Datasets published on the Web are accessed and experienced by consumers in a variety of ways, but little information about these experiences is typically conveyed. Dataset publishers many times lack feedback from consumers about how datasets are used. Consumers lack an effective way to discuss experiences with fellow collaborators and explore referencing material citing the dataset. Datasets as defined by DCAT are a collection of data, published or curated by a single agent, and available for access or download in one or more formats. The Dataset Usage Vocabulary (DUV) is used to describe consumer experiences, citations, and feedback about the dataset from the human perspective.

By specifying a number of foundational concepts used to collect dataset consumer feedback, experiences, and cite references associated with a dataset, APIs can be written to support collaboration across the Web by structurally publishing consumer opinions and experiences, and provide a means for data consumers and producers advertise and search for published open dataset usage.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is the second iteration of the vocabulary, developed following extensive consultation among and outside the working group who now regard it as nearing completion. Comment and feedback is sought before the next iteration which is likely to be the final version for the foreseeable future.

This document was published by the Data on the Web Working Group as a Working Draft. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-dwbp-comments@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome.

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. The group does not expect this document to become a W3C Recommendation. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 September 2015 W3C Process Document.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

This vocabulary is meant to fill a niche that helps standardize the way Web published dataset usage be conveyed and shared. At this time there is no clear standard way to describe dataset usage on the Web. Without a means to systematically describe dataset usage, searching and conveying techniques are application specific and discovery and collaboration across the Web is more difficult. This vocabulary also recommends and requires data publishers to provide a mechanism of receiving data usage information from data consumers in the form of feedback, citation and data correction.

View as: .

2. Namespaces

The namespace for DUV is http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#. However, it should be noted that DUV makes extensive use of terms from other vocabularies.   DUV itself defines a minimal set of classes and properties of its own. A full set of namespaces and prefixes used in this document is shown in the table below.

Issue 1
All namespaces need to be verified. Issue-235
Prefix Namespace
biro http://purl.org/spar/biro/
cito http://purl.org/spar/cito/
cnt http://www.w3.org/2011/content
dcat http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#
dct http://purl.org/dc/terms/
dctype http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/
disco http://rdf-vocabulary.ddialliance.org/discovery#
dqv http://www.w3.org/ns/dqv#
duv http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#
fabio http://purl.org/spar/fabio/
foaf http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
frbr http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/
oa http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#
pav http://pav-ontology.github.io/pav/
prism http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.2/
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
skos http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
vann http://purl.org/vocab/vann#
xsd http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

3. Audience

The DUV is intended for data producers and publishers interested in tracking, sharing, and persisting consumer dataset usage. It is also intended for collaborators who require an exchange medium to advertise and interactively convey dataset usage.

4. Scope

The scope of the DUV is defined by the Data on the Web Best Practices (DWBP) Use Case document [DWBP-UCR] based on the data usage requirements about datasets. These requirements include: citing data on the Web, tracking the usage of data, sharing feedback and rating data. These requirements were derived from fourteen real world use cases examples provided in the use case document.

5. Relationship to other Vocabularies

The DUV is a “glue” vocabulary reusing and extending existing vocabulary classes and properties to support citation, feedback, and usage. This section provides our rationale and approach for vocabulary selection and reuse.

Core to the dataset usage vocabulary is the “dataset”. The DUV uses the Data Catalog Vocabulary's dcat:Dataset class and all properties associated with the class [VOCAB-DCAT]. From a data usage perspective the DUV can be considered an extension of dcat:Dataset.

The Web Annotation Vocabulary [OA] is used to describe duv:Feedback as a subclass inheriting the behavior of oa:Annotation. A crucial part of the Web Annotation Model are “motivations” that describe the role of particular Annotation. Each duv:Feedback must have at least one oa:motivated_by property with a relationship to an instance of oa:Motivation. A subset of the Motivation instances are important to describe feedback to data publishers, and blogs between dataset consumers. In addition to supporting duv:Feedback, because the Web Annotation vocabulary provides a generic way of annotating any Web resource, it is recommended that Web Annotation vocabulary be used to annotate the duv:Dataset for uses beyond the scope of the DUV.

The Semantic Publishing and Referencing [SPAR] Ontologies provides a suite of vocabularies used to related entities to reference citations, bibliographic records, and describe the publication process along with other related activities. The DUV directly relies upon Citation Typing Ontology [CITO], the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology [FaBIO], and Dublin Core [DC-TERMS] vocabularies are used to describe citations and references between datasets and cited sources. In addition to ontologies the research community provided basic criteria for citing data on the Web [MSUDataCite] [EmoryUCite]. These resources helped scope the DUV citation model into the minimal requirements for electronic data publication. Finally, data citation principles being adopted [FORCE11-Citation] are also being considered to ensure the DUV is consistent with guidelines developed by other data citation communities.

6. Vocabulary Overview

This section is non-normative.

This section depicts the vocabulary as a conceptual model. Shaded boxes are used to identify each class. Labeled open arrows identify example properties between the classes. Unlabeled shaded arrows are used to show inheritance with the parent class identified by the arrow head.

Links to the classes and properties need to be added as a way to more easily reference the document.

6.1 Citation Model

Does the reader more of an orientation to the model? What would be helpful?

The citation model is largely based on classes, properties, and recommended approaches taken from the SPAR Ontologies.  The remainder of the model is composed from the Open Annotation vocabulary, Dublin Core, FOAF and by newly introduced DUV properties.  The model is comprised of the following classes: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, biro:BibliographicReference, fabio:Expression, cito:CitationAct, oa:Annotation, oa:Motivation, cnt:ContentAsText, skos:Concept, and foaf:Agent. Properties include: frbr:part, frbr:partOf, biro:references, dct:title, pav:version, prism:publicationDate, dct:created, dct:identifier, dct:creator, duv:agentClassification, dct:publisher, duv:hasDistributor, cito:hasCitingEntity, cito:hasCitedEntity, disco:fundedBy, cnt:chars, oa:hasTarget, oa:hasBody.  

Issue 2
I did not understand duv:UsageTool. Why is this needed? The description is cryptic to me. It says “A synopsis describing the way a tool can use a dataset or distribution.” A tool is not a synopsis. So, this seems to confuse real-world entity (a tool) with a text, a description? Issue-234

Usage Model

The following classes constitute the Usage Model: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, duv:Usage, duv:UsageTool, foaf:Agent, and skos:Concept. Properties include: duv:hasDatasetUsage, duv:has:DistributionUsage, duv:hasUsageType, duv:performedBy, duv:performs, duv:refersToDataset, duv:refersToDistribution, duv:agentClassification, duv:usageClassification.

6.2 Feedback Model

The following classes constitute the Feedback Model: dcat:Dataset, dcat:Distribution, oa:Annotation, duv:UserFeedback, dqv:UserQualityFeedback, duv:RatingFeedback, skos:Concept, cnt:ContentAsText. Properties include: duv:hasRating, oa:hasTarget, oa:hasBody, duv:hasDatasetFeedback, duv:hasDistributionFeedback, oa:motivatedBy, cnt:chars.

Issue 3
The rationale for duv:usageClassification, duv:agentClassification, need to be described more thoroughly or be reconsidered for scope. Issue-236
This section will be non-normative and will contain links back to the vocabularies we mention.

7. Vocabulary Specification

7.1 Class: RatingFeedback

RDF Class: duv:RatingFeedback
Definition Predefined criteria used to express a user opinion about a dataset or distribution using a discrete range of values.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label rating feedback
rdfs:subClassOf duv:UserFeedback

7.2 Class: Usage

RDF Class: duv:Usage
Definition A helpful description of actions that can be performed on a given dataset or distribution.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label usage

7.3 Class: UsageTool

RDF Class: duv:UsageTool
Definition A synopsis describing the way a tool can use a dataset or distribution.
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label usage tool
Issue 4
Stability of rev:Feedback class Issue-237

7.4 Class: UserFeedback

RDF Class: duv:UserFeedback
Definition User feedback on the dataset. Expresses whether the dataset was useful or not, for example.
Sub class of: rev:Feedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
Label user feedback
rdfs:subClassOf oa:Annotation
Issue 5
A number of properties have been created to accommodate support for dcat:Distribution and dcat:Dataset. To avoid having multiple classes for the domain and range properties were duplicated such as duv:hasDatasetUsage and duv:hasDistributionUsage. Issue-238

7.5 Properties

Property: agentClassification

RDF Property: duv:agentClassification
Definition  Extension vocabularies may wish to specialize this property to have a range corresponding to a specific  ConceptScheme to describe an agent.
Domain foaf:Agent
Range skos:Concept
Label agent classification

Property: chars

RDF Property: cnt:chars
Definition Text content of an annotation body.
vann:usageNote cnt:ContentAsText (subject) cnt:chars (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label chars

Property: created

RDF Property: dct:created
Definition The creation date associated with the dataset or distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) dct:created (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) dct:created (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label created

Property: creator

RDF Property: dct:creator
Definition Author of the cited dataset/distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) dct:creator (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) dct:creator (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label creator

Property: fundedBy

RDF Property: disco:fundedBy
Definition Funding agent
dcat:Dataset (subject) disco:fundedBy  (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) fundedBy (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label funded by

Property: oa:hasBody

RDF Property: oa:hasBody
Definition Body of the comment associated with either feedback or associated with citation.
rdfs:isDefinedBy oa:hasBody
vann:usageNote duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasBody (predicate) cnt:ContentAsText (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:hasBody (predicate) cnt:ContextAsText (object)
Label has body

Property: hasCitedEntity

RDF Property: cito:hasCitedEntity
Definition The dataset, distribution, or citation of interest being cited.
vann:usageNote cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitedEntity (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitedEntity (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
Label has cited entity

Property: hasCitingEntity

RDF Property: cito:hasCitingEntity
Definition Citation that references a dataset or a distribution.
vann:usageNote cito:CitationAct (subject) cito:hasCitingEntity (predicate) fabio:Expression (object)
Label has citing entity

Property: hasDatasetFeedback

RDF Property: duv:hasDatasetFeedback
Definition User feedback associated with dataset
Domain dcat:Dataset
Range duv:UserFeedback
Label has dataset feedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: hasDatasetUsage

RDF Property: duv:hasDatasetUsage
Definition Dataset usage guidance or instructions.
Domain dcat:Dataset
Range duv:Usage
Label has dataset usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: hasDistributionFeedback

RDF Property: duv:hasDistributionFeedback
Definition User feedback associated with distribution.
Domain dcat:Distribution
Range duv:UserFeedback
Label has target
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: hasDistributionUsage

RDF Property: duv:hasDistributionUsage
Definition Distribution usage guidance or instructions.
Domain dcat:Distribution
Range duv:Usage
Label has distribution usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: hasDistributor

RDF Property: duv:hasDistributor
Definition The distributor is the organization that makes the dataset available for downloading and use. 
Range foaf:Agent
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) duv:hasDistributor (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) duv:hasDistributor (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label has distributor

Property: hasProducer

RDF Property: duv:hasProducer
Definition The producer is the organization that sponsored the author’s research and/or the organization that made the creation of the dataset possible, such as codifying and digitizing the data.
Range foaf:Agent
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) duv:hasProducer (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) duv:hasProducer (predicate) foaf:Agent (object)
Label has producer

Property: hasRating

RDF Property: duv:hasRating
Definition RatingFeedback has rating opinion
Domain RatingFeedback
Range skos:Concept
Label has rating
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: oa:hasTarget

RDF Property: oa:hasTarget
Definition Dataset or distribution associated with UserFeedback.
rdfs:isDefinedBy oa:hasTarget
vann:usageNote duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:hasTarget (predicate) cito:CitationAct (object)
Label has target

Property: hasUsageTool

RDF Property: duv:hasUsageTool
Definition Dataset or distribution tool usage synopsys
Domain duv:Usage
Range duv:UsageTool
Label has usage tool
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: identifier

RDF Property: dct:identifier
Definition The identifier of the dataset or distribution.
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:identifier (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:identifier (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label identifier

Property: motivatedBy

RDF Property: oa:motivatedBy
Definition reason behind citation annotation or userfeedback
rdfs:isDefinedBy oa:motivatedBy
vann:usageNote duv:UserFeedback (subject) oa:motivatedBy (predicate) oa:Motivation (object)
oa:Annotation (subject) oa:motivatedBy (predicate) oa:Motivation (object)
Label motivated by

Property: performedBy

RDF Property: duv:performedBy
Definition Usage performed by agent.
Domain foaf:Agent
Range duv:Usage
Label performed by
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: performs

RDF Property: duv:performs
Definition Agent performs usage
Domain foaf:Agent
Range duv:Usage
Label performs
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv

Property: publicationDate

RDF Property: prism:publicationDate
Definition The publication date associated with the dataset or distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject) prism:publicationDate (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject) prism:publicationDate (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label publication date

Property: publisher

RDF Property: dct:publisher
Definition Creator of the cited dataset of distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:publisher (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:publisher (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label publisher

Property: refersToDataset

RDF Property: duv:refersToDataset
Definition Dataset associated with Usage.
Domain duv:Usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
vann:usageNotes duv:Usage (subject) duv:refersToDataset (predicate) dcat:Dataset (object)
Label refers to dataset

Property: refersToDistribution

RDF Property: duv:refersToDistribution
Definition Distribution associated with Usage.
Domain duv:Usage
rdfs:isDefinedBy http://www.w3.org/ns/duv
vann:usageNotes duv:Usage (subject) duv:refersToDistribution (predicate) dcat:Distribution (object)
Label refers to distribution

Property: title

RDF Property: dct:title
Definition The title of citation, dataset or distribution
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject)  dct:title (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  dct:title (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label title

Property: usageClassification

RDF Property: duv:usageClassification
Definition  Extension vocabularies may wish to specialize this property to have a range corresponding to a specific  ConceptScheme to describe usage.
Domain duv:Usage
Range skos:Concept
Label usage classification

Property: version

RDF Property: pav:version
Definition The version or edition number associated with the dataset.
vann:usageNote dcat:Dataset (subject)  pav:version (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
dcat:Distribution (subject)  pav:version (predicate) rdfs:Literal (object)
Label version

8. Examples

The examples need to be updated based on the new vocabulary. Are the examples detailed enough to help orient readers to the vocabulary? Are the examples correct?

This section shows some examples to illustrate the application of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary.

Example 1 - Usage: A 2-D charting application developed to create temperature plots that consumes temperature readings from a dataset to produce the plot.

@prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdf:  <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix duv:  <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix prov: <http://www.w3.org/nsprov#> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org#> .

   a duv:Usage;
   rdfs:label "plots a 2d graphic";
   duv:performedBy  :xyplotter;
   duv:hasUsageType :application;
   duv:hasUsageTool :tool1;
   duv:refersTo :dataset-03312004;

   a foaf:Agent;
   rdfs:label "2dplotter";
   duv:classification :chart-software;

   a duv:UsageTool;
   rdfs:label "";

   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to classify the usage of datasets or distributions";

   a skos:Concept;
   skos:inScheme :usageType ;
   skos:prefLabel "Application";

   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to classify the possible roles of usage agents";

       a skos:Concept;
       skos:inScheme :usageAgent ;
       skos:prefLabel "Chart Software";

  a dcat:Dataset;
  dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot"; 
  dcat:distribution :dataset-Jan-Mar-2004-csv;
  duv:hasUsage: :plot-graphic;


Example 2 - Feedback: Laufer provides feedback about the temperature readings dataset.

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> .
@prefix oa:   <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#>  .
@prefix duv:  <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix cnt:  <http://www.w3.org/2011/content/> .
@prefix :     <http://example.org#> .

   a dcat:Dataset ;
   dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot" ; 
   duv:hasDatasetFeedback :comment1;
   duv:hasDatasetFeedback :comment2;

:comment1Content a cnt:ContentAsText ;
cnt:chars "Written in MS-DOS text format." .

   a duv:UserFeedback ;
   oa:hasBody comment1Content ;
   oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004 ;
   dct:creator :laufer .

   a duv:UserRatingFeedback;
   duv:hasRating :three_stars;
   oa:hasTarget :dataset-03312004;
   dct:creator :laufer ;

   a foaf:Person  ;
   foaf:Name "Laufer"  ;

   a skos:ConceptScheme;
   skos:prefLabel "A set of concepts to rate datasets or distributions";

   a skos:Concept;
   skos:inScheme :feedbackRating ;
   skos:prefLabel "Good dataset or distribution" ;


Example 3 - Citation: A technical report :paperA identified by a DOI cites the dataset. The :dataset-03312013 is also identified by a digital object identifier (DOI).

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms#> .
@prefix oa:   <http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#>  .
@prefix cito: <http://purl.org/spar/cito#> .
@prefix fabio: <http://purl.org/spar/fabio#>.
@prefix prism: <http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/>.
@prefix duv: <http://www.w3.org/ns/duv#> .
@prefix : <http://example.org#> .

    a dcat:Dataset;
    dct:identifier "doi:10.1038/ex2158";
    dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot"@en ;
    dct:alternative "Qtrly Temp Plot"@en;
    dct:description "This plot features average surface temperatures measured by the Mars Land Rover. "@en ;
    dct:created "2013-03-31T15:18:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime ;
    dct:creator "Laufer" ;
    dct:license <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/> ;
    dcat:keyword "Mars";
    dct:language <http://www.lexvo.org/page/iso639-3/eng> ;
    cito:isCitedBy :citation1 ; 

    a cito:CitationAct;
    cito: :dataset-03312004;
    cito:hasCitedEntity :citation1;

   a duv:DataCitation;
   duv: :paperA;
   dct:title "Quarterly Temperature Plot";
   dct:hasVersion "1.0";
   dct:created "2013-03-31T15:18:00Z"^^xsd:dateTime;
   dct:identifier "doi:10.1038/ex2158";
   dct:creator :laufer";

   a fabio:Work;
   prism:doi "doi:20.1055/ex7758";
   dct:title "Mars Weather Technical Report"@en;

9. DUV Requirements

Issue 6
Right now this section is somewhat of a duplication of the use case requirements. It would better fit into this document if we described HOW the DUV fulfills these requirements. Issue-219

This section shows some of the requirements that motivated the development of the Dataset Usage Vocabulary. These requirements were derived from the use cases described in Data on the Web Best Practices Use Cases & Requirements document.


It should be possible to track the usage of data.

Capability of tracking data usage can help enhancing reputation of the datasets. Records of data usage shows all the successful outcome of the data usage and all the entities associated with it such as the person, organisation, application, research projects that has used these datasets. It increases trust in the data. It also provides provence about how data versions over the time.

Use Case R-TrackDataUsage Benefits
Airborne Snow Observatory Data is used in decision making process by Water Reservoir Managers. Capability to track usage of data will lead to identification of all the decisions and policy changes made by authorities based on this data. It will also list applications, tools and frameworks suitable for analysis of this kind of  data.
LandPortal Data is used in Research; Policy Making, Journalism; Development; Investments; Governance; Food security; Poverty; Gender issues. Usage tracking will help in assessing the impact of published data.
LusTRE Data is put in public for reuse and reference in nature conservation activities. Information about use of this data will determined impact of this framework. Usage of this data MUST lead to future publications of less heterogenous data and more and more used of standardised thesauri.
Open Experimental Field Studies Data is used in computational models and studies. Capabilities to track usage of data will enable data publishers to identify all the users communities making use of this data. It will also identify combined use of multiple datasets in one big study. This will identify related datasets which can be recommended to future users.
RDESC Data is published in Linked Data Format for discovery and recommendations of related datasets. Capability to keep track of its usage will list all the tools and application suitable to be used with this data. Because RDESC is not data publisher but more of a data facilitator, usage tracking will identify highly search dataset and the trends in the temporal, spatial and domain specific search queries.
UKOpenResearchForum Data is published with intelligent openness to support research projects. Capability to track data usage will provide adequate acknowledgement to data originator.


Data consumers should have a way of sharing feedback and rating data.

User feedback is important to address data quality concerns about published dataset. Different users may have different experience with the same dataset so it is important to capture the context in which data was used and the profile of the user who uses it. R-UsageFeedback should also provide a way to communicate suggested corrections and update to the datasets by the users back to data publisher. Data publishers should  have a review mechanism to incorporate submitted corrections.

Use Case R-UsageFeedback Benefits
Airborne Snow Observatory Data grows rapidly each year. User feedback can reports issues of data completeness and correctness.
DadosGovBr Data came from various publishers. As a catalog, the site has faced several challenges, one of them was to integrate the various technologies and formulas used by publishers to provide datasets in the portal. User feedback can provided usabilities of those technologies and formulas. User feedback can be used to crowdsource discrepancies in the vocabularies  used to describe datasets.
LusTRE Data multilingualism is one of the challenge for this use case. User feedback can be used to crowdsource multilingual text alignment.
Experimental Field Studies Data is used in computational models and studies. User feedback can be used to identify good quality data required for good quality research. completeness, time resolution and usability can be captured using user feedback.
RDESC RDESC curate different data source and publish metadata in Linked Data Format. User feedback is useful to assess metadata quality. Availability of the source datasets, Correctness of persistent URI, Correctness of the concepts defined in RDESC such as FOAF Agents, Organizations, Physical Properties and Usability of the search interface can be captured in user feedback.


It should be possible to cite data on the Web.

Use Case R-Citable Benefits
Open Experimental Field Studies Various experiments and fields studies are performed to generate data which is used in computational models and bigger studies.Capability to capture all the citations of the published data can justify the efforts used in publishing. Citation information can be used to identify all the user communities interested in data source.
LATimes On 27 March 2014, the LA Times published a story Women earn 83 cents for every $1 men earn in L.A. city government. It was based on an Infographic released by LA's City Controller, Ron Galperin. This report could only cite data portal of all the resource. It could not cite to exact dataset because tool long URI.
RDESC RDESC is a data curator so it uses data from different sources. But this usage is not communicated to data publishers because of lack of such mechanism provided by publishers.

A. Acknowledgements

The editors wish to thank Silvio Peroni, University of Bologna, for his significant contribution to the DUV citation model. Silvio Peroni is a co-author of the Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies.

B. Change history

Changes since the previous version include:

C. References

C.1 Informative references

David Shotton; Silvio Peroni. CiTO, the Citation Typing Ontology. URL: http://purl.org/spar/cito
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Terms, version 1.1. 11 October 2010. DCMI Recommendation. URL: http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-terms/.
Deirdre Lee; Bernadette Farias Loscio; Phil Archer. Data on the Web Best Practices Use Cases & Requirements. 24 February 2015. W3C Note. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/dwbp-ucr/
Emory University. General Citation Guidelines. URL: http://einstein.library.emory.edu/citations_general.html
Emory University. Data Citation Principles. URL: https://www.force11.org/group/joint-declaration-data-citation-principles-final
David Shotton; Silvio Peroni. FaBiO, the FRBR-aligned Bibliographic Ontology. URL: http://purl.org/spar/fabio
Michigan State University. How to Cite Data: General Info. URL: http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/citedata
Herbert Van de Sompel; Paolo Ciccarese; Robert Sanderson. Open Annotation Data Model. URL: https://www.w3.org/ns/oa#
Semantic Publishing and Referencing (SPAR) Ontologies. URL: http://www.sparontologies.net
Fadi Maali; John Erickson. Data Catalog Vocabulary (DCAT). 16 January 2014. W3C Recommendation. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/