This specification defines Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 revision 1 (CSS 2.1). CSS 2.1 is a style sheet language that allows authors and users to attach style (e.g., fonts and spacing) to structured documents (e.g., HTML documents and XML applications). By separating the presentation style of documents from the content of documents, CSS 2.1 simplifies Web authoring and site maintenance.
CSS 2.1 builds on CSS2 [CSS2] which builds on CSS1 [CSS1]. It supports media-specific style sheets so that authors may tailor the presentation of their documents to visual browsers, aural devices, printers, braille devices, handheld devices, etc. It also supports content positioning, table layout, features for internationalization and some properties related to user interface.
CSS 2.1 corrects a few errors in CSS2 (the most important being a new definition of the height/width of absolutely positioned elements, more influence for HTML's "style" attribute and a new calculation of the 'clip' property), and adds a few highly requested features which have already been widely implemented. But most of all CSS 2.1 represents a "snapshot" of CSS usage: it consists of all CSS features that are implemented interoperably at the date of publication of the Recommendation.
CSS 2.1 is derived from and is intended to replace CSS2. Some
parts of CSS2 are unchanged in CSS 2.1, some parts have been
altered, and some parts removed. The removed portions may be used in a
future CSS3 specification.
Implementations may refer to CSS2 for the definitions of
features that have been removed, but
for other features CSS 2.1 is
the normative reference.
This section describes the status of this document at the time
of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of
current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical
report can be found in the W3C
technical reports index at
is a "Last Call"working Draft. the deadline for
comments is 15 July 2005.
The (archived) public mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org (see instructions) is preferred for discussion of this and other specifications in the Style area. When commenting on this document, please put the text "CSS21" in the subject, preferably like this: "[CSS21] <summary of comment>"
Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
A test suite and a report on implementations will be provided before the document becomes a Proposed Recommendation.
This document is produced by the CSS working group (part of the Style Activity, see summary).
This document was produced under the 24 January 2002 CPP
as amended by the W3C Patent
Procedure . The Working Group maintains a public list of patent
disclosures relevant to this document;
that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An
individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual
believes contains Essential
Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with
section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy .
For this specification to exit the CR stage, the following conditions must be met:
There must be at least two interoperable implementations for every feature. For the purposes of this criterion, we define the following terms:
A section or subsection of the specification.
passing the respective test cases in the test suite, or, if the implementation is not a web browser, equivalent tests. Every relevant test in the test suite should have an equivalent test created if such a UA is to be used to claim interoperability. In addition if such a UA is to be used to claim interoperability, then there must one or more additional UAs which can also pass those equivalent tests in the same way for the purpose of interoperability. The equivalent tests must be made publicly available for the purposes of peer review.
a user agent which:
A minimum of six months of the CR period must have elapsed. This is to ensure that enough time is given for any remaining major errors to be caught.
The CR period will be extended if implementations are slow to appear.
Features that were not in CSS1 will be dropped (thus reducing the list of "all" features mentioned above) if two or more interoperable implementations of those features are not found by the end of the CR period.
Features will also be dropped if sufficient and adequate tests (by judgment of the working group) have not been produced for those features by the end of the CR period.
The working group has identified the following features as being
currently poorly implemented by UAs. They are therefore most at risk
of being removed from CSS 2.1 when exiting CR. (Any changes of this
nature will still result in the specification being returned to last
call.) Implementors are urged to implement these features, or correct
bugs in their implementations, if they wish to see
thsse features remain
in this specification.
Implementors should look at CSS3 Lists instead, where these and many other new values not found in CSS1 are defined in detail. [CSS3LIST]
Because implementations are not expected to support multiple IDs
per element soon, this feature may be made informative. The W3C
Selectors specification will continue to have this feature
The input to the suggested (non-normative) automatic layout algorithm for tables is restricted to (1) the containing block width and (2) the content and properties of the table and its children. This restriction may be lifted.
The 'quotes' property and the 'open-quote', 'close-quote', 'no-open-quote' and 'no-close-quote' keywords may be dropped.