in Japanese in horizontal writing mode. (In horizontal writing mode, Western full-width fonts are usually not recommended.)

(note 1)

As shown in Fig. 3.35, there are some examples of Western full-width fonts used in horizontal Japanese typesetting, this usage is not recommended, for cosmetic reasons.

(note 2)

Usually, in horizontal Japanese text, fonts are used with European numeric glyphs that are easy to balance and harmonize with Japanese fonts. Considering line adjustment, the use of fonts with half-width numeric glyphs is recommended. There are some cases of Japanese fonts with half-width glyphs for European digits.

(note 3)

There are two choices for including glyphs of Latin letters and numerals in Japanese and Western mixed text compositions. One way is to use the glyphs for Western characters built into the same Japanese font. The other is to combine an independent Western font for Western characters with a Japanese font for Japanese characters. (Example: Fig. 3.36 is composed using proportional glyphs for Latin letters and numerals included in Ryumin R-KL. Fig. 3.37 is composed with Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Latin letters and numerals.)

Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western
     characters.
Fig. 3.36: Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western characters.
Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman
     for Western characters.
Fig. 3.37: Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Western characters.

(note 4)

The value of Western word space (cl-26) mentioned here is only applicable for western texts among Japanese texts in Japanese common books. In general, the value of western word space shall be decided with the consideration of the kind of western typeface, the font size and the value of line gap.

3.2.3 Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Writing Mode

As explained in 2.3.2 Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode, there are three different styles for setting Latin letters and European numerals in vertical writing mode:

  1. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals one by one in inline direction with Japanese characters (see Fig. 3.38). Single Latin letters or Arabic numerals are set with this style. In this case, a full width monospace font is usually used. Currently, proportional Western style fonts are also sometimes used with this style.

    Example of Latin letters in normal orientation.
    Fig. 3.38: Example of Latin letters in normal orientation.
  2. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical text mode (Fig. 3.39). This style is usually adopted when Latin letters compose a word or sentence. Proportional fonts are specified for characters in this style, as in horizontal writing mode (or half-width fonts for European numerals).

    Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
    Fig. 3.39: Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
  3. Setting Latin letters and/or European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting, see Fig. 3.40). Tate-chu-yoko layout is usually adopted when dealing with a two-digit number in European numerals, or a combination of two or three Latin letters, the length of which is equal to the default size of the line in paragraph direction or longer than that just to an acceptable extent. (A combination of two or three Latin letters may be rotated 90 degrees clockwise rather than set in tate-chu-yoko layout.) Proportional glyphs (or half-width glyphs for European numerals) are used for characters in tate-chu-yoko layout.

    Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting).
    Fig. 3.40: Example of European numerals in tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting).

    (note 1)

    Acronyms, such as "GNP", and abbreviations like "Web", are usually set one by one, character-wise in normal orientation (see Fig. 3.41). However, there are some cases where acronyms and abbreviations are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (see Fig. 3.42).

    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation.
    Fig. 3.41: Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation.
    Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
    Fig. 3.42: Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise.

    (note 2)

    The ideographic numerals were traditionally used in vertical writing mode instead of European numerals. (Road numbers and car registration numbers were examples of a couple of exceptions). However, the more newspapers and other publications have been adopting European numerals in vertical writing mode, the more the use of tate-chu-yoko layout for European numerals has also been increasing.

3.2.4 Method for Setting Full-width Latin Letters and European Numerals

When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set in vertical writing mode as "quasi" Japanese characters, inter-character spaces between these characters and hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set solid, similar to ordinary ideographic characters (cl-19) (see Fig. 3.43). Also, in principle, when full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set after full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), insert a half em space after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01). In addition, in these cases, insert a half em space after full stops (cl-06). When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character space before the full stop, comma or closing bracket, or after the opening bracket is set solid.

Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals.
Fig. 3.43: Setting example of full-width Latin letters and European numerals.
Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a ranking symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals.
Fig. 3.44: Example of setting KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT as a ranking symbol among full-width, fixed-space European numerals.

(note 1)

In this document, full-width and fixed-space Western characters and European numerals are treated as members of the ideographic characters (cl-19) class. Accordingly, when KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" appears before or after full-width and fixed-space Western characters and Western numerals, in principle, a quarter em space is inserted between KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" and Western characters or Western numerals. However, when KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・" is used as a ranking symbol between Western numerals, in principle, it is set solid, like ideographic numerals.

(note 2)

The details of ideographic characters (cl-19), including full-width and fixed-width Western characters and European numerals, are described as a complete table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters, in accordance with 3.9 About Character Classes.

3.2.5 Handling of Tate-chu-yoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings)

To set strings as tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical setting), first set from left to right using solid setting, then align the whole string to the center of the vertical line (Fig. 3.45). When hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) are set before/after tate-chu-yoko, the inter-character space is set solid. In principle, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or before an opening bracket (cl-01), a half em space is inserted. In addition, when tate-chu-yoko is set after a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, a half em space is inserted. When a full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, a half em space is inserted after it, in principle. When tate-chu-yoko is set before full stops, commas or closing brackets, or after opening brackets, the inter-character space is set solid.

Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting).
Fig. 3.45: Example of setting tate-chu-yoko (horizontal-in-vertical text setting).

(note 1)

The details of handling of inter-character spaces between characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30) and adjacent other character classes are described as a complete table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters, in accordance with 3.9 About Character Classes.

3.2.6 Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using Proportional Western Fonts

Composition rules for Western characters, Western text and European numerals, set rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode, and horizontal writing mode, are as follows:

  1. A sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not be broken across a line-break, except where hyphenation is allowed.

  2. When line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, Western word space (cl-26) is used as first priority. Also, when line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-character space expansion, Western word spaces are used as first priority.

  3. When line adjustment by inter-character space addition is used, inter-character spaces within Western words and European numerals are not used for expansion.

  4. Inter-character space, between hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19) and Western characters or European numerals, is a quarter em space (see Fig. 3.46). The issue as to whether the quarter em space can be used for line end adjustment or not is discussed in 3.8.2 Reduction and Addition of Inter-Character Space and 3.8.4 Procedures for Inter-Character Space Expansion.

    Example of a quarter em inter-character space between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters.
    Fig. 3.46: Example of a quarter em inter-character space between hiragana, katakana and ideographic characters, and Latin characters.

    In the following cases, a quarter em space is not inserted (see Fig. 3.47).

    1. At the start of a line, there is no space before Latin characters or European numerals. At the end of the line, there is no space after Latin characters or European numerals.

    2. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or are followed by opening brackets (cl-01), in principle, a half em space is inserted. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals follow a full stop (cl-06) in the middle of a line, a half em space is inserted. When the full stop (cl-06) is set at the end of a line, in principle, a half em space is inserted after the full stop (cl-06).

    3. In the case where Latin characters and European numerals are set before a full stop (cl-06), comma (cl-07) or closing bracket (cl-02), or after an opening bracket (cl-01), the inter-character space is set solid.

Example of no inter-character space before and after Latin characters and European numerals.
Fig. 3.47: Example of no inter-character space before and after Latin characters and European numerals.

(note 1)

In this document, proportional Western characters and European numerals are treated as members of the Western characters (cl-27) class. Note that half- and fixed-width European numerals, when mixed with Japanese text, are treated as members of the grouped numerals (cl-24) class.

(note 2)

The reason a quarter em space is needed between Western characters or European numerals and hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) or ideographic characters (cl-19), is that the design concept of Latin fonts and Japanese fonts are different from each other, so it looks too tight without the spaces (Fig. 3.48).

Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is
     not recommended).
Fig. 3.48: Example of solid setting between, katakana and ideographic characters and Latin characters and European numerals. (This method is not recommended).

3.3 Ruby and Emphasis Dots

3.3.1 Usage of Ruby

Ruby is a small-sized, supplementary text attached to a character or a group of characters in the main text. A run of ruby text, usually attached to the right of the characters in vertical writing mode or immediately above them in horizontal writing mode, indicates the reading or the meaning of those characters (see Fig. 3.49). The characters in the main text that are annotated by ruby are called "base characters". Mainly Hiragana (cl-15) characters are often used for ruby to indicate how to read ideographic characters (cl-19); this is known as ruby annotation or as "furigana".

Ruby and base characters.
Fig. 3.49: Ruby and base characters.

(note 1)

Societal change in the use of kanji when composing Japanese and changes in the use of ruby implementations in text layout methods have been affecting the usage of ruby itself. Ruby was not very popular while the Touyou Kanji Table (当用漢字表) (the list of kanji characters for everyday use, issued by the Government on November 16, 1946) was in effect because, in principle, it discouraged the use of furigana in its 'directions for use' section. The Jouyou Kanji Table (常用漢字表) (the list of kanji characters in common use, issued by the Government to replace the Touyou Kanji Table on October 10, 1981) has changed the scope of the list. (The Touyou Kanji Table defined the list of all kanji characters that can be used for any documents, while the Jouyou Kanji Table was designed to be a 'reference guide' for the use of kanji to compose contemporary Japanese for general use in society.) For example, the preface of the Jouyou Kanji Table states that one may consider the use of 'furigana (annotations to indicate pronunciation)' when the text appears too difficult to read. This is why the use of ruby has been increasing today. The use of ruby is common in magazines and books, and even newspapers have begun to use ruby these days.

(note 2)

The specification of ruby composition was first introduced in the second revision of JIS X 4051, which was further revised in 2004 to add jukugo-ruby, katatsuki-ruby and the dual ruby composition with which two distinct runs of ruby are attached to the same base characters (4.12 Ruby Composition).

There are three methods to treat ruby as follows:

  1. Mono-ruby : ruby letters are set in connection with each base character (see 3.3.5 Positioning of Mono-ruby with Respect to Base Characters).

  2. Jukugo-ruby : ruby letters are set not only in connection with each base character but also treated as a group as kanji compound word (see 3.3.7 Positioning of Jukugo-ruby with Respect to Base Characters and Appendix F Positioning of Jukugo-ruby).

  3. Group-ruby : The connection between ruby letters and base characters is treated as group-to-group (see 3.3.6 Positioning of Group-ruby with Respect to Base Characters).

Because of different purposes and different functionalities, there are several complicated methods for ruby as follows:

  1. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation with kana (usually hiragana (cl-15)) to provide readings of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two types of ruby for this purpose depending on the type of base character:

    1. Add one or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby character to indicate the reading (Japanese onyomi or kunyomi) for each base ideographic character (cl-19) (see Fig. 3.50). This method, attaching one or several hiragana or katakana characters for each base ideographic character, is called mono-ruby.

      Example of ruby annotation  per ideographic character.
      Fig. 3.50: Example of ruby annotation per ideographic character.
    2. In the Japanese writing system, kanji compound words (jukugo) occasionally appear, usually constructed with a couple of ideographic characters (cl-19). There are two different methods of attaching ruby letters to base ideographic characters (cl-19) for these compound words.

      1. Mono-ruby. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character (cl-19), similarly to the previous section (see Fig. 3.51).

        Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word.
        Fig. 3.51: Example of mono-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to each base ideographic character in a compound word.

        (note 1)

        In Fig. 3.51, there is a quarter em space between the base characters "凝" and "視". So when this line happens to appear in the middle of a paragraph, there needs to be some line adjustment processing.

      2. Jukugo-ruby. Pronunciation is indicated for each ideographic character (cl-19), but the positioning takes into account the fact that together they make up a compound word (see Fig. 3.52). The intention when using jukugo-ruby is to handle the ideographic character (cl-19) phrase as one object.

        Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words.
        Fig. 3.52: Example of jukugo-ruby method. Ruby letters are attached to groups of ideographic characters in compound words.

        (note 1)

        There is no difference between Fig. 3.51 of mono-ruby and Fig. 3.52 of jukugo-ruby, when the number of ruby letters for each base ideographic character (cl-19) is one or two. When the mono-ruby approach is adopted, the inter-character space between base ideographic characters (cl-19) can be expanded for line adjustment (in Fig. 3.51, the inter-character space between "鬼" and "門", or, "方" and "角" can be expanded). When the jukugo-ruby approach is adopted, line adjustment cannot be applied to the base ideographic characters (cl-19).

        (note 2)

        The following examples show the relationship between ruby letters and base ideographic characters (cl-19).

        Example of mono-ruby:

        "凝+(ぎよう)" "視+(し)"

        Example of jukugo-ruby 1:

        "凝+(ぎよう) 視+(し)"

        Example of jukugo-ruby 2:

        "(凝視)+(ぎよう/し)"

        (note 3)

        Books commonly adopt kana-based jukugo-ruby for ideographic compound words. However, due to technical difficulties for rendering jukugo-ruby in machine-assisted text layout, the adoption of kana-based mono-ruby is increasing. For example, newspapers do not use jukugo-ruby, and study aids generally use mono-ruby because it is considered more important to show the readings of each ideographic character (cl-19) for students than to be concerned about the beauty of the layout.

        (note 4)

        Multiple ideographic compound words can form one compound phrase. In this case, there are two ways to attach ruby, i.e. attaching ruby to the compound phrase as a whole, or to each word which forms the compound (see Fig. 3.53). Similarly, a Japanese personal name consists of a given name and a family name, which together form a compound of a full name, and it is an editorial decision whether to attach two runs of ruby, one each for given name and family name, or to attach the full ruby text to the compound which represents the reading of the full name.

        Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase.
        Fig. 3.53: Examples of ruby attachment for a compound phrase.

        (note 5)

        In most cases, the reading of a ideographic compound word is just a concatenation of the readings of each individual ideographic character (cl-19), but some phrases have their own native readings (known as jukuji readings) (see Fig. 3.54), which cannot be derived from the readings of each character. Attaching ruby to those phrases, which are usually sequences of two or three ideographic characters (cl-19), is essentially the same as attaching ruby in katakana (cl-16) to ideographic character (cl-19) and/or hiragana (cl-15) base characters (see Fig. 3.55).

        Examples of ruby for jukuji readings.
        Fig. 3.54: Examples of ruby for jukuji readings.
  2. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation that annotates a ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) word with katakana (cl-16) to provide its meaning, together with it's reading. In terms of ruby layout, attaching ruby text to a single character in ideographic character (cl-19) is essentially the same as attaching the reading to a ideographic character (cl-19) (e.g. attaching ruby text "バザール", 'Bazaar', in hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) to a ideographic character (cl-19) "市" is just like attaching the reading "いち" to that character). When attaching katakana (cl-16) ruby text to a run of base text consisting of two or more characters in ideographic character (cl-19) and/or hiragana (cl-15), the ruby text needs to be positioned as if it corresponds to the annotated text itself, no matter how the ruby characters are distributed across each base character. The most typical example of this is attaching ruby text to a kanji compound word to indicate a corresponding loan word in katakana (see Fig. 3.55). The use of ruby text of this kind is on the increase in proportion to the growing need for translations and loan words. This type of ruby, namely ruby letters that are attached to two or more base characters as one object (note that ruby characters are not limited to katakana (cl-16). Fig. 3.54 and Fig. 3.56), is called group-ruby. Group-ruby and it's base characters are unbreakable, because of their behavior as one object (it is possible to break a line in the middle of the base characters where jukugo-ruby is in use).

    Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana.
    Fig. 3.55: Examples of ruby for compound ideographic character words to indicate corresponding words in katakana.

    (note 1)

    Having said that, the layout of ruby text to a single ideographic character (cl-19) is not entirely the same depending on the use of ruby, and may differ according to whether it is for indicating the reading or the meaning. In fact, the katatsuki, one of ruby layout per character which will be described in the later section, does allow the nakatsuki layout for those ruby which indicate meaning.

  3. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation, usually with katakana (cl-16) characters, to indicate the reading or the meaning of a Western word used in base text (see Fig. 3.56). There are opposite cases where a synonymous Western word in Latin characters is attached as a ruby annotation to a Japanese word in ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) and so on (see Fig. 3.56). These cases are less used than a and b, however they are quite common in study guides, translated books and travel guides.

    Examples of Latin characters used either in  base text or ruby text for Western words.
    Fig. 3.56: Examples of Latin characters used either in base text or ruby text for Western words.

    (note 1)

    There is no difference in the positioning of ruby text whether attaching ruby characters in katakana (cl-16) or hiragana (cl-15) to a Western word in Latin characters or attaching ruby in Latin to a Japanese word in ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15). The ruby text in either case should be positioned relative to a run of base text to be annotated as in b). However, there is a difference in cases where the lengths of the base text and the ruby text are different. Details are described in 3.3.8 Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters. When the length of a ruby text in ideographic character (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) is shorter than the corresponding base text, the ruby text is, in general, stretched by adding inter-character spaces between ruby characters, and when the length of a ruby text in ideographic character (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) is longer than the corresponding base text, the base text is, in general, stretched by adding inter-character spaces between base characters, so that the ruby and base text look similar in length (see Fig. 3.55). On the other hand, when the base text or ruby text is Latin word, the word is set with western solid setting, and no inter-character space will be added to any ruby or base text in Latin characters no matter how different the ruby and base text look in length (see Fig. 3.56). Details will be explained later.

  4. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation using ideographic character (cl-19) for a base text word in hiragana (cl-15). This is called furikanji, and is very rarely found.

Hereafter, mainly the usage of (a) and (b) will be explained.

3.3.2 Choice of Base Characters to be Annotated by Ruby

There are several methods of choosing how to attach ruby annotations to which base characters.

  1. 'General-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to all base characters in ideographic character (cl-19).

  2. 'Para-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to only those base characters in ideographic character (cl-19) for which readings are difficult.

    (note 1)

    The 'para-ruby' method is further divided into the method of attaching ruby annotations regardless of multiple occurrences of the same base ideographic character (cl-19), and the method of attaching ruby annotations to only the first instance of the same base ideographic character (cl-19). Furthermore, the latter method has several variations in counting the first instance for the entire book, each chapter, or each spread, etc.

Note that ruby should be attached to all ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word, to reflect the unitary nature of the text. To attach ruby to only some of the ideographic characters (cl-19) in a compound word is not recommended (see Fig. 3.57).

Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.)
Fig. 3.57: Examples of ruby on kanji characters in a compound word. (Left side, recommended. Right side, not recommended.)

3.3.3 Choice of Size for Ruby Characters

The character size of ruby characters is, in principle, the half size of the base characters (see Fig. 3.58).

Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters.
Fig. 3.58: Examples of ruby with half the size of the base characters.

The 'one-third-ruby' characters are used on rare occasions to attach three ruby characters to one full-width ideographic character (cl-19). One-third-ruby for vertical layout has the dimension of the half of the base character in width and the one third in height. Those for horizontal writing mode have the dimension of half of the base characters in height and one third in width (see Fig. 3.59).

Examples of one third ruby.
Fig. 3.59: Examples of one third ruby.

When ruby is attached to twelve point or larger base characters (usually used for headings), the size of the ruby letter is generally smaller than half the size of the base characters, considering the proportion of the sizes of base characters and ruby. When all is said and done, these cases are very rare.

Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters.
Fig. 3.60: Examples of ruby at a size smaller than half the size of the base characters.

(note 1)

There are cases where the body size is twelve points in books designed for infants or aged people. In these cases, the size of ruby can be six points, exactly the half size of the base characters.

(note 2)

When the size of base characters is very small (for e.g. smaller than seven points), ruby which is half the size, will be even more small and illegible. In such cases where the size of base characters is very small, ruby is not a suitable method of annotation. In those cases, consider other annotation methods such as adding the reading in parenthesis immediately after the base character.

(note 3)

Slightly different from the question of the size of ruby, there is a question of whether or not small kana (cl-11) characters should be used in ruby annotations. Because the size is so small, there was no choice of using small kana in letterpress printing. Today there are cases where small kana are used in ruby annotations, but taking legibility into consideration, these cases should be limited to those where accurate readings are needed, such as for proper nouns.

3.3.4 Choice of Sides for Ruby with Respect to Base Characters

In principle, ruby is attached to the right of base characters in vertical writing mode, and above in horizontal writing mode.

In some special cases, ruby can be seen to the left of base characters in vertical writing mode, and below in horizontal writing mode, but this is very rare.

There are cases where two kinds of ruby are attached, one to either side of the base characters, one for readings and the other for meanings (see Fig. 3.61). This is also very rare.

An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters.
Fig. 3.61: An example of ruby attached to both sides of the base characters.

In the following sections, the ruby composition methods will be explained on the assumption that the size of ruby is half the size of the base characters, and they will be attached to the right in vertical writing mode and above in horizontal writing mode. First we look at the basic composition rules of mono-ruby, group-ruby and jukugo-ruby, then the rules of positioning of ruby with respect to those characters which come before and after the base characters, and finally the composition rules at the line head and at the line end.

3.3.5 Positioning of Mono-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

When mono-ruby characters are Japanese, they are set solid. If mono-ruby characters have their own character widths such as Western characters or European numerals, they are set according to their own widths and then the ruby text is placed so that its center matches that of its base character. There are more variations depending on the combination of the base character and ruby text and accordingly various composition rules have been invented, which will be explained with examples.

When attaching two hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the lengths of the ruby text and the base text are the same and they are positioned as shown in Fig. 3.62.

An example of composition with two ruby characters.
Fig. 3.62: An example of composition with two ruby characters.

When attaching a single hiragana (cl-15) ruby character to a single base character, there are two ways of positioning the ruby character.

  1. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its vertical center matches that of the base character (see Fig. 3.63). In horizontal writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its horizontal center matches that of the base character (see Fig. 3.63). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'nakatsuki' (center-alignment).

    Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment.
    Fig. 3.63: Examples of nakatsuki and katatsuki alignment.
  2. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that the top of its virtual body is aligned with the top of that of the base character (see Fig. 3.63). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'katatsuki' (top-alignment). For horizontal writing mode, 'katatsuki' should not be adopted. If a ruby character is attached so that the left-edge of its virtual body is aligned with the left-edge of that of the base character, it would result in the loss of the center of balance, which doesn't look good (see Fig. 3.64).

    Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied).
    Fig. 3.64: Example of katatsuki alignment in horizontal layout (this is intentionally wrong and should not be applied).

(note 1)

Katatsuki alignment was commonly used in the letterpress printing era, but today the adoption of nakatsuki alignment is increasing even in vertical writing mode. However, there is still an opinion favoring katatsuki alignment, because it is familiar and readable.

When attaching three or more hiragana (cl-15) ruby characters to a single base character, the ruby characters are set solid. In this case, where the length of a ruby text is longer than that of its base character, positioning of the ruby text depends on which alignment has been adopted for a single ruby character. There is another issue: how to maintain the spatial balance of the ruby characters hanging over those characters which are not related base characters. The adjustment of inter-character spacing for those characters which come before and after the base character will be explained in 3.3.8 Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters.

  1. When nakatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, position a ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character in vertical writing mode (see Fig. 3.65). In horizontal writing mode, position a ruby text so that its horizontal center is aligned with that of its base character (see Fig. 3.65).

    Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more  characters.
    Fig. 3.65: Example 1 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters.
  2. When katatsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, there are two methods, as follows.

    1. Position the ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character (see Fig. 3.65).

    2. Depending on the type of script of the adjacent characters to the base character, and the number of ruby characters, a decision is made about whether ruby hangover is allowed on the character before its base character, or on the character after, or on both adjacent characters. At break-even situation, the hangover is usually on the character after its base character (see Fig. 3.66).

Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode).
Fig. 3.66: Example 2 of positioning of ruby text with three or more characters (vertical writing mode).

(note 1)

The terms katatsuki and nakatsuki were originally used for ruby alignment only when a single ruby character is attached to a single base character. However there are cases where the meaning is stretched so that the terms can be used when three or more ruby characters are involved. We use the terms katatsuki and nakatsuki with their original meaning throughout this document.

(note 2)

The preference for the choice of hanging the ruby over the character after its base character is due to the preference to avoid adjustment of inter-character spacing between base characters and their adjacent characters, which was common in letterpress printing.

For mono-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited.

3.3.6 Positioning of Group-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

When the length of a sequence of base characters (number of characters * advance-width of each character) and that of the ruby text are the same, each text is set solid and the center of both texts are aligned with each other (see Fig. 3.67).

Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text.
Fig. 3.67: Examples of group-ruby where the length is the same as that of the base text.

When the length of the ruby text is shorter than that of its base characters, set the base text solid and attached ruby character, so that both texts balance each other. To be more specific, where 2 units of inter-character space are used between ruby characters, add 1 unit of space between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text, and between the end of the ruby text and the end of the base text. This will give a balanced appearance, and is the method specified in JIS X 4051 (see Fig. 3.68). Another way is to first align the leading characters for both the base text and ruby text and the ends of both trailing characters, and then add the same amount of inter-character space between the rest of the ruby characters (see Fig. 3.69).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Fig. 3.68: Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.
Fig. 3.69: Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby alongside base characters where the length of the ruby is shorter than that of the base characters.

(note 1)

In letterpress printing, there were not many choices for adjustment of inter-character space between ruby characters. Therefore, depending on the number of characters in the base text and its ruby text, the choice was whether to add a certain amount of space before the leading ruby character and after the trailing character, or not. In the former case it had been said that for 2 units of inter-character space between each c ruby characters, adding 1 unit of the leading and trailing space would give a balanced appearance.

(note 2)

When the length of the ruby text is far shorter than that of the base text, the method specified in JIS X 4051 could result in space twice the size of a ruby character for the leading and the trailing space, which might give a misleading appearance. Therefore, a criterion for deciding whether or not to adopt the method of JIS X 4051 is to see if the amount of the leading and the trailing space exceeds the full-width size (or up to 1.5 times the size) of a ruby character (see Fig. 3.70).

Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text.
Fig. 3.70: Examples of distribution of group-ruby where the length is much shorter than that of the base text.

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, balance the base characters with the ruby text by setting the ruby text solid and adding a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent base character. To be more specific, for 2 units of inter-character space, add 1 unit of space between the start of the ruby text and the start of the base text, and between the end of the base text and the end of the ruby text, as specified in JIS X 4051 (see Fig. 3.71). Another way is to first align the start of both the leading characters and the end of the trailing characters, and then add a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent base character (see Fig. 3.72).

Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Fig. 3.71: Example 1 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.
Fig. 3.72: Example 2 of distribution of group-ruby where the length is longer than that of the base characters.

For group-ruby, base characters and attached ruby characters are handled as one object, and internal line-breaks are prohibited. Also, for an object constructed with base characters and attached ruby characters it is prohibited to insert additional spaces between each character for line adjustment.

3.3.7 Positioning of Jukugo-ruby with Respect to Base Characters

If the number of ruby characters are two or less for each ideographic characters (cl-19) which participates in a kanji compound word (or jukugo), then for each run of ruby text associated with each base character, compose ruby characters as described in 3.3.5 Positioning of Mono-ruby with Respect to Base Characters (see Fig. 3.73).

Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Fig. 3.73: Example 1 of distribution of jukugo-ruby.

If there is any ideographic character (cl-19) in a given kanji compound word which needs three or more ruby characters, the jukugo-ruby layout cannot be used. In this case, attach the ruby text to the kanji compound word as a whole. The available methods include the layout as specified in JIS X 4051, which is similar to the group-ruby method described in 3.3.6 Positioning of Group-ruby with Respect to Base Characters (see Fig. 3.74), and layout decided by the phonetic structure of the kanji compound word and the type of script of the adjacent characters (see Fig. 3.75). The latter method can be used unless a run of ruby text for the base character hangs over another base character more than a full character width (or one and a half times the full-width) of a ruby character. (The detail of this method is described in Appendix F Positioning of Jukugo-ruby.)

Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Fig. 3.74: Example 2 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby.
Fig. 3.75: Example 3 distribution of jukugo-ruby.

(note 1)

There are often cases where the jukugo-ruby consists of one ruby character followed by three ruby characters, and vice versa, for a kanji compound word of two base characters. If the mono-ruby layout were chosen for these cases, it would look like as shown in Fig. 3.76, which wouldn't be very beautiful.

Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo.
Fig. 3.76: Example of distribution as mono-ruby for jukugo.

Jukugo-ruby can be split into two lines at the boundary of each unit of ruby text attached to one ideographic character (cl-19). When a kanji compound word consists of two characters, each unit will be processed using the mono-ruby method. When dividing a compound word that consists of three ideographic characters (cl-19), use the mono-ruby method for the first ideographic character (cl-19) and use the jukugo-ruby method for the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19), and vice versa. In order to maintain the correspondence of each ideographic character (cl-19) to its ruby annotation, the layout of the ruby may be different after the division (see Fig. 3.77). Note that jukugo-ruby and its base characters cannot be the subject of inter-character space expansion for line adjustment.

Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines.
Fig. 3.77: Examples of distribution of jukugo-ruby split across two lines.

(note 1)

The composition of jukugo-ruby changes in accordance with the construction of the jukugo, the position at the head, middle or bottom of the line, and adjacent characters before or after. The detail of this issue is too complicated to discuss here, so it is discussed in Appendix F Positioning of Jukugo-ruby.

(note 2)

The complexes of base characters with ruby characters are classified as simple-ruby character complex (cl-22) and jukugo-ruby character complex (cl-23). The handling and positioning of these complexes with adjacent characters is discussed in Appendix B Spacing between Characters as a complete table in accordance with 3.9 About Character Classes.

3.3.8 Adjustments of Ruby with Length Longer than that of the Base Characters

When the length of any ruby text is shorter than that of the base characters, the main text can be just set solid because there is no need for any adjustment of the inter-character spacing between base characters and their adjacent characters in the main text.

Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters.
Fig. 3.78: Set solid when the length of ruby text is shorter than that of base characters.

When the length of the ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, the method of composing the main text depends on how much the ruby text hangs over the ideographic character (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or punctuation marks, which are attached to the base characters. The following are the general rules (see Fig. 3.79 and Fig. 3.80). They were established especially in order to avoid misreading and to maintain the beauty of the layout. Noted that the detailed value of spaces between characters for cases of ruby letters hanging over the base characters is described in "Appendix B Spacing between Characters" as Table 1 in accordance with 3.9 About Character Classes.

Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Fig. 3.79: Example 1 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Fig. 3.80: Example 2 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
  1. Ruby text shall not hang over the ideographic characters (cl-19) adjacent to the base characters.

  2. When the adjacent character is a hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16), prolonged sound mark (cl-10) or small kana (cl-11), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of the ruby characters.

    (note 1)

    Because ruby letter may go over the base characters and overhang to adjacent hiragana (cl-15) etc. up to the full-width size of a ruby letter, ruby letters from before and from after a base hiragana (cl-15) may be consecutive without space like Fig. 3.81. Such cases are not recommended because of the possibility of misreading. It is recommended to insert one em space between former ruby letters and latter ruby letters. There are to ways to carry out this. One is to reduce the maximum size of overhang to the hiragana (cl-15) base character of before ruby letter and after ruby letter, and the other is to reduce the maximum size of overhang to the hiragana (cl-15) base character of after ruby letter. The latter case is carried over to differently set the limit of overhang from before and from after. Firstly, set the ruby letters from before as usual, i.e. ruby letter may overhang up to the full-width size of a ruby letter. Secondly, ruby letter from after shall be set with one em space before, namely, the ruby letter from after can not go over the base hiragana (cl-15) letter in between. Hence, appropriate size space shall be inserted between base characters themselves (see Fig. 3.82).

    An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby letters are consecutive without space
    Fig. 3.81: An example of not recommended case that two different group of ruby letters are consecutive without space
    An example of  two different group of ruby letters are consecutive with space
    Fig. 3.82: An example of two different group of ruby letters are consecutive with space
  3. The ruby letter may go over the base characters and overhang the half em spaces which are inserted after closing brackets (cl-02), full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07), set before the target ruby object, up to the full-width size of a ruby letter. Also, the ruby letter may go over the base characters and hang over the half em spaces which are inserted before opening brackets (cl-01), set after the target ruby object, up to the full -width size of a ruby letter. Note that when the half em spaces are reduced for line adjustment, the room for ruby letter overhang is also compressed to the reduced space size. (For example, if the space is a quarter em in the base character size, the ruby letter can overhang by a half em in ruby letter size.)

  4. When the adjacent character is an inseparable character (cl-08), the ruby text may overhang the character up to the full-width size of a ruby character.

  5. When the adjacent character is one of the middle dots (cl-05), the ruby text may overhang the middle dots, in principle, up to the full-width size of a ruby character. But if there is any reduction of space size before and after the middle dots as a result of the line adjustment, the amount of the extension shall be up to the amount of space size after the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set before the ruby object, or the space size before the middle dots plus 1/2 a ruby character size when the middle dots are set after the ruby object.

  6. When the adjacent character is one of the closing brackets (cl-02), the ruby text may go over the base characters up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the closing bracket itself.

  7. When the adjacent character is a comma (cl-07) or full stop (cl-06), the ruby text may go over the base characters and overhang the comma or full stop up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the comma or the period itself.

  8. Also, when the adjacent character is one of the opening brackets (cl-01) before the ruby object, the ruby text may go over the base characters and hang over the opening brackets up to the full-width size of a ruby character. Note that the overhang must not go beyond the opening brackets.

(note 1)

There is an opinion that it is not good style to hang ruby characters over opening brackets (cl-01), especially LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」". When this opinion holds, there are two possibilities. One is not allow ruby characters to overhang the opening brackets (cl-01). The other is allow ruby characters to overhang the opening brackets up to 1/2 the size of a ruby character.

(note 2)

JIS X 4051 classifies katakana characters and kanji characters in same class. Accordingly, in JIS X 4051 it is prohibited for ruby characters to overhang adjacent katakana characters.

(note 3)

There is another variation that allows ruby text to overhang any ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) up to the full-width size of a ruby character (see Fig. 3.83).

Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Fig. 3.83: Example 3 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.

(note 4)

There is a further variation that does not allow ruby text to overhang any ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) characters (see Fig. 3.84).

Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.
Fig. 3.84: Example 4 of distribution of ruby characters overhanging adjacent characters.

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is shorter than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first base character is aligned with the line head. Similarly, when ruby annotated text ends at the line end and the ruby length is shorter than that of the basic characters, compose the text so that the last basic character is aligned with the line end.

When the line head starts with ruby annotated text where the ruby text length is longer than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first ruby character which overhangs the base text is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see Fig. 3.85). Alternatively, there is a variation by which the text is composed so that the first base character is aligned with the line head, and vice versa (see Fig. 3.86).

Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Fig. 3.85: Example 1 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
Fig. 3.86: Example 2 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.

When aligning the first base character to the line head and the last base character to the line end, ruby text is not allowed to extend beyond the hanmen or the area of the column. If it does, the following adjustments should be considered in positioning base characters and ruby characters.

  1. Mono-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the base characters (see Fig. 3.86).

  2. Mono-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character (see Fig. 3.86).

  3. Group-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character, and add the same amount of inter-character space between the base characters and between the end of the last base character and the end of the last ruby character after the last base character (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see Fig. 3.87).

    Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
    Fig. 3.87: Example 3 of positioning of ruby characters at the line head and at the line end.
  4. Group-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character and add the same amount of inter-character space between the base characters and the space between the start of the base text and the start of the ruby text (the method specified in JIS X 4051) (see Fig. 3.87).

  5. Jukugo-ruby at the line head or at the line end: Make the same adjustments as described in (c) or (d) for the group-ruby.

  6. Jukugo-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text is aligned with that of the first base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of a ruby character. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  7. Jukugo-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the end of the ruby text is aligned with that of the last base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may overhang the adjacent base characters of the same kanji compound word, up to the full-width size (or one and a half of it) of the ruby characters. If the extension should go beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  8. Jukugo-ruby split across two lines: jukugo-ruby can be split across two lines, with one part at the line end and the other at the line head. In the case of a compound word with two ideographic characters (cl-19), it is as the same as dealing with one ideographic character (cl-19) with a mono-ruby text at the line end and the other ideographic characters (cl-19) with another mono-ruby text at the next line head. In the case of a phrase with three ideographic characters (cl-19), handle one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text and the remaining two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby, and vice versa. The layout of one ideographic character (cl-19) with mono-ruby text will be composed by method (a) or (b) described above. The layout of two ideographic characters (cl-19) with jukugo-ruby text will be composed by method (f) or (g) above.

3.3.9 Composition of Emphasis Dots

Emphasis dots (also known as bouten or side dots) are symbols placed alongside a run of ideographic character (cl-19) or hiragana (cl-15) characters to emphasize the text.

(note 1)

There are many ways to emphasize a run of text in Japanese composition. Besides attaching emphasis dots, one may emphasize a certain run of text by selecting a different typeface (for example, Mincho face for normal text and Japanese gothic face for emphasis), a different color (for example, turning to red for emphasis), by enclosing the text within brackets (for example, LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" or LEFT ANGLE BRACKET "〈" and RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET "〉"), by drawing a line alongside the text (or bousen, underlining the text), and so on. It is an editorial decision which emphasis method to adopt. Selecting a different typeface and enclosing text within brackets are generally used and popular emphasis methods. Attaching emphasis dots is not very common but one of the long-established and traditional methods typically used in kanbun composition (classic Chinese text).

(note 2)

In practice, emphasis dots are not used for commas (cl-07), full stops (cl-06), opening brackets (cl-01) or closing brackets (cl-02).

Composition of emphasis dots is as follows (see Fig. 3.88).

Composition of emphasis dots.
Fig. 3.88: Composition of emphasis dots.
  1. The character size of emphasis dots is the half size of the base characters to be emphasized.

  2. Emphasis dots are attached to the right of the base characters in vertical writing mode, or above them in horizontal writing mode. The center of emphasis dots is aligned with that of the base characters.

  3. There are many symbols that could be specified for use as emphasis dots. SESAME DOT "﹅" in vertical writing mode and BULLET "•" in horizontal writing mode are those used for emphasis dots in general.

3.4 Inline Cutting Note (Warichu)

3.4.1 Where the Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) is used

Warichu (inline cutting note) is a type of inline notation, where two lines of small characters are inserted into the text. Warichu divides a line into two sub lines. The frequency of use of the inline cutting note is not so high. However, the inline cutting note is very important for study guides, travel guides, reference books, encyclopedias and manuals, because it is very effective for inserting notes at the point in the text where they are needed (see Fig. 3.89). Inline cutting note is usually used in vertical writing mode. It is very infrequently used in horizontal writing mode.

Warichu (inline cutting note).
Fig. 3.89: Warichu (inline cutting note).

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 specifies inline cutting note in 4.16 "Handling of inline cutting note".

3.4.2 Character Size for Inline Cutting Notes and Line Gaps

Character size for an inline cutting note depends on the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. Usually, around six point size is used (see Fig. 3.89).

The space between adjacent lines in an inline cutting note is zero, that is to say, there is no line gap between them (see Fig. 3.90).

As shown in Fig. 3.90, an inline cutting note usually has two lines, and is surrounded by LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" characters that are double the size of the characters in the inline cutting note itself. There is no space between the surrounding text and parentheses for the inline cutting note.

(note 1)

There is a style of inline cutting note, which has no opening brackets (cl-01) or closing brackets (cl-02), but is surrounded by spaces that have been added explicitly to act as delimiters.

(note 2)

Handling of inter-character spacing between warichu opening brackets (cl-28) or warichu closing brackets (cl-29) and adjacent characters is described in Appendix B Spacing between Characters as a complete table, using the concept of character class described in 3.9 About Character Classes.

Example of construction of an inline cutting note.
Fig. 3.90: Example of construction of an inline cutting note.

Symbols, like opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) are also used in inline cutting note text. In such cases, the handling of such symbols is the same as for the main text.

In vertical text, the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area is wider than the width of a kihon-hanmen line. The horizontal centers of the kihon-hanmen line and inline cutting note area are aligned. The line gap used to establish the kihon-hanmen should not be affected by the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area. In other words, the line gap for the kihon-hanmen needs to be designed wider than usual in preparation for the use of the inline cutting note. (see Fig. 2.35 and Fig. 3.89) Warichu is used also in horizontal text, however it is not so common, and usually occurs only in study guides and encyclopedias.

The length of the two lines of the inline cutting note should be as near as possible the same. When the inline cutting note can be set in one kihon-hanmen line, the whole inline note text should be broken at a position where line breaking is permitted, and where the two resulting lines are as close as possible to the same length. The length of the second line should not be longer than the length of the first line. Note that the same line breaking rules are used as for basic text (see Fig. 3.91).

Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text.
Fig. 3.91: Examples showing how the inline cutting note can be set in one line of base text.

3.4.3 Handling an Inline Cutting Note when it Straddles Two Kihon-hanmen Lines

When an inline cutting note will not fit on a single kihon-hanmen line, it will wrap onto the following line, and will be set as shown in Fig. 3.92 or Fig. 3.93.

Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines.
Fig. 3.92: Example of an inline cutting note straddling two base text lines.
Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines.
Fig. 3.93: Example of an inline cutting note straddling three base text lines.

(note 1)

Normally, an inline cutting note is short, and will therefore fit on a single kihon-hanmen line. There are cases where the note wraps onto the following line, but it is rare that it extends over three or more of the kihon-hanmen lines. If the note is too large, other styles of notation should be considered.

3.5 Paragraph Adjustment Rules

3.5.1 Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs

A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs (in JIS 4051, this is called the "paragraph line head indent") the following methods are available. The amount of space used for the indentation is, in principle, one em space using the character size in the paragraph.

(note 1)

The definition of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.17 "paragraph appearance processing". Note that "paragraph appearance processing" includes "line head indent", "line end indent" and "indent" in general.

(note 2)

The layout processing for opening brackets (cl-01) in the case of full-width line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs, is described in this document, 3.1.5 Positioning of Opening Brackets at Line Head.

  1. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is applied to all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method (see Fig. 3.94).

    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
    Fig. 3.94: Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.

    (note 1)

    In the case of written conversational text followed by, for example, "she said", if the conversational part is bounded by LEFT CORNER BRACKET "「" and RIGHT CORNER BRACKET "」" and the "she said" text appears after a line-break, the conversational text and the "she said" text are considered to be one continuous phrase. Hence, there is no line head indent at the beginning of the "she said" phrase, after the conversation part, i.e. so-called tentsuki (see Fig. 3.95). When you have a (mathematical) formula on a separate line in horizontal writing mode, and a following line containing text such as "will be" there is also no line head indent at the beginning of the paragraph. On the other hand, there is also an approach in novels etc., where the first line indent is applied to paragraphs (see Fig. 3.96).

    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Fig. 3.95: Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
    Fig. 3.96: Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation.
  2. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is not applied for any paragraph at all, and the tentsuki position is used (see Fig. 3.97). There are examples of this method being used in certain books and magazines for the sake of styling, but this is rather hard to read.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
    Fig. 3.97: Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs.
  3. In principle, line head indent is applied at the beginning of a paragraph. However, a paragraph immediately following a tentsuki-set heading is also set tentsuki, so that the beginning of the heading and the paragraph are aligned (see Fig. 3.98). In some books and magazines this method is applied to text in horizontal writing mode.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings.
    Fig. 3.98: Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings.

On the other hand, for example with itemization, there is also the method that indents the second and following lines of the paragraph (see Fig. 3.99). This is the so-called "questions and answer" (Q&A) form. It has the effect that numbers (if used) stand out.

Layout example for itemization.
Fig. 3.99: Layout example for itemization.

(note1)

The definition of itemization is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.4 "itemization processing".

3.5.2 Line Head Indent and Line End Indent

The line head indent is the indentation of the line head by a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of the hanmen (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns). In contrast, the indentation of the line end position by a fixed amount, starting from the line head, is called line end indent.

There are examples of line head indent for quotations in separate lines (see Fig. 3.100) or for headings in separate lines. Line end indent is used, for example, for headings or for quotations in separate lines.

Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line.
Fig. 3.100: Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line.

(note 1)

For quotations on separate lines, there are the following approaches: either (a) the character size is the same as for the main text, and the difference from the main text is expressed only by the line head indent; or (b) the character size is made smaller than that of the main text. The former approach is applied frequently. With this approach, the line head indent is often set at double the normal character size of the main text. If large quotations are inserted frequently, there is also an approach that uses a full-width line head indent with an empty line inserted before and after the quotation. The approach where characters are made smaller than the main text is <ins>same as the processing of endnotes</ins> , see 4.2.4 Processing of Endnotes in Vertical Writing Mode or Horizontal Writing Mode).

3.5.3 Single Line Alignment Processing

The Japanese "single line alignment method" is a process for setting alignment for a run of text that is shorter than a given line length. This method is frequently used for headings and poems. The following methods are available (see Fig. 3.101).

Single line alignment processing.
Fig. 3.101: Single line alignment processing.

(note 1)

The single line alignment method is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18 "Single Line Alignment Processing".

  1. Centering: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters.) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the amount of space at the line head and line end is made equal, and the center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line.

  2. Line head alignment: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters.) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.

  3. Line end alignment: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters.) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.

  4. Even inter-character spacing: The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. (If space is needed between Japanese text and western text, before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02), that space is inserted based on the table in Appendix B Spacing between Characters.) Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. In addition, using the space made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible. The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.

(note 1)

Several justification methods are applied for positioning of headings or items of tables. For example, centering is often used for headings in horizontal writing mode, taking the left-right balance is taken into account. However, there are also examples of line head alignment.

(note 2)

Even inter-character spacing is often used for printing Haiku in separate lines (see Fig. 3.102).

Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing.
Fig. 3.102: Example of Haiku positioning with even inter-character spacing.

3.5.4 Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs

The intent of widow adjustment of paragraphs is to avoid that the last line of a paragraph contains less than a given number of characters. This is also called "widow" processing.

(note 1)

Widow adjustment of paragraphs is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.20 "Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs".

(note 2)

Widow adjustment of paragraphs is not regarded as very important in Japanese composition. However, care is taken to avoid cases such as a single character in the last line of a paragraph (often this is tolerated), or - even more extreme - just one character on a page just before a page break or a new recto (see Fig. 3.103).

Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided).
Fig. 3.103: Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided).

3.6 Tab Setting

3.6.1 Usage of Tab Setting

Tab setting is useful for alignment of table data, itemized lists, etc. where a series of characters need to be set at specific alignment positions within a line (see Fig. 3.104).

Example of tab setting.
Fig. 3.104: Example of tab setting.

(note 1)

Tab Setting is described in "JIS X 4051 4.21 Tab Setting".

For tab setting, it is necessary to identify tab positions, tab types (how to align the characters in the tab position), and the characters to be set. For this purpose, it is necessary to insert a tab sign before the tabbed character. The series of characters just after the tab sign are the target characters (see Fig. 3.105). If there is more than one tab sign, it is necessary to set the same numbers of tab positions and tab types as the number of tab signs.

Tab signs and the target text of tab setting.
Fig. 3.105: Tab signs and the target text of tab setting.

3.6.2 Types of Tab Settings

There are the following types of tab setting to align texts.

  1. Start alignment tab setting: the start position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see Fig. 3.106).

    Examples of start alignment tab settings.
    Fig. 3.106: Examples of start alignment tab settings.
  2. End alignment tab setting: the end position of the text is aligned to the tab position (see Fig. 3.107).

    Examples of end alignment tab settings.
    Fig. 3.107: Examples of end alignment tab settings.
  3. Center alignment tab setting: the center of the text is aligned to the tab position (see Fig. 3.108).

    Examples of center alignment tab settings.
    Fig. 3.108: Examples of center alignment tab settings.
  4. Alignment with a specified character tab setting: the start position of a specified character or sign (for example, a period) in the text is aligned to the tab position (see Fig. 3.109).

    Examples of specified character alignment tab settings.
    Fig. 3.109: Examples of specified character alignment tab settings.

3.6.3 The Method of Setting the Target Text

Set the text from the line head to the position before the tab sign in the first tab position, set the text from the first tab sign to the next tab sign in the second tab position, and so on. The behavior of opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. is same as for the main text.

Following are some examples. The behavior of text before and after the tab positions are very difficult to anticipate, so it is necessary to design using trial and error.

  1. If the target string is the first series of the line, the characters should be set in the first tab position from the start of the line, and so on, one after another (see Fig. 3.110).

    Example of tab setting 1.
    Fig. 3.110: Example of tab setting 1.
  2. If the target string of text is too long to be set before the next tab position and overflows, the next string of text is aligned to the tag position after the end of the preceding string (see Fig. 3.111).

    Example of tab setting 2.
    Fig. 3.111: Example of tab setting 2.
  3. If the beginning of the string overlaps with the end of the preceding string as the result of the tab setting indication, the following string is set just after the preceding string (see Fig. 3.112).

    Example of tab setting 3.
    Fig. 3.112: Example of tab setting 3.
  4. If there is no tab position corresponding to the target string, the string should be set from the tab position of the next line, and so forth (see Fig. 3.113).

    Example for tab setting 4.
    Fig. 3.113: Example for tab setting 4.

3.7 Other Rules of Japanese Typesetting

3.7.1 Superscripts and Superscripts

Superscripts and subscripts are small letters associated with base characters, and typically used to indicate SI unit symbols, or used for mathematical or chemical formulae.

(note 1)

Superscripts and subscripts are described in JIS X 4051 sec.4.13.

Superscripts and subscripts are usually set after the base character, with some exceptions for chemical formulae (which appear before the base character). They should be set solid.

For examples of superscripts and subscripts see Fig. 3.114. In this document, superscripts and subscripts and their base characters are handled as ornamented character complex (cl-21) characters.

Examples of superscripts and subscripts.
Fig. 3.114: Examples of superscripts and subscripts.

(note 1)

Inter-letter space between ornamented character complex (cl-21) and adjacent characters is described in detail in Appendix B Spacing between Characters in accordance with the character class concept in 3.9 About Character Classes.

JIS X 4051 specifies the character size and the block direction positioning of superscripts and subscripts alongside the base character to be implementation definable parameters. However it is recommended that the size of superscripts and subscripts are around 60% of the base character, depending on the size of the base character.

It is prohibited to break lines within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence. Also, it is prohibited to use inter-character spacing within an ornamented character complex (cl-21) sequence for line adjustment.

(note 1)

In vertical writing mode, characters with superscripts or subscripts, that is ornamented character complex (cl-21) characters, are rotated 90 degrees clock-wise. If the length of the sequence is short enough, the sequence can be set as tate-chu-yoko.

(note 2)

When both the superscript and the subscript follow the base character, usually the subscript is set first and set solid, followed by the superscript set with solid space. For chemical formulae sometimes both superscript and subscript are set vertically in the same position with respect to the base character, and with solid space between them and the base character.

3.7.2 Furiwake Processing

Furiwake is a typesetting style for setting multiple phrases or sentences in the middle of a line. Furiwake is also used to indicate options (see Fig. 3.115). Study guides, manuals and reference books sometimes use furiwake. In many furiwake styles, multiple lines are indicated with opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc.

Example of furiwake.
Fig. 3.115: Example of furiwake.

Furiwake is usually done as follows (see Fig. 3.116). In this document, the lines which combine to make the furiwake are called furiwake-gyou.

  1. The character size of the furiwake-gyou is usually the same as that of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the furiwake-gyou is a little bit smaller than the size of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the font style of the furiwake-gyou is different typeface the style of the base paragraph.

  2. In the same furiwake block, the top positions of all the furiwake-gyou lines are aligned.

  3. The line length of the furiwake block is the line length of the longest furiwake-gyou. However, it is permitted to indicate the length of the furiwake block, and break the furiwake-gyou lines. In this style, the start positions of the broken lines should be explicitly indicated. When there are line break marks in the furiwake-gyou, the line is broken in the indicated places. In this style, the start positions of the wrapped lines are aligned to the first line. The space between wrapped lines should be set solid.

  4. The line-feed space of each furiwake block should be explicitly indicated.

  5. The center line of the furiwake block should be aligned with the center line of the main text.

  6. When the furiwake block is enclosed by opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), etc. the width of brackets should be the same as the width of the furiwake block.

  7. One furiwake block should be set per base text line. One furiwake block should not be extended across multiple base text lines.

Setting method of furiwake.
Fig. 3.116: Setting method of furiwake.

The size of the line-feed space of the paragraph which contains the furiwake block, should be explicitly indicated. The space should be decided by considering the content of the furiwake block, and may therefore differ from the size of the line-feed space of kihon-hanmen.

In general, the width of the furiwake block is larger than the width of an inline cutting note block. However, unlike in the case of the inline cutting block, the whole furiwake block should be set inside of the kihon-hanmen, or a column of the kihon-hanmen Setting a furiwake block that extends beyond the border of the kihon-hanmen is prohibited.

3.7.3 Jidori Processing

In cases such as lists of names of Japanese people, the length of some part of the text may be explicitly defined. In such cases, different numbers of characters are set, using adjustment of the inter-character spacing, so that they are all aligned to the same length. This is called jidori processing (see Fig. 3.117).

Example 1 of jidori processing.
Fig. 3.117: Example 1 of jidori processing.

Sometimes, in horizontal writing mode, text in running heads (with the exception of chapter and section numbers) are set using jidori processing. For example, three to six characters are set in a 7 character space (based on the size of the characters in the running head (see Fig. 3.118). Two characters are set in a 6 character space to avoid too much space. Seven characters are set solid in a seven character space, and eight or more characters are set solid in a space of eight or more characters. This rule can be applied to other numbers of characters, such as five, six and eight.

Example 2 of jidori processing.
Fig. 3.118: Example 2 of jidori processing.

Jidori processing should be done as follows:

  1. The length for the jidori processing should be defined as a whole number of full-width characters at the size defined for the surrounding text.

  2. The jidori text should be adjusted using spacing between characters so that the sides of the text are aligned at the defined length. The following, however, should be set solid:

    1. Positions where line breaks are prohibited: inter-character spaces between European numerals; between two EM DASH "—" characters; between two TWO DOT LEADER "‥" characters; between two HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS "…" characters; and so on. These sequences should be treated as a single block.

      (note 1)

      The handling of opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) in jidori processing is also very controversial. Usually, the space before opening brackets (cl-01) and space after closing brackets (cl-02) is set solid. In jidori processing, the space before opening brackets (cl-01) and the space after closing brackets (cl-02) may be used for line adjustment, but the space after opening brackets (cl-01) and the space before closing brackets (cl-02) should not used for adjustment, because it is prohibited to break lines in these positions. Fig. 3.119 shows one example with even spacing for all characters, a second example as explained here, and a third example that is set solid before and after the opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02).

      Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets.
      Fig. 3.119: Examples of jidori processing including opening brackets and closing brackets.
    2. Where Western word space (cl-26) or full-width ideographic space (cl-14) are inserted, add the same space as for other inter-character spaces to the value of the Western word space or the full-width ideographic space.

  3. If there is only one character, it should be aligned to the left of the jidori block.

3.7.4 Processing of Math Symbols and Math Operators

Math symbols and math operators, such as EQUALS SIGN "=", APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF "≒", PLUS SIGN "+" and MINUS SIGN "−" are commonly used not only for scientific and technical documents but also for ordinary books. In the Japanese composition system, there are two different groups of math symbols, which are each treated differently. So in this document math symbols are classified into two different classes; math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18).

(note 1)

The members of the math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) classes are described in 3.9 About Character Classes. Also, the handling of inter-character spaces between these math symbols and adjacent characters is described in Appendix A Character Classes as a complete table, in accordance with the concept of character class, described in 3.9 About Character Classes.

(note 2)

Because the math symbols, such as SQUARE ROOT "√", INTEGRAL "∫" and GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA "Σ", are not frequently used in common books, the handling of these math symbols is considered to be out of scope for this document. Also, mathematical and scientific notations like numerical formulae are out of scope for this document.

Composition rules for math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) are as follows:

  1. The width of math symbols (cl-17) and math operators (cl-18) is full-width, i.e. one em (see Fig. 3.120).

  2. The inter-character space between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and before and after adjacent characters, such as grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27), and ornamented character complex (cl-21) in one line is set solid (see Fig. 3.120). However, when the top and/or the bottom of the mathematical formula is grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27), the space between ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) is quarter em space.

    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
    Fig. 3.120: Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.

    (note 1)

    The inter-character space between ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) and math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) is solid. However, it is better to insert a quarter em space between ideographic characters (cl-19),hiragana (cl-15) or katakana (cl-16) and adjacent math operators (cl-18) when the math operators (cl-18) are followed by grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27) which represent some mathematical value (see Fig. 3.121).

    Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
    Fig. 3.121: Example of math symbols and math operators set within an ordinary line.
  3. When math formulae or chemical formulae are set in one independent line, the inter-character space between math symbols (cl-17) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and ornamented character complex (cl-21) is quarter em. Also, when math formulae or chemical formulae are set in an individual line, the inter-character space between math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21) is set solid.

    Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line.
    Fig. 3.122: Example of math symbols and math operators in one independent line.

    (note 1)

    In most case when a math formula or chemical formula is set in one independent line, the position of the formula is the center of the line in horizontal writing mode, and has is indented by some indicated number of characters from the head of line in vertical writing mode.

    (note 2)

    In the formula in one independent line, there is another method to set the inter-character space between grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27) and math symbols (cl-17), solid or half em. When the inter-character space before and after the math symbols (cl-17) is set to a quarter em or a half em, there is another method to set the inter-character space, between math operators (cl-18) and grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27), that is, a quarter em.

    Another example of setting math symbols  and math operators in one independent formula line.
    Fig. 3.123: Another example of setting math symbols and math operators in one independent formula line.
  4. A line can be broken between math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) or ornamented character complex (cl-21).

    (note 1)

    In an independent formula line, when there are more than one place where the line can be broken the first priority is before the math symbols (cl-17), and the next is before the math operators (cl-18).

    (note 2)

    The inter-character space before and after KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT "・", before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02) in an independent formula line is set solid, except for the case to set space between these characters and adjacent math symbols (cl-17) or math operators (cl-18).

3.8 Line Adjustment

3.8.1 Necessity for Line Adjustment

Line adjustment processing is applied where inter-character adjustments are needed to bring the line end into the correct alignment, e.g. because of line wrap or other reasons. Within a paragraph, lines are created by separating character sequences at places where line breaking is not prohibited. Except for the end of the last line of a paragraph, it is necessary to set the head and end of each line at predicable, aligned positions. For the last line of the paragraph, it is still necessary to set the head at the aligned position, however the line end need not aligned to the other alignment position. To achieve this, only inter-character spacing indicated in the table of Appendix B Spacing between Characters, or explicitly chosen space sizes, are inserted, and other inter-character spaces are set solid.

(note 1)

In Japanese composition, there is no concept corresponding to the Western "ragged right (flush left)", "ragged left (flush right)", or "ragged center". In Japanese composition, especially common book composition, usually only "justification" is applied. Note that, in Western composition, "justification" is usually applied for only word space sizes. In Japanese composition, it is applied for not only Western word space (cl-26) but also in several other places as explained in following text.

(note 2)

Usually, the last line of a paragraph needs no adjustment. However, when the last line of a paragraph is a little bit longer than the line length, inter-character space reduction is applied for opening brackets (cl-01), closing brackets (cl-02) and at other places, if possible.

(note 3)

There is another adjustment processing, besides line adjustment, called "single line alignment". Single line alignment is applied to align a run of the text that is shorter than a given line length to designated positions. Details are explained in 3.5.3 Single Line Alignment Processing.

There are various reasons for line adjustment processing. Examples of the most important ones will be given below.

  1. Mixed use of characters and symbols (e.g. grouped numerals (cl-24) or Western characters (cl-27)) where not all characters are full-width (see Fig. 3.124).

    Example of grouped numerals and Western characters.
    Fig. 3.124: Example of grouped numerals and Western characters.
  2. Sequences of punctuation marks. For example, a sequence of a closing bracket (cl-02) and a full stop (cl-06) takes one and a half em spaces together (see Fig. 3.125). However, if an opening bracket (cl-01) follows immediately after the full stop, these punctuation marks will need two em size spaces together. Hence, no adjustment is needed to correctly align the line end (see Fig. 3.125).

    Examples of sequences of punctuation marks.
    Fig. 3.125: Examples of sequences of punctuation marks.
  3. Mixtures of characters with different sizes (see Fig. 3.126).

    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size.
    Fig. 3.126: Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size.

    (note 1)

    In cases where additional information like page references, explanations of terminology, etc. appear within brackets, sometimes the character size is a level smaller than the character size established by the kihon-hanmen.

  4. Cases where line head wrapping, line end wrapping or unbreakable character sequences should not be broken (see Fig. 3.33).

3.8.2 Reduction and Addition of Inter-Character Space

Line adjustment processing targets places with a predefined space size or solid setting. Methods for line adjustment are as follows.

  1. Line adjustment by inter-character space reduction. This means that a half em space is reduced after commas (cl-07) or closing brackets (cl-02), or before opening brackets (cl-01), and Western word space (cl-26) is reduced within a defined limit.

  2. Line adjustment by inter-character space expansion. Line adjustment by inter-character space expansion means expanding inter-character space for line adjustment, where inter-character space is allowed to be extended up to a defined limit, such as for Western word space (cl-26) or other places where it is not prohibited to extend inter-character space.

Normally line adjustment by inter-character space reduction is preferred. Only when there are no spaces that can be reduced is line adjustment by inter-character space expansion applied. The reason for the preference of line adjustment by inter-character space reduction comes from the thinking that characters in solid setting should not have more inter character space, if at all possible.

(note 1)

Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is a method of avoiding line head wrap of full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07). This method is not formally defined in JIS X 4051, however JIS X 4051 does provide explanatory material about it.

Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is a method which is only applied to full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07). These touch the hanmen and are set in a place outside the defined line length (see Fig. 3.127). This is also applied, for example, in books, in order to avoid the addition of inter character space and maintain solid setting. However, line adjustment by hanging punctuation is not an appropriate method for dealing with a mixture of Japanese and Latin script text, since the latter principally does not apply line adjustment by hanging punctuation. In addition, there is another argument against line adjustment by hanging punctuation. Originally it was a method used in letterpress printing, to make the task of line adjustment easier. Furthermore, as shown at the end of line 1 and 5 of Fig. 3.127, if possible the full stops (cl-06) or commas (cl-07) are placed at the line end (the 18th position). In DTP there are examples of hanging punctuation like in line 3, but this may be regarded as unnecessary processing.

Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation.
Fig. 3.127: Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation.

(note 2)

The processing mentioned here that the value of Western word spaces are reduced or added between indicated range is only applicable for the cases that Western texts are inserted into the Japanese texts in common Japanese books. In general, the value of Western word space (cl-26) shall be decided with the consideration of the kind of typeface, font size and the value of line gap. In Western typography, there is a method to decide only the minimum word space value (ex. a fourth em) and add appropriate space values, not using space reduction.

3.8.3 Procedures for Inter-Character Space Reduction

For line adjustment by inter-character space reduction decisions must first be made about the preferred order in which reduction processing options are applied, and the maximum amount of space reduction needed. Inter-character space reduction is processed with following priorities.

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 provides also definitions for the adaptation of inline cutting note, but for the purpose of this section, these are rather complex and hence left out.

(note 2)

The details of inter-character spaces and where reduction processing may be applied are described in the table of Appendix D Opportunities for Inter-character Space Reduction during Line Adjustment, following 3.9 About Character Classes.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is reduced by equal amounts, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space between words. The same space reduction is applied to all spaces on the target line at the same time.

  2. The half em space after closing brackets (cl-02),commas (cl-07) and full stops (cl-06) at the end of a line, is deleted and set solid.

  3. The quarter em spaces both before and after the middle dots (cl-05) are deleted and set solid.

  4. The quarter em space before or after middle dots (cl-05), in the middle of a line, is reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  5. The half em spaces before opening brackets (cl-01) or after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), in the middle of a line, are reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as solid setting.

    (note 1)

    With the exception of the line end position, the half space after full stops (cl-06) should not adapted, since it plays an important role as a sentence separator.

    (note 2)

    Commas (cl-07) fulfill different roles to opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02). Hence, there are examples where it is preferred to reduce the half em space before or after brackets, rather than to reduce the half em space after commas.

    (note 3)

    The reduction of the half em space before opening brackets (cl-01) or after closing brackets (cl-02) and commas (cl-07) up to solid setting is regarded as too much reduction. Hence, there are examples where the maximum amount of space reduction is up to quarter em space.

  6. The quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)), is reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as one eighth em space.

    (note 1)

    There are also examples where the quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (Western characters (cl-27), grouped numerals (cl-24) or unit symbols (cl-25)) is regarded as fixed size space, and space adaptation is not applied.

In JIS X 4051, the space after closing brackets (cl-02), commas (cl-07) and middle dots (cl-05) at the end of a line are set solid, and the space after commas (cl-07) at the end of a line is set to a half em. Accordingly, JIS X 4051 defines the priority of processing as follows:

(note 1)

The details of the inter-character spaces, where the inter-space reduction processing can be applied, which is defined in JIS X 4051, is described in detail in the Table 5 of Appendix D Opportunities for Inter-character Space Reduction during Line Adjustment in accordance with the character class concept in 3.9 About Character Classes.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is reduced by equal amounts, to leave a minimum of a quarter em space between words.

  2. The quarter em space before and after middle dots (cl-05) is reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  3. The half em spaces before opening brackets (cl-01) and after closing brackets (cl-02) or commas (cl-07), are reduced equally with proportional character size as far as solid setting.

  4. The quarter em spaces between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) are reduced equally with proportional character size, as far as a 1/8th em space.

3.8.4 Procedures for Inter-Character Space Expansion

As with line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, for line adjustment by inter-character space expansion at first the order of processing and the maximum amount of space to be added are defined. In JIS X 4051, the following processing order is defined.

  1. Western word space (cl-26), which is usually one third em, is added equally with proportional character size up to a maximum of a half em size for each space.

  2. The quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals (cl-24), Western characters (cl-27) and unit symbols (cl-25)) is increased equally with proportional character size, up to half em space (or one third em space).

    (note 1)

    Like with inter-character space reduction, there are also examples there the quarter em space between Japanese text (hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) and ideographic characters (cl-19)) and Latin script text (Western characters (cl-27), grouped numerals (cl-24) and unit symbols (cl-25)) is regarded as a fixed space size, and space adaptation is not applied.

  3. For places which do not fall under (a) or (b) and which do not have the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi), space is added equally with proportional character size up to a quarter em space.

  4. In addition to the adaptation in the manner of (a), (b) and (c), in cases where such processing is not possible, space is added equally with proportional character size, with the exception of places which require the inseparable character rule (bunrikinshi).

    (note 1)

    JIS X 4051 provides a definition in addition to (d). This says that it depends on each layout processing system whether inter-character space should be added equally. This includes the space between Western characters (cl-27).

    (note 2)

    The detail of the places where space expansion is possible for line adjustment is described in Appendix E Opportunities for Inter-character Space Expansion during Line Adjustment as a complete table, in accordance with the concept of character class in 3.9 About Character Classes.

3.9 About Character Classes

3.9.1 Differences in Positioning of Characters and Symbols

The positioning of characters and symbols may vary depending on the following.

  1. Is the character width full-width, half-width, or something else?

  2. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line head? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  3. Is it allowed or forbidden to place the character or symbol at the line end? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  4. Are characters and symbols appearing in sequence in solid setting, or will there be a fixed size space between them? For example, sequences of ideographic characters (cl-19) and hiragana (cl-15) are set solid, and for Western characters (cl-27) following hiragana (cl-15) there will be quarter em space.

  5. Is it allowed to have a line break within a sequence of characters? For example, there must not be a line break in a sequence of grouped numerals (cl-24).

  6. Is it allowed to use the space between characters in a sequence during line adjustment processing? For example, is inter-character space reduction or addition possible between the characters appearing in sequence? Another issue to be decided is the preferred order for adjustment processing, and the amount of the allowed adjustment.

3.9.2 Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning

During layout processing, the issues mentioned in the previous section are addressed by grouping characters and symbols according to their characteristics, and handling them as character classes.

JIS X 4051 also provides similar character classes but that are slightly different from this document. Furthermore JIS X 4051 states that it is implementation-defined how to handle characters that are not explicitly mentioned, e.g. whether they should belong to either class or not.

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051 Annex 1, the member characters and symbols of each character class are specified as a mapping table to JIS X 0213 character names.

A few character classes of this document are modified from JIS X 4051. In Appendix A Character Classes, there is a whole mapping table to ISO/IEC 10646 Annex A collection 285 (BASIC JAPANESE) and collection 286 (JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHIC EXTENSION). All character classes of this document are as follows:

  1. Opening brackets (cl-01)

    Example:

    ‘“(〔[{〈《「『【

    etc.

  2. Closing brackets (cl-02)

    Example:

    ’”)〕]}〉》」』】

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and COMMA "," are classified as closing brackets (cl-02), because they have similar positioning methods. However, in this document, the handling of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA "、" and COMMA "," are described as an independent class, named commas (cl-07).

  3. Hyphens (cl-03)

    Example:

    ‐〜

    etc.

  4. Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

    Example:

    ?!

    etc.

  5. Middle dots (cl-05)

    Example:

    ・:;

  6. Full stops (cl-06)

    Example:

    。.

  7. Commas (cl-07)

    Example:

    、,

  8. Inseparable characters (cl-08)

    Example:

    —…‥

    etc.

  9. Iteration marks (cl-09)

    Example:

    ヽヾゝゞ々

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, iteration marks such as IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" are classified as "no line break allowed before" characters. In this document, IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" etc. are classified as iteration marks (cl-09).

    (note 2)

    There is another method where it is permitted to break a line before IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々". In this case, IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK "々" is regarded as a member of ideographic characters (cl-19).

  10. Prolonged sound marks (cl-10)

    Example:

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー" is a member of "Japanese characters with no line break allowed before". In this document KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー" is the only member of prolonged sound mark (cl-10).

    (note 2)

    In JIS X 4051, it is permitted to exclude KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー" from the "Japanese characters with no line break allowed before" character class.

    (note 3)

    When it is permitted to break a line before KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー", KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK "ー" is regarded as a member of the katakana (cl-16) class.

  11. Small kana (cl-11)

    Example:

    ぁぃぅぇぉァィゥェォっゃゅょッャュョ

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, small katakana letters, such as KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU "ッ", are regarded as members of "Japanese characters with no line break allowed before" character class. In this document, small katakana letters are classified in small kana (cl-11). Accordingly, the "Japanese characters with no line break allowed before" character class in JIS X 4051 is divided to three separate classes; iteration marks (cl-09), prolonged sound mark (cl-10) and small kana (cl-11).

    (note 2)

    In JIS X 4051, it is permitted to exclude small kana letters (ぁぃぅァィゥ etc.) from the "Japanese characters with no line break allowed before" character class as an implementation definable option.

    (note 3)

    When it is permitted to break a line before small hiragana (ぁぃぅ etc.) are regarded as members of the hiragana (cl-15) class, and small katakana (ァィゥ etc.) are regarded as members of the katakana (cl-16) class.

  12. Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

    Example:

    ¥$£#

    etc.

  13. Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

    Example:

    °′″℃¢%‰

    etc.

  14. Full-width ideographic space (cl-14)

    Example:

    U+3000 IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE

  15. Hiragana (cl-15)

    Example:

    あいうえおかがきぎ

    etc.

    (note 1)

    The reason kanji etc. (Japanese characters except 1. to 12.) and hiragana are regarded different classes in JIS X 4051, is the difference in the case of ruby, and specifically the handling in terms of characters jutting out of the base and overhanging adjacent characters.

  16. Katakana (cl-16)

    Example:

    アイウエオカガキギ

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, katakana and kanji are included in the same class (Japanese characters except for 1. to 12.). However, in this document, when ruby characters jut out of the base characters and overhang adjacent hiragana or katakana, the handling is same. That is the reason that in this document, katakana (cl-16) is an independent character class.

  17. Math symbols (cl-17)

    Example:

    =≠<>≦≧⊆⊇∪∩

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, math symbols (+-÷×etc.) and math operators (=≠<>≦≧⊆⊇∪∩etc.) are included in the "Japanese characters excluded from 1. to 12." class or Western character class. However, handling of math symbols and math operators adjacent to Western character or Arabic numerals is different from kanji. So, in this document, new math operators (cl-18) and math symbols (cl-17) classes are defined.

    (note 2)

    From mathematical view point, "∪∩∧∨⊕⊗" are included in math operators (cl-18), however, in this document, these symbols are included in math symbols (cl-17) because these symbols are traditionally considered to behave in the same way as other Math symbols.

  18. Math operators (cl-18)

    Example:

    +-÷×

    etc.

  19. Ideographic characters (cl-19)

    Example:

    亜唖娃阿哀愛挨〃仝〆♂♀

    etc.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, corresponding character class for ideographic characters (cl-19) is "Japanese characters excluded from 1. to 12.".

  20. Characters as reference marks (cl-20)

    Characters which are inside verification seal (those are characters inside a verification seal that appear in the line just after the item applicable for reference marks of notes). See 4.2.2 Note Numbers.

  21. Ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

    (note 1)

    The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in ornamented base characters complex". The meaning of "base characters complex" is characters in a complex including ruby, ornament characters and emphasis dots.

  22. Simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22)

    (note 1)

    The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in base characters complex with ruby (excluding jukugo-ruby)".

  23. Jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23)

    (note 1)

    The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in base characters complex with jukugo-ruby".

  24. Grouped numerals (cl-24)

    Sequences of European numerals which are not full-width and are handled as Japanese text, the decimal point or the comma and space used as grade indicator in number.

  25. Unit symbols (cl-25)

    Units described here include combinations of Latin script and Greek script characters used for international units (SI).

    (note 1)

    There are units created with combinations of Latin and Greek script characters with a full-width character frame (full-width units). Such units are not part of the characters for units described here. Furthermore, full-width characters for units are mainly used in vertical writing mode. Their usage in horizontal writing mode is regarded as bad style and should be avoided (see Fig. 3.128).

    Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part).
    Fig. 3.128: Example of a unit which encompasses a full-width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part).
  26. Western word space (cl-26)

  27. Western characters (cl-27)

    (note 1)

    Western characters (cl-27) include punctuation marks, such as commas, used in Western context. Among these punctuation marks, several marks are used both in a Japanese context and Western context. However, these marks have different character shapes depending on whether they are used in a Japanese context or Western context. For example, LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" has not only different width (Japanese, half em, Western, proportional) but are also different in line position (Japanese, center of the character frame in the inline direction, Western, base line and descender line dependent) and design (Japanese, slightly bent and constant line thickness, Western, strongly curved and dynamic line thickness). The usage of these two differently designed commas should be explicit. Usually, in a Japanese context Japanese design is used, and in Western context Western design is used. However, there are some ambiguous cases, such as "エディター(editor)は……". In this case, English spelling is indicated using parentheses in a Japanese line of text. In this particular case, Japanese design is better.

  28. Warichu opening brackets (cl-28)

    Example:

    (〔[

    etc.

  29. Warichu closing brackets (cl-29)

    Example:

    )〕]

    etc.

    (note 1)

    warichu opening brackets (cl-28) and warichu closing brackets (cl-29) are used for surrounding inline cutting notes and the space. They are in a separate class since they differ from normal brackets with regard to their processing.

  30. Characters in tate-chu-yoko (cl-30)

3.9.3 Positioning Methods for each Character Class

For each character class it is possible to describe whether the characters may appear at the line head or line end or not, the positioning method for the line head or line end positions (if available), the amount of space between sequences of several characters, and the combination with character classes before or after the characters (in a 2 dimensional table). In JIS X 4051 this is shown in table 5 "Amount of space (between characters)".

(note 1)

For the presentation as a two dimensional table, it becomes necessary for each class to have separate items about "line head" (the column about the character classes appearing before) and "line end" (the column about the character classes appearing after). If it is forbidden that the characters of the class appear at the line head or line end, JIS X 4051 uses an "X" mark in the columns for "line head" and "line end".

Also, it can be defined for each combination of the character classes (in a two dimensional table) whether the characters of classes appearing in sequence allow for a line break between them, or whether it is possible during line adjustment processing to add inter character space between them. In JIS X 4051 these items are also shown in a two dimensional table. Table 6 shows whether a line break is possible, and table 7 shows if it is possible to add inter character space.

(note 1)

It is also possible to define for each combination of character classes whether it is possible to apply kerning during line adjustment processing for character classes appearing in sequence. However, JIS X 4051 does not provide this information as a two dimensional table, but only as a textual description.

The width, in principle, of the space between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document is described in the table of Appendix B Spacing between Characters.

The combinations of adjacent characters and symbols in character classes used in this document, and where text is breakable or not, is described in the table of Appendix C Possibilities for Line-breaking between Characters.

The width of spaces between each character or symbol in character classes used in this document, and which can be reduced, is described in the table of Appendix D Opportunities for Inter-character Space Reduction during Line Adjustment. Also, expandable spaces are described in the table of Appendix E Opportunities for Inter-character Space Expansion during Line Adjustment.

4 Positioning of Headings, Notes, Illustrations, Tables and Paragraphs


4.1 Handling of Headings (including Page Breaks)

4.1.1 Types of Headings

In terms of text composition, there are four types of headings.

  1. Naka-tobira or han-tobira

  2. Block headings

  3. Run-in headings

  4. Cut-in headings

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 describes naka-tobira and han-tobira in "8.2 Handling of naka-tobira".

(note 2)

JIS X 4051 describes block headings, run-in headings and cut-in headings in "8.3 Handling of headings".

(note 3)

Punctuation marks are also used in headings, and usually used in the same manner as in the main text. However, sometimes, half em spaces before opening brackets (cl-01), and, after closing brackets (cl-02) and commas (cl-07) are changed to solid setting or quarter em spaces because of the larger character size of headings.

(note 4)

Some types of magazine use horizontal headings with extremely large character size, even in vertical writing mode, to emphasize the headings. Even inclined headings can sometimes be seen. However, in common books, only vertically written headings are used in vertical writing mode.

Naka-tobira is used to separate sections of books. One whole odd page is used for the section title and the following even page is left blank. Naka-tobira sometimes includes author's names and illustrations, in addition to the section title (see Fig. 4.1). Some kinds of book, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries and annual reports, use a different kind of paper from that in the main text.

An example naka-tobira
Fig. 4.1: An example naka-tobira

Han-tobira is a simplified naka-tobira. The following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.

Most books are usually set using naka-tobira or han-tobira, even when sections need not be separated with naka-tobira. In such cases, at the very top of the main text, namely just after the front matter, one naka-tobira is commonly set to show the book title itself.

A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set from the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type (see Fig. 4.2).

An example of block heading
Fig. 4.2: An example of block heading

(note 1)

Headings are sub titles, which separate and indicate sub parts with one coherent set of content. Headings are usually classified into several levels, like naka-tobira or han-tobira, top level heading, medium level heading and low level heading.

(note 2)

The depth of heading levels depends on the content of the book itself. It is commonly said that the depth should be limited to three or four levels at most to make the structure of content clearer.

(note 3)

In multi-column format, block headings sometimes span multiple columns. This style is called "dan-nuki midashi", which corresponds to "column spanning heading" in accordance with the terminology in Appendix G.

An example with Spanning block heading
Fig. 4.3: An example with Spanning block heading

A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading (see Fig. 4.4). Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.

An example of run-in heading.
Fig. 4.4: An example of run-in heading.

A drop heading is a somewhat modified run-in heading style. The footprint of the heading is followed by two or three main text lines without line breaks, like drop caps (see Fig. 4.5). Drop headings are usually used for low level headings.

An example of cut-in heading
Fig. 4.5: An example of cut-in heading

4.1.2 Elements of Block Heading

JIS X 4051 describes the elements of a block heading as follows: top level heading, medium level heading and low level heading have to have a label name, number, heading title and heading sub-title (see Fig. 4.6). Note that the label name, number and heading sub-title are not mandatory.

Elements of block heading
Fig. 4.6: Elements of block heading

There are several different styles of heading as follows: the heading is enclosed with symbols at the top and the bottom, rules (or thin lines) are inserted before and after the heading line, or the heading is enclosed with rectangular rules (or thin lines).

4.1.3 Font Selection and Heading Font Size

Headings have a hierarchical structure. So, each level of heading has to have an appropriate visual style. The following issues have to be considered:

  1. Character size for the heading

    The character size of headings should be selected as appropriate in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the small-headings are usually set with 10 points, medium-headings are usually set with 12 points and large-headings are usually set with 14 points. The character size of headings is usually larger than main text, and the character size of higher level headings are larger than the size of smaller size headings. Fig. 4.7 is an example of this principle.

    An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels
    Fig. 4.7: An example of different character sizes corresponding to the heading levels

    (note 1)

    JIS X 4051 describes the character sizes for different heading levels below as informative.

    1. According to table 1 in JIS Z 8305 (basic sizes of fonts), use a series of point sizes in the left column (for 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, the differences are 1 point, for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 point, the differences are 2 points, for 24, 28, 32, 36, 40 point, the differences are 4 points).

    2. Based on the character size of main text and scaling sizes with constant ratio. The ratio is usually 15% to 20%.

    (note 2)

    Small-headings are sometimes set with a Japanese gothic face and smaller character size than the character size of the main text. For example, for 8 point mincho main text, set the small-headings with 8 point Japanese gothic.

  2. Type faces for headings

    Both mincho and Japanese gothic are usually used. Other type face designs are seldom used.

    (note 1)

    Usually, the character size for main text mincho is 8 point or 9 point and the weight is light (Hoso-mincho). For such main text, heading font weight sometimes changes to a heavier weight for better balance (see Fig. 4.8).

    An example of same mincho but different weight for headings
    Fig. 4.8: An example of same mincho but different weight for headings
  3. Alignment of headings (inline direction)

    In the case of horizontal writing mode, large-headings and medium-headings are in most cases centre-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.

    (note 1)

    The number of characters of line head indent for a heading depends on the heading level. If the heading level is higher, the indent character number is less, if the heading level is lower, the number of indent characters is more. The character size is based on the main text of the kihon-hanmen. The differences of character numbers are usually around two characters. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the indent of a large heading is 9 point by 4 times, medium-heading is 9 point by 6 times, small-heading is 9 point by 8 times.

    (note 2)

    The reason the value of the indent is based on the main text is to align the top of the heading to the edge of the character boundary of the main text. Accordingly, so that the main text is set solid, the indent value of a heading is recommended to be an integral multiplication of the main character size (see Fig. 4.9).

    An example of indented heading
    Fig. 4.9: An example of indented heading
  4. Block direction footprint of headings

    Generally, the block direction footprint of any element of layout, including figures, notes and headings, should be aligned to the line positions of the kihon-hanmen. Accordingly, the block direction space is set based on a number of lines in the kihon-hanmen. This method is usually called "gyou-dori". "Gyou-dori" is a very complicated issue, and provokes much discussion, so the detail will be discussed in another section with examples. Details will be discussed in 4.1.6 Processing of Gyou-dori and 4.1.7 Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page.

  5. The beginning position of headings around page breaks etc.

    The handling of headings around page breaks and other places will be discussed in 4.1.4 How to Handle Headings with New Recto, Page Break and New Column.

  6. At any level, when the number of characters for a heading is two or three, the heading is sometimes set with fixed inter-character spacing. Examples are shown below (see Fig. 4.10).

    An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing
    Fig. 4.10: An example of a heading with fixed inter-character spacing
  7. Whether to decorate with solid lines, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.

4.1.4 How to Handle Headings with New Recto, Page Break and New Column

A large heading sometimes starts with a new page following a page break, to clarify the separation between sections. The processing below should be followed:

(note 1)

Processing with a new page is described in JIS X 4051 "8.1 New recto, Page break and new column".

  1. Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto. Used for Naka-tobira, han-tobira and large-heading.

    (note 1)

    Books usually begin with page one. Accordingly, vertical writing mode and books bound on the right-hand side begin with a left page, horizontal writing mode and books bound on the left-hand side begin with a right page after a new recto (see Fig. 4.11).

    An example of new recto (vertical writing mode)
    Fig. 4.11: An example of new recto (vertical writing mode)
  2. Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for large-heading.

  3. Always begin with even pages. Used for magazines articles beginning a spread page. Begin with right pages when in vertical writing mode and bound on the right-hand side. Begin with left pages when in horizontal writing mode and bound on the left-hand side.

  4. In multicolumn format, begin with a new column.

  5. Following previous text (see Fig. 4.12), i.e. "nariyuki". Medium-headings and small-headings are usually processed with "nariyuki". Note that medium-headings are sometimes processed with a page break. Even when "nariyuki" mode is adopted, small-headings sometimes happen to be set at the top of new pages, also the headings at the very end of pages or columns are sometimes moved to the top of next page or column, for aesthetic reasons. (Details are described at 4.1.7 Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page.)

    An example of a "nariyuki" heading
    Fig. 4.12: An example of a "nariyuki" heading

4.1.5 Handling of Spaces just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges

Spaces just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns are treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):

  1. In the case of single column typesetting, the spaces just before the new rectos and page breaks are left as they are (see Fig. 4.13).

    An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting)
    Fig. 4.13: An example of processing of the page just before a page break (one column setting)
  2. In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as it is.

  3. In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining spaces are left as they are (see Fig. 4.14).

    An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break.
    Fig. 4.14: An example of text handling for vertical writing mode and multi-column format just before the page break.
  4. In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the kihon-hanmen results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by blank space (see Fig. 4.15).

    An example of handling of spaces just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format
    Fig. 4.15: An example of handling of spaces just before page breaks, in the case of horizontal writing mode and multi-column format

4.1.6 Processing of Gyou-dori

"Gyou-dori" is the process of specifying the footprint of headings in the block direction by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis and by deciding how many times they need to be used. The length of the footprint in the block direction is calculated as follows: (line width in the block direction) × (line number) + (line gap) * (line number − 1). However, when the heading footprint happens to appear in middle of the page or the column, the footprint has adjacent line gaps before and after, and when the heading footprint happens to appear at the top of the page or the column, the footprint has an adjacent line gap after.

The following procedures are some of the ways "betsugyou" headings are processed based on the "gyou-dori" method:

  1. Set the heading text at the center of the space specified with multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when the heading is set at the center of a three line space, it is called "center of three lines space". Following are some examples (see Fig. 4.16 et al). In these figures, gray rectangles indicate the main text, and dotted rectangles in the heading area indicate the space specified with kihon-hanmen text lines. Also, running headings and page numbers are indicated with gray rectangles.

    (note 1)

    The character size of a sub-title is usually two thirds of the main heading character size. The line gap is usually half the heading character size, narrower than the line gaps of main text lines. In the line head alignment case, the sub heading is indented, and in the centering case, the sub heading is also centered. The main heading and the sub heading should not be separated across two pages or two columns. It is expected that the main heading and the sub heading are treated as one object.

    (note 2)

    When heading text happens to be broken across lines, the break point should be decided with consideration given to the balance of the line head indent and the content itself. It is not aesthetically good that the bottom of the indented heading reach near the bottom of the kihon-hanmen. For example, proper nouns should not be broken, particles should not set at the top of the line. The line gap should be narrowed to be seen as one object. For example, line gap between headings that are broken across lines is one third em or a half em of the heading character size. The second line of a heading that breaks across a line is set with inline indent. The heading lines are treated as one object, and are not separately set across two pages or two columns.

  2. Set the heading text at the center of the footprint specified with a multiple number of lines of the kihon-hanmen, and add space size before and/or after also specified using numbers of lines of the kihon-hanmen. For example, when adding space corresponding to the size of one line of the kihon-hanmen, it is called a one line blank space. Following are some examples (see Fig. 4.21 et al).

  3. Set the heading text in the space specified with multiple number of lines from the kihon-hanmen, with specific specifications regarding size. In this case, the size of the heading block in the block direction is the total of the previous space, the character size and the after space, and the size should be the same as the space occupied by multiple lines of the kihon-hanmen. Following are some examples (see Fig. 4.24 et al).

  4. Set one line heading at the place decided by the kihon-hanmen design and set one blank line before the heading line. Blank lines may be more than one line, but such cases are very rare. This style is commonly used for small-headings. Following are some examples (see Fig. 4.26 et al).

  5. When headings are on multiple levels, set "gyou-dori" headings with different line spaces per heading level. There are two cases. One is the single heading case, the other is adjacent multiple headings. In these cases, spaces in the block direction should look the same in both the single heading case and in the case of adjacent different level headings. To implement this design, in some cases, same level headings have different spaces depending on whether the heading is single or whether headings are adjacent. There are some examples in Fig. 4.29.

  6. The heading is set in a block of multiple lines, which is specified by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis, but is not set in the center of the block but rather specified by specification of line numbers and spaces before and after. See an example in Fig. 4.30 et al.

    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.16: Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.17: Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated lines (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page).
    Fig. 4.18: Example three of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading, which is permitted to be set in one column of the hanmen, is set at the bottom of an even page).
    Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with sub-title is set around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.19: Example four of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (a heading with sub-title is set around the center of the page).
    Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.20: Example five of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines (the heading has two lines and set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.21: Example one of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.22: Example two of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with a blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example  of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.23: Example of a heading set in the center of indicated multiple lines with one blank line after (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.24: Example one of a heading set in the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.25: Example two of a heading set the specified position relative to multiple lines (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.26: Example one of a heading with one blank line before (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.27: Example two of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the top of the page).
    Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)).
    Fig. 4.28: Example three of a heading set with one blank line before (the heading is set in the bottom of even page (This case is limited to vertical writing mode and one column style)).
    Examples of top level,  medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style.
    Fig. 4.29: Examples of top level, medium level and low level heading in gyou-dori style.
    Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Fig. 4.30: Example one of a heading set with specification of line numbers in kihon-hanmen and blank lines before and after (the heading is set in around the center of the page).
    Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page).
    Fig. 4.31: Example one of instruction of line numbers in block direction for headings and blank lines before and after (The heading is set in the top of the page).

4.1.7 Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page

When the gyou-dori heading is set at the bottom of the page (or the top of the page), the processing is done as follows in consideration of the visual effect:

  1. Except for (d) of the previous section, when it is not possible to set the heading block at the bottom of the page, the block is set at the top of the next page and the remaining space at the bottom of the former page may be left blank (see 4.1.8 Processing when a One Line Space is Set Before a Low Level Heading for the case of the previous section).

  2. When there is space for the heading block at the bottom of the page but no space for following main text, in cases involving vertical writing style on an odd page, horizontal writing style on an odd page and horizontal writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the top of the next page and remaining space at the bottom of the previous page may be left blank (see Fig. 4.32). In the case of vertical writing style on an even page, the heading block is set at the bottom of the page.

    An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style.
    Fig. 4.32: An example of heading blocks set at the top of even page, when the heading block is come to the bottom of odd page of vertical writing style.

    (note 1)

    In vertical writing style the heading block at the bottom of an even page is naturally followed by the main text on the next odd page (see Fig. 4.33). Note that there is the style to process to set the heading block to the top of the next page like for the odd page case.

    An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page
    Fig. 4.33: An example of heading set at the bottom of vertical writing style even page
  3. When the heading block of gyou-dori comes at the bottom of the column, the block is moved to the top of the next for reasons of visual aesthetics. The blank space of the bottom of a previous column needs some processing, however it may be left blank if there is no solution.

4.1.8 Processing when a One Line Space is Set Before a Low Level Heading

When a one line space is set before a low level heading, the following different cases apply when the one line space comes at the top of the page.

  1. When the low level heading with a one line space before comes at the top of the page, the one line space is always set before the heading. The reason is that the heading and the one line space before are regarded as one unified object.

    (note 1)

    With this policy, the tail of the previous page fall into one of the following three cases: (1) the lines of the before page are filled with text, (2) the last line is set blank, (3) the last two lines are set blank. Except (1), in cases (2) and (3), the blank line before the low level heading is doubled (see Fig. 4.34).

    Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page
    Fig. 4.34: Example one of a low level heading where one blank line comes at the top of the page
  2. When a heading with one blank line comes at the top of the page, the blank line before should be deleted. At the top of the page there is already space before the line, so there is no need for an additional blank line.

    (note 1)

    With this principle, there are three cases: (1) the previous page is filled with text lines, (2) the bottom of the previous page is one blank line, (3) the bottom of the previous page is two blank lines. In case (1) there is no blank line, in case (2) and (3) the blank line before the heading is at the bottom of the previous page (see Fig. 4.35).

    Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page
    Fig. 4.35: Example two of a heading with one blank line that comes at the top of the page
  3. When a heading with one blank line before comes at the top of the page, if the previous page is filled with lines of text, set the blank line before the heading, and if the bottom of the previous page has one or two blank lines, set no blank line before the heading (Fig. 4.36).

    Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page
    Fig. 4.36: Example three of a heading with one blank line before that comes at the top of the page

4.1.9 Processing of Run-in Headings

Run-in headings are usually used for low level headings. The following are some examples of run-in headings. Inter-character space between the run-in heading and following main text is usually a one em space of the base character size decided for the kihon-hanmen. Note that the run-in heading may be set at the last line of the page, or of the column in multi column style.

  1. The run-in heading is set with the same character size as the main text and with Japanese gothic face (see Fig. 4.37).

    Example one of run-in heading
    Fig. 4.37: Example one of run-in heading
  2. Set the run-in heading with one level smaller character size than the main text and use Japanese gothic face (see Fig. 4.38).

    Example two of run-in heading
    Fig. 4.38: Example two of run-in heading
  3. Set the run-in heading with the same character size and type-face as the main text. Note that the heading number or Western characters (cl-27) at the top of the heading are set with Japanese gothic face or bold face, for emphasis (see Fig. 4.39).

    Example three of run-in heading
    Fig. 4.39: Example three of run-in heading

4.1.10 Processing of Cut-in Headings

Drop headings are also used for low level headings. A drop heading has no label name or heading number. Processing is as follows (see Fig. 4.40):

(note 1)

A drop heading is frequently used in Shinsho-ban (Japanese non-fiction paperback style, 105mm*173mm), because it is very easy to recognize the block of low level heading text.

An example of cut-in headings
Fig. 4.40: An example of cut-in headings
  1. Set the cut-in heading with one rank smaller character size than the main text or the same character size as the main text, and with Japanese gothic face.

  2. It is better that the cut-in heading occupies a maximum of three lines and ten characters per line. JIS X 4051 determines that cut-in headings with up to six characters should be one line, up to twenty characters should be two lines and more than twenty-one characters should be three lines. When the cut-in heading has two lines, each line has half the number of characters of the heading text. When the cut-in heading has three lines, each line has a third of the number of characters of the heading text. If lines have a different number of characters, the last line may have less characters, and the remainder may be blank space. The line gap of two or three lines of cut-in heading is usually a fourth of an em of the heading character size.

  3. The line indent of a cut-in heading is usually a half em of the base character size for the kihon-hanmen. The in-line direction length of a cut-in heading is usually multiples of the character size for the kihon-hanmen. The space between the cut-in heading and the main text is usually more than one em and less than two em of the character size for the kihon-hanmen.

  4. When a cut-in heading has one line, the heading is set in the center of a two line space of the kihon-hanmen and two lines of main text are set following the cut-in heading. When the cut-in heading has two lines or three lines, the heading is set in the center of a three line space of the kihon-hanmen and three lines of main text follow the cut-in heading.

    An example of a one line cut-in heading
    Fig. 4.41: An example of a one line cut-in heading
    An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings
    Fig. 4.42: An example of two lines or three lines cut-in headings
  5. A cut-in heading may be set at the end of a page or column. Note that if the space is less than the block direction width of the cut-in heading, the heading should be set on a new page or new column and the blank before the heading may be left as is. One cut-in heading is not set across two pages or two columns.

    (note 1)

    When a two line cut-in heading comes at the end of a page and only two lines of kihon-hanmen are left for the heading, two lines of main text may follow the cut-in text, in some cases.

4.1.11 Processing of Column Spanning Headings

In multi-column pages, headings spanning multiple columns are processed as follows:

(note 1)

In multi-column books, the top level heading for the start page usually spans all columns designed in the kihon-hanmen. In common magazines, the title of the start page of an article usually spans all columns designed in the kihon-hanmen. There are examples where medium headings do not span not all columns.

  1. A spanning heading spanning all columns in the kihon-hanmen is usually set at the top of the page after the page break or new recto. However, there are cases where full spanning headings are set around the middle of the page. In such cases, main text lines are turned back before the heading block, including before headings that are not full spanning headings (see Fig. 4.43).

    Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block
    Fig. 4.43: Example one of spanning block heading turned back before the heading block
  2. When turning back main text before a spanning block, if the divided text lines are not same, the last column has less lines and remaining blank lines may be left as is (see Fig. 4.44). In vertical writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the column nearest the bottom, and in horizontal writing mode, the column with the least number of lines is the right-most column.

    Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading
    Fig. 4.44: Example two of turning back of main text lines before spanning block heading
  3. The less spanning block headings are usually set in the middle of the page. In these cases, the way in which multi column heading blocks are set is decided as follows:

    1. When setting main text lines in multiple columns, if the spanning block heading appears in the first column, the spanning heading block is set to start from the first column (Fig. 4.45).

      Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Fig. 4.45: Example one of spanning block heading started from the first column
    2. When main text lines are set following the multi column region, if a spanning block heading does not appear in the top column, the heading is set in that column or in the previous column. If the heading block appears before the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from the previous column (see Fig. 4.46). If the heading block appears after the block direction center of the column, the heading is set from that column itself (see Fig. 4.47). Note that if the line direction bottom of the heading block runs out of the hanmen, the heading block is set from previous columns (see Fig. 4.48).

      Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Fig. 4.46: Example two of spanning block heading started from the first column
      Example three of which  column the spanning block heading is set from
      Fig. 4.47: Example three of which column the spanning block heading is set from
      Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from
      Fig. 4.48: Example four of which column the spanning block heading is set from
  4. Spanning block headings are not set at the bottom of columns. Full spanning block headings are moved to the top of the next page. The bottom of the previous page is processed in the same way as for new recto and page break cases. Less column spanning block headings are moved to other positions, usually one column down.

4.2 Processing of Notes

4.2.1 Kinds of Notes

The following kinds of notes are used in Japanese text layout, besides notes between LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")" or warichu:

  1. Endnotes: Notes used both in horizontal writing mode and vertical writing mode, set after a paragraph, a clause, a chapter or the whole base text. In vertical writing mode this type is most frequently used (see Fig. 4.49). In horizontal writing mode, the frequency of this type is second after footnotes (see Fig. 4.50).

    An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.49: An example of an endnote in vertical writing mode
    An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode
    Fig. 4.50: An example of an endnote in horizontal writing mode
  2. Headnotes (in vertical writing mode) : Notes set above the kihon-hanmen in vertical writing mode. The area for the headnote is reserved at the upper part of the kihon-hanmen when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes related to a page or spread are set in the same page or spread (see Fig. 4.51). Headnotes are frequently used as explanations for words and idioms of Japanese classic texts. Japanese classic texts are sometimes set with three vertical areas, the top area is used for head notes, the middle area is used for the original text and the bottom area is used for a modern Japanese translation.

    An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.51: An example of headnotes in vertical writing mode
  3. Footnotes (in horizontal writing mode) : Notes set beneath the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 4.52). In horizontal writing mode, footnotes are the most frequently used note style.

    An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode
    Fig. 4.52: An example of a footnote in horizontal writing mode
  4. Footnotes (in vertical writing mode) : The area for the footnote for vertical writing mode is reserved at the bottom of the kihon-hanmen beforehand, when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and notes are set in this area. This is similar to a headnote, but the location is beneath the base text. It is used in Japanese classic texts and keimousho (enlightening books), as explanations for technical terms. When illustrations are included in the footnote, basically the illustrations should be set within the footnote area (see Fig. 4.53).

    An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.53: An example of a footnote in vertical writing mode
  5. Sidenotes (in vertical writing mode) : In vertical writing mode, related notes in a spread are set in the fore-edge of the left (recto) page (see Fig. 4.54). In vertical writing mode, sidenotes are not frequently used. However, this style may be used more frequently, because for the reader this style causes minimal disturbance when following the flow of the base text, and the notes can be set very near to the related base text.

    An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style
    Fig. 4.54: An example of a sidenote in vertical writing style
  6. Sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) : In horizontal writing mode an area for a sidenote is reserved at the fore-edge side when the kihon-hanmen is designed, and the notes related to the page are set in the sidenote area of the same page (Fig. 4.55). Related illustrations are also set in the area. There are cases where sidenotes in horizontal writing style are set not in the fore-edge but right side of both recto and verso pages (Fig. 4.56). There are not so many cases of sidenotes in horizontal writing style. This style is sometimes used for keimousho (enlightening books) with many illustrations.

    Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode
    Fig. 4.55: Example one of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode
    Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages)
    Fig. 4.56: Example two of a sidenote in horizontal writing mode (sidenotes are set in the right side of the pages)

(note 1)

The processing of endnotes (vertical writing mode, horizontal writing mode), footnotes (horizontal writing mode) and sidenotes (vertical writing mode) is described in JIS X 4051 clause 9 "The processing of notes".

(note 2)

Punctuation marks are also used in notes. The behavior of punctuation marks in notes is the same as in base text.

(note 3)

The justification process is also applied to text processing in notes like in base text and paragraph processing. Accordingly, the line adjustment process is also applied to notes like in base text, and the details of the line adjustment process is very much the same as for base text.

(note 4)

Sidenotes in vertical writing mode can be considered as a modified footnote in horizontal writing mode, when conceiving a spread as a page.

(note 5)

Other than these styles of note, explanations of facts and persons in study aid books and history texts, and modern translations of Japanese classic texts are sometimes set between lines. These notes are called interlinear notes (see Fig. 4.57).

An example of a note in inter lines
Fig. 4.57: An example of a note in inter lines

(note 6)

The appropriate style of notes is dependent on the purpose of the notes, the volume of the notes and the content of the notes in each book. In general, it is preferable that notes are set as close as possible to the corresponding position of the base text. However, because sometimes notes are skipped to follow the base text stream, notes should not prevent the user reading the base text without reading the notes.

4.2.2 Note Numbers

Some notes have no explicit relationship to the specific position of the base text, and describe issues only vaguely related to the issues on the same page. However, in most cases, notes are explicitly related to specific positions within the base text using note numbers.

(note 1)

There are cases, in the headnote for vertical writing mode and the sidenote for horizontal writing mode, where notes are set without an explicit relationship to the position of the base text.

(note 2)

Western numerals (for both vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode) and ideographic numerals (for vertical writing mode) are frequently used for note numbers. Beside these numerals, a series of ASTERISK "*" characters, like "*", "**" and "***", or a sequence of ASTERISK "*", DAGGER "†", DOUBLE DAGGER "‡", PILCROW SIGN "¶", SECTION SIGN "§", DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE "‖", NUMBER SIGN "#" in this order are used as note numbers.

(note 3)

Sometimes western numerals and ideographic numerals used as note numbers have accompanying parentheses. Usually, in vertical writing mode they are accompanied by LEFT PARENTHESIS "(" and RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")", and in horizontal writing mode, only RIGHT PARENTHESIS ")".

(note 4)

In vertical writing mode, western numerals used as note numbers are usually set using tate-chu-yoko style (see Fig. 4.58).

An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style.
Fig. 4.58: An example of western numerals as note numbers in tate-chu-yoko style.

(note 5)

In vertical writing mode, the shapes of ideographic numerals used as note numbers are usually modified to a half em size in height. These ideographic characters are called hiraji (see Fig. 4.59).

An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape
Fig. 4.59: An example of ideographic numerals as note numbers with hiraji shape

Note numbers in corresponding positions in the base text are called reference marks. The character class of reference mark is characters as reference marks (cl-20).

There are several principles related to how to reset the series of note numbers. Endnotes are usually reset every chapter or section. Sidenotes in vertical writing mode are usually reset in every spread. Footnotes in horizontal writing mode are usually reset in every page.

Headnotes (in vertical writing mode), footnotes (vertical writing mode) and sidenotes (in horizontal writing mode) sometimes have no note numbers and are set with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic typeface at the top of the note text (see Fig. 4.60).

An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face
Fig. 4.60: An example of a footnote (in vertical writing mode), with corresponding heading text with Japanese gothic face

4.2.3 The Processing of the Reference Mark

There are two styles for setting reference marks (characters as reference marks (cl-20)). One is to set the reference mark adjacent to the target word and on the interlinear right side (in vertical writing mode) or interlinear upper side (in horizontal writing mode). The other is to set the reference mark in the line just after the target word.

(note 1)

characters as reference marks (cl-20) When the target word is at the bottom of the sentence, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set before the full stops (cl-06). There is another method that sets the characters as reference marks (cl-20) after the full stops (cl-06), but this method is very rare.

The method where the reference mark is set on the right side (vertical writing mode) or above (horizontal writing mode) is as follows (see Fig. 4.61, Fig. 4.62).

An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode
Fig. 4.61: An example where reference marks are set in the right inter-line space in vertical writing mode
An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode
Fig. 4.62: An example where reference marks are set in inter-line space above in horizontal writing mode
  1. Character size of reference marks is around 6 points.

  2. In vertical writing mode, the bottom edges of the character frames of the target word and the characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the right side of the characters as reference marks (cl-20) and the target word are aligned. The characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not set outside of the area of the hanmen or column, so in such cases, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are aligned at the top of the line. In this case, characters as reference marks (cl-20) may jut out of the bottom of the target word.

  3. The target word corresponding to the reference mark can be split across a line break where permitted. However, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not split when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02) and are treated as one object.

  4. Reference marks do not affect the default line gap.

  5. Reference marks, attached to the word set in the first line of the page or column, are set touching the outside of the hanmen or column area (see (Fig. 4.61, Fig. 4.62).

In vertical writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set just after the target word inline, as follows (see Fig. 4.63):

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode
Fig. 4.63: An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in vertical writing mode
  1. Character size of reference marks is one or two levels smaller than the character size defined for the kihon-hanmen.

  2. The right side of characters as reference marks (cl-20) is set aligned with the right side of the base character line.

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set solid with the base text before and after, except when followed by opening brackets (cl-01) (see Appendix B Spacing between Characters).

  4. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) do not include line breaks when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

In horizontal writing mode, characters as reference marks (cl-20) are set inline just after the target word as follows (Fig. 4.64):

An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode
Fig. 4.64: An example of reference marks set inline just after the target word in horizontal writing mode
  1. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are same kind to characters for superior scripts.

  2. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid, except for characters as reference marks (cl-20) followed by opening brackets (cl-01).

  3. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not broken across a line end when including opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02), and are handled as a one object. Characters as reference marks (cl-20) are not used for the line adjustment process, i.e., are set solid. Also, characters as reference marks (cl-20) and base characters before and after are set solid.

4.2.4 Processing of Endnotes in Vertical Writing Mode or Horizontal Writing Mode

The following figure is a common example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode (see Fig. 4.65).

An example of endnotes set  at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode
Fig. 4.65: An example of endnotes set at the end of paragraphs in vertical writing mode

Specific issues related to setting endnotes in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode include the following:

  1. The character size of endnotes should be one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    For example, when the character size of the base text is nine points, the character size of endnotes in B6 size or four by six size is seven points, and in A5 size is eight points or seven points.

  2. The indent length should be around two characters sizes of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The line length of endnotes should be an integer-based number of times the endnote character size. The bottom of the endnote line should be set aligned with the bottom edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, the indent length of endnotes needs to be adjusted and the length may sometimes differ by an integer-based number of units based on the base character size of the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    For example, supposing the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen is nine points and one line contains forty three characters, the character size of the endnote is seven points, the indent length is calculated as follows:

    line length of base text

    387 point = 9 point × 43 characters

    convert to 7 point based line length

    387 point = 7 point × 55 characters + 2 point

    Suppose the line length of the endnote is 7 points by 53 characters, the length of indent is 16 points with following calculation:

    16 point = 387 point − 7 point × 53 characters

    Suppose line length of the endnote is 7 points by 52 characters, indent length is 23 points with following calculation:

    23 point = 387 point − 7 point × 52 characters

    Accordingly, in this case, the indent length of the endnote is 16 points or 23 points.

  3. The inter-letter space after the head endnote number is usually the size of a full-width character of the endnote.

  4. When the endnote is two lines or more, the second line and after are indented one or two full-width character sizes longer than the first line.

  5. Line gaps of endnotes are narrower than the line gap of the kihon-hanmen because of the smaller character size of endnotes.

  6. When new chapters are begun after a page break or new recto, endnotes are set just before the page or page break or new recto, and the space after the endnote may be left as is. Only the line gap between the base text and the endnote should be specified. However, when the endnotes are set between paragraphs, the line gap before and after the endnote becomes an issue. Basically, the minimum size of line gaps between the endnote and the base text, before and after, is the line gap decided for the kihon-hanmen, and usually, the line at the end of the hanmen or a column is aligned with the bottom of the hanmen or the column. In these cases, the fraction of line gap is basically adjusted by the increase of the line gap after the endnote, but when the endnote comes to the end of the hanmen or the column, the line gap before the endnote is increased (Fig. 4.66).

    An example of the handling of line gaps before and after  endnotes
    Fig. 4.66: An example of the handling of line gaps before and after endnotes

4.2.5 Processing of Footnotes in Horizontal Writing Mode

Setting positions of footnotes in horizontal writing mode are at the bottom of the hanmen in the page where the target words and the reference marks appear in one column, and at the bottom of the column space where the target words and the reference marks appear in two or more columns. When footnotes overflow from the hanmen or the column, the overflowed part of the footnotes is inserted before the footnotes of the next page or next column.

(note 1)

In the case of multiple columns, footnotes are set at the bottom of the column where corresponding reference marks appear (see Fig. 4.67). However, there are cases where all footnotes in the page are set at the bottom of the hanmen with one column (see Fig. 4.68).

Example one of footnotes in multiple columns
Fig. 4.67: Example one of footnotes in multiple columns
Example two of footnotes in multiple columns
Fig. 4.68: Example two of footnotes in multiple columns

(note 2)

When footnotes are set just before page breaks or new rectos, footnotes are set aligned with the bottom of the kihon-hanmen including rules, and spaces between base text and footnotes are used for the alignment (see Fig. 4.69). There are cases where footnotes are set continuously following the base text and the space after footnotes is left as is, but in Japan these cases are few (see Fig. 4.70).

Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto
Fig. 4.69: Example one of footnotes before page break or new recto
Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto
Fig. 4.70: Example two of footnotes before page break or new recto

(note 3)

When some part of a footnote overflows to the next page or the next column, it is recommended to set an arrow symbol or similar symbol at the very end of the part of the footnote set in the page or the column where the corresponding reference mark appears, to indicate that the footnote is continuing to the next page or the next column. Especially, when the overflowed part of the footnote is set in an even page, such guidance is very useful. To put it the other way around, it is better to avoid such cases. Treating such cases is not a matter of type setting methodology but of editorial issues. One editorial solution is to change the position of the reference mark by modification of the page layout.

Following figure is an common example of footnotes in horizontal writing mode (see Fig. 4.71).

An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode
Fig. 4.71: An example of footnotes in single column horizontal writing mode

The following items are outstanding issues when setting footnotes in horizontal writing mode:

  1. The character size of footnotes is one or two levels smaller than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Usually footnotes are accompanied by lines to separate the base text and footnotes (i.e. rules), indentation is not needed. However because the line length of footnotes should be multiples of the character size of footnotes, the difference in line length of the base text and line length of footnotes is adjusted with the insertion of left side spaces and the bottom of footnote is aligned with the kihon-hanmen or column area.

    (note 1)

    For example, when the base text line length is nine point by thirty four characters and footnote character size is seven point, the remaining spaces of footnotes are calculated as follows:

    line length of base text

    306 point = 9 point × 34 characters

    convert to 7 point based line length

    306 point = 7 point × 43 characters + 5 point

    When line length of footnotes is set as seven point by forty three characters, the space inserted in the left side of footnote lines is 5 point.

    (note 2)

    For example, when base text line length is 9 point by thirty five characters and footnote character size is seven point, the left spaces of footnotes are calculated as follows:

    line length of base text

    315 point = 9 point × 35 characters

    convert to 7 point based line length

    315 point = 7 point × 45 characters

    when line length of footnote is seven point by 45 characters, there is no left space inserted.

  3. The inter-character space between footnote numbers at the top of the line and footnote text is usually a full-width of footnote text character in size.

  4. When a footnote has two or more lines, the second line or below is indented by one em space, or the first line is indented by one em space of footnote character size (Fig. 4.72).

    Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation
    Fig. 4.72: Examples of indents of footnotes, first line indentation and second line and below indentation
  5. Line gaps of footnotes are narrower according to the smaller size of footnote characters. The line gap of footnotes is recommended to be a half em of a footnote character size or slightly narrower, depending on the base text line gap.

  6. A line called a rule is inserted between the base text and footnotes to distinguish the footprint of the footnotes. For this purpose, a thin border is used. The length of the line is usually one third of the line length of the kihon-hanmen, depending on the kihon-hanmen design. The left side of the line is aligned to the left side of the hanmen or column. The line gap between the line and the footnote is slightly wider than the usual line gap among footnotes.

    (note 1)

    There are cases without the line between base text and footnotes, but in Japan these cases are few.

  7. The minimum size of line gaps among base text, the rule, and footnotes is a line gap size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen. The bottom line of footnotes is aligned to the edge of the kihon-hanmen or column area. Accordingly, fractions will appear. This fraction is inserted between the base text area and the rule. Accordingly, the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    When rules are not used between base text and footnotes, the line gap between base text and footnotes is set wider than the usual line gap between base text of kihon-hanmen. For example, when the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen is nine point, the minimum size of the line gap between the base text and the footnotes is twelve point. Usually, it is recommended that the minimum size of the line gap between the base text and the footnotes is set larger than the character size of the base text in the kihon-hanmen.

4.2.6 Processing of Sidenotes in Vertical Writing Mode

The following figure is a common example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode (see Fig. 4.73).

An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode
Fig. 4.73: An example of sidenotes in vertical writing mode

Side notes in vertical writing mode are similar to footnotes in horizontal writing mode. Accordingly, general methods for footnotes in horizontal writing mode can be applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode. The following items are outstanding issues only applied to sidenotes in vertical writing mode:

  1. Side notes in vertical writing mode are set at the left side of the odd page of the spread to which corresponding reference marks appear. In multiple columns, sidenotes are aligned to the left side of the lowest column.

  2. When the volume of sidenotes is too great, the sidenotes may overflow to the even page. In multiple columns, the sidenotes may overflow to the column above.

  3. When it is not possible to set any sidenotes or some of the sidenotes in a spread, the overflowed part may be inserted before the sidenotes corresponding to the next reference mark in an odd page or the lowest column in an odd page of the next spread.

  4. In pages just before a page break or a new recto, the sidenotes are set in the last page of the section following the base text, even if the last page is even. If it is not possible to set the side notes in the page, the part of the notes that juts out is set from the top of the next page or the top of the first column, then the page is followed by page break or new recto.

  5. In the above cases, the remaining space is usually inserted after the sidenote, unlike the case where footnotes are inserted between the base text and the footnotes in horizontal writing mode.

  6. A thin line is inserted between the base text and sidenotes to distinguish them. The line is a thin border. The length of the line depends on the line length of the kihon-hanmen, but is usually one third of the line length, and the top end of the line is aligned to the top edge of the kihon-hanmen. It is recommended that the gap between the line and the sidenotes is a little bit wider than for footnote cases.

    (note 1)

    There are cases when the lines to distinguish base text and sidenotes are not inserted.

  7. The minimum value of the line gap between the line to distinguish the base text and sidenotes is the value of line gap decided in the kihon-hanmen. The left side of the last line of the sidenotes is aligned to the left edge of the kihon-hanmen or the column. Accordingly, a fraction space in the block direction is inserted between the base text area and the rule, and the fraction between the rule and the base text area will change between the line gap of the kihon-hanmen and the character size plus line gap of the kihon-hanmen.

4.2.7 Processing of Headnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode), Footnotes (in Vertical Writing Mode) and Sidenotes (in Horizontal Writing Mode)

Processing of headnotes in vertical writing mode, footnotes in vertical writing mode and sidenotes in horizontal writing mode is very similar, so these processing methods will be described together in this section. These types of notes will be called parallel-notes, hereafter.

(note 1)

There is no description about headnotes in vertical writing mode, footnotes in vertical writing mode and sidenotes in horizontal writing mode in JIS X 4051.

There are the following relationships between the parallel-note and the main text:

  1. Setting the note number as a reference mark: Set a number as a reference mark (characters as reference marks (cl-20) at the corresponding main text position, and set the same number at the very top of the parallel-note.

    (note 1)

    Processing of reference marks (characters as reference marks (cl-20) is very similar to the processing of endnotes and footnotes in horizontal writing mode.

  2. Setting symbols as a reference mark: Set a symbol (ex. ASTERISK "*") beside the corresponding main text position or change the font style or corresponding main text position to another font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) (Fig. 4.74, Fig. 4.75).

    Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Fig. 4.74: Examples of numbers and a symbol to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks
    Fig. 4.75: Examples of changed font style to indicate corresponding reference marks
  3. Set parallel-notes in the same spread where the corresponding main text positions appear without reference marks. Only the key words are emphasized with a difference of font style (ex. Japanese Gothic).

There are some issues specific to setting parallel-notes as follows:

  1. The character size of parallel-notes is one or two ranks smaller than the character size of main text in the kihon-hanmen.

  2. The line length of parallel-notes is an integer based multiple of the character size of notes. It depends on the book size; around fifteen characters to twenty characters in a line is recommended. In some cases around twenty five characters is acceptable.

  3. The line gap of parallel-notes is basically a half em of the character size of the parallel-notes. When the volume of parallel-notes is high, there are cases of one third em.

  4. The size of the parallel-note area in the block direction is the same as the size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    The size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen in the block direction is calculated with character size, number of lines and line gap. The block direction size of the parallel-note area is the same with regards to the result of the calculation. Accordingly, the block direction size of the parallel-note area might be different from the result of following calculation: (character size of parallel-note) × (number of lines of parallel-note + line gap of note × (number of lines of parallel-note − 1).

  5. It is recommended to set the space between parallel-notes and the main text in inline direction at around double the em character size of the main text in the kihon-hanmen.

  6. Usually, indentation of the second line and after, like end notes, is not applied to parallel-notes. In the majority of cases, the first line of a parallel-note is set as tentsuki. There are cases where the first line is indented by one a em character size of the parallel-notes, like common paragraphs.

  7. The inter-letter space between the note number and the following parallel-note text is around one em of a parallel-note character size. There are cases where the note number and target word are changed to a different font style (ex. Japanese Gothic) and the note number and the target word are set solid. The inter-letter space between the target word and parallel-note text is one em of the parallel-note text size (see Fig. 4.76).

    Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.76: Examples of headnotes in vertical writing mode

The setting of parallel-notes and the main text area is as follows:

  1. The position of target text and the position of a parallel-note in block direction are aligned as near as possible. In vertical writing mode, the right edge of the target word and the right edge of the parallel-note are aligned. In horizontal writing mode, the upper edge of the target word and the upper edge of the parallel-note are aligned (see Fig. 4.77).

    Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.77: Example one of headnotes in vertical writing mode
  2. After these methods are applied, if the parallel-note text overflows, there needs to be some arrangement to handle that within the page. In vertical writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shifted to the right, and in horizontal writing mode, the parallel-note positions are shift above (see Fig. 4.78). This arrangement is done until the first parallel-note reaches the right edge in vertical writing mode or the top edge in horizontal writing mode. If there is more overflow, the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page. In vertical writing mode, arrangements may be applied not within the page but within the spread.

    Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode
    Fig. 4.78: Example two of headnote in vertical writing mode

    (note 1)

    When the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set on the next page, there are cases where a line is inserted between the overflowed part and the parallel-notes in the page.

  3. When there are multiple parallel-notes set in the same page or the same spread, the following methods are applied:

    1. The line gap between the two different parallel-notes is explicitly specified, or the value for the line gap within the parallel-note itself is applied if there is no explicit instruction.

    2. The arrangement of positioning is done as follows. First, the parallel-note positions are settled from first parallel-note, and second parallel-note and after is set with the instructed line gap or corresponding position to the target word in the main text. Second, if the parallel-note will overflow, the parallel-notes are set from the bottom of parallel-note area. Third, if the parallel-notes still overflow, parallel-notes are set from the top of the parallel-note area with appropriate line gap, and the overflowed part of the parallel-notes is set at the top of the next page or next spread.

    3. When the parallel-notes will overflow to the next page or next spread, the instructed line gap is inserted between the overflowed part of the parallel-notes and the original parallel-note part. The realm after the overflowed part is the area for the original parallel-notes.

4.3 Positioning of Illustrations

4.3.1 Specification of the Position of Illustrations

There are two methods for specifying the position of illustrations.

  1. With this method, first, the in slip for the body of the book is created. Then, for each page, layout processing is executed, and the positioning of illustrations on a specific page and its position in that page are specified.

  2. With this method, the relation between the main text and the illustration is specified, and the position of the illustration within the page is specified only in principle.

    (note 1)

    Normally, if there are many illustrations inserted, method "a" is used. If there are not so many illustrations, method "b" is used. With method "b", the concrete page for a given figure is determined as the result of the layout process. Hence, it is often the case that the choice of odd page or even page for a figure is determined as a result of the layout process.

    (note 2)

    Normally, when applying method "b" for vertical layout, the illustration is placed on the head or fore-edge (see Fig. 4.79). For even pages, the figure will be on the left, for odd pages, it will be on the right side.

    Common example of illustration positioning
    Fig. 4.79: Common example of illustration positioning

    (note 3)

    The prototypical method for horizontal layout using method "b" is to position the illustration centered, without characters to the left or to the right. In this case, the illustration is normally either positioned between paragraphs (see the left page in Fig. 4.80), or at the foot or head (see the right page in Fig. 4.80).

    Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout
    Fig. 4.80: Common example of figure positioning in horizontal layout

    (note 4)

    Illustrations are often accompanied by captions or notes. Captions are normally positioned below the illustration. Captions also frequently include illustration numbers. The character size in captions is smaller than in the main text, and often a different font is used. If the caption stretches across more than 2 lines, inter-line spacing is not too large, so that the caption looks compact. If the font of the caption is changed, the whole caption will be in a gothic typeface, or only the illustration number will be in a gothic typeface. The latter case means a moderate emphasis of the illustration and can be used for putting the figure into the background (see Fig. 4.81).

    Example for layout of captions
    Fig. 4.81: Example for layout of captions

The explanation below is restricted to method (b). Illustration, captions and notes will be regarded as one piece of data. The positioning method for this single piece of data is explained.

4.3.2 Basic Concepts about Illustration Positioning

When the position of an illustration within a page is specified only by the relation between illustration and main text, it is desirable that the explanation of the illustration in the main text and the illustration are as close as possible to each other.

(note 1)

Depending on the size of an illustration, it may not be possible to have references to the illustration and the illustration itself on the same page. In such cases, the following considerations for illustration positioning are taken into account.

  1. It is better to position the illustration on the page after the page with references to the illustration, and not on the page before the references.

  2. Sometimes there are no references to an illustration, but an explanation of the illustration appears before it. That means that it is not possible to avoid in every case that illustrations appear on the page before (or after) the references. If the illustration and its references are on the same spread it is often possible to be tolerant with illustration positioning.

  3. Many aspects have to be taken into account with regards to the positioning of illustrations. This means that, even if automatic processing is used as much as possible, according to the layout result it will be necessary to change the position of references or the size of the illustration manually.

4.3.3 Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Vertical Layout

For vertical layout as in Fig. 4.79, the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

  1. In books, the spread is the basis for the design, and the illustration position is specified towards the head and fore-edge. Hence it is necessary to use the spread as the basis for the specification of the position. Concretely it means that the position has to correspond to "towards the fore-edge" or towards the gutter.

  2. In vertical layout, often the upper part of an illustration touches the head of the hanmen, or the left or right part touches the fore-edge. This makes it necessary to position the illustration relying on the hanmen (or the final size). Furthermore, even if the complete hanmen is occupied by the illustration, depending on the illustration content, in some cases it is better style to position the illustration about 1mm inside the hanmen.

    (note 1)

    The reason for the positioning 1mm inside the hanmen is that in that way, the character area of the hanmen and the illustration appear to be arranged together.

  3. As said in "b", normally, it is appropriate to specify a position starting from the hanmen. However, in the case of a bleed, it is necessary to jut out of the final size to position the illustration (see Fig. 2.39). Furthermore, in such cases it is possible to specify an intuitive position, if the specification of the position uses the edge of the trim size as the origin (see Fig. 4.82).

    Bleed positioning
    Fig. 4.82: Bleed positioning
  4. If base text is placed around illustrations, normally the smallest space size between them is specified. The smallest space size is the character size used for the main text (which is specified for the kihon-hanmen), or the line gap (also specified for the kihon-hanmen). It is also necessary to specify the line length of surrounding text as an integral multiple of the character size in use.

    (note 1)

    Here an example is shown of the smallest and largest space size between an illustration and characters, for a character size of 9 points in the kihon-hanmen and 8 points for line gap (see Fig. 4.83).

    Space in the inline direction

    9points≦space size of illustration and surrounding characters<18points

    Space in the block direction

    9points≦space size of illustration and surrounding characters<26points

    or, Space in the block direction

    8points≦space size of illustration and surrounding characters<25points

    An example of space size around illustration
    Fig. 4.83: An example of space size around illustration

    (note 2)

    If possible, it is appropriate to unify the space between illustrations and surrounding main texts. For example it can be unified to be 1.5 times the character size used in the main text. Depending on the size of the illustration it may be that such unification is not possible, since it is necessary that the line-length be an integral multiple of the character size in use. But, at the design step, some modifications of the illustration size are possible. Accordingly it is possible to unify the space around illustrations, by creating an overview of the various sizes of illustrations and the related numbers of characters and lines, and choose from that overview the applicable numbers and apply these during the design step.

  5. If the number of characters of main text to be placed around illustrations in inline direction is very small (for example 1/4 of the line length of the kihon-hanmen or less than 9 characters), it is better to not place the characters and leave the space free (see Fig. 4.84). Also, as shown in the left part of Fig. 4.85, for the arrangement of illustrations in the block direction, it is bad style and should be avoided to have only one line of main text (in Fig. 4.85, the right side shows the appropriate way).

    A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short
    Fig. 4.84: A case where the number of characters of main text in inline direction is very short
    Example of only one full length line of vertical text after  illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case)
    Fig. 4.85: Example of only one full length line of vertical text after illustrations in the block direction (the left case should be changed to the right case)

    (note 1)

    The placement of characters around illustrations in the inline direction is called mawarikomi.

4.3.4 Requirements for Illustration Positioning in Horizontal Layout

In the case of horizontal layout as in Fig. 4.80, the following requirements for illustration positioning apply.

(note 1)

Below, the discussion is restricted to problems arising within one column space.

  1. In case of Fig. 4.80, the basic approach is to position the illustration directly after the paragraph with its explanation (see Fig. 4.86).

    Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph
    Fig. 4.86: Positioning directly after the explaining paragraph

    If due to space it is not possible to position the illustration in that place, it is placed at the head or foot of the hanmen (see Fig. 4.87).

    Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen
    Fig. 4.87: Placing the illustration at the foot or head of the hanmen

    (note 1)

    In the case of a print space (out of several), the illustration is placed at the foot or head of that print space.

  2. As shown in Fig. 4.80, often characters are not put to the right or left of an illustration, and the space is left blank. However, there is also the possibility of placing the illustration at the side of the fore-edge (see Fig. 4.88) or the right side (see Fig. 4.89). Also in these cases, the illustrations are not placed - like in vertical layout - at the side of the head, but often in linkage with the main text. That is, the illustrations are placed on the page with their explanations, beside the mid paragraph anchor point or on the head or foot (see Fig. 4.88 and Fig. 4.89).

    Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen
    Fig. 4.88: Example of placing an illustration at the fore-edge of the hanmen
    Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen
    Fig. 4.89: Example of placing an illustration at the right side of the hanmen
  3. As shown in the left part of Fig. 4.90, like in vertical layout, it is bad style and must be avoided to have just one line of the main text around an illustration in the block direction. In the example in Fig. 4.90, the problem is solved by transferring the single line below the illustration above it and placing the illustration at the bottom fore-edge of the hanmen.

    Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case)
    Fig. 4.90: Example for horizontal layout of having just only one line after the illustration in the block direction (should change the left case to the right case)
  4. Illustrations which stretch across several columns in a print space are normally placed at the head or foot (see Fig. 4.91).

    Example of illustration stretching across several columns
    Fig. 4.91: Example of illustration stretching across several columns

4.3.5 Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051

To provide some background for the preceding discussion, the main definitions of JIS X 4051 will be introduced below.

  1. JIS X 4051 defines two methods for illustration positioning: "relative position specification" and "absolute position specification". Below the definitions from this standard are described.

    Relative position specification: the specification of block units appears together with the flow of, say, paragraphs of the main text within lines. The lines are the basis for positioning, and segmentation of the line feed is not possible. ("block unit": a general term for blocks of figures, images etc. and tables)

    Absolute position specification: the specification of block units appears within the hanmen or spread. An absolute position based on these is the basis for illustration placement.

    In the case of Fig. 4.79, where the position is specified from two directions (from the head or the fore-edge), the absolute position specification method is used.

    As shown in Fig. 4.80, Fig. 4.88 or Fig. 4.89, when the position in the inline direction is given as specified, and the position in the block direction is determined depending on the position of the main text which refers to the block unit, the adopted method is relative positioning (of course absolute positioning is possible too for placement at the head or foot ).

    Furthermore, JIS X 4051 defines the placement of the specification method for gutter and fore-edge with absolute positioning method, but not with relative positioning. It is desirable to allow for a positioning based upon a specification method of gutter and fore-edge, also for relative positioning.

  2. When both the main text (or the main paragraph in JIS X 4051 terminology) and the illustration are on the same page, either method does not raise any problem unless there is only a single line of the main text to be laid out before the illustration in the block direction on the top of the content page area or after the illustration at the bottom as shown in Fig. 4.85 or in Fig. 4.90. The problematic cases are where, via the relation to the corresponding text or the size of the illustration, the illustration juts out of the the hanmen or the area of the column, or the page of the main text and the page of the illustration are different. About these issues JIS X 4051 makes the following definitions.

    1. With the relative positioning method, the illustration is placed directly after the line in which the anchor in the main text is defined. If, as a result of the positioning, the illustration juts out of the hanmen or the column, the length of the part of the illustration inside the hanmen or the column (a), and the part outside the area (b) will be compared (see Fig. 4.92). Since it should be avoided (if possible) that an illustration appears before its explanation in the main text, the comparison uses not a simple 1/2, but a relative weight. If concretely like in Fig. 4.92 the relation between a and b is a ≧ 2b, the illustration is placed on that page (in the final stage), and the lines which overlap with the area of the illustration (including the line with the anchor) are put on the following page, they are put out (see Fig. 4.93).

      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of  a  ≧ 2 b )
      Fig. 4.92: Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of a ≧ 2b)
      Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of  a  ≧ 2 b )
      Fig. 4.93: Example of positioning on the same page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of a ≧ 2b)

      Also, in the case of a < 2b (see Fig. 4.94), the illustration is placed on the following page, and the free area is filled with main text taken from the following page.

      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of  a  <  2b )
      Fig. 4.94: Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (before the adaptation in case of a < 2b)
      Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of  a  <  2b )
      Fig. 4.95: Example of positioning on the following page with relative positioning specification (after the adaptation in case of a < 2b)

      (note 1)

      There are many examples where the explanation of the illustration is not necessarily at a restricted, specific place, but it is within a given area. Hence, up to a certain extend it is regarded as OK to be permissive and have the anchor later.

      (note 2)

      It is not in every case the right approach to set the relative weight of parts outside the area and inside the area to 1/3 (1:2). Consequently, it is safe to assume that these proportions can be modified. Nevertheless, when specifying 1/3, many cases can be matched.

      (note 3)

      In the case of taking the illustration out, the free space on the page is naturally filled with text from the main text of the following page. For this purpose, processing is necessary to put text from that part of the main text on the following page.

    2. The same basic ideas apply also for absolute positioning. However, the portions to be compared are different than with relative positioning.

      With the absolute positioning method, first the distance between the specification of the position via the anchor in the main text, and the distance to the end of the area of the hanmen or the column are calculated (see a in the left part of Fig. 4.96). Next, as a result of the positioning of the illustration, the anchor will be moved. If the moved anchor is on the same page, the illustration will be placed on that page.

      If the anchor has moved to the following page, the distance between that anchor and the beginning of the area of the hanmen or the column will be calculated (see b in the right part of Fig. 4.96).

      Example of positioning with absolute positioning specification (in case of  a  < 2 b )
      Fig. 4.96: Example of positioning with absolute positioning specification (in case of a < 2b)

      In addition, a and b are compared. If a ≧ 2b, the illustration is placed on the page where the anchor appeared first. In the case of a < 2b, the illustration is placed after the page where the anchor appeared first. In the example in Fig. 4.96, a < 2b, the illustration is moved to the left page (page 13), see Fig. 4.97.

      Illustration positioning example 1, final position
      Fig. 4.97: Illustration positioning example 1, final position

      Fig. 4.98 shows an example where an anchor firstly appears in the 5th line of a page (page 12), and as a result of illustration placement, the anchor is moved to the second line of the left page (page 13). In this case a ≧ 2b, and the illustration is left on the right page (page 12).

      Absolute positioning example 2 (left is before illustration positioning, right is after)
      Fig. 4.98: Absolute positioning example 2 (left is before illustration positioning, right is after)
  3. In addition some more definitions related to illustration positioning are introduced below.

    1. With the absolute positioning method, a stranded line before or after the illustration in the block direction can be predicted and hence avoided. In contrast, with the relative positioning method, it happens that a stranded line in the block direction is left out as a result. This is bad style, and JIS X 4051 defines a processing method for avoiding it.

    2. Several elements come in between e.g. paragraphs, and it is necessary to adapt the area of the hanmen size in the block direction. For this case, there are several approaches about style designed via the kihon-hanmen (character size, line spacing etc.) and different style elements: the approach of unifying the space around such elements, or the approach of maintaining (if at all possible) the position of lines specified during the design of the hanmen. JIS X 4051 defines two methods for this topic (see section 4.5 Block Direction Setting Process of Lines, Paragraphs etc.).

    3. When the space around an illustration is maintained and main text is inserted in the free area, it is necessary to adapt the line length to integral multiple of the characters used. Such aspects are defined in JIS X 4051 as well (see Fig. 4.79).

    4. Also, if the number of surrounding characters is extremely low, it is better to keep the surroundings free. If the number of surrounding characters is 1/4 of the line length of the kihon-hanmen or 9 characters below, JIS X 4051 specifies that no main text should surround an illustration. In Fig. 4.88 or Fig. 4.89 the illustration is placed midway down the page using the relative positioning method, so it is necessary to unify the space above and below the illustration. JIS X 4051 also provides definitions for this aspect (see Fig. 4.99).

      Space between an illustration placed midway a page and the characters above and below it
      Fig. 4.99: Space between an illustration placed midway a page and the characters above and below it
    5. For positioning of illustrations relying on the spread, JIS X 4051 defines a method using the absolute positioning method (see 4.4.5 Processing of Tables Allocated in a Spread)..

4.4 Processing of Tables

4.4.1 Elements of Tables

A table is set of cells, which includes numbers, facts or information, arranged in rows across and down lines for easy recognition at a glance.

(note 1)

There are descriptions in "JIS X 4051 11. Processing of tables".

In JIS X 4015, there is a figure of an example of the structure of table in horizontal writing mode as follows (see Fig. 4.100). The following descriptions will use the terminology in this figure.

Structure of a table (from JIS X 4051)
Fig. 4.100: Structure of a table (from JIS X 4051)

Tables are used for various purposes, and there is a lot to consider with regards to the processing of tables, so, only Japanese language related issues are discussed here.

4.4.2 Direction of Tables Themselves

Tables themselves can be classified according to horizontal mode and vertical mode.

(note 1)

The text direction of each cell may change cell by cell, but the direction of the table itself is decided by the majority direction of the cells. The direction of almost all tables themselves, especially those containing numerals, are in horizontal mode and vertical mode tables are rare. However, in set in vertical writing mode, there are many vertical examples of chronological histories and chronological tables as back matter.

An example of table, with vertical direction
Fig. 4.101: An example of table, with vertical direction

(note 2)

There are examples of tables containing cells with a different text direction from the dominant text direction of the table, but not so many. This style is used to display item names in a header row.

An example of horizontal table with vertical text cells
Fig. 4.102: An example of horizontal table with vertical text cells

When the direction of a table itself is horizontal, the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents is as follows (Fig. 4.103):

  1. The origin is the left upper top of the table.

  2. The order of cells in a line is from left to right.

  3. The order of lines in a table is from top to bottom.

  4. In the first line of Fig. 4.103, cells from cell ① to cell ③ are filled with cell contents, consequently, in the second line, cells from cell ④ to cell ⑦ are filled with cell contents, and in the third line, cell ④ is skipped and cells from cell ⑧ to cell ⑩ are filled with cell contents.

    An example of the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents in horizontal table
    Fig. 4.103: An example of the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents in horizontal table

When the direction of a table itself is vertical, the position of the origin and the setting order of cell contents is as follows (Fig. 4.104).

An example of the position of the origin and setting order of cell contents in vertical table
Fig. 4.104: An example of the position of the origin and setting order of cell contents in vertical table
  1. The origin is the right upper top of the table.

  2. The order of cells in a line is from top to bottom.

  3. The order of lines in a table is from right to left.

  4. In the first line of Fig. 4.104 cells from cell ① to cell ③ are filled with cell contents, consequently, in the second line, cells from cell ④ to cell ⑦ are filled with cell contents, and in the third line, cell ④ is skipped and cells from cell ⑧ to cell ⑩ are filled with cell contents.

The text direction in a cell content is vertical or horizontal only, and cannot be mixed. When different text directions are needed in a cell, the cell is divided into two cells.

4.4.3 An Example of Layout with a Table

Following is an example of a vertical writing mode book with a table (see Fig. 4.105). The issues to be noted are as follows:

An example of a vertical writing mode book with a table.
Fig. 4.105: An example of a vertical writing mode book with a table.
  1. The direction of the kihon-hanmen is vertical, and the table itself is predominantly in horizontal writing mode. However, some cells of the header row are cell merged and vertically set.

  2. The character size of the table text is smaller than the character size of the kihon-hanmen (kihon-hanmen: nine point, table: seven point or eight point). The caption of the table is also seven point with the number emphasized with Japanese Gothic (there are cases where all the caption text is emphasized with Japanese Gothic). The note attached to the table is six point, smaller than the table text.

  3. The usage of visible lines to distinguish cells is limited. In this case, the top horizontal line is emphasized with a width of 0.25 mm., other horizontal lines are 0.12 mm. width. There are cases where the top horizontal line is 0.4 mm. or 0.12 mm.

    (note 1)

    In JIS X 4051, the widths of thin borders, mid borders and thick borders are described as informative.

    OMOTEKEI (thin border)

    0.12 mm

    CHUUBOSOKEI (mid border)

    0.25 mm

    URAKEI (thick border)

    0.4 mm

    (note 2)

    The notations of OMOTEKEI, URAKEI and CHUUBOSOKEI are inherited from the letterpress printing age, and have been used in computerized type setting. The physical shape of the border in letterpress printing is shown in Fig. 4.106. OMOTEKEI is printed with the sharp edge and URAKEI is printed with bottom flat edge. The width of the top edge of CHUUBOSOKEI is cast between the top edge of OMOTEKEI and the bottom edge of OMOTEKEI, so CHUUBOSOKEI can be used as URAKEI when the bottom edge is used. Furthermore, in letterpress printing, the width of OMOTEKEI, CHUUBOSOKEI and URAKEI are different but the width of the bottom of the borders is the same as each other. However, there are two kinds of bottom of border, one is 1/8 of one point, the other is 1/8 of one GOU (i.e. 10.5 points), namely 1.3 point. When the GOU-KEISEN (5 border) is used, the URAKEI is thicker than the POINT-KEISEN.

    Physical OMOTEKEI and URAKEI in letterpress printing
    Fig. 4.106: Physical OMOTEKEI and URAKEI in letterpress printing

    (note 3)

    In JIS X 4051, there are descriptions about tables as follows: A table is a two dimensional layout of items separated with lines. Note: Tables without lines can be seen as using invisible lines.

    (note 4)

    In a note of JIS X 4051, there is a description that the distance between KEISEN and other items (i.e. cell padding) is measured with the center of the width of KEISEN. Accordingly, by this description KEISEN is treated as if the width of KEISEN is zero. OMOTEKEI can be regarded as zero width, however, the width of URAKEI should be considered, and cell padding is measured from the edge of the KEISEN. In this document, the cell padding is measured from the edge of KEISEN. However, for OMOTEKEI, the difference between the center of KEISEN and the edge of KEISEN can be ignored.

  4. The top column of the table is used for row header names. and the first two rows from left are used for column header names, partially merged to one row.

  5. The width of each row is calculated as follows: firstly, calculate the width of the widest cell content in the column, and add space the size of a half em of the character size of the cell to both edges of the text. Secondly, adjust for the multiples of the character size used for the table. Thirdly, if the cell contents among different rows are similar, the width of the rows are set the same (in the fourth and fifth rows from the left).

    (note 1)

    In tables with horizontal writing mode, the minimum space between the content and the KEISEN is usually a half of the basic character size of the table, and at least a fourth of the basic character size of the table. The space should not reduced to solid.

  6. Some row headers have two lines with no line gap to maintain appropriate proportions with the cell contents.

  7. Column header names and row header names are set with evenly distributed-character spacing, except for vertically set KANJI cells and "total" cells. "Total" cells shall be distinguished from other ordinary cells.

  8. The horizontal position of names of header rows and the header column are horizontally centered.

  9. For cells except header rows and header columns, all numeric data is set aligned by the decimal point, or line end aligned for currency. Numeric data is centered according to the longest numeric cell, but the space size after shall not be longer than the space size before.

  10. The block direction spaces between KEISEN and cell contents are as follows: the spaces between visible KEISEN and cell content are a half em space of the basic table character size. The spaces between invisible KEISEN and cell content are a fourth em space of the basic table character size. Namely, it can be said that the visible line gaps are one half em except for the header row. In this example, there are two line cells as a header, the block direction spaces between KEISEN and cell contents are set with a minimum gap of one fourth em (see Fig. 4.105 a and b). The reason is not to make a space between KEISEN and cell contents for other one line cells.

    (note 1)

    It is basically recommended that the spaces between visible KEISEN and cell content should be a half em and between invisible KEISEN and cell content should be a quarter em from an aesthetic view point. However, when the table is large enough to occupy one full page, it might seem that the half em space sizes are too large. In such cases, the space sizes may be reduced to a quarter em, and exceptional spaces may be set every five or ten lines.

4.4.4 Kinds of Tables from Allocation to Page Position

There are several kinds of tables as follows:

  1. Tables treated as one object with captions and notes together with the table itself, where it is prohibited to divide across two or more pages or columns.

    1. Linked with an anchor of the base text, and moved with the anchor. The position of the table is relative (see Fig. 4.107 and 4.3.5 Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051).

      An example of relatively allocated table
      Fig. 4.107: An example of relatively allocated table
    2. Tables allocated with absolute position in the kihon-hanmen, except for the tables allocated with absolute position in a spread (see Fig. 4.108).

      An example of a table allocated with absolute position
      Fig. 4.108: An example of a table allocated with absolute position
  2. Tables allocated in a spread with absolute position (see Fig. 4.109).

    (note 1)

    It is preferable to set the tables within the kihon-hanmen, even if the table is large enough to occupy a spread, however, usually these tables are too large to set within the kihon-hanmen, so there are many cases where tables spill out of the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 4.109).

    An example of a table allocated in a spread with absolute position
    Fig. 4.109: An example of a table allocated in a spread with absolute position
  3. Tables anchored to base text and moving with the position of the anchor, can also be divided across two or more pages or columns. In JIS X 4051, this type of table is called "continuously allocated tables" (see Fig. 4.110).

    An example of a table continuously allocated through two pages
    Fig. 4.110: An example of a table continuously allocated through two pages

(note 1)

Allocation method of a is similar to illustrations.

(note 2)

Allocation method of b is similar to illustrations, except for the method of division.

(note 3)

The writing mode of a and b may be different from the writing mode of the kihon-hanmen. However, c must be the same as the kihon-hanmen, because of the division of the table.

(note 4)

Tables of a-1 style are frequently used in horizontal writing mode books, like illustrations. The usage of a-1 style tables in vertical writing mode books has been decreasing together with the decrease of tables with ideographic numerals. Tables of a-2 style are mainly used in vertical writing mode books as horizontal writing mode tables. Tables of b style are used for large tables, however, the usages are not so frequent. Tables of c style are used for chronologies or biographical sketches in table style.

4.4.5 Processing of Tables Allocated in a Spread

When a table is allocated in a spread, it is desirable to allocate within the spread. However, sometimes it is impossible to allocate in the same spread where the table is linked to. In such cases, the spread where the table is allocated is decided as follows (see 4.3.5 Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051): Firstly, calculate the distance between the anchor position of the base text and the last position of the spread (see Fig. 4.111). Secondly, calculate the distance between the original position of the anchor and the position of the anchor when the table is allocated at the spread where the anchor was originally positioned, and consequently the position of the anchor is overflowed to the next spread (see Fig. 4.112). Finally, compare these two distances, and decide whether to allocate the table to the original spread or next spread (see Fig. 4.113).

First step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Fig. 4.111: First step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Second step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Fig. 4.112: Second step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Last step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.
Fig. 4.113: Last step of the calculation of the distance of the allocation method to a spread.

The next problem is where to divide a table. In some senses, illustrations can be divided wherever specified or at the kihon-hanmen border. On the other hand, there are some limitations and issues to consider when dividing tables as follows:

  1. Tables are divided at the border of rows or columns, with condition that the border between the header and adjoining cells shall not be divided, also it is prohibited to divide just after captions.

  2. When there is a visible KEISEN at the expected dividing position, the common approach is as follows:

    1. When the outer frame KEISENs of inline direction are visible, the top side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be invisible and the bottom side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be visible (see Fig. 4.114).

      Example one of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
      Fig. 4.114: Example one of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
    2. When the outer frame KEISENs of inline direction are invisible, the top side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be visible and the bottom side KEISEN at the dividing position shall be invisible (see Fig. 4.115).

      Example two of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
      Fig. 4.115: Example two of KEISEN of a table set in a spread
    3. When the tables are divided by column units, the KEISEN at the dividing position of the top part shall be invisible, and the bottom part KEISEN shall be visible.

4.4.6 Processing of Dividable Tables

Processing of dividable tables is as follows:

  1. Dividable tables are set from the position of the specified anchor text position with specified line direction gap

    (note 1)

    These dividable tables are frequently started just after the page breaks.

  2. The inline length of the table shall not hang out from the inline length of the kihon-hanmen or the column.

  3. Dividable tables are divided at the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or the column and between lines of the table. When there are other tables or illustrations are set in the page, the space for the other tables or illustrations should be kept beforehand.

    (note 1)

    Usually, dividable tables are divided by columns of the table. This method is based on the description of JIS X 4051. However, some kinds of tables may be divided between lines of a column, in conjunction with the cell contents.

  4. Captions and header line shall not be divided in following cases:

    1. Between header with two lines.

    2. Between caption and header column.

    3. Between header column.

    4. Between header column and the first column of the content.

  5. The same header column shall also be set at the top of the divided tables. Noted that when the kihon-hanmen is in vertical writing mode, if the following page is odd, there is usually no header column, i.e. the divided tables on even pages have a header column (see Fig. 4.116).

    An example of divided tables with same header columns in vertical writing mode.
    Fig. 4.116: An example of divided tables with same header columns in vertical writing mode.
  6. When the table is divided by columns, the top KEISEN of the divided position shall be invisible, and the bottom KEISEN of the divided position shall be visible. However, there are methods where both top and bottom KEISENs are visible.

4.5 Block Direction Setting Process of Lines, Paragraphs etc.

4.5.1 Line Gap Arrangement with Ruby and Other Objects

When setting lines in pages or columns, basically each line should be set by aligning with the line positions set in the kihon-hanmen

Also the last line of each page or each column should be set at the very end of the kihon-hanmen area or the column area.

The following objects should be set in the interlinear space.

  1. Ruby

  2. Emphasis dots

  3. Underlines and sidelines

  4. Interlinear reference marks

The following objects might jut into the interlinear space in conjunction with character size and other factors.

  1. Tate-chu-yoko processed texts

  2. Ornament characters

  3. Warichu (inline cutting note)

  4. The strings some of character positions are moved to block direction.

  5. Strings where the character size is larger than the size specified in the kihon-hanmen (see Fig. 4.117).

    An example of strings  some of characters' size is larger than the kihon-hanmen character size
    Fig. 4.117: An example of strings some of characters' size is larger than the kihon-hanmen character size

On the other hand when characters are inserted that are smaller than the basic character size of the paragraph, to keep the line gap of the paragraph visible the interlinear space looks wider as shown below (see Fig. 4.118).

An example of inserted smaller characters than basic paragraph character size
Fig. 4.118: An example of inserted smaller characters than basic paragraph character size

When the following interlinear objects are set at the very top of the page or the column, these objects are set out of the hanmen or the column area (see Fig. 4.119):

  1. In vertical writing mode, ruby, emphasis dots and sidelines at the right side of the character.

  2. In horizontal writing mode, ruby and emphasis dots above the character.

  3. In horizontal writing mode and vertical writing mode, reference marks between lines.

An example of objects set out of the kihon-hanmen
Fig. 4.119: An example of objects set out of the kihon-hanmen

When the following objects which jut into the interlinear area are set on the very top line of the hanmen or column area, the part of the object that juts out is set outside of the hanmen or column area:

  1. characters processed with tate-chu-yoko

  2. ornamented characters

  3. warichu

  4. characters where each base line is changed to block direction

  5. characters where the size is larger than the size dictated by the kihon-hanmen

Following interlinear objects are set outside the hanmen or column area, when set at the very last line of the hanmen or column area:

  1. in vertical writing mode, ruby and sideline set left side of the base character

  2. in horizontal writing mode, underline under main text

When the following objects which jut into the interlinear area are set for the very end line of the hanmen or column area, the part of the objects that juts out is set outside of the hanmen or column area (see Fig. 4.120):

  1. characters processed with tate-chu-yoko

  2. ornamented characters

  3. warichu

  4. characters where each position is changed to block direction

  5. characters whose size is larger than the size dictated by the kihon-hanmen

An example of warichu jutting from kihon-hanmen
Fig. 4.120: An example of warichu jutting from kihon-hanmen

4.5.2 Processing of Spaces between Paragraphs

The space between paragraphs is usually same as line gap specified for the paragraphs.

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 determines that "the space between paragraphs where different character sizes are specified shall be the line gap specified for kihon-hanmen".

Sometimes the space between paragraphs is specified. JIS X 4051 determines the space before the paragraph as "space before paragraph" and the space after the paragraph as "space after paragraph". When the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified, the space will be kept between paragraphs. Thus "space before paragraph" or "space after paragraph" in the JIS X 4051 context is usually specified with absolute space sizes (see Fig. 4.121) or a number of lines (see Fig. 4.122).

Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified
Fig. 4.121: Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified
Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified (quotations are inserted)
Fig. 4.122: Example one where the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified (quotations are inserted)

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 describes "space before paragraph" and "space after paragraph" at the top or the bottom of the hanmen or column as follows (see Fig. 4.125 Fig. 4.126 and Fig. 4.127 about the space specified with number of lines):

  1. When the space is specified with "space before paragraph", the last line of the paragraph is at the bottom of the hanmen or column, or there is not enough room to fill the specified space, the top of the next page or column will be used to fill the "space before paragraph" followed by the next paragraph (see Fig. 4.123). Note that the remaining unexpected blank on the previous page or column is left as is.

    An example of "space before paragraph" in the top of the hanmen (an example of a NAKA-TOBIRA)
    Fig. 4.123: An example of "space before paragraph" in the top of the hanmen (an example of a NAKA-TOBIRA)
  2. When the last line of the paragraph with "space after paragraph" is at the bottom of the hanmen or column or there is not enough blank space to contain the specified space after the paragraph, the next paragraph starts from the top of the next hanmen or the next column. Note that the space after the previous paragraph is left as is (see Fig. 4.124).

    An example of "space after paragraph" at the bottom of hanmen or column (an example of NAKA-TOBIRA)
    Fig. 4.124: An example of "space after paragraph" at the bottom of hanmen or column (an example of NAKA-TOBIRA)

(note 2)

JIS X 4051 determines that when the previous paragraph is accompanied with "space after paragraph" and the next paragraph is accompanied with "space before paragraph" the size of the space between these two paragraphs is sum of the "space after paragraph" and the "space before paragraph".

When the "space before paragraph" or the "space after paragraph" is specified with a number of lines, the space is calculated with the basic character size and line gap of the paragraph. The space accompanying the header is calculated with the character size and the line gap of the kihon-hanmen. When the spaces among paragraphs are specified as a size of one line space, the results are as follows:

Example one of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the middle of the hanmen)
Fig. 4.125: Example one of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the middle of the hanmen)
Example two of the space sibe between paragraphs with number of lines (at the top of the hanmen)
Fig. 4.126: Example two of the space sibe between paragraphs with number of lines (at the top of the hanmen)
Example two of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the bottom of the hanmen)
Fig. 4.127: Example two of the space size between paragraphs with number of lines (at the bottom of the hanmen)

4.5.3 Adjustment of Processing of Realm in Block Direction

Except for the last line before the page break or new recto, the very last line set at the bottom of a page or a column is set to be aligned to the border of the kihon-hanmen or the column area. However, sometimes exceptions arise as follows:

  1. Paragraphs and other objects set using a different character size or line gap from the kihon-hanmen. If there is no adjustment, the bottom of the last line will not be aligned to the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or column area in the block direction. Examples are block headings and end notes inserted after a paragraph.

  2. When setting objects which are prohibited at the bottom of a kihon-hanmen or the bottom of a column, such as block headings, some blanks may appear on the previous page or in the previous column.

In these cases, there are two ways to solve the issue. Hereafter, procedure (a) will be called "adjustment processing in block direction".

  1. Set the bottom of the line aligned to the bottom of the kihon-hanmen or the bottom of the column in the block direction, and move blanks to appropriate positions within the kihon-hanmen or the column.

  2. Let the blanks appearing at the bottom of the hanmen or the column in block direction remain as they are.

There are some issues related to the adjustment procedure in the block direction as follows:

First, make best efforts to reduce such cases. Some examples of how not to let objects affect the alignment to the kihon-hanmen lines of following objects are:

  1. Block heading: the area of the block heading is specified by an integral number of lines (see 4.1.6 Processing of Gyou-dori).

    (note 1)

    Some mathematical formulas where the block direction width is wider than the hanmen or column character size, like fractional formulas, can be set in two ways. One is to specify the space of the area with a number of lines and when the area has some aligned space in the block direction the adjustment is done within the hanmen or within the column.

  2. Block direction space between paragraphs: to specify the size of a space with a number of lines (see 4.5.2 Processing of Spaces between Paragraphs).

  3. Other cases such as Haiku with larger characters, where the space of the block is specified with a number of lines.

    (note 1)

    When haiku and other short texts are quoted in a block area the inter-letter-space is sometimes set as a half em or fourth em, or by setting the length of the line and setting the text using the even inter-letter spacing method (see Fig. 3.102).

When there is a following object and the properties of the object are different from the properties of the kihon-hanmen, set the object to align with the bottom edge of hanmen or column and adjust the space between the object and the text before. Examples are as follows:

  1. Footnotes in horizontal writing mode (see 4.2.5 Processing of Footnotes in Horizontal Writing Mode).

  2. Sidenotes in vertical writing mode (see 4.2.6 Processing of Sidenotes in Vertical Writing Mode).

When there is following text and objects and there is a blank as the result of setting text and objects with specified spaces, adjustment is done with the block direction space among text lines and objects. Examples are as follows:

  1. Cases where an illustration or a table is inserted with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" in terms of JIS X 4051 (see 4.3.5 Basic Ideas about Illustration Positioning in JIS X 4051). Process should be implemented as follows:

    1. When only one illustration or table with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" is allocated at the top or the bottom of the hanmen or the column, the adjustment of the hanmen or the column is done between the illustration or the table and the main text (see Fig. 4.128).

      (note 1)

      When only one illustration or table with absolute position indication without turn around is set at the very top or the very bottom of the hanmen or the column in block direction, the process is implemented as for case 1.

      Example one of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with"relative positioning mode" (at the top of a hanmen)
      Fig. 4.128: Example one of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with"relative positioning mode" (at the top of a hanmen)
    2. When only one illustration or table with "relative positioning and no turn around mode" is allocated in the middle of a hanmen or a column the adjustment of the hanmen or the column is done evenly in the space before and after the illustration or table (see Fig. 4.129).

      Example two of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with "relative positioning mode" (at the middle of a hanmen)
      Fig. 4.129: Example two of adjustment of allocation of a illustration with "relative positioning mode" (at the middle of a hanmen)
    3. When two or more illustrations or tables are inserted, a fractional blank is distributed to multiple spaces between main text and illustrations or tables (see Fig. 2.41).

      (note 1)

      When two or more illustrations are inserted, if the adjustment is done at more than one position, the line position of main text might be moved from the kihon-hanmen. To avoid that, one approach is to set lines after the illustration with alignment to the kihon-hanmen line position (see Fig. 2.42). In processing like Fig. 2.41, the size of the space before and after illustrations are very similar, however, in cases like Fig. 2.42, the size of the space before and after one illustration are same, but, the sizes of spaces before and after different illustrations might be different from each other.

      (note 2)

      When the illustrations or tables with absolute position indication without turn around are set at the very top and the very bottom of the hanmen or column area, the issue mentioned in (note 1) will also arise. There are also two approaches. One is to make spaces before and after illustrations or tables equal, and the other is to force the line position so that it is aligned to the line position of the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Cases where an endnote is inserted (see 4.2.4 Processing of Endnotes in Vertical Writing Mode or Horizontal Writing Mode). In these cases, basically the adjustment is done between the endnote and the main text just after the endnote. However, when endnotes are only set at the very end of the hanmen or the column, the adjustment is done between the endnote and the main text before the endnote.

  3. Cases where an inserted quotation block has a smaller character size and narrower line gap than the kihon-hanmen. In these cases, the adjustment processing in block direction is basically the same as for endnotes inserted between paragraphs (see Fig. 4.130, Fig. 4.131).

    First example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    Fig. 4.130: First example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    Second example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen
    Fig. 4.131: Second example of a case quoted text block has smaller character size than kihon-hanmen

When there is no place for the adjustment even if it is necessary, the blank at the very bottom of the hanmen or the column area in block direction is left as it is. One example is the blank after endnotes occupying one full page.

There are cases that there is not enough blank to set the following object and there happen to remain blank at the bottom of the realm of the hanmen or the column. The examples to let the rest blanck as is are as follows:

  1. Cases where the heading is set at the bottom of the hanmen or column and the heading is moved to the next page or next column (see 4.1.7 Processing of Gyou-dori Heading Set at the bottom of the Page).

  2. Cases where the size of the space before or after the paragraph is specified and the paragraph is set at the top or bottom of a hanmen or a column (see 4.5.2 Processing of Spaces between Paragraphs).

  3. Cases where there are no dividable positions in the first part of a dividable table and the table is set at the top of the next page or the next column and there remains some blank space at the bottom of the previous hanmen or the previous column. Also cases where a dividable table is divided and there remains some blank space at the bottom of the previous hanmen or the previous column.

Appendix A Character Classes

The following are lists of (non-ideographic) characters from a subset of ISO/IEC 10646 (collection number 285 "BASIC JAPANESE" and 286 "JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHICS EXTENSION") grouped by character class according to the classification explained in 3.9.2 Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning.

(note 1)

General punctuation marks are script neutral in ISO/IEC 10646 and there is no "Opening Ideographic Parenthesis" specifically encoded for CJK scripts in the standard. However, because of the typographic difference among scripts with respect to base line position as well as width and glyph design, the same set of punctuation marks usually do not fit to both Latin and Japanese text. To work around this issue, many existing implementations use compatibility characters encoded separately in the standard for the purpose of round-trip integrity with the legacy encoding standards. For example, while this document lists U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS as a member of opening brackets (cl-01), the compatibility counterpart U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS is used in the Japanese context in most Japanese text layout software.

A.1 Opening brackets (cl-01)

Character UCS Name Remark
2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
007B LEFT CURLY BRACKET
3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET
300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2985 LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3018 LEFT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
« 00AB LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301D REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

A.2 Closing brackets (cl-02)

Character UCS Name Remark
2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
007D RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2986 RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3019 RIGHT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
» 00BB RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301F LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

A.3 Hyphens (cl-03)

Character UCS Name Remark
2010 HYPHEN quarter em width
301C WAVE DASH
30A0 KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN half-width
2013 EN DASH half-width

A.4 Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

Character UCS Name Remark
0021 EXCLAMATION MARK
003F QUESTION MARK
203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK
2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK
2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK
2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK

A.5 Middle dots (cl-05)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT
003A COLON
003B SEMICOLON used horizontal composition

A.6 Full stops (cl-06)

Character UCS Name Remark
3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP
002E FULL STOP used horizontal composition

A.7 Commas (cl-07)

Character UCS Name Remark
3001 IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA
002C COMMA used horizontal composition

A.8 Inseparable characters (cl-08)

Character UCS Name Remark
2014 EM DASH Some systems implement U+2015 HORIZONTAL BAR very similar behavior to U+2014 EM DASH
2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
2025 TWO DOT LEADER
3033 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
U+3035 follows this
3034 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT WITH VOICED SOUND MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
U+3035 follows this
3035 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK LOWER HALF used vertical composition

A.9 Iteration marks (cl-09)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FD KATAKANA ITERATION MARK
30FE KATAKANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
309D HIRAGANA ITERATION MARK
309E HIRAGANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
3005 IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK
303B VERTICAL IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK

A.10 Prolonged sound mark (cl-10)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK

A.11 Small kana (cl-11)

Character UCS Name Remark
3041 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL A
3043 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL I
3045 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL U
3047 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL E
3049 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL O
30A1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL A
30A3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL I
30A5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL U
30A7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL E
30A9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL O
3063 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL TU
3083 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YA
3085 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YU
3087 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YO
308E HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL WA
3095 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KA
3096 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KE
30C3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU
30E3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YA
30E5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YU
30E7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YO
30EE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL WA
30F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KA
30F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KE
31F0 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KU
31F1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SI
31F2 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SU
31F3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TO
31F4 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL NU
31F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HA
31F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HI
31F7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU
31F8 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HE
31F9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HO
31FA KATAKANA LETTER SMALL MU
31FB KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RA
31FC KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RI
31FD KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RU
31FE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RE
31FF KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RO
ㇷ゚ <31F7, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>

A.12 Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

Character UCS Name Remark
00A5 YEN SIGN
0024 DOLLAR SIGN
00A3 POUND SIGN
0023 NUMBER SIGN
20AC EURO SIGN
2116 NUMERO SIGN

A.13 Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

Character UCS Name Remark
° 00B0 DEGREE SIGN proportional
2032 PRIME proportional
2033 DOUBLE PRIME proportional
2103 DEGREE CELSIUS
00A2 CENT SIGN
0025 PERCENT SIGN
2030 PER MILLE SIGN
33CB SQUARE HP
2113 SCRIPT SMALL L
3303 SQUARE AARU
330D SQUARE KARORII
3314 SQUARE KIRO
3318 SQUARE GURAMU
3322 SQUARE SENTI
3323 SQUARE SENTO
3326 SQUARE DORU
3327 SQUARE TON
332B SQUARE PAASENTO
3336 SQUARE HEKUTAARU
333B SQUARE PEEZI
3349 SQUARE MIRI
334A SQUARE MIRIBAARU
334D SQUARE MEETORU
3351 SQUARE RITTORU
3357 SQUARE WATTO
338E SQUARE MG
338F SQUARE KG
339C SQUARE MM
339D SQUARE CM
339E SQUARE KM
33A1 SQUARE M SQUARED
33C4 SQUARE CC

A.14 Full-width ideographic space (cl-14)

Character UCS Name Remark
  3000 IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE

A.15 Hiragana (cl-15)

Character UCS Name Remark
3042 HIRAGANA LETTER A
3044 HIRAGANA LETTER I
3046 HIRAGANA LETTER U
3048 HIRAGANA LETTER E
304A HIRAGANA LETTER O
304B HIRAGANA LETTER KA
304C HIRAGANA LETTER GA
304D HIRAGANA LETTER KI
304E HIRAGANA LETTER GI
304F HIRAGANA LETTER KU
3050 HIRAGANA LETTER GU
3051 HIRAGANA LETTER KE
3052 HIRAGANA LETTER GE
3053 HIRAGANA LETTER KO
3054 HIRAGANA LETTER GO
3055 HIRAGANA LETTER SA
3056 HIRAGANA LETTER ZA
3057 HIRAGANA LETTER SI
3058 HIRAGANA LETTER ZI
3059 HIRAGANA LETTER SU
305A HIRAGANA LETTER ZU
305B HIRAGANA LETTER SE
305C HIRAGANA LETTER ZE
305D HIRAGANA LETTER SO
305E HIRAGANA LETTER ZO
305F HIRAGANA LETTER TA
3060 HIRAGANA LETTER DA
3061 HIRAGANA LETTER TI
3062 HIRAGANA LETTER DI
3064 HIRAGANA LETTER TU
3065 HIRAGANA LETTER DU
3066 HIRAGANA LETTER TE
3067 HIRAGANA LETTER DE
3068 HIRAGANA LETTER TO
3069 HIRAGANA LETTER DO
306A HIRAGANA LETTER NA
306B HIRAGANA LETTER NI
306C HIRAGANA LETTER NU
306D HIRAGANA LETTER NE
306E HIRAGANA LETTER NO
306F HIRAGANA LETTER HA
3070 HIRAGANA LETTER BA
3071 HIRAGANA LETTER PA
3072 HIRAGANA LETTER HI
3073 HIRAGANA LETTER BI
3074 HIRAGANA LETTER PI
3075 HIRAGANA LETTER HU
3076 HIRAGANA LETTER BU
3077 HIRAGANA LETTER PU
3078 HIRAGANA LETTER HE
3079 HIRAGANA LETTER BE
307A HIRAGANA LETTER PE
307B HIRAGANA LETTER HO
307C HIRAGANA LETTER BO
307D HIRAGANA LETTER PO
307E HIRAGANA LETTER MA
307F HIRAGANA LETTER MI
3080 HIRAGANA LETTER MU
3081 HIRAGANA LETTER ME
3082 HIRAGANA LETTER MO
3084 HIRAGANA LETTER YA
3086 HIRAGANA LETTER YU
3088 HIRAGANA LETTER YO
3089 HIRAGANA LETTER RA
308A HIRAGANA LETTER RI
308B HIRAGANA LETTER RU
308C HIRAGANA LETTER RE
308D HIRAGANA LETTER RO
308F HIRAGANA LETTER WA
3090 HIRAGANA LETTER WI
3091 HIRAGANA LETTER WE
3092 HIRAGANA LETTER WO
3093 HIRAGANA LETTER N
3094 HIRAGANA LETTER VU
か゚ <304B, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KA, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
き゚ <304D, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KI, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
く゚ <304F, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
け゚ <3051, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
こ゚ <3053, 309A> <HIRAGANA LETTER KO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>

A.16 Katakana (cl-16)

Character UCS Name Remark
30A2 KATAKANA LETTER A
30A4 KATAKANA LETTER I
30A6 KATAKANA LETTER U
30A8 KATAKANA LETTER E
30AA KATAKANA LETTER O
30AB KATAKANA LETTER KA
30AC KATAKANA LETTER GA
30AD KATAKANA LETTER KI
30AE KATAKANA LETTER GI
30AF KATAKANA LETTER KU
30B0 KATAKANA LETTER GU
30B1 KATAKANA LETTER KE
30B2 KATAKANA LETTER GE
30B3 KATAKANA LETTER KO
30B4 KATAKANA LETTER GO
30B5 KATAKANA LETTER SA
30B6 KATAKANA LETTER ZA
30B7 KATAKANA LETTER SI
30B8 KATAKANA LETTER ZI
30B9 KATAKANA LETTER SU
30BA KATAKANA LETTER ZU
30BB KATAKANA LETTER SE
30BC KATAKANA LETTER ZE
30BD KATAKANA LETTER SO
30BE KATAKANA LETTER ZO
30BF KATAKANA LETTER TA
30C0 KATAKANA LETTER DA
30C1 KATAKANA LETTER TI
30C2 KATAKANA LETTER DI
30C4 KATAKANA LETTER TU
30C5 KATAKANA LETTER DU
30C6 KATAKANA LETTER TE
30C7 KATAKANA LETTER DE
30C8 KATAKANA LETTER TO
30C9 KATAKANA LETTER DO
30CA KATAKANA LETTER NA
30CB KATAKANA LETTER NI
30CC KATAKANA LETTER NU
30CD KATAKANA LETTER NE
30CE KATAKANA LETTER NO
30CF KATAKANA LETTER HA
30D0 KATAKANA LETTER BA
30D1 KATAKANA LETTER PA
30D2 KATAKANA LETTER HI
30D3 KATAKANA LETTER BI
30D4 KATAKANA LETTER PI
30D5 KATAKANA LETTER HU
30D6 KATAKANA LETTER BU
30D7 KATAKANA LETTER PU
30D8 KATAKANA LETTER HE
30D9 KATAKANA LETTER BE
30DA KATAKANA LETTER PE
30DB KATAKANA LETTER HO
30DC KATAKANA LETTER BO
30DD KATAKANA LETTER PO
30DE KATAKANA LETTER MA
30DF KATAKANA LETTER MI
30E0 KATAKANA LETTER MU
30E1 KATAKANA LETTER ME
30E2 KATAKANA LETTER MO
30E4 KATAKANA LETTER YA
30E6 KATAKANA LETTER YU
30E8 KATAKANA LETTER YO
30E9 KATAKANA LETTER RA
30EA KATAKANA LETTER RI
30EB KATAKANA LETTER RU
30EC KATAKANA LETTER RE
30ED KATAKANA LETTER RO
30EF KATAKANA LETTER WA
30F0 KATAKANA LETTER WI
30F1 KATAKANA LETTER WE
30F2 KATAKANA LETTER WO
30F3 KATAKANA LETTER N
30F4 KATAKANA LETTER VU
カ゚ <30AB, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KA, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
キ゚ <30AD, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KI, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ク゚ <30AF, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ケ゚ <30B1, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
コ゚ <30B3, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER KO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
セ゚ <30BB, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER SE, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ツ゚ <30C4, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER TU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
ト゚ <30C8, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER TO, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>
30F7 KATAKANA LETTER VA
30F8 KATAKANA LETTER VI
30F9 KATAKANA LETTER VE
30FA KATAKANA LETTER VO

A.17 Math symbols (cl-17)

Character UCS Name Remark
003D EQUALS SIGN
2260 NOT EQUAL TO
2252 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF
2243 ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO
2245 APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO
2248 ALMOST EQUAL TO
2261 IDENTICAL TO
2262 NOT IDENTICAL TO
003C LESS-THAN SIGN
003E GREATER-THAN SIGN
2266 LESS-THAN OVER EQUAL TO
2267 GREATER-THAN OVER EQUAL TO
226A MUCH LESS-THAN
226B MUCH GREATER-THAN
2276 LESS-THAN OR GREATER-THAN
2277 GREATER-THAN OR LESS-THAN
22DA LESS-THAN EQUAL TO OR GREATER-THAN
22DB GREATER-THAN EQUAL TO OR LESS-THAN
2227 LOGICAL AND
2228 LOGICAL OR
2305 PROJECTIVE
2306 PERSPECTIVE
2282 SUBSET OF
2283 SUPERSET OF
2284 NOT A SUBSET OF
2285 NOT A SUPERSET OF
2286 SUBSET OF OR EQUAL TO
2287 SUPERSET OF OR EQUAL TO
228A SUBSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO
228B SUPERSET OF WITH NOT EQUAL TO
2208 ELEMENT OF
220B CONTAINS AS MEMBER
2209 NOT AN ELEMENT OF
222A UNION
2229 INTERSECTION
2225 PARALLEL TO
2226 NOT PARALLEL TO
21D2 RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW
21D4 LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROW
2194 LEFT RIGHT ARROW
223D REVERSED TILDE (lazy S)
221D PROPORTIONAL TO
22A5 UP TACK
2295 CIRCLED PLUS
2297 CIRCLED TIMES

A.18 Math operators (cl-18)

Character UCS Name Remark
002B PLUS SIGN
2212 MINUS SIGN
× 00D7 MULTIPLICATION SIGN
÷ 00F7 DIVISION SIGN
± 00B1 PLUS-MINUS SIGN
2213 MINUS-OR-PLUS SIGN

A.19 Ideographic characters (cl-19)

In addition to CJK Ideographs, ideographic characters (cl-19) also includes some handful of other symbols. The following is the list of all non-ideographic characters assigned to this character class.

Character UCS Name Remark
0026 AMPERSAND
002A ASTERISK
002F SOLIDUS
0030 DIGIT ZERO
0031 DIGIT ONE
0032 DIGIT TWO
0033 DIGIT THREE
0034 DIGIT FOUR
0035 DIGIT FIVE
0036 DIGIT SIX
0037 DIGIT SEVEN
0038 DIGIT EIGHT
0039 DIGIT NINE
0040 COMMERCIAL AT
0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A
0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B
0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C
0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D
0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E
0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F
0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G
0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H
0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I
004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J
004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K
004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L
004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M
004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N
004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O
0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P
0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q
0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R
0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S
0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T
0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U
0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V
0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W
0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X
0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y
005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z
005C REVERSE SOLIDUS
0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A
0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B
0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C
0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D
0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E
0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F
0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G
0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H
0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I
006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J
006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K
006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L
006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M
006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N
006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O
0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P
0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q
0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R
0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S
0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T
0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U
0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V
0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W
0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X
0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y
007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
007C VERTICAL LINE
§ 00A7 SECTION SIGN
© 00A9 COPYRIGHT SIGN
® 00AE REGISTERED SIGN
00B6 PILCROW SIGN
¼ 00BC VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER
½ 00BD VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF
¾ 00BE VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS
Α 0391 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA
Β 0392 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA
Γ 0393 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER GAMMA
Δ 0394 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER DELTA
Ε 0395 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER EPSILON
Ζ 0396 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ZETA
Η 0397 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ETA
Θ 0398 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER THETA
Ι 0399 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER IOTA
Κ 039A GREEK CAPITAL LETTER KAPPA
Λ 039B GREEK CAPITAL LETTER LAMDA
Μ 039C GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU
Ν 039D GREEK CAPITAL LETTER NU
Ξ 039E GREEK CAPITAL LETTER XI
Ο 039F GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMICRON
Π 03A0 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PI
Ρ 03A1 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER RHO
Σ 03A3 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA
Τ 03A4 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU
Υ 03A5 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER UPSILON
Φ 03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI
Χ 03A7 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI
Ψ 03A8 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PSI
Ω 03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA
α 03B1 GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA
β 03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA
γ 03B3 GREEK SMALL LETTER GAMMA
δ 03B4 GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTA
ε 03B5 GREEK SMALL LETTER EPSILON
ζ 03B6 GREEK SMALL LETTER ZETA
η 03B7 GREEK SMALL LETTER ETA
θ 03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA
ι 03B9 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA
κ 03BA GREEK SMALL LETTER KAPPA
λ 03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA
μ 03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU
ν 03BD GREEK SMALL LETTER NU
ξ 03BE GREEK SMALL LETTER XI
ο 03BF GREEK SMALL LETTER OMICRON
π 03C0 GREEK SMALL LETTER PI
ρ 03C1 GREEK SMALL LETTER RHO
ς 03C2 GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA
σ 03C3 GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA
τ 03C4 GREEK SMALL LETTER TAU
υ 03C5 GREEK SMALL LETTER UPSILON
φ 03C6 GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI
χ 03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI
ψ 03C8 GREEK SMALL LETTER PSI
ω 03C9 GREEK SMALL LETTER OMEGA
Ё 0401 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IO
А 0410 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER A
Б 0411 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BE
В 0412 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER VE
Г 0413 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE
Д 0414 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DE
Е 0415 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IE
Ж 0416 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZHE
З 0417 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZE
И 0418 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I
Й 0419 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT I
К 041A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER KA
Л 041B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EL
М 041C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EM
Н 041D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EN
О 041E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER O
П 041F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER PE
Р 0420 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ER
С 0421 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ES
Т 0422 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TE
У 0423 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER U
Ф 0424 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EF
Х 0425 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HA
Ц 0426 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TSE
Ч 0427 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER CHE
Ш 0428 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA
Щ 0429 CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHCHA
Ъ 042A CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HARD SIGN
Ы 042B CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
Ь 042C CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SOFT SIGN
Э 042D CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER E
Ю 042E CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YU
Я 042F CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YA
а 0430 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A
б 0431 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE
в 0432 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE
г 0433 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
д 0434 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE
е 0435 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE
ж 0436 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE
з 0437 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE
и 0438 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I
й 0439 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I
к 043A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA
л 043B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL
м 043C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM
н 043D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN
о 043E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O
п 043F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE
р 0440 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER
с 0441 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES
т 0442 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE
у 0443 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U
ф 0444 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF
х 0445 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA
ц 0446 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE
ч 0447 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE
ш 0448 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA
щ 0449 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA
ъ 044A CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN
ы 044B CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
ь 044C CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SOFT SIGN
э 044D CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E
ю 044E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU
я 044F CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA
ё 0451 CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO
2016 DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE
2020 DAGGER
2021 DOUBLE DAGGER
2022 BULLET
203B REFERENCE MARK
2042 ASTERISM
2051 TWO ASTERISKS ALIGNED VERTICALLY
2121 TELEPHONE SIGN
2153 VULGAR FRACTION ONE THIRD
2154 VULGAR FRACTION TWO THIRDS
2155 VULGAR FRACTION ONE FIFTH
2160 ROMAN NUMERAL ONE
2161 ROMAN NUMERAL TWO
2162 ROMAN NUMERAL THREE
2163 ROMAN NUMERAL FOUR
2164 ROMAN NUMERAL FIVE
2165 ROMAN NUMERAL SIX
2166 ROMAN NUMERAL SEVEN
2167 ROMAN NUMERAL EIGHT
2168 ROMAN NUMERAL NINE
2169 ROMAN NUMERAL TEN
216A ROMAN NUMERAL ELEVEN
216B ROMAN NUMERAL TWELVE
2170 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL ONE
2171 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TWO
2172 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL THREE
2173 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL FOUR
2174 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL FIVE
2175 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL SIX
2176 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL SEVEN
2177 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL EIGHT
2178 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL NINE
2179 SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TEN
217A SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL ELEVEN
217B SMALL ROMAN NUMERAL TWELVE
2190 LEFTWARDS ARROW
2191 UPWARDS ARROW
2192 RIGHTWARDS ARROW
2193 DOWNWARDS ARROW
2194 LEFT RIGHT ARROW
2196 NORTH WEST ARROW
2197 NORTH EAST ARROW
2198 SOUTH EAST ARROW
2199 SOUTH WEST ARROW
21C4 RIGHTWARDS ARROW OVER LEFTWARDS ARROW
21E6 LEFTWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E7 UPWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E8 RIGHTWARDS WHITE ARROW
21E9 DOWNWARDS WHITE ARROW
221A SQUARE ROOT
221E INFINITY
221F RIGHT ANGLE
222B INTEGRAL
222C DOUBLE INTEGRAL
2234 THEREFORE
2235 BECAUSE
2296 CIRCLED MINUS
22BF RIGHT TRIANGLE
2318 PLACE OF INTEREST SIGN
23CE RETURN SYMBOL
2423 OPEN BOX
2460 CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
2461 CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
2462 CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
2463 CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
2464 CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
2465 CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
2466 CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
2467 CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
2468 CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
2469 CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
246A CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN
246B CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE
246C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN
246D CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN
246E CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN
246F CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN
2470 CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN
2471 CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN
2472 CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN
2473 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY
24D0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER A
24D1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER B
24D2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER C
24D3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER D
24D4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER E
24D5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER F
24D6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER G
24D7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER H
24D8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER I
24D9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER J
24DA CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER K
24DB CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER L
24DC CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER M
24DD CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER N
24DE CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER O
24DF CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER P
24E0 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Q
24E1 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER R
24E2 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER S
24E3 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER T
24E4 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER U
24E5 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER V
24E6 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER W
24E7 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER X
24E8 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Y
24E9 CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
24EB NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER ELEVEN
24EC NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWELVE
24ED NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTEEN
24EE NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FOURTEEN
24EF NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTEEN
24F0 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SIXTEEN
24F1 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER SEVENTEEN
24F2 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER EIGHTEEN
24F3 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER NINETEEN
24F4 NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY
24F5 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
24F6 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
24F7 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
24F8 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
24F9 DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
24FA DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
24FB DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
24FC DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
24FD DOUBLE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
24FE DOUBLE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
25A0 BLACK SQUARE
25A1 WHITE SQUARE
25B1 WHITE PARALLELOGRAM
25B2 BLACK UP-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B3 WHITE UP-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B6 BLACK RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25B7 WHITE RIGHT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25BC BLACK DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE
25BD WHITE DOWN-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C0 BLACK LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C1 WHITE LEFT-POINTING TRIANGLE
25C6 BLACK DIAMOND
25C7 WHITE DIAMOND
25C9 FISHEYE
25CB WHITE CIRCLE
25CE BULLSEYE
25CF BLACK CIRCLE
25D0 CIRCLE WITH LEFT HALF BLACK
25D1 CIRCLE WITH RIGHT HALF BLACK
25D2 CIRCLE WITH LOWER HALF BLACK
25D3 CIRCLE WITH UPPER HALF BLACK
25E6 WHITE BULLET
25EF LARGE CIRCLE
2600 BLACK SUN WITH RAYS
2601 CLOUD
2602 UMBRELLA
2603 SNOWMAN
2605 BLACK STAR
2606 WHITE STAR
260E BLACK TELEPHONE
2616 WHITE SHOGI PIECE
2617 BLACK SHOGI PIECE
261E WHITE RIGHT POINTING INDEX
2640 FEMALE SIGN
2642 MALE SIGN
2660 BLACK SPADE SUIT
2661 WHITE HEART SUIT
2662 WHITE DIAMOND SUIT
2663 BLACK CLUB SUIT
2664 WHITE SPADE SUIT
2665 BLACK HEART SUIT
2666 BLACK DIAMOND SUIT
2667 WHITE CLUB SUIT
2668 HOT SPRINGS
2669 QUARTER NOTE
266A EIGHTH NOTE
266B BEAMED EIGHTH NOTES
266C BEAMED SIXTEENTH NOTES
266D MUSIC FLAT SIGN
266E MUSIC NATURAL SIGN
266F MUSIC SHARP SIGN
2713 CHECK MARK
2756 BLACK DIAMOND MINUS WHITE X
2776 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT ONE
2777 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT TWO
2778 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT THREE
2779 DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FOUR
277A DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT FIVE
277B DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SIX
277C DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT SEVEN
277D DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT EIGHT
277E DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED DIGIT NINE
277F DINGBAT NEGATIVE CIRCLED NUMBER TEN
2934 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING UPWARDS
2935 ARROW POINTING RIGHTWARDS THEN CURVING DOWNWARDS
⦿ 29BF CIRCLED BULLET
29FA DOUBLE PLUS
29FB TRIPLE PLUS
3003 DITTO MARK
3006 IDEOGRAPHIC CLOSING MARK
3007 IDEOGRAPHIC NUMBER ZERO
3012 POSTAL MARK
3013 GETA MARK
3020 POSTAL MARK FACE
303C MASU MARK
303D PART ALTERNATION MARK
309F HIRAGANA DIGRAPH YORI
30FF KATAKANA DIGRAPH KOTO
3231 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH STOCK
3232 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH HAVE
3239 PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH REPRESENT
3251 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY ONE
3252 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY TWO
3253 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY THREE
3254 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FOUR
3255 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY FIVE
3256 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SIX
3257 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY SEVEN
3258 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY EIGHT
3259 CIRCLED NUMBER TWENTY NINE
325A CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY
325B CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY ONE
325C CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY TWO
325D CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY THREE
325E CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FOUR
325F CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY FIVE
32A4 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH HIGH
32A5 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH CENTRE
32A6 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH LOW
32A7 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH LEFT
32A8 CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH RIGHT
32B1 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SIX
32B2 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY SEVEN
32B3 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY EIGHT
32B4 CIRCLED NUMBER THIRTY NINE
32B5 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY
32B6 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY ONE
32B7 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY TWO
32B8 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY THREE
32B9 CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FOUR
32BA CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY FIVE
32BB CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SIX
32BC CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY SEVEN
32BD CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY EIGHT
32BE CIRCLED NUMBER FORTY NINE
32BF CIRCLED NUMBER FIFTY
32D0 CIRCLED KATAKANA A
32D1 CIRCLED KATAKANA I
32D2 CIRCLED KATAKANA U
32D3 CIRCLED KATAKANA E
32D4 CIRCLED KATAKANA O
32D5 CIRCLED KATAKANA KA
32D6 CIRCLED KATAKANA KI
32D7 CIRCLED KATAKANA KU
32D8 CIRCLED KATAKANA KE
32D9 CIRCLED KATAKANA KO
32DA CIRCLED KATAKANA SA
32DB CIRCLED KATAKANA SI
32DC CIRCLED KATAKANA SU
32DD CIRCLED KATAKANA SE
32DE CIRCLED KATAKANA SO
32DF CIRCLED KATAKANA TA
32E0 CIRCLED KATAKANA TI
32E1 CIRCLED KATAKANA TU
32E2 CIRCLED KATAKANA TE
32E3 CIRCLED KATAKANA TO
32E5 CIRCLED KATAKANA NI
32E9 CIRCLED KATAKANA HA
32EC CIRCLED KATAKANA HE
32ED CIRCLED KATAKANA HO
32FA CIRCLED KATAKANA RO
337B SQUARE ERA NAME HEISEI
337C SQUARE ERA NAME SYOUWA
337D SQUARE ERA NAME TAISYOU
337E SQUARE ERA NAME MEIZI
33CD SQUARE KK
4EDD CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EDD

A.20 Characters as reference marks (cl-20)

Any character may participate in reference marks.

A.21 Ornamented character complexes (cl-21)

Any character may participate in ornamented character complex.

A.22 Simple-ruby character complexes (cl-22)

Any character may participate in simple-ruby character complex.

A.23 Jukugo-ruby character complexes (cl-23)

Any character may participate in jukugo-ruby character complex.

A.24 Grouped numerals (cl-24)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE quarter em width
, 002C COMMA quarter em width or half-width
. 002E FULL STOP decimal point
quarter em width or half-width
0 0030 DIGIT ZERO half-width
1 0031 DIGIT ONE half-width
2 0032 DIGIT TWO half-width
3 0033 DIGIT THREE half-width
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR half-width
5 0035 DIGIT FIVE half-width
6 0036 DIGIT SIX half-width
7 0037 DIGIT SEVEN half-width
8 0038 DIGIT EIGHT half-width
9 0039 DIGIT NINE half-width

A.25 Unit symbols (cl-25)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE quarter em width
( 0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
) 0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
/ 002F SOLIDUS one third em width, half-width or proportional
1 0031 DIGIT ONE half-width or proportional
2 0032 DIGIT TWO half-width or proportional
3 0033 DIGIT THREE half-width or proportional
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR half-width or proportional
A 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A proportional
B 0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B proportional
C 0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C proportional
D 0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D proportional
E 0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E proportional
F 0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F proportional
G 0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G proportional
H 0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H proportional
I 0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I proportional
J 004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J proportional
K 004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K proportional
L 004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L proportional
M 004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M proportional
N 004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N proportional
O 004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O proportional
P 0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P proportional
Q 0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q proportional
R 0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R proportional
S 0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S proportional
T 0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T proportional
U 0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U proportional
V 0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V proportional
W 0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W proportional
X 0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X proportional
Y 0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y proportional
Z 005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z proportional
a 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A proportional
b 0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B proportional
c 0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C proportional
d 0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D proportional
e 0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E proportional
f 0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F proportional
g 0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G proportional
h 0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H proportional
i 0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I proportional
j 006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J proportional
k 006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K proportional
l 006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L proportional
m 006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M proportional
n 006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N proportional
o 006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O proportional
p 0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P proportional
q 0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q proportional
r 0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R proportional
s 0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S proportional
t 0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T proportional
u 0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U proportional
v 0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V proportional
w 0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W proportional
x 0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X proportional
y 0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y proportional
z 007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z proportional
Ω 03A9 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER OMEGA proportional
μ 03BC GREEK SMALL LETTER MU proportional
2127 INVERTED OHM SIGN proportional
Å 212B ANGSTROM SIGN proportional
2212 MINUS SIGN
30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT half-width

A.26 Western word space (cl-26)

Character UCS Name Remark
0020 SPACE

A.27 Western characters (cl-27)

Character UCS Name Remark
! 0021 EXCLAMATION MARK proportional
" 0022 QUOTATION MARK proportional
# 0023 NUMBER SIGN proportional
$ 0024 DOLLAR SIGN proportional
% 0025 PERCENT SIGN proportional
& 0026 AMPERSAND proportional
' 0027 APOSTROPHE proportional
( 0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS proportional
) 0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS proportional
* 002A ASTERISK proportional
+ 002B PLUS SIGN proportional
, 002C COMMA proportional
- 002D HYPHEN-MINUS proportional
. 002E FULL STOP proportional
/ 002F SOLIDUS proportional
0 0030 DIGIT ZERO proportional
1 0031 DIGIT ONE proportional
2 0032 DIGIT TWO proportional
3 0033 DIGIT THREE proportional
4 0034 DIGIT FOUR proportional
5 0035 DIGIT FIVE proportional
6 0036 DIGIT SIX proportional
7 0037 DIGIT SEVEN proportional
8 0038 DIGIT EIGHT proportional
9 0039 DIGIT NINE proportional
: 003A COLON proportional
; 003B SEMICOLON proportional
< 003C LESS-THAN SIGN proportional
= 003D EQUALS SIGN proportional
> 003E GREATER-THAN SIGN proportional
? 003F QUESTION MARK proportional
@ 0040 COMMERCIAL AT proportional
A 0041 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A proportional
B 0042 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER B proportional
C 0043 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C proportional
D 0044 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D proportional
E 0045 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E proportional
F 0046 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER F proportional
G 0047 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G proportional
H 0048 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H proportional
I 0049 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I proportional
J 004A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J proportional
K 004B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K proportional
L 004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L proportional
M 004D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER M proportional
N 004E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N proportional
O 004F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O proportional
P 0050 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P proportional
Q 0051 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Q proportional
R 0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R proportional
S 0053 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S proportional
T 0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T proportional
U 0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U proportional
V 0056 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V proportional
W 0057 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER W proportional
X 0058 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER X proportional
Y 0059 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y proportional
Z 005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z proportional
[ 005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET proportional
\ 005C REVERSE SOLIDUS proportional
] 005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET proportional
^ 005E CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT proportional
_ 005F LOW LINE proportional
` 0060 GRAVE ACCENT proportional
a 0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A proportional
b 0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B proportional
c 0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C proportional
d 0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D proportional
e 0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E proportional
f 0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F proportional
g 0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G proportional
h 0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H proportional
i 0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I proportional
j 006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J proportional
k 006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K proportional
l 006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L proportional
m 006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M proportional
n 006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N proportional
o 006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O proportional
p 0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P proportional
q 0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q proportional
r 0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R proportional
s 0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S proportional
t 0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T proportional
u 0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U proportional
v 0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V proportional
w 0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W proportional
x 0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X proportional
y 0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y proportional
z 007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z proportional
{ 007B LEFT CURLY BRACKET proportional
| 007C VERTICAL LINE proportional
} 007D RIGHT CURLY BRACKET proportional
~ 007E TILDE proportional
  00A0 NO-BREAK SPACE proportional
¡ 00A1 INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK proportional
¢ 00A2 CENT SIGN proportional
£ 00A3 POUND SIGN proportional
¤ 00A4 CURRENCY SIGN proportional
¥ 00A5 YEN SIGN proportional
¦ 00A6 BROKEN BAR proportional
§ 00A7 SECTION SIGN proportional
¨ 00A8 DIAERESIS proportional
© 00A9 COPYRIGHT SIGN proportional
ª 00AA FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR proportional
« 00AB LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
¬ 00AC NOT SIGN proportional
­ 00AD SOFT HYPHEN proportional
® 00AE REGISTERED SIGN proportional
¯ 00AF MACRON proportional
° 00B0 DEGREE SIGN proportional
± 00B1 PLUS-MINUS SIGN proportional
² 00B2 SUPERSCRIPT TWO proportional
³ 00B3 SUPERSCRIPT THREE proportional
´ 00B4 ACUTE ACCENT proportional
00B6 PILCROW SIGN proportional
· 00B7 MIDDLE DOT proportional
¸ 00B8 CEDILLA proportional
¹ 00B9 SUPERSCRIPT ONE proportional
º 00BA MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR proportional
» 00BB RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK proportional
¼ 00BC VULGAR FRACTION ONE QUARTER proportional
½ 00BD VULGAR FRACTION ONE HALF proportional
¾ 00BE VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS proportional
¿ 00BF INVERTED QUESTION MARK proportional
À 00C0 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH GRAVE proportional
Á 00C1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE proportional
 00C2 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
à 00C3 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE proportional
Ä 00C4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Å 00C5 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE proportional
Æ 00C6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE (ash) proportional
Ç 00C7 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA proportional
È 00C8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH GRAVE proportional
É 00C9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE proportional
Ê 00CA LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ë 00CB LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ì 00CC LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH GRAVE proportional
Í 00CD LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH ACUTE proportional
Î 00CE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ï 00CF LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ð 00D0 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER ETH (Icelandic) proportional
Ñ 00D1 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE proportional
Ò 00D2 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH GRAVE proportional
Ó 00D3 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH ACUTE proportional
Ô 00D4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Õ 00D5 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE proportional
Ö 00D6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS proportional
× 00D7 MULTIPLICATION SIGN proportional
Ø 00D8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH STROKE proportional
Ù 00D9 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH GRAVE proportional
Ú 00DA LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH ACUTE proportional
Û 00DB LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ü 00DC LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ý 00DD LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE proportional
Þ 00DE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER THORN (Icelandic) proportional
ß 00DF LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S (German) proportional
à 00E0 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH GRAVE proportional
á 00E1 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH ACUTE proportional
â 00E2 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ã 00E3 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH TILDE proportional
ä 00E4 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS proportional
å 00E5 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH RING ABOVE proportional
æ 00E6 LATIN SMALL LETTER AE (ash) proportional
æ̀ <00E6, 0300> <LATIN SMALL LETTER AE, COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT> proportional
ç 00E7 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA proportional
è 00E8 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH GRAVE proportional
é 00E9 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE proportional
ê 00EA LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ë 00EB LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ì 00EC LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH GRAVE proportional
í 00ED LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH ACUTE proportional
î 00EE LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ï 00EF LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ð 00F0 LATIN SMALL LETTER ETH (Icelandic) proportional
ñ 00F1 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE proportional
ò 00F2 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH GRAVE proportional
ó 00F3 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH ACUTE proportional
ô 00F4 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
õ 00F5 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE proportional
ö 00F6 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS proportional
÷ 00F7 DIVISION SIGN proportional
ø 00F8 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH STROKE proportional
ù 00F9 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH GRAVE proportional
ú 00FA LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH ACUTE proportional
û 00FB LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ü 00FC LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS proportional
ý 00FD LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH ACUTE proportional
þ 00FE LATIN SMALL LETTER THORN (Icelandic) proportional
ÿ 00FF LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH DIAERESIS proportional
Ā 0100 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH MACRON proportional
ā 0101 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH MACRON proportional
Ă 0102 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE proportional
ă 0103 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE proportional
Ą 0104 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH OGONEK proportional
ą 0105 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH OGONEK proportional
Ć 0106 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH ACUTE proportional
ć 0107 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH ACUTE proportional
Ĉ 0108 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĉ 0109 LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Č 010C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CARON proportional
č 010D LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CARON proportional
Ď 010E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH CARON proportional
ď 010F LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH CARON proportional
đ 0111 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH STROKE proportional
Ē 0112 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH MACRON proportional
ē 0113 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH MACRON proportional
Ę 0118 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH OGONEK proportional
ę 0119 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH OGONEK proportional
Ě 011A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CARON proportional
ě 011B LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CARON proportional
Ĝ 011C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĝ 011D LATIN SMALL LETTER G WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ĥ 0124 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER H WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĥ 0125 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ħ 0127 LATIN SMALL LETTER H WITH STROKE proportional
Ī 012A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH MACRON proportional
ī 012B LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH MACRON proportional
Ĵ 0134 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ĵ 0135 LATIN SMALL LETTER J WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ĺ 0139 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH ACUTE proportional
ĺ 013A LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH ACUTE proportional
Ľ 013D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH CARON proportional
ľ 013E LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH CARON proportional
Ł 0141 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH STROKE proportional
ł 0142 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH STROKE proportional
Ń 0143 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH ACUTE proportional
ń 0144 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH ACUTE proportional
Ň 0147 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH CARON proportional
ň 0148 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH CARON proportional
ŋ 014B LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG (Sami) proportional
Ō 014C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MACRON proportional
ō 014D LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH MACRON proportional
Ő 0150 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
ő 0151 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
Π0152 LATIN CAPITAL LIGATURE OE proportional
œ 0153 LATIN SMALL LIGATURE OE proportional
Ŕ 0154 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R WITH ACUTE proportional
ŕ 0155 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH ACUTE proportional
Ř 0158 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R WITH CARON proportional
ř 0159 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH CARON proportional
Ś 015A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH ACUTE proportional
ś 015B LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH ACUTE proportional
Ŝ 015C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
ŝ 015D LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CIRCUMFLEX proportional
Ş 015E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CEDILLA proportional
ş 015F LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CEDILLA proportional
Š 0160 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER S WITH CARON proportional
š 0161 LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH CARON proportional
Ţ 0162 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CEDILLA proportional
ţ 0163 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CEDILLA proportional
Ť 0164 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CARON proportional
ť 0165 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CARON proportional
Ū 016A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH MACRON proportional
ū 016B LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH MACRON proportional
Ŭ 016C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH BREVE proportional
ŭ 016D LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH BREVE proportional
Ů 016E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH RING ABOVE proportional
ů 016F LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH RING ABOVE proportional
Ű 0170 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
ű 0171 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DOUBLE ACUTE proportional
Ź 0179 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH ACUTE proportional
ź 017A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH ACUTE proportional
Ż 017B LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH DOT ABOVE proportional
ż 017C LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH DOT ABOVE proportional
Ž 017D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z WITH CARON proportional
ž 017E LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON proportional
Ɠ 0193 LATIN CAPIT