W3C

SPARQL Protocol for RDF

W3C Working Draft 25 January 2006

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-rdf-sparql-protocol-20060125/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-protocol/
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-rdf-sparql-protocol-20050914/
Editor:
Kendall Grant Clark, <kendall@monkeyfist.com>, University of Maryland Information and Network Dynamics Laboratory

Abstract

SPARQL is a query language and protocol for RDF. This document specifies the SPARQL Protocol; it uses WSDL 2.0 to describe a means for conveying SPARQL queries to an SPARQL query processing service and returning the query results to the entity that requested them. This protocol was developed by the W3C RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG), part of the Semantic Web Activity as described in the activity statement .

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is a Last Call Working Draft. The first release of this document was 14 January 2005 and the RDF Data Access Working Group (part of the Semantic Web Activity) has made its best effort to address comments recieved since then, releasing several drafts and resolving a list of issues meanwhile.

Comments on this document are due 10 February 2006; please send them to public-rdf-dawg-comments@w3.org, a mailing list with a public archive.

The changes between this document and the previous (14 September 2005) version include synchronization with WSDL 2.0 and a number of conformance clarifications.

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. The Working Group maintains a public list of patent disclosures relevant to this document; that page also includes instructions for disclosing [and excluding] a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.


Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This document (which refers to itself as "SPARQL Protocol for RDF") describes SPARQL Protocol, a means of conveying SPARQL queries from query clients to query processors. SPARQL Protocol has been designed for compatibility with the SPARQL Query Language for RDF [SPARQL]. SPARQL Protocol is described in two ways: first, as an abstract interface independent of any concrete realization, implementation, or binding to another protocol; second, as HTTP and SOAP bindings of this interface. This document, as well as the associated WSDL and W3C XML Schema documents, are primarily intended for software developers interested in implementing SPARQL query services and clients.

When this document uses the words must, must not, should, should not, may and recommended, and the words appear as emphasized text, they must be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

When this document contains excerpts from other documents, including WSDL and XML Schema instances, it uses the following namespace prefixes and namespace URIs:

Prefix Namespace URI
st http://www.w3.org/2005/09/sparql-protocol-types/#
xs http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
vbr http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
whttp http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl/http
wsoap http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl/soap
wsdlx http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl-extensions
tns http://www.w3.org/2005/08/sparql-protocol-query/#

2. SPARQL Protocol

This set of documents comprises the specification of the SPARQL Protocol:

SPARQL Protocol for RDF
The current document which normatively specifies the SPARQL Protocol in human-readable language.
SPARQL Protocol WSDL 2.0 Description
The normative description of the SPARQL Protocol using WSDL 2.0.
SPARQL Protocol Types
The XML Schema document that normatively defines the types used in SPARQL Protocol.

SPARQL Protocol contains one interface, SparqlQuery, which in turn contains one operation, query. SPARQL Protocol is described abstractly with WSDL 2.0 [WSDL2] in terms of a web service that implements its interface, types, faults, and operations, as well as by HTTP and SOAP bindings. Note that while this document uses WSDL 2.0 to describe SPARQL Protocol, there is no obligation on the part of any implementation to use any particular implementation strategy, including the use of any WSDL library or programming language framework.

2.1 SparqlQuery Interface

2.1.1 query operation

SparqlQuery is the protocol's only interface. It contains one operation, query, which is used to convey a SPARQL query string and, optionally, an RDF dataset description.

The query operation is described as an In-Out message exchange pattern [WSDL-Adjuncts]. The constraints of an In-Out message exchange pattern are as follows:

This pattern consists of exactly two messages, in order, as follows:

  1. A message:

    • indicated by a Message Label component whose {message label} is 'In' and {direction} is 'in'

    • received from some node N

  2. A message:

    • indicated by a Message Label component whose {message label} is 'Out' and {direction} is 'out'

    • sent to node N

This pattern uses the rule 2.1.1 Fault Replaces Message.

This interface and its operation are described in the following WSDL 2.0 fragment (from sparql-protocol-query.wsdl, which contains the relevant namespace declarations):

<!-- Abstract SparqlQuery Interface -->
<interface name="SparqlQuery" styleDefault="http://www.w3.org/2006/01/wsdl/style/iri">

   <!-- the Interface Faults -->
   <fault name="MalformedQuery" element="st:malformed-query"/>
   <fault name="QueryRequestRefused" element="st:query-request-refused"/>

   <!-- the Interface Operation -->
   <operation name="query" pattern="http://www.w3.org/2006/01/wsdl/in-out">

      <documentation>The operation is used to convey queries and their results from clients to services and back
      again.</documentation>

      <input messageLabel="In" element="st:query-request"/>
      <output messageLabel="Out" element="st:query-result"/>

      <!-- the interface faults are out faults -->
      <outfault ref="tns:MalformedQuery" messageLabel="Out"/>
      <outfault ref="tns:QueryRequestRefused" messageLabel="Out"/>
   </operation>

</interface>

Excerpt 1.0 WSDL 2.0 fragment

2.1.2 query In Message

Abstractly, the contents of the In Message of SparqlQuery's query operation is an instance of an XML Schema complex type, called st:query-request in Excerpt 1.0, composed of two further parts: one SPARQL query string; and zero or one RDF dataset descriptions. The SPARQL query string, identified by one query type, is defined by [SPARQL] as "a sequence of characters in the language defined by the [SPARQL] grammar, starting with the Query production". The RDF dataset description is composed of zero or one default RDF graphs — composed by the RDF merge of the RDF graphs identified by zero or more default-graph-uri types — and by zero or more named RDF graphs, identified by zero or more named-graph-uri types. These correspond to the FROM and FROM NAMED keywords in [SPARQL], respectively.

These types are defined in the following XML Schema fragment, from sparql-protocol-types.xsd:

<xs:element name="query-request">
  <xs:complexType>
    <xs:sequence>
      <xs:element minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="1" name="query" type="xs:string">
       <xs:annotation>
	      <xs:documentation>query is an xs:string constrained by the language definition,
         http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/#grammar, as "a sequence of characters in 
         the language defined by the [SPARQL] grammar, starting with the Query production".</xs:documentation>
       </xs:annotation>
      </xs:element>
      <xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" name="default-graph-uri" type="xs:anyURI"/>
      <xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" name="named-graph-uri" type="xs:anyURI"/>
    </xs:sequence>
  </xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Excerpt 1.1 XML Schema fragment

Specifying an RDF Dataset

The RDF dataset may be specified either in a [SPARQL] query using FROM and FROM NAMED keywords; or it may be specified in the protocol described in this document; or it may be specified in both the query string and in the protocol.

Resolving an Ambiguous RDF Dataset

In the case where both the query and the protocol specify an RDF dataset, but not the identical RDF dataset, the dataset specified in the protocol must be the RDF dataset consumed by SparqlQuery's query operation.

Rejecting Query Requests to RDF Datasets

A conformant SPARQL Protocol service may provide a default RDF dataset against which SPARQL query requests are executed in cases where there is no RDF dataset specified in the protocol or in the query request. A conformant SPARQL Protocol service may refuse to process any query request that does not specify an RDF dataset. Finally, a conformant SPARQL Protocol service may refuse to process any query request against any specified RDF dataset. See 2.1.4 query Fault Messages, QueryRequestRefused.

2.1.3 query Out Message

Abstractly, the contents of the Out Message of SparqlQuery's query operation is an instance of an XML Schema complex type, called query-result in Excerpt 1.2, composed of either:

  1. a SPARQL Results Document [SRD] (for SPARQL Query for RDF query forms SELECT and ASK); or,
  2. an RDF graph [RDF-Concepts] serialized, for example, in the RDF/XML syntax [RDF-Syntax], or an equivalent RDF graph serialization, for SPARQL Query for RDF query forms DESCRIBE and CONSTRUCT).

The query-result type is defined in this W3C XML Schema fragment, from sparql-protocol-types.xsd:

<xs:element name="query-result">
      <xs:annotation>
          <xs:documentation>The type for serializing query results,
          either as XML or RDF/XML.</xs:documentation>
      </xs:annotation>
      <xs:complexType>
          <xs:choice>
              <xs:element maxOccurs="1" ref="vbr:sparql"/>
              <xs:element maxOccurs="1" ref="rdf:RDF"/>
          </xs:choice>
      </xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Excerpt 1.2 XML Schema fragment

2.1.4 query Fault Messages

[WSDL2-Adjuncts] defines several fault propagation rules which specify how operation faults and messages interact. The query operation employs the Fault Replaces Message rule:

Any message after the first in the pattern may be replaced with a fault message, which must have identical direction. The fault message must be delivered to the same target node as the message it replaces. If there is no path to this node, the fault must be discarded.

Thus, the query operation contained in the SparqlQuery interface may return, in place of the Out Message, either the MalformedQuery message or the QueryRequestRefused message, both of which are defined in this WSDL fragment from sparql-protocol-types.xsd:

<xs:element type="xs:string" name="fault-details">
    <xs:annotation>
      <xs:documentation> This element contains
        human-readable information about the fault
        returned by the SPARQL query processing
        service.</xs:documentation>
    </xs:annotation>
  </xs:element>
    <xs:element name="malformed-query">
      <xs:complexType>
          <xs:all><xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" ref="st:fault-details"/></xs:all>
      </xs:complexType>
  </xs:element>
  <xs:element name="query-request-refused">
      <xs:complexType>
          <xs:all><xs:element minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" ref="st:fault-details"/></xs:all>
      </xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

Excerpt 1.3 WSDL 2.0 fragment

MalformedQuery

When a SPARQL query string is not a legal sequence of characters in the language defined by the SPARQL grammar, this fault message should be returned. An HTTP 2xx status code must not be returned.

When the MalformedQuery fault message is returned, query processing services must include explanatory, debugging, or other additional information for human consumption via the fault-details type defined in Excerpt 1.3.

QueryRequestRefused

This WSDL fault message should be returned when a client submits a request that the service refuses to process. The QueryRequestRefused fault message neither indicates whether the server may or may not process a subsequent, identical request or requests, nor does it constrain a conformant SPARQL service from returning other HTTP status codes or HTTP headers as appropriate given the semantics of [HTTP].

When the QueryRequestRefused fault message is returned, query processing services must include explanatory, debugging, or other additional information intended for human consumption via the fault-details type defined in Excerpt 1.3.

2.2 HTTP Bindings

The SparqlQuery interface operation query described thus far is an abstract operation; it requires protocol bindings to become an invocable operation. This next two sections of this document describe HTTP and SOAP bindings. A conformant SPARQL Protocol service must support the SparqlQuery interface; if a SPARQL Protocol service supports HTTP bindings, it must support the bindings as described in sparql-protocol-query.wsdl. A SPARQL Protocol service may support other interfaces. See 2.3 SOAP Bindings for more information.

[WSDL2-Adjuncts] defines a means of binding abstract interface operations to HTTP. The HTTP bindings for the query operation (from sparql-protocol-query.wsdl) are as follows:

<!-- the HTTP GET binding for query operation -->
 <binding name="queryHttpGet" interface="tns:SparqlQuery" 
	    type="http://www.w3.org/2006/01/wsdl/http"
	    whttp:version="1.1">

   <fault ref="tns:MalformedQuery" whttp:code="400"/>
   <fault ref="tns:QueryRequestRefused" whttp:code="500"/>

   <operation ref="tns:query" 
		whttp:method="GET"
		whttp:faultSerialization="*/*"
		whttp:inputSerialization="application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
		whttp:outputSerialization="application/sparql-results+xml, application/rdf+xml, */*" />
 </binding>

 <!-- the HTTP POST binding for query operation -->
 <binding name="queryHttpPost" interface="tns:SparqlQuery"
		 type="http://www.w3.org/2006/01/wsdl/http"
		 whttp:version="1.1">
		
	  <fault ref="tns:MalformedQuery" whttp:code="400"/>
	  <fault ref="tns:QueryRequestRefused" whttp:code="500"/>
		
   <operation ref="tns:query" 
		whttp:method="POST" 
		whttp:faultSerialization="*/*"
		whttp:inputSerialization="application/x-www-form-urlencoded, application/xml"
		whttp:outputSerialization="application/sparql-results+xml, application/rdf+xml, */*" />	
 </binding>

There are two HTTP bindings, queryHttpGet and queryHttpPost, respectively both of which are described as bindings of the SparqlQuery interface. In each of these bindings, the two faults described in SparqlQuery interface, MalformedQuery and QueryRequestRefused, are bound to HTTP status codes 400 Bad Request and 500 Internal Server Error, respectively [HTTP].

The queryHttpGet binding should be used except in cases where the URL-encoded query exceeds practicable limits, in which case the queryHttpPost binding should be used.

An Informative Note About Serialization Constraints. The output serialization of the queryHttpGet and queryHttpPost bindings is intentionally under constrained in order to reflect the variety of serialization types of RDF graphs. The fault serialization of queryHttpGet and queryHttpPost is also intentionally under constrained. A conformant SPARQL Protocol service can provide alternative WSDL interfaces and bindings with different constraints.

queryHttpGet

This binding of the query operation uses [HTTP] GET with the following serialization type constraints: the value of whttp:faultSerialization is */*; second, the value of whttp:inputSerialization is application/x-www-form-urlencoded with UTF-8 encoding; and, third, the whttp:outputSerialization is application/sparql-results+xml with UTF-8 encoding, application/rdf+xml with UTF-8 encoding, and */*.

queryHttpPost

This binding of the query operation uses [HTTP] POST with the following serialization type constraints: the value of whttp:faultSerialization is */*; second, the value of whttp:inputSerialization is application/x-www-form-urlencoded with UTF-8 encoding and application/xml with UTF-8 encoding; and, third, the whttp:outputSerialization is application/sparql-results+xml with UTF-8 encoding, application/rdf+xml with UTF-8 encoding, and */*.

2.2.1 HTTP Examples

The following abstract HTTP trace examples illustrate invocation of the query operation under several different scenarios. These example traces are abstracted from complete HTTP traces in three ways: (1) In each example the string "EncodedQuery" represents the URL-encoded string equivalent of the SPARQL query given in the first block of each example; (2) only partial response bodies, containing the query results, are displayed; (3) the URI values of default-graph-uri and named-graph-uri are also not URL-encoded.

2.2.1.1 SELECT with service-supplied RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> 
SELECT ?book ?who 
WHERE { ?book dc:creator ?who }

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: my-sparql-client/0.1

That query against the service-supplied RDF dataset, executed by that SPARQL query service, returns the following query result:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 06 May 2005 20:55:12 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">

 <head>
   <variable name="book"/>
   <variable name="who"/>
 </head>
 <results distinct="false" ordered="false">
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book5</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r29392923r2922</bnode></binding>
   </result>
...
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book6</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r8484882r49593</bnode></binding>
   </result>
 </results>
</sparql> 
2.2.1.2 SELECT with simple RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> 
SELECT ?book ?who 
WHERE { ?book dc:creator ?who }

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.other.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.other.example/books HTTP/1.1
Host: www.other.example
User-agent: my-sparql-client/0.1

That query — against the RDF dataset identified by the value of the default-graph-uri parameter, http://www.other.example/books — executed by that SPARQL query service, returns the following query result:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 06 May 2005 20:55:12 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
 <head>
   <variable name="book"/>
   <variable name="who"/>
 </head>
...
 <results distinct="false" ordered="false">
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book2</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r1115396427r1133</bnode></binding>
   </result>
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book3</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r1115396427r1133</bnode></binding>
   </result>
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book1</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><literal>J.K. Rowling</literal></binding>
   </result>
 </results>
</sparql> 
2.2.1.3 CONSTRUCT with simple RDF dataset and HTTP content negotiation

This SPARQL query

PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>
PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX myfoaf: <http://www.example/jose/foaf.rdf#>

CONSTRUCT { myfoaf:jose foaf:depiction <http://www.example/jose/jose.jpg>.
            myfoaf:jose foaf:schoolHomepage <http://www.edu.example/>.
            ?s ?p ?o.}
WHERE { ?s ?p ?o. myfoaf:jose foaf:nick "Jo".
       FILTER ( ! (?s = myfoaf:kendall && ?p = foaf:knows && ?o = myfoaf:edd ) 
              && ! ( ?s = myfoaf:julia && ?p = foaf:mbox && ?o = <mailto:julia@mail.example> )
	      && ! ( ?s = myfoaf:julia && ?p = rdf:type && ?o = foaf:Person))
}

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/jose-foaf.rdf HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1
Accept: text/rdf+n3, application/rdf+xml

With the response illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 06 May 2005 20:55:11 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix)
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/rdf+n3

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>.
@prefix myfoaf: <http://www.example/jose/foaf.rdf#>.

myfoaf:jose foaf:name "Jose Jimeñez";
	    foaf:depiction <http://www.example/jose/jose.jpg>;
            foaf:nick "Jo";
...
	    foaf:schoolHomepage <http://www.edu.example/>;
            foaf:workplaceHomepage <http://www.corp.example/>;
            foaf:homepage <http://www.example/jose/>;
            foaf:knows myfoaf:juan;
	    rdf:type foaf:Person.

myfoaf:juan foaf:mbox <mailto:juan@mail.example>;
	   rdf:type foaf:Person.
2.2.1.4 ASK with simple RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> 
ASK WHERE { ?book dc:creator "J.K. Rowling"}

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/books HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 06 May 2005 20:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
 <head></head>
 <boolean>true</boolean>
</sparql>
2.2.1.5 DESCRIBE with simple RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX books: <http://www.example/book/>
DESCRIBE books:book6

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated here:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/books HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type:  application/rdf+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<rdf:RDF ...
    xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
    xmlns:books="http://www.example/book/"
    xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
  <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example/book/book6">
    <dc:title>Example Book #6 </dc:title>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
2.2.1.6 SELECT with complex RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/>

SELECT ?who ?g ?mbox
WHERE {  ?g dc:publisher ?who .
   GRAPH ?g { ?x foaf:mbox ?mbox }
}

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated here (with line breaks for legibility):

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/publishers
&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/morepublishers&named-graph-uri=http://your.example/foaf-alice
&named-graph-uri=http://www.example/foaf-bob&named-graph-uri=http://www.example/foaf-susan
&named-graph-uri=http://this.example/john/foaf
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type:  application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
  <head>
    <variable name="who"/>
    <variable name="g"/>
    <variable name="mbox"/>
  </head>
...
  <results ordered="false" distinct="false">
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
        <literal>Alice</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
        <uri>http://your.example/foaf-alice</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:alice@example.org</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
        <literal>Bob</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
        <uri>http://www.example/foaf-bob</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:bob@work.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
        <literal>Susan</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
        <uri>http://www.example/foaf-susan</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:susan@work.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
        <literal>John</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
        <uri>http://this.example/john/foaf</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:john@home.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
  </results>
</sparql>
2.2.1.7 SELECT with query-only RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/>

SELECT ?who ?g ?mbox
FROM <http://www.example/publishers>
FROM NAMED <http://www.example/alice>
FROM NAMED <http://www.example/bob>
WHERE { ?g dc:publisher ?who .
        GRAPH ?g { ?x foaf:mbox ?mbox }
}

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
...
  <head>
    <variable name="who"/>
    <variable name="g"/>
    <variable name="mbox"/>
  </head>
  <results ordered="false" distinct="false">
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
      	<literal>Bob Hacker</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
	<uri>http://www.example/bob</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:bob@oldcorp.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
	<literal>Alice Hacker</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
	<uri>http://www.example/alice</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
	<uri>mailto:alice@work.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
  </results>
</sparql>
2.2.1.8 SELECT with ambiguous RDF dataset

This SPARQL query

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/>

SELECT ?who ?g ?mbox
FROM <http://www.example/publishers>
FROM NAMED <http://www.example/john>
FROM NAMED <http://www.example/susan>
WHERE { ?g dc:publisher ?who .
        GRAPH ?g { ?x foaf:mbox ?mbox }
}

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/morepublishers
&named-graph-uri=http://www.example/bob&named-graph-uri=http://www.example/alice HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

This protocol operation contains an ambiguous RDF dataset: the dataset specified in the query is different than the one specified in the protocol (by way of default-graph-uri and named-graph-uri parameters). A conformant SPARQL Protocol service must resolve this ambiguity by executing the query against the RDF dataset specified in the protocol:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
  <head>
    <variable name="who"/>
    <variable name="g"/>
    <variable name="mbox"/>
  </head>
  <results ordered="false" distinct="false">
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
      	<literal>Bob Hacker</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
	<uri>http://www.example/bob</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
        <uri>mailto:bob@oldcorp.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
    <result>
      <binding name="who">
	<literal>Alice Hacker</literal>
      </binding>
      <binding name="g">
	<uri>http://www.example/alice</uri>
      </binding>
      <binding name="mbox">
	<uri>mailto:alice@work.example</uri>
      </binding>
    </result>
  </results>
</sparql>
2.2.1.9 SELECT with malformed query fault

This syntactically invalid SPARQL query

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
SELECT ?name
WHERE { ?x foaf:name ?name
ORDER BY ?name }

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://www.example/morepublishers HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response — the MalformedQuery fault replacing the Out Message, as per 2.1 SparqlQuery — illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/plain

4:syntax error, unexpected ORDER, expecting '}'
2.2.1.10 SELECT with query request refused fault

This SPARQL query

PREFIX bio: <http://bio.example/schema/#>
SELECT ?valence
FROM <http://another.example/protein-db.rdf>
WHERE { ?x bio:protein ?valence }
ORDER BY ?valence

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://another.example/protein-db.rdf HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1

With the response — the QueryRequestRefused fault replacing the Out Message, as per 2.1 SparqlQuery — illustrated here:

HTTP/1.1 500 Internal Server Error
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html

<html>
<head>
<title>SPARQL Processing Service: Query Request Refused</title>
</head>
<body>
<p> Query Request Refused: your request could not be processed because 
 <code>http://another.example/protein-db.rdf</code> could not be retrieved within 
 the time alloted.</p>
</body>
</html>
2.2.1.11 Very long SELECT query using POST binding

Some SPARQL queries, perhaps machine generated, may be longer than can be reliably conveyed by way of the HTTP GET binding described in 2.2 HTTP Bindings. In those cases the POST binding described in 2.2 may be used. This SPARQL query

PREFIX bio: <http://bio.example/schema/#>
...
SELECT ?valence ...
FROM <http://another.example/protein-db.rdf>
WHERE { ?x bio:protein ?valence 
        ...
}
ORDER BY ?valence ...

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

POST /sparql/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Content-Length: ...

query=EncodedQuery&default-graph-uri=http://another.example/protein-db.rdf
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
...
</sparql>
2.2.1.12 SELECT with internationalization

SPARQL queries may include internationalized characters or character sets. This SPARQL query

PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
PREFIX 食: <http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/DataAccess/tests/data/i18n/kanji.ttl#>
SELECT ?name ?food 
WHERE { [ foaf:name ?name ; 食:食べる ?food ] . }

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

GET /sparql/?query=EncodedQuery
Host: www.example
User-agent: sparql-client/0.1
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Wed, 03 Aug 2005 12:48:25 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix)
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
...
</sparql>
2.2.1.13 SELECT with queryHttpPost binding and XML input

SPARQL queries may be serialized on the wire as XML messages and conveyed to a SPARQL query service by way of HTTP POST. This SPARQL query

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<rdf-query xmlns="http://example.org/SparqlX/">
 <select><variable name="book"/><variable name="who"/></select>
 <query-pattern>
	<triple-pattern>
		<subject><variable name="book"/></subject>
		<predicate><uri>http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator</uri></predicate>
		<object><variable name="who"/></object>
	</triple-pattern>
 </query-pattern>
</rdf-query>

is conveyed to the SPARQL query service, http://www.example/sparql/, as illustrated in this HTTP trace:

POST /sparql/ HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example
User-agent: my-sparql-client/0.1
Content-type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<rdf-query xmlns="http://example.org/SparqlX/">
<select><variable name="book"/><variable name="who"/></select>
<query-pattern>
<triple-pattern>
	<subject><variable name="book"/></subject>
	<predicate><uri>http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator</uri></predicate>
	<object><variable name="who"/></object>
</triple-pattern>
</query-pattern>
</rdf-query>

That query against the service-supplied RDF dataset, executed by that SPARQL query service, returns the following query result:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 06 May 2005 20:55:12 GMT
Server: Apache/1.3.29 (Unix) PHP/4.3.4 DAV/1.0.3
Connection: close
Content-Type: application/sparql-results+xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<sparql xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">

 <head>
   <variable name="book"/>
   <variable name="who"/>
 </head>
 <results distinct="false" ordered="false">
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book5</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r29392923r2922</bnode></binding>
   </result>
...
   <result>
     <binding name="book"><uri>http://www.example/book/book6</uri></binding>
     <binding name="who"><bnode>r8484882r49593</bnode></binding>
   </result>
 </results>
</sparql> 

2.3 SOAP Bindings

[WSDL2-Adjuncts] defines a means of binding abstract interface operations to SOAP. The SOAP bindings for the query operation (from sparql-protocol-query.wsdl) are as follows:

   <binding name="querySoap" interface="SparqlQuery"
	    type="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl/soap"
            wsoap:version="1.2" >
	    wsoap:protocol="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap/bindings/HTTP">

    <fault ref="MalformedQuery" wsoap:code="soap:Sender" />
    <fault ref="QueryRequestRefused" wsoap:code="soap:Sender" />

    <operation ref="query" wsoap:mep="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap/mep/request-response" />

  </binding>

The name of the SOAP binding of SparqlQuery's query operation is querySoap; it is a SOAP binding because of the value of type attribute, which is set to the URI identifying SOAP. The version of SOAP is 1.2. The underlying protocol used in this SOAP binding is HTTP, as determined by the URI value of the wsoap:protocol attribute. If a SPARQL Protocol service supports SOAP bindings with the value of the {http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl/soap, protocol} attribute set to http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap/bindings/HTTP, it must support the bindings as described in sparql-protocol-query.wsdl. SOAP bindings with wsoap:protocol values set to transmission protocols other than HTTP are not described in this document.

The two fault elements refer to the fault messages defined in the SparqlQuery interface.

Finally, the operation element references the query operation of the SparqlQuery interface which has been previously described in Excerpt 1.0 above. Since this SOAP binding describes the operation as using HTTP as the underlying transport protocol, the value of the wsoap:mep attribute determines which HTTP method is to be used. This operation is described as being implemented by a SOAP message exchange pattern http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap/mep/request-response, which, according to [SOAP12] 7.4 Supported Features, is bound to an HTTP POST method.

2.3.1 SOAP Example

POST /services/sparql-query HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/soap+xml
Accept: application/soap+xml, application/dime, multipart/related, text/*
User-Agent: Axis/1.2.1
Host: www.example
SOAPAction: ""
Content-Length: 438

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope/"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
      <soapenv:Body>
         <query-request xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/09/sparql-protocol-types/#">
            <query>SELECT ?z {?x ?y ?z . FILTER regex(?z, 'Harry')}</query>
         </query-request>
      </soapenv:Body>
   </soapenv:Envelope>
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/soap+xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
   <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope/"
   xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
      <soapenv:Body> 
         <query-result xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/09/sparql-protocol-types/#">
            <ns1:sparql xmlns:ns1="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#">
               <ns1:head>
                  <ns1:variable name="z"/>
               </ns1:head>
               <ns1:results distinct="false" ordered="false">
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
                  ...
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
                  <ns1:result>
                     <ns1:binding name="z">
                        <ns1:literal>Harry Potter and the Prisoner Of Azkaban</ns1:literal>
                     </ns1:binding>
                  </ns1:result>
               </ns1:results>
            </ns1:sparql>
         </query-result>
      </soapenv:Body>
   </soapenv:Envelope>

3. Policy Considerations

3.1 Security

There are at least two possible sources of denial-of-service attacks against SPARQL protocol services. First, under-constrained queries can result in very large numbers of results, which may require large expenditures of computing resources to process, assemble, or return. Another possible source are queries containing very complex — either because of resource size, the number of resources to be retrieved, or a combination of size and number — RDF dataset descriptions, which the service may be unable to assemble without significant expenditure of resources, including bandwidth, CPU, or secondary storage. In some cases such expenditures may effectively constitute a denial-of-service attack. A SPARQL protocol service may place restrictions on the resources that it retrieves or on the rate at which external resources are retrieved.There may be other sources of denial-of-service attacks against SPARQL query processing services.

Since a SPARQL protocol service may make HTTP requests of other origin servers on behalf of its clients, it may be used as a vector of attacks against other sites or services. Thus, SPARQL protocol services may effectively act as proxies for third-party clients. Such services may place restrictions on the resources that they retrieve or on the rate at which external resources can be retrieved. SPARQL protocol services may log client requests in such a way as to facilitate tracing them with regard to third-party origin servers or services.

SPARQL protocol services may choose to detect these and other costly, or otherwise unsafe, queries, impose time or memory limits on queries, or impose other restrictions to reduce the service's (and other service's) vulnerability to denial-of-service attacks. They also may refuse to process such query requests.

Different IRIs may have the same appearance. Characters in different scripts may look similar (a Cyrillic "о" may appear similar to a Latin "o"). A character followed by combining characters may have the same visual representation as another character (LATIN SMALL LETTER E followed by COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT has the same visual representation as LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE). Users of SPARQL must take care to construct queries with IRIs that match the IRIs in the data. Further information about matching of similar characters can be found in Unicode Security Considerations [UNISEC] and Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) [RFC3987] Section 8.

4. Conformance

The status of the parts of SPARQL Protocol for RDF (this document) is as follows:

Further, both sparql-protocol-query.wsdl and sparql-protocol-types.xsd are normative.

A conformant SPARQL Protocol service:

  1. must implement the SparqlQuery interface;
  2. may implement HTTP, SOAP, or both HTTP and SOAP bindings of the query operation of the SparqlQuery interface;
  3. must implement HTTP or SOAP bindings of query in the way described in this document ("SPARQL Protocol for RDF"), in sparql-protocol-query.wsdl, and sparql-protocol-types.xsd;
  4. may implement other interfaces, bindings of the operations of those interfaces, or bindings of the query operation other than the normative HTTP or SOAP bindings described by SPARQL Protocol for RDF; and
  5. must be consistent with the normative constraints (indicated by [RFC 2119] keywords) described in 3. Policy Considerations.

5. References

1. Normative

[RFC2119]
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels RFC 2119 S. Bradner March 1997
[RFC3987]
RFC 3987, "Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)", M. Dürst , M. Suignard
[HTTP]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1 R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee RFC2616 June 1999
[RDF-Concepts]
Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax, Klyne G., Carroll J. (Editors), W3C Recommendation, 10 February 2004. This version is http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/. The latest version is http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/.
[RDF-Syntax]
RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised) , D. Beckett, Editor, W3C Recommendation, 10 February 2004, http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-syntax-grammar-20040210/ . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar .
[SOAP12]
SOAP Version 1.2 Part 2: Adjuncts , M. Gudgin, M. Hadley, N. Mendelsohn, J.-J. Moreau, H.F. Nielsen, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 24 June 2003, http://www.w3.org/TR/soap12-part2/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/soap12-part2/ .
[SPARQL]
SPARQL Query Language for RDF , A. Seaborne, E. Prud'hommeaux, Editors, W3C Working Draft (Last Call), 19 April 2005, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-rdf-sparql-query-20050419/ . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ .
[SRD]
SPARQL Query Results XML Format , D. Beckett, Editor, W3C Editor's Draft (work in progress).
[WSDL2]
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Version 2.0 Part 1: Core Language , J. Moreau, A. Ryman, R. Chinnici, S. Weerawarana, Editors, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 10 May 2005, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-wsdl20-20050510 . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl20 .
[WSDL2-Adjuncts]
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Version 2.0 Part 2: Adjuncts , S. Weerawarana, H. Haas, D. Orchard, R. Chinnici, A. Lewis, J. Moreau, Editors, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 10 May 2005, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-wsdl20-adjuncts-20050510 . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl20-adjuncts .

2. Informative

[UC&R]
RDF Data Access Use Cases and Requirements , K. Clark, Editor, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 25 March 2005, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-rdf-dawg-uc-20050325/ . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-dawg-uc/ .
[WSDL2-Primer]
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) Version 2.0 Part 0: Primer , K. Liu, D. Booth, Editors, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 10 May 2005, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-wsdl20-primer-20050510 . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/wsdl20-primer .
[UNISEC]
Unicode Security Considerations, Mark Davis, Michel Suignard

6. Acknowledgments

My thanks to members of DAWG, especially Bijan Parsia, Bryan Thompson, Andy Seaborne, Steve Harris, Eric Prud'hommeaux, Yoshio FUKUSHIGE, Howard Katz, Dirk-Willem van Gulik, Dan Connolly, and Lee Feigenbaum. Particular thanks are owed to Elias Torres for his generous assistance and support. Thanks as well to my UMD colleagues Jim Hendler, Ron Alford, Amy Alford, Yarden Katz, Chris Testa, and members of the Mindlab Semantic Web Undergraduate Social. Particular thanks are also owed my NASA colleague and friend, Andy Schain. I also thank Jacek Kopecky, Morten Frederiksen, Mark Baker, Jan Algermissen, Danny Ayers, Bernd Simon, Graham Klyne, Arjohn Kampman, Tim Berners-Lee, Dan Brickley, Patrick Stickler, Karl Dubost, Jonathan Marsh, Leigh Dodds, David Wood, Reto Krummenacher, Thomas Roessler, Danny Weitzner, Paul Downey, Hugo Haas, Richard Newman.


CVS Change Log

Changes since 27 May Working Draft:

 
$Log: Overview.html,v $
Revision 1.6  2006/01/26 17:22:28  connolly
#conformance id fix

Revision 1.5  2006/01/26 17:18:19  connolly
link fixes for publication:
 - 1 in SOTD
 - a few from v1.104, v1.105 of editor's draft

Revision 1.4  2006/01/25 18:40:02  connolly
copyright year

Revision 1.3  2006/01/25 18:36:52  connolly
more status tweaks

Revision 1.2  2006/01/25 18:27:07  connolly
title page, SOTD for updated WD

Revision 1.1  2006/01/25 18:12:47  connolly
snapshot of editor's draft v1.103 of 2006/01/17 22:03:25

Revision 1.103  2006/01/17 22:03:25  kclark
replacing text/xml with application/soap+xml

Revision 1.102  2006/01/17 15:28:00  kclark
removing some comments

Revision 1.101  2006/01/15 22:56:26  kclark
- removed 3.2 privacy section (no consensus from experts on what this section should do; seems out of scope now)
- changed SHOULD to MAY in re: logging requests

Revision 1.100  2006/01/13 17:14:17  kclark
doh

Revision 1.99  2006/01/13 17:11:34  kclark
more html validity fixups

Revision 1.98  2006/01/13 17:04:15  kclark
working on html validity

Revision 1.97  2006/01/12 18:11:05  kclark
 s/Figure/Excerpt/g
- updated ACK section

Revision 1.96  2006/01/12 17:32:37  kclark
- s/SPARQL Protocol/specification of the SPARQL Protocol/
- hypertext link to conformant sparql protocol service
- tweaked 2.2.1.8 (editorial) in response to commenter
- more section heading/numbering tweaks

Revision 1.95  2006/01/12 16:48:47  kclark
fixing toc again

Revision 1.94  2006/01/12 16:35:28  kclark
updating toc

Revision 1.93  2006/01/12 16:17:00  kclark
fxing stupid format bugs

Revision 1.92  2006/01/12 16:14:00  kclark
moving stuff around to be more legible

Revision 1.91  2006/01/12 16:12:03  kclark
- added "Rejecting Query Requests to RDF Datasets" section with 3 "may" clauses
- added targets for the two faults

Revision 1.90  2006/01/11 20:45:11  kclark
- added a conformance section (4. Conformance) (per Q&A review)
- conformance section includes statement of which parts of the doc are normative or informative
- added a bit about who might be interested in this spec (per Q&A review)
- changed excerpt formatting a bit for legibility
- synched language with WSDL changes (mostly this involves changes to the HTTP bindings section)
- tightened the distinction between SPARQL Protocol (the wsdl, xsd, and for-humans spec) and SPARQL Protocol for RDF (the for-humans spec)
- changed the language of QueryRequestRefused: must is now should and there's an explicit statement that HTTP status codes
  and headers can be returned irrespective of the two WSDL faults defined by SPARQL Protocol
- changed fault-details should be returned to must be returned to help distinguish in the 400 and 500 cases between HTTP
  status codes and WSDL faults
- added an informative note about serialization constraints
- added 2.2.1.12 SELECT with internationalization (incomplete)
- added 2.2.1.13 SELECT with queryHttpPost between and XML input
- changed old SOAP namespace in the SOAP example

Revision 1.89  2006/01/07 21:31:23  kclark
- corrected mime type typo
- removed charset utf-8 bits

Revision 1.88  2006/01/06 19:23:47  kclark
simplified the language describing QueryRequestRefused

Revision 1.87  2006/01/06 18:16:55  kclark
- tweaked CSS
- tweaked table of contents
- updated namespace mapping table

Revision 1.86  2006/01/04 22:16:50  kclark
- fixed bugs in SOAP example
- removed spurious tabs in xmlns attrs

Revision 1.85  2006/01/04 19:56:09  kclark
- changed "my" in urls to "www"

Revision 1.84  2006/01/04 17:40:40  kclark
- updating status

Revision 1.83  2006/01/04 17:38:08  kclark
- no obligation to use WSDL language added
- typos fixed
- erroneous query-result types changed to correct query-request types
- useless foaf prefixes removed from sample queries
- link from "may refuse to process" 3.0 to 2.1.4
- added rq23#security language
- added ref to RFC 3987

Revision 1.82  2005/12/29 17:55:08  kclark
trying to prettify the world's ugliest html table

Revision 1.81  2005/12/29 17:52:56  kclark
changed CSS styling re: Karl Dubost's suggestion
removed long note about WSDL 2 binding (the WSDL binding isn't correct yet, that's coming in a day or three)
corrected SOAP namespace in the SOAP example (now using the SOAP 1.2 namespace instead of the SOAP 1.1 NS)
added a table of local name to NS URI bindings for legibility
added a list of the documents comprising the protocol, with links, for legibility
corrected various spelling errors
changed the spt: local name to st: to harmonized with XSD & WSDL docs
corrected IMT in the DESCRIBE example (from app/sparql-results+xml to app/rdf+xml)
corrected POST example
corrected spuriously generated ref to RDF Primer

Revision 1.80  2005/12/28 17:03:37  kclark
checking in a trivial change to see if CVS is working properly

Revision 1.79  2005/12/16 16:26:51  eric
~ (editorial) validation tweak

Revision 1.78  2005/11/22 06:28:11  connolly
review w.r.t. QA SpecGL still pending

Revision 1.77  2005/11/22 04:11:50  connolly
ack'd outstanding comments

Revision 1.76  2005/10/21 17:40:12  kclark
-- fixing two missing <> around URIs in queries 2.2.1.10 and .11

Revision 1.75  2005/09/14 23:44:11  eric
 - update references to point to Last Call version of SPARQL Query Language for RDF

Revision 1.74  2005/09/14 20:37:22  kclark
 - fixing inconsistent namespace URI

Revision 1.73  2005/09/14 12:57:58  eric
getting pubrules compliant

Revision 1.72  2005/09/12 15:17:27  eric
removed <<<<<<s from an apparent CVS conflict

Revision 1.71  2005/09/12 14:14:29  kclark
 - changed compliance language to not restrict SOAP bindings with non-HTTP transport protocols
 - added http example numbers
 - finished SOAP bindings description
 - renamed query outer  element to query-request

Revision 1.70  2005/09/09 19:41:45  etorres
- updated divs and anchors for all examples to match proto-test cases

Revision 1.69  2005/09/08 20:23:35  etorres
- added closing div tag to toc section

Revision 1.68  2005/09/06 14:50:37  kclark
- fix bug in compliance language

Revision 1.67  2005/09/05 17:08:18  kclark
- start of soap bindings description, which is unfinished

Revision 1.66  2005/09/05 17:01:48  kclark
- fixing some HTML bugs and spelling errors

Revision 1.65  2005/09/05 16:59:21  kclark
- removing spurious cvs merge conflict marker

Revision 1.64  2005/09/05 16:57:42  kclark
- changed TOC
- removed Accept: from all examples but the con-neg example
- changed sparql-query to query (In Message type name)
- noted risk with WSDL2
- removed output and fault serialization IMTs from HTTP bindings
- finished description of HTTP bindings
- lots of editorial tweaks from EricP
- added normative reference to RDF concepts

Revision 1.63  2005/08/19 19:42:37  connolly
change entity refs to numeric char refs so that
we can check the spec without reading the DTD

Revision 1.62  2005/08/19 14:09:35  connolly
wf fixes

Revision 1.61  2005/08/15 19:07:05  kclark
-fixing missing <

Revision 1.60  2005/08/15 19:03:18  kclark
- WSDL, XSD, and spec excerpts in synch; discussion of excerpts needs
to be updated yet
- new paragraph in security section based on steve h's feedback/review

Revision 1.59  2005/08/11 17:27:19  kclark
 - abstracting HTTP traces
 - added <div> containers around traces
 - added new trace for POST binding
 - tweaked several examples

Revision 1.58  2005/08/09 18:06:15  kclark
- changed 'may' to 'must' for malformed query fault, as a result of WG decision
- added some additional uris to consult re: security
- tweaked security language to be more explicit about retrieving arbitrary numbers
of web resources based on user input

Revision 1.57  2005/08/08 20:55:08  kclark
- many tweaks resulting from Andy Seaborne's review, including:
  s/RDF dataset/RDF dataset description/
  s/XML type/instance of an XML type/ (did this by hand, not s&r)
  killed the bit about "equivalent serialization"
- added new examples from Elias Torres
- added examples for fault returns
- changed CONSTRUCT example: complex FILTER, con-neg
- changed may to must for query req refused fault
- changed must to may for malformed query fault

Revision 1.56  2005/08/03 20:27:23  kclark
- reorganized some sections
- added sample SOAP trace (which isn't really valid yet, just a place holder)
- tweaked policy language very slightly

Revision 1.55  2005/07/29 14:09:39  kclark
- general readability edits
- changed should to may for fault message fault-details
- added anchors for dataset sections

Revision 1.54  2005/07/28 15:11:44  kclark
- tweaked policy considerations section for readability & concision

Revision 1.53  2005/07/27 19:42:14  kclark
- changed to new MIME type for query results
- added new http trace example
- added two new trace stubs
- added query request refused fault type
- expanded policy section with more about security
- synch'd rdf dataset with rq23
- added initial POST binding for query operation
- flattened structure of query type by inlining rdf-dataset, per AndyS
- using new "SPARQL Results Document" from rf1
- added semantics for malformed query fault, though I believe this may be
  incomplete as spec'd currently

Revision 1.52  2005/07/27 18:12:33  kclark
- synching rdf dataset with rq23
- changing SOTD to reflect editor's draft status