Datasets published on the Web are accessed and experienced by consumers in a variety of ways, but little information about these experiences is typically conveyed. Dataset publishers many times lack feedback from consumers about how datasets are used. Consumers lack an effective way to discuss experiences with fellow collaborators and explore referencing material citing the dataset. Datasets as defined by DCAT are a collection of data, published or curated by a single agent, and available for access or download in one or more formats. The Dataset Usage Vocabulary (DUV) ( DUV ) is used to describe consumer experiences, citations, and feedback about the dataset from the human perspective.

By specifying a number of foundational concepts used to collect dataset consumer feedback, experiences, and cite references associated with a dataset, APIs can be written to support collaboration across the Web by structurally publishing consumer opinions and experiences, and provide a means for data consumers and producers advertise and search for published open dataset usage.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is a draft document which may be merged with the Data Quality Vocabulary or remain second iteration of the vocabulary, developed following extensive consultation among and outside the working group who now regard it as a standalone document. Feedback nearing completion. Comment and feedback is sought on before the overall direction being taken as much as next iteration which is likely to be the specific details of final version for the proposed vocabulary. foreseeable future.

This document was published by the Data on the Web Best Practices Working Group as a First Public Working Draft.If Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-dwbp-comments@w3.org ( subscribe , archives ). All comments are welcome.

Publication as a First Public Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy . The group does not expect this document to become a W3C Recommendation. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy .

This document is governed by the 1 August 2014 September 2015 W3C Process Document .

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

This vocabulary is meant to fill a niche that helps standardize the way Web published dataset usage be conveyed and shared. At this time there is no clear standard way to describe dataset usage on the Web. Without a means to systematically describe dataset usage, searching and conveying techniques are application specific and discovery and collaboration across the Web is more difficult. This vocabulary also recommends and requires data publishers to provide a mechanism of receiving data usage information from data consumers in the form of feedback,citation feedback, citation and data correction.

View as: .

2. Namespaces

The namespace for DCAT DUV is http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat# http://www.w3.org/ns/duv# . However, it should be noted that DCAT DUV makes extensive use of terms from other vocabularies, in particular Dublin Core . DCAT vocabularies.   DUV itself defines a minimal set of classes and properties of its own. A full set of namespaces and prefixes used in this document is shown in the table below.

Issue 1
All namespaces need to be verified. Issue-235
Prefix Namespace
biro http://purl.org/spar/biro/
cito http://purl.org/spar/cito/
cnt http://www.w3.org/2011/content
dcat http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
dct http://purl.org/dc/terms/
dctype http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/
foaf disco http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ http://rdf-vocabulary.ddialliance.org/discovery#
rdf dqv http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# http://www.w3.org/ns/dqv#
rdfs duv http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#
skos fabio http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# http://purl.org/spar/fabio/
vcard foaf http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns# http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
xsd frbr http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/
duv oa http://www.w3.org/ns/duv# http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#
oa pav http://www.w3.org/ns/oa# http://pav-ontology.github.io/pav/
rev prism http://purl.org/stuff/rev# http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.2/
prov rdf http://www.w3.org/ns/prov# http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
cito rdfs http://purl.org/spar/cito# http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
bibo skos http://purl.org/ontology/bibo# http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
vann http://purl.org/vocab/vann#
xsd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

3. Audience

The DUV is intended for data producers and publishers interested in tracking, sharing, and persisting consumer dataset usage. It is also intended for collaborators who require an exchange medium to advertise and interactively convey dataset usage.

4. Scope

The scope of the DUV is defined by the Data on the Web Best Practices (DWBP) Use Case document [ DWBP-UCR ] based on the data usage requirements about datasets. These requirements include: citing data on the Web, tracking the usage of data, sharing feedback and rating data. These requirements were derived from fourteen real world use cases examples provided in the use case document.

5. Relationship to other Vocabularies

The DUV is a “glue” vocabulary reusing and extending existing vocabulary classes and properties to support citation, feedback, and usage. This section provides our rationale and approach for vocabulary selection and re-use. reuse.

Core to the dataset usage vocabulary is the “dataset”. The DUV uses the Data Catalog (DCAT) vocabulary Vocabulary's dcat:Dataset class and all properties associated with the class. class [ VOCAB-DCAT ]. From a data usage perspective the DUV can be considered an extension of the dcat:Dataset.

The Web Annotation Vocabulary [ OA ] is used to describe duv:Feedback as a subclass inheriting the behavior of oa:Annotation. A crucial part of the Web Annotation Model are “motivations” that describe the role of particular Annotation. Each duv:Feedback must have at least one oa:motivated_by property with a relationship to an instance of oa:Motivation. A subset of the Motivation instances are important to describe feedback to data publishers, and blogs between dataset consumers. In addition to supporting duv:Feedback duv:Feedback, because the Web Annotation vocabulary provides a generic way of annotating any Web resource, it is recommended that Web Annotation vocabulary be used to annotate the duv:Dataset for uses beyond the scope of the DUV. DUV .

The Provenance Ontology (Prov-O) is Semantic Publishing and Referencing [ SPAR ] Ontologies provides a vocabulary suite of vocabularies used by data providers to pass details about the data history related entities to data users. Properties associated with prov:Activity provide relationships (prov:used, prov:hasGenerated) from a historical perspective using past tense forms of words and phrases. The developed reference citations, bibliographic records, and duv:WebThing reuses these properties by creating subProperties from Prov-O to describe usage from a present tense perspective. Both the publication process along with other related activities. The DUV directly relies upon Citation Typing Ontology (CiTO) [ CITO ], the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology [ FaBIO ], and Dublin Core [ DC-TERMS ] vocabularies are used to describe citations and references between datasets and cited sources. 6. Examples This section shows some examples to illustrate the application of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary. Example 1 - Usage: A 2-D plot application developed by Laufer can be used to create temperature plots and consumes temperature readings from a dataset In addition to produce ontologies the plot. A data logger used to provide temperature readings uses a configuration file research community provided basic criteria for operation of the citing data logger. Example 1 @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> . @prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . @prefix duv: <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> . @prefix : <http://example.org#> . :laufer a foaf:Agent, foaf:Person; foaf:givenName "Laufer"; foaf:mbox <mailto:laufer@example.org> duv:develops :xyplotter; . :xyplotter a duv:Application; rdfs:label "2dplotter" ; duv:consumes :dataset-03312004 duv:developedBy :laufer ; . :insitu-measurement-data-logger a duv:WebThing; rdfs:label "surface meteorology data logger" ; duv:consumes :configfile ; . :configfile-csv a dcat:Distribution; . :configfile a dcat:Dataset ; dct:title "configuration settings" ; dcat:distribution :configfile-csv ; . :dataset-Jan-Mar-2004-csv a dcat:Distribution; . :dataset-03312004 a dcat:Dataset; dct:title "Mars Quarterly Temperature Plot"; dcat:distribution :dataset-Jan-Mar-2004-csv; . Example 2 - Feedback: Laufer provides feedback about on the temperature readings dataset. Example 2 Web [ @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> . @prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> . @prefix oa: <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#> . @prefix duv: <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> . @prefix : <http://example.org#> . MSUDataCite :laufer a duv:Person ; foaf:givenName "Laufer" ; foaf:mbox <mailto:laufer@example.org> ; . ] [ :dataset-03312004 a dcat:Dataset ; dct:title "Mars Quarterly Temperature Plot" ; . EmoryUCite :comment1 a duv:Feedback ; oa:hasBody "Written in MS-DOS text format." ; oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004 ; oa:annotatedBy :laufer ; . ]. These resources helped scope the DUV citation model into the minimal requirements for electronic data publication. Finally, data citation principles being adopted [ :comment2 a duv:Feedback; duv:hasRating "3 Star"; oa:hasBody "Linked Data Rating"; oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004; . FORCE11-Citation Example 3 - Citation: A technical report :paperA identified by a DOI cites ] are also being considered to ensure the dataset. The :dataset-03312013 DUV is also identified consistent with guidelines developed by a digital object identifier (DOI). other data citation communities.

Example 3 @prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . @prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> . @prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> . @prefix oa: <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#> . @prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito#> . @prefix duv: <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> . @prefix : <http://example.org#> . :dataset-03312013 a dcat:Dataset; dc:identifier "doi:10.1038/ex2158"; dct:title "Mars Quarterly Temperature Plot"@en ; dct:alternative "Qtrly Temp Plot"@en; dct:description "This plot features average surface temperatures measured by the Mars Land Rover. "@en ; dct:created "2013-03-31T15:18:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ; dct:creator "Laufer" ; dct:license <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/> ; dcat:keyword "Mars"; dct:language <http://www.lexvo.org/page/iso639-3/eng> ; cito:isCitedAsDataSourceBy :paperA ; . :thisCitation a duv:Citation; cito:hasCitingEntity :dataset-03312004; cito:hasCitedEntity :paperA; . :paperA a foaf:document dc:identifier "doi:20.1055/ex7758"; dct:title "Mars Weather Technical Report"@en; duv:cites :dataset-03312004; .

7. 6. Vocabulary Overview

This section is non-normative.

This section depicts the vocabulary as a conceptual model. Shaded boxes are used to identify each class. Labeled open arrows identify example properties between the classes. Unlabeled shaded arrows are used to show inheritance with the parent class identified by the arrow head.

The classes duv:Application, duv:WebThing, and prov:Activity are used
Links to convey dataset usage. The the classes duv:Citation, bibo:Document, cito:CitationAct are used and properties need to represent citation. The classes duv:Feedback, oa:Annotation, duv:Rating are used be added as a way to represent feedback. more easily reference the document.

Fig. 1 6.1 Diagrammatic overview of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary Citation Model

Issue 1 Note
Should usage Does the reader more of an orientation to the model? What would be specified at helpful?

The citation model is largely based on classes, properties, and recommended approaches taken from the Dataset SPAR Ontologies.  The remainder of the model is composed from the Open Annotation vocabulary, Dublin Core, FOAF and by newly introduced DUV properties.  The model is comprised of the following classes: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, biro:BibliographicReference, fabio:Expression, cito:CitationAct, oa:Annotation, oa:Motivation, cnt:ContentAsText, skos:Concept, and foaf:Agent. Properties include: frbr:part, frbr:partOf, biro:references, dct:title, pav:version, prism:publicationDate, dct:created, dct:identifier, dct:creator, duv:agentClassification, dct:publisher, duv:hasDistributor, cito:hasCitingEntity, cito:hasCitedEntity, disco:fundedBy, cnt:chars, oa:hasTarget, oa:hasBody.  

Issue 2
I did not understand duv:UsageTool . Why is this needed? The description is cryptic to me. It says “A synopsis describing the way a tool can use a dataset or Distribution level? Issue-169 distribution.” A tool is not a synopsis. So, this seems to confuse real-world entity (a tool) with a text, a description? Issue-234

Usage Model

The following classes constitute the Usage Model: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, duv:Usage, duv:UsageTool, foaf:Agent, and skos:Concept. Properties include: duv:hasDatasetUsage, duv:has:DistributionUsage, duv:hasUsageType, duv:performedBy, duv:performs, duv:refersToDataset, duv:refersToDistribution, duv:agentClassification, duv:usageClassification.

8. 6.2 Vocabulary Specification Feedback Model

The following classes constitute the Feedback Model: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, oa:Annotation, duv:UserFeedback, dqv:UserQualityFeedback, duv:RatingFeedback, skos:Concept, cnt:ContentAsText. Properties include: duv:hasRating, oa:hasTarget, oa:hasBody, duv:hasDatasetFeedback, duv:hasDistributionFeedback, oa:motivatedBy, cnt:chars.

Issue 3
The rationale for duv:usageClassification , duv:agentClassification , need to be described more thoroughly or be reconsidered for scope. Issue-236
This is an initial proposal of DUV classes section will be non-normative and properties. We are still evaluating will contain links back to the use of classes like duv:Citation and duv:Feedback. vocabularies we mention.

8.1 7. Class:Agent Vocabulary Specification

7.1 Class: RatingFeedback

RDF Class: foaf:Agent duv:RatingFeedback
Definition An agent (eg. person, group, software Predefined criteria used to express a user opinion about a dataset or physical artifact). distribution using a discrete range of values.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Agent http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label Agent rating feedback
rdfs:subClassOf duv:UserFeedback

8.2 7.2 Class:Annotation Class: Usage

RDF Class: oa:Annotation duv:Usage
Definition Information about A helpful description of actions that can be performed on a Web resource given dataset or associations between resources. distribution.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/oa http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label Annotation usage

7.3 Class: UsageTool

RDF Property: Class: dct:title duv:UsageTool
Definition A name given to synopsis describing the Annotation way a tool can use a dataset or distribution.
Range rdfs:isDefinedBy rdfs:Literal http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label usage tool
Property: description
Issue 4
Stability of rev:Feedback class Issue-237

7.4 Class: UserFeedback

RDF Property: Class: dct:description duv:UserFeedback
Definition A free-text description of User feedback on the Annotaion dataset. Expresses whether the dataset was useful or not, for example.
Range Sub class of: rdfs:Literal rev:Feedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label user feedback
rdfs:subClassOf oa:Annotation
Issue 5
A number of properties have been created to accommodate support for dcat:Distribution and dcat:Dataset. To avoid having multiple classes for the domain and range properties were duplicated such as duv:hasDatasetUsage and duv:hasDistributionUsage. Issue-238

8.3 7.5 Class: Application Properties

Property: agentClassification

RDF Class: Property: duv:Application duv:agentClassification
Definition Software that is capable of reading and processing  Extension vocabularies may wish to specialize this property to have a range corresponding dataset. to a specific   ConceptScheme to describe an agent.
Domain foaf:Agent
Range skos:Concept
Label Application agent classification
Issue 2

Property: chars

RDF Property: Should we use Software or earl:Software instead of developed? Issue-170 cnt:chars
Definition Text content of an annotation body.
vann:usageNote cnt:ContentAsText (subject) cnt:chars (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label chars

Property: title created

RDF Property: dct:title dct:created
Definition A name given to The creation date associated with the Application dataset or distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) dct:created (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) dct:created (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label created

Property: description creator

RDF Property: dct:description dct:creator
Definition A free-text description Author of the Application cited dataset/distribution
vann:usageNote rdfs:Literal dcat:Dataset (subject) dct:creator (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) dct:creator (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label creator

Property: developedBy fundedBy

RDF Property: duv:developedBy disco:fundedBy
Definition Describes the Funding agent associated with the development of an application
dcat:Dataset (subject) disco:fundedBy  (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) fundedBy (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label developed funded by

Property: oa:hasBody

RDF Property: oa:hasBody
Definition Body of the comment associated with either feedback or associated with citation.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv oa:hasBody
vann:usageNote duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasBody (predicate) cnt:ContentAsText (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:hasBody (predicate) cnt:ContextAsText (object)
Label has body
Issue 3 Should dct:creator or doap:developer be used instead of duv:developedBy? Issue-171

Property: consumes hasCitedEntity

RDF Property: duv:consumes cito:hasCitedEntity
Definition A dataset The dataset, distribution, or citation of interest being consumed by an application. cited.
vann:usageNote cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitedEntity (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitedEntity (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
Label has cited entity

Property: hasCitingEntity

RDF Property: cito:hasCitingEntity
Definition Citation that references a dataset or a distribution.
Label vann:usageNote consumes cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitingEntity (predicate) fabio:Expression (object)
rdfs:isDefinedBy Label http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv has citing entity
Issue 4 Should duv:consumes be used instead of duv:consumed? Should we be able to reify Consumption? Issue-177

Property: generates hasDatasetFeedback

RDF Property: duv:generates duv:hasDatasetFeedback
Definition Usage experience User feedback associated with the dataset being generated.
Range Domain dcat:Dataset
Range generates duv:UserFeedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy Label http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv has dataset feedback
rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:isDefinedBy prov:generated http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
8.4 Class: Dataset

Property: hasDatasetUsage

RDF Class: Property: dcat:Dataset duv:hasDatasetUsage
Definition A collection of data, published or curated by a single source, and available for access or download in one Dataset usage guidance or more formats. instructions.
rdfs:isDefinedBy Domain http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat dcat:Dataset
Range duv:Usage
Label Dataset has dataset usage
rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:isDefinedBy dctype:Dataset http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: title hasDistributionFeedback

RDF Property: dct:title duv:hasDistributionFeedback
Definition A name given to the Dataset User feedback associated with distribution.
Domain dcat:Distribution
Range rdfs:Literal duv:UserFeedback
Label has target
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: description hasDistributionUsage

RDF Property: dct:description duv:hasDistributionUsage
Definition A free-text account of the Dataset Distribution usage guidance or instructions.
Domain dcat:Distribution
Range rdfs:Literal duv:Usage
Label has distribution usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
8.5 Class: Document

Property: hasDistributor

RDF Class: Property: foaf:Document duv:hasDistributor
Definition The Document class represents those things which are, broadly conceived, 'documents'. The distributor is the organization that makes the dataset available for downloading and use. 
rdfs:isDefinedBy Range http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Document foaf:Agent
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) duv:hasDistributor (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) duv:hasDistributor (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label Document has distributor

Property: title hasProducer

RDF Property: dct:title duv:hasProducer
Definition A name given to The producer is the Document organization that sponsored the author’s research and/or the organization that made the creation of the dataset possible, such as codifying and digitizing the data.
Range rdfs:Literal foaf:Agent
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) duv:hasProducer (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) duv:hasProducer (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label has producer

Property: description hasRating

RDF Property: dct:description duv:hasRating
Definition A free-text account of the Document RatingFeedback has rating opinion
Domain RatingFeedback
Range rdfs:Literal skos:Concept
Label has rating
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: cites oa:hasTarget

RDF Property: duv:cites oa:hasTarget
Definition The citing entity cites the cited entity, either directly and explicitly (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirectly (e.g. by citing a more recent paper by the same group on the same topic), or implicitly (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, Dataset or in cases of plagiarism). distribution associated with UserFeedback.
rdfs:isDefinedBy dcat:Dataset oa:hasTarget
Label vann:usageNote cites duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) cito:CitationAct (object)
rdfs:isDefinedBy Label http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv has target
8.6 Class: Activity

Property: hasUsageTool

RDF Class: Property: prov:Activity duv:hasUsageTool
Definition An activity is something that occurs over a period of time and acts upon or with entities; it may include consuming, processing, transforming, modifying, relocating, using, Dataset or generating entities. distribution tool usage synopsys
rdfs:isDefinedBy Domain http://www.w3.org/ns/prov duv:Usage
Range duv:UsageTool
Label Activity has usage tool
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
8.7 Class: Rating

Property: identifier

RDF Class: Property: duv:Rating dct:identifier
Definition Metric used to evaluate The identifier of the dataset. dataset or distribution.
vann:usageNote http://www.w3.org/ns/duv dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:identifier (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:identifier (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label Rating identifier
8.8 Class: Citation

Property: motivatedBy

RDF Class: Property: duv:Citation oa:motivatedBy
Definition Citation in document that references dataset. reason behind citation annotation or userfeedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv oa:motivatedBy
Label vann:usageNote Citation duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:motivatedBy (predicate) oa:Motivation (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:motivatedBy (predicate) oa:Motivation (object)
rdfs:subClassOf Label cito:CitationsAct motivated by
Issue 5 The use of cito:CitationAct and duv:Citation is under evaluation. Issue-173

Property: hasCitingEntity performedBy

RDF Property: cito:hasCitingEntity duv:performedBy
Definition The citation act relates to the entity containing that citation. Usage performed by agent.
Domain foaf:Agent
Range dcat:Dataset duv:Usage
Label has citing entity performed by
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://purl.org/spar/cito/hasCitingEntity http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
8.9 Class: Feedback

Property: performs

RDF Class: Property: duv:Feedback duv:performs
Definition Feedback on the dataset. Expresses whether the dataset was useful or not, for example. Agent performs usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy Domain http://www.w3.org/ns/duv foaf:Agent
Range duv:Usage
Label Feedback performs
rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:isDefinedBy oa:Annotation http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Issue 6 The definition of duv:Feedback needs to be reviewed because it is not clear if it should be a subclass of oa:Annotation or just an instance of oa:Motivation. Issue-178

Property: endorses publicationDate

RDF Property: duv:endorses prism:publicationDate
Definition Agent provided feedback providing endorsement of dataset. The publication date associated with the dataset or distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) prism:publicationDate (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) prism:publicationDate (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label endorses rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv publication date

Property: annotatedBy publisher

RDF Property: oa:annotatedby dct:publisher
Definition Feedback resource that identifies the agent responsible for creating Creator of the Annotation. cited dataset of distribution
vann:usageNote foaf:Agent dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:publisher (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:publisher (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label annotatedBy publisher

Property: retains refersToDataset

RDF Property: duv:retains duv:refersToDataset
Definition A feedback annotation may refer to another feedback annotation. Dataset associated with Usage.
Range Domain duv:Feedback duv:Usage
Label rdfs:isDefinedBy retains http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
vann:usageNotes rdfs:isDefinedBy duv:Usage (subject) duv:refersToDataset (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv Label refers to dataset
Issue 7 The meaning of duv:retains needs to be clarified and more examples will be provided. Issue-174

Property: hasRating refersToDistribution

RDF Property: duv:hasRating duv:refersToDistribution
Definition An optional rating provided as part of feedback. Distribution associated with Usage.
Range Domain duv:Rating duv:Usage
Label rdfs:isDefinedBy hasRating http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
vann:usageNotes rdfs:isDefinedBy duv:Usage (subject) duv:refersToDistribution (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv Label refers to distribution

Property: hasDatasetCorrection title

RDF Property: duv:hasDatasetCorrection dct:title
Definition An optional data correction provided as part The title of feedback. Range duv:DatasetCorrection citation, dataset or distribution
Label vann:usageNote hasDatasetCorrection dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:title (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:title (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
rdfs:isDefinedBy Label http://www.w3c.org/ns/duv title
8.10 Class: DatasetCorrection

Property: usageClassification

RDF Class: Property: duv:DatasetCorrection duv:usageClassification
Definition A dataset correction suggested by user as part of  Extension vocabularies may wish to specialize this property to have a feedback. range corresponding to a specific   ConceptScheme to describe usage.
rdfs:isDefinedBy Domain http://www.w3.org/ns/duv duv:Usage
Range skos:Concept
Label DatasetCorrection usage classification
8.11 Class: WebThing

Property: version

RDF Class: Property: duv:WebThing pav:version
Definition A Web of Things (WoT) device, sensor, The version or hardware on edition number associated with the Web that consumes a dataset.
vann:usageNote http://www.w3.org/ns/duv dcat:Dataset (subject)  pav:version (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  pav:version (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label WebThing version

8. Examples

Issue 8 Note
Should prov:SoftwareAgent The examples need to be used instead of Application/WebOfThing? Issue-176 updated based on the new vocabulary. Are the examples detailed enough to help orient readers to the vocabulary? Are the examples correct?

This section shows some examples to illustrate the application of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary.

Example 1 - Usage: A 2-D charting application developed to create temperature plots that consumes temperature readings from a dataset to produce the plot.

@prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix duv:  <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/nsprov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org#> .
   a duv:Usage;
   rdfs:label "plots a 2d graphic";
   duv:performedBy  :xyplotter;
   duv:hasUsageType :application;
   duv:hasUsageTool :tool1;
   duv:refersTo :dataset-03312004;
   a foaf:Agent;
   rdfs:label "2dplotter";
   duv:classification :chart-software;
   a duv:UsageTool;
   rdfs:label "";
   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to classify the usage of datasets or distributions";
   a skos:Concept;
   skos:inScheme :usageType ;
   skos:prefLabel "Application";
   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to classify the possible roles of usage agents";
       a skos:Concept;
       skos:inScheme :usageAgent ;
       skos:prefLabel "Chart Software";
  a dcat:Dataset;
  dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot"; 
  dcat:distribution :dataset-Jan-Mar-2004-csv;
  duv:hasUsage: :plot-graphic;

Example 2 - Feedback: Laufer provides feedback about the temperature readings dataset.

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> .
@prefix oa:   <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#>  .
@prefix duv:  <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix cnt:  <http://www.w3.org/2011/content/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org#> .
   a dcat:Dataset ;
   dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot" ; 
   duv:hasDatasetFeedback :comment1;
   duv:hasDatasetFeedback :comment2;
:comment1Content a cnt:ContentAsText ;
cnt:chars "Written in MS-DOS text format." .
   a duv:UserFeedback ;
   oa:hasBody comment1Content ;
   oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004 ;
   dct:creator :laufer .
   a duv:UserRatingFeedback;
   duv:hasRating :three_stars;
   oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004;
   dct:creator :laufer ;
   a foaf:Person  ;
   foaf:Name "Laufer"  ;
   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to rate datasets or distributions";
   a skos:Concept;
   skos:inScheme :feedbackRating ;
   skos:prefLabel "Good dataset or distribution" ;

Example 3 - Citation: A technical report :paperA identified by a DOI cites the dataset. The :dataset-03312013 is also identified by a digital object identifier (DOI).

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> .
@prefix oa:   <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#>  .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito#> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio#>.
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/>.
@prefix duv: <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix : <http://example.org#> .
    a dcat:Dataset;
    dct:identifier "doi:10.1038/ex2158";
    dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot"@en ;
    dct:alternative "Qtrly Temp Plot"@en;
    dct:description "This plot features average surface temperatures measured by the Mars Land Rover. "@en ;
    dct:created "2013-03-31T15:18:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    dct:creator "Laufer" ;
    dct:license <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/> ;
    dcat:keyword "Mars";
    dct:language <http://www.lexvo.org/page/iso639-3/eng> ;
    cito:isCitedBy :citation1 ; 
    a cito:CitationAct;
    cito: :dataset-03312004;
    cito:hasCitedEntity :citation1;
   a duv:DataCitation;
   duv: :paperA;
   dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot";
   dct:hasVersion "1.0";
   dct:created "2013-03-31T15:18:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   dct:identifier "doi:10.1038/ex2158";
   dct:creator :laufer";
   a fabio:Work;
   prism:doi "doi:20.1055/ex7758";
   dct:title "Mars Weather Technical Report"@en;

9. DUV Requirements

Issue 6
Right now this section is somewhat of a duplication of the use case requirements. It would better fit into this document if we described HOW the DUV fulfills these requirements. Issue-219

This section shows some of the requirements that motivated the development of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary. These requirements were derived from the use cases described in Data on the Web Best Practices Use Cases & Requirements document.


It should be possible to track the usage of data.

Capability of tracking data usage can help enhancing reputation of the datasets. Records of data usage shows all the successful outcome of the data usage and all the entities associated with it such as the person, organisation, application, research projects that has used these datasets. It increases trust in the data. It also provides provence about how data versions over the time.

Use Case R-TrackDataUsage Benefits
Airborne Snow Observatory Data is used in decision making process by Water Reservoir Managers. Capability to track usage of data will lead to identification of all the decisions and policy changes made by authorities based on this data. It will also list applications, tools and frameworks suitable for analysis of this kind of  data.
LandPortal Data is used in Research; Policy Making, Journalism; Development; Investments; Governance; Food security; Poverty; Gender issues. Usage tracking will help in assessing the impact of published data.
LusTRE Data is put in public for reuse and reference in nature conservation activities. Information about use of this data  will will determined impact of this framework. Usage of this data MUST lead to future publications of less heterogenous data and more and more used of standardised thesauri.
Open Experimental Field Studies Data is used in computational models and studies. Capabilities to track usage of data will enable data publishers to identify all the users communities making use of this data. It will also identify combined use of multiple datasets in one big study. This will identify related datasets which can be recommended to future users.
RDESC Data is published in Linked Data Format for discovery and recommendations of related datasets. Capability to keep track of its usage will list all the tools and application suitable to be used with this data. Because RDESC is not data publisher but more of a data facilitator, usage tracking will identify highly search dataset and the trends in the temporal, spatial and domain specific search queries.
UKOpenResearchForum Data is published with intelligent openness to support research projects. Capability to track data usage will provide adequate acknowledgement to data originator.


Data consumers should have a way of sharing feedback and rating data.

User feedback is important to address data quality concerns about published dataset. Different users may have different experience with the same dataset so it is important to capture the context in which data was used and the profile of the user who uses it. R-UsageFeedback should also provide a way to communicate suggested corrections and update to the datasets by the users back to data publisher. Data publishers should  have a review mechanism to incorporate submitted corrections.

Use Case R-UsageFeedback Benefits
Airborne Snow Observatory Data grows rapidly each year. User feedback can reports issues of data completeness and correctness.
DadosGovBr Data came from various publishers. As a catalog, the site has faced several challenges, one of them was to integrate the various technologies and formulas used by publishers to provide datasets in the portal. User feedback can provided usabilities of those technologies and formulas. User feedback can be used to crowdsource discrepancies in the vocabularies  used to describe datasets.
LusTRE Data multilingualism is one of the challenge for this use case. User feedback can be used to crowdsource multilingual text alignment.
Experimental Field Studies Data is used in computational models and studies. User feedback can be used to identify good quality data required for good quality research. completeness, time resolution and usability can be captured using user feedback.
RDESC RDESC curate different data source and publish metadata in Linked Data Format. User feedback is useful to assess metadata quality. Availability of the source datasets, Correctness of persistent URI, Correctness of the concepts defined in RDESC such as FOAF Agents, Organizations, Physical Properties and Usability of the search interface can be captured in user feedback.


It should be possible to cite data on the Web.

Use Case R-Citable Benefits
Open Experimental Field Studies Various experiments and fields studies are performed to generate data which is used in computational models and bigger studies.Capability to capture all the citations of the published data can justify the efforts used in publishing. Citation information can be used to identify all the user communities interested in data source.
LATimes On 27 March 2014, the LA Times published a story Women earn 83 cents for every $1 men earn in L.A. city government. It was based on an Infographic released by LA's City Controller, Ron Galperin. This report could only cite data portal of all the resource. It could not cite to exact dataset because tool long URI.
RDESC RDESC is a data curator so it uses data from different sources. But this usage is not communicated to data publishers because of lack of such mechanism provided by publishers.

A. Acknowledgements

The editors wish to thank Silvio Peroni, University of Bologna, for his significant contribution to the DUV citation model. Silvio Peroni is a co-author of the Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies.

B. Change history

Changes since the previous version include:
C. References C.1 Normative references C.2 Informative references

C. References

C.1 Informative references

David Shotton; Silvio Peroni. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology. URL: http://purl.org/spar/cito
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Terms, version 1.1. 11 October 2010. DCMI Recommendation. URL: http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-terms/.
Deirdre Lee; Bernadette Farias Loscio; Phil Archer. Data on the Web Best Practices Use Cases & Requirements. 24 February 2015. W3C Note. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/dwbp-ucr/
Emory University. General Citation Guidelines. URL: http://einstein.library.emory.edu/citations_general.html
Emory University. Data Citation Principles. URL: https://www.force11.org/group/joint-declaration-data-citation-principles-final
David Shotton; Silvio Peroni. FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology. URL: http://purl.org/spar/fabio
Michigan State University. How to Cite Data: General Info. URL: http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/citedata
Herbert Van de Sompel; Paolo Ciccarese; Robert Sanderson. Open Annotation Data Model. URL: https://www.w3.org/ns/oa#
Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies. URL: http://www.sparontologies.net
Fadi Maali; John Erickson. Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT). 16 January 2014. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/