Responsive Images Community Group


This document captures the use cases and requirements for standardizing a solution for responsive images. The use cases and requirements were gathered with consultation with the HTML Working Group and WHATWG participants, RICG group members, and the general public.

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Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at

This document was published by the HTML Working Group as a Working Group Note. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome.

Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

In HTML, a user agent's environmental conditions are primarily expressed as CSS media features (e.g., pixel-density, orientation, max-width, etc.) and CSS media types (e.g., print, screen, etc.). A responsive image is an image that adapts in response to different environmental conditions: adaptations can include, but are not limited to, changing the dimensions, crop, or even the source of an image.

Many media features are dynamic in nature (e.g., a browser window is re-sized, a device is rotated from portrait to landscape, and so on), thus a user agent constantly responds to events that change the properties of media features. As a document's layout adapts to changes in media features and media type, an image's ability to communicate effectively can be significantly reduced (e.g., images start to show compression artifacts as they are scaled to match the quality of media or some media feature). When this happens, developers rely on various client/server-side solutions to present images at different resolutions, or even in different formats. Swapping images provides a means to continue communicating effectively as the features of media change dynamically.

Furthermore, as the number and varieties of high-density screens has increased (both on mobile and desktop devices), web developers have had to create custom techniques for serving images that best match a browser's environmental conditions. For a list of examples of the range of techniques in use in 2012, see Chris Coyier's article "Which responsive images solution should you use?". These techniques have a number of limitations, discussed below, which serve as the motivation to standardize a solution through the W3C and WHATWG).

In formulating the requirements, this document tries to be neutral - it is not predicated on any solution. The document only tries to describe the use cases and what the RICG understands, from practice, would be needed to address the use cases in the form of requirements. The RICG expects that a technical specification can be created to formally address each of the requirements (i.e., the solution).

1.1 Proposed Solutions

To date, four such specifications are currently under development, described below. The four proposed solutions are not mutually exclusive: together they address the set of Use Cases and Requirements for Responsive Images.

The `srcset` attribute

Allows authors to define various image resources and “hints” that assist a user agent to determine the most appropriate image source to display. Given a set of image resources, the user agent has the option of either following or overriding the author’s declarations to optimize the user experience based on criteria such as display density, connection type, user preferences, and so on.

The `picture` element

Building on srcset, this specification defines a declarative solution for grouping multiple versions of an image based on different characteristics (e.g., format, resolution, orientation, etc.). This allows the user agent to select the optimum image to present to an end-user based on the user agent's environmental conditions, while also providing the ability to "art direct" images.

HTTP Client Hints

Defines a set of HTTP headers that allow browsers to indicate a list of device and agent specific preferences. Servers can then use these "client hints" to assist in content negotiation, ideally resulting in content being served that best matches the environmental conditions of the client for the resource being requested.

Proposal for RespImg Syntax

The RespImg Syntax introduces a new "src-n" attribute set on the img element that accepts a small set of microsyntaxes. These microsyntaxes address the viewport-based selection, device-pixel-ratio-based selection, and art direction use cases described in this document. The proposal claims to avoid the implementor concerns associated with the `picture` element proposal.

2. Limitations of current techniques

As currently there are no standardized solutions implemented in mainstream browsers, web developers are relying on various techniques to use responsive images in their applications. Unfortunately, there are significant limitations with these techniques:

Reliance on semantically neutral elements and CSS backgrounds:

Large images incur unnecessary download and processing time, slowing the experience for users. To work around this problem, web developers specify multiple sources of the same image at different resolutions and then pick the image of the correct size based on the viewport size. As web developers lack the markup to achieve what they need, they end up relying on semantically neutral elements, CSS background images, and JavaScript libraries. In other words, developers are being forced to willfully violate the authoring requirements of HTML.

Bypass preload scanner

The reliance on semantically neutral elements (e.g., the div and span elements), instead of semantically meaningful elements such as img, prevents browsers from loading the image resources until after the DOM has (at least partially) loaded and scripts have run. This directly hinders the performance work browser engineers have done over the years to optimize resource loading (e.g., WebKit's HTMLPreloadScanner). Unnecessarily bypassing things like the preload scanner can have measurable performance impact when loading documents. See, for example, "The WebKit PreloadScanner" by Tony Gentilcore for a small study that demonstrates an up to 20% impact in load time when WebKit's PreloadScanner is disabled. More recent performance tests yield similar results.

Reliance on scripts and server-side processing:

The techniques rely on either JavaScript or a server-side solution (or both), which adds complexity and redundant HTTP requests to the development process. Furthermore, the script-based solutions are unavailable to users who have turned off JavaScript.

The RICG believes standardization of a browser-based solution can overcome these limitations.

3. Use cases

The following use cases represent usage scenarios commonly seen "in the wild".

3.1 Resolution-based selection

Developers generally want to provide the same image in multiple resolutions, so that high-res devices can get the optimum image for a given resolution, while low-resolution devices can avoid wasting time and bandwidth downloading overly-large files.

Screens have a range of resolutions. Both real and virtual.
Fig. 1 Figure shows screens that having different resolutions. These resolutions can be either physical (matching physical pixels) or virtual (matching css pixels).

3.2 Viewport-based selection

Image dimensions in responsive layouts tend to vary according to the size of the viewport. This often results in images with large dimensions (e.g., 2x or more times the size of the viewport) being sent to browsers with narrow viewports, which are then resized by the browser to fit the design (see, for example, Retina Revolution by Daan Jobsis and the compressive images technique). Ideally, developers would like to serve images that match the user's viewport dimensions. Without a means to do this, they sometimes need to send more data to the user than they would otherwise need to.

For example, a 1000px wide image might be appropriate as a 1x image when used to fill the background of the page, but it’s far too large to use for the same purpose on a 320px wide screen. On a screen that small, it’s more like a 2x or 3x image. In other words, the same image might be applicable to multiple viewport sizes, but at different effective resolutions.

3 different viewport layouts, where the size of images differs based on the viewport.
Fig. 2 To avoid sending excess data, developers will send images that more closely match the size of the viewport.

3.3 Device-pixel-ratio-based selection

To display images in a way that reduces perceptible artifacts (i.e., so the images look "crisp"), devices with different screen densities require images with different minimal resolutions. Thus, the higher the pixel density, the more pixels an image needs to have to look good. This also applies to icons, where completely different images may need to be used for different device-pixel-ratios (see All the sizes of iOS app icons, by Neven Mrgan).

three devices, each having a unique device pixel ratio of 1x, 1.5, and 3x respectively.
Fig. 3 On a device with a device-pixel-ratio greater than 1, higher image resolutions are required to reduce visual artifacts resulting from compression.

3.4 Art direction

In a responsive design, it is typical to change an image so it can be targeted towards the features of a particular display (or set of displays). Sometimes this means cropping an image. Other times, it can mean a different image altogether that may have different proportions or may be changed in other ways to communicate more effectively in a layout. This means, for example:

This is illustrated in the figure below.

four devices showing art directed crops of a dog.
Fig. 4 Using different images that have been cropped to fit a particular screen's features can help in communicating a message effectively.

A related use case is when orientation determines:

For example, on the Nokia Lumia site where it describes the Meego browser, the Nokia Lumia is shown horizontally on wide screens. As the screen narrows, the Nokia Lumia is then shown vertically and cropped. Bryan and Stephanie Rieger, the designers of the site, explained that on a wide screen, showing the full phone horizontally showed the browser best; but on small screens, changing the image to vertical made more sense because it allowed the reader to still make out the features of the browser in the image.

Fig. 5 Video showing art direction used on Nokia's Meego Website.

3.5 Design breakpoints

In Web development, a breakpoint is one of a series of CSS Media Queries, which can update the styles of a page based on matching of media features. A single breakpoint represents a rule (or set of rules) that determines the point at which the contents of that media query are applied to a page’s layout. For example:

Example 1
@media screen and (max-width: 16em) { ... }
@media screen and (max-width: 32em) { ... }
@media screen and (max-width: 41em) { ... }

Developers currently match specific breakpoints for images to the breakpoints that they have defined in the CSS for their applications. Being able to match the breakpoints ensures that images are operating under the same rules that define the layout of a design. It also helps developers verify their approach by ensuring that the same viewport measurement tests are being used in both HTML and CSS. If the developer cannot specify breakpoints for images in the same manner that they are defined for the design, developers will need to convert the breakpoints back to the values specified in the layout in order to verify that they match. This increases authoring time and the likelihood of human-error on the part of developers.

For example, if a breakpoint is specified as "max-width: 41em", then web developers would like to define a similar breakpoint for images at a max-width of 41em. Otherwise they are forced to transform measurements into another unit, like pixels, which is tedious and potentially error-prone.

3.6 Matching media features and media types

According to Wikipedia's article on "dots per inch":

"An inkjet printer … is typically capable of 300-600 DPI. A laser printer … [prints] in the range of 600 to 1,800 DPI."

As printers generally have the ability to pack more points per inch than a device's screen, printers have to compensate for the lack of pixel data by applying reprographic techniques, such as half toning, to simulate continuous tone in imagery. As illustrated below, applying such techniques can cause images to look blurry and low-quality when compared to text.

image comparison between screen and print.
Fig. 6 Example of a 48px by 48px image and text printed at 1,200 DPI. Because of the lack of image data, the printer compensates by using the halftone reprographic technique. Note that the text stays crisp and is printed at the full 1,200 DPI.

Allowing developers to reference images at different resolutions could allow user agents to choose an image that best matches the capabilities of the printer. For example, a photo sharing site could provide a bandwidth-optimized image for display on screen, but a high-resolution image for print. The same technique could also be used for e-book formats, such as EPUB.

However, displaying a color image on monochrome media (e.g., paper and e-ink displays) can be problematic: different colors with similar luminosity are impossible to distinguish on monochrome media. This problem is illustrated in the figure below, where it becomes nearly impossible to associate slices of a pie chart with corresponding labels.

a color and a black and white graph
Fig. 7 Two pie charts, one in color and one in black and white, which demonstrate the problem with switching from color to monochrome media. In the black and white graph, it is extremely difficult to know which slice relates to which label (except in the case of "commute", which is a lighter shade).

Currently, server-side solutions exist to adapt web content to e-ink displays (e.g., kinstant), but such services only work on text and layout and not on images. As interpreting the meaning of images is a problem of semiotics, it is infeasible that this problem can ever be computationally solved. The only feasible solution is for authors to provide alternative image content that communicates effectively in monochrome media.

Lastly, through the CSS Media Queries specifications, the CSS Working Group continues to add media features to the Web platform. New media features in CSS Media Queries level 4 include script, pointer, hover, and luminosity. The lack of a declarative mechanism to associate image content with media features means that developers cannot use them without relying on the aforementioned limited techniques.

3.7 Relative units

A common practice in creating flexible layouts is to specify the size values in media queries as relative units (e.g., ems or percentages). This approach allows layouts to match the users’ default font size (based on zoom level), and it avoid cases where the layout breaks on devices who set a default font-size is set to something other than the usual 16px.

If art-directed images are not specified in relative units, they can either break the layout or become distorted when faced with a uncommon default font-size (e.g., Amazon's Kindle defaults to 20px instead of the usual 16px).

3.8 Image formats

Developers rely on the different capabilities of a range of image formats to communicate effectively. These capabilities include, but are not limited to, alpha transparency, animation, high-color depth support, or better compression ratios for certain image categories. For example, JPEG offers developers good optimization between image quality and file size, but lacks alpha transparency or animation. So, in cases where alpha transparency or animation is needed, developers may instead rely on PNG, GIF, and emerging formats like WebP.

In a responsive design, images need to be displayed at different sizes and device pixel ratios. When possible, a vector format such as SVG might be most appropriate. There have also been proposals for new responsive image formats (see, for example, Christopher Schmitt's .net article).

Although a web developer may want to use a specific image format, new or otherwise, the browser may not always support it. Currently, developers are forced to abandon the most suitable image format in favor of one that has ubiquitous support across user agents.

3.9 User control over sources

In situations where the user knows their bandwidth is limited or expensive (e.g., while roaming), the browser could assist users by:

There are browsers already catering for these kinds of situations. For example, Opera Mini provides users with a choice of image quality (but those images are compressed on the server). Amazon's Silk browser also compresses images "in the cloud" (i.e., through their own proxy servers) before serving those images to a user's device. Google Chrome also allows users to disable images altogether through "site preferences".

4. Requirements

The use cases give rise to the following requirements:

  1. To allow for art direction, the solution MUST afford developers the ability to match image sources with particular media features and/or media types - and the user agent SHOULD update the source of an image as the media features and media types of the browser environment change dynamically.

  2. The solution MUST support selection based on viewport dimensions, screen resolution, and device-pixel-ratio (DPR). Sending the right image for the given dimension and DPR avoids delaying the page load, wasting bandwidth, and potentially reduces the impact on battery life (as the device's antenna can be powered off more quickly and smaller images are faster to process and display). It can also potentially save users money by not downloading redundant image data.

  3. The solution MUST degrade gracefully on legacy user agents by, for example, relying on HTML's built-in fallback mechanisms and legacy elements.

  4. The solution MUST afford developers with the ability to include content that is accessible to assistive technologies.

  5. The solution MUST NOT require server-side processing to work. However, if required, server-side adaptation can still occur through content negotiation or similar techniques (i.e., they are not mutually exclusive).

  6. The solution MUST afford developers the ability to define the breakpoints for images as either minimum values (mobile first) or maximum values (desktop first) to match the media queries used in their design.

  7. The solution SHOULD allow developers to specify images in different formats (or specify the format of a set of image sources).

  8. To provide compatibility with legacy user agents, it SHOULD be possible for developers to polyfill the solution. See the W3C's TAG's recommendations to the RICG.

  9. The solution SHOULD afford user agents with the ability to provide a user-settable preference for controlling which source of an image they prefer. For example,  preference options could include: "always lowest resolution", "always high resolution", "download high resolution as bandwidth permits", and so on. To be clear, user agents are not required to provide such a user-settable preference, but the solution needs to be designed in such a way that it could be done.

  10. In order to avoid introducing delays to the page load, the solution MUST integrate well with existing performance optimization provided by browsers (e.g., the solution would work well with a browser's the preload scanner). Specifically, the solution needs to result in faster page loads than the current techniques are providing.

A. Open issues

We are tracking open issues on Github. Please help us close them!

Changes history

A complete history of changes is available on Github.

You can also see all the closed issues relating to this document.

B. Acknowledgements

This document is composed of contributions from participants of the responsive images community group.

The editors would like to thank the following people for reviewing this document: Mike Taylor, Doug Shults, Barbara Barbosa Neves, Eileen Webb, and Anselm Hannemann.

This document repoduces text from Tab Atkin's Proposal for RespImg Syntax, as permitted by its C0 license.

The figure in the viewport-based selection section is a derivative work from Responsive Images: What We Thought We Needed, by Paul Robert Lloyd.

Participants of the Responsive Images Community Group at the time of publication were: Barry Atimer, Daniel Abril, George Adamson, Heide Alexander, Marie Alhomme, John Allan, Joshua Allen, Angely Alvarez, Agustin Amenabar, Aaryn Anderson, Philip Andrews, Ritchie Anesco, Phil Archer, Tony Atayi, Tom Atkins, Justin Avery, Mohsen Azimi, Phillip Baker, Raymond Baker, Michael Balensiefer, Toni Barrett, Bruno Barros, Paul Barton, Adrian Bateman, Jesse Renée Beach, Robin Berjon, Seth Bertalotto, Anirban Bhattacharya, Nicolaas Bijvoet, Barna Bitai, Nathan Bleigh, Andreas Bovens, J. Albert Bowden, Adam Bradley, Rodrigo Brancher, Gordon Brander, Paul Bridgestock, Aaron Brosey, Brandon Brown, Cory Brown, mairead buchan, Kris Bulman, Ariel Burone, Mathias Bynens, Marcos Caceres, Rusty Calder, Ben Callahan, Loïc Calvy, Welch Canavan, Chuck Carpenter, Brandon Carroll, Frederico Cerdeira, Daniel Chamberlin, Adi Chikara, David Clements, Geri Coady, Anne-Gaelle Colom, Cyril Concolato, Jessica Constantine, Greg Cota, Geoff Cowan, Andy Crum, David D'Amico, Jason Daihl, Francois Daoust, Kevin Davies, Robert Dawson, Jacques de Klerk, Timothy de Paris, Ryan DeBeasi, Anna Debenham, Darryl deHaan, David Demaree, George DeMet, Ian Devlin, Alex DiLiberto, peter droogmans, Ronni Dyrholm Chidekel, simpson eddie, Sylvia Egger, Dominic Fee, Ève Février, Maximiliano Firtman, Ben Fonarov, Harry Fozzard, Marlene Frykman, Dennis Gaebel, Igor Gajosinskas, Nicolas Gallagher, Miguel Garcia, Rafael Garcia Lepper, Larry Garfield, Peter Gasston, George GeorgeHaeger, David Goss, Chris Grant, Petra Gregorova, Ilya Grigorik, Jason Grigsby, Aaron Grogg, Antoine Guergnon, Jeff Guntle, Aaron Gustafson, Jason Haag, Jordan Haines, Cristina Hanes, Patrick Haney, Anselm Hannemann, chris hardy, Vincent Hardy, Bridget Harrison, Duncan Hawthorne, Dominique Hazaël-Massieux, Chris Hilditch, Jon Hill, Nathan Hinshaw, Sean Hintz, John Holt Ripley, Enrico Hösel, Peter Hrynkow, Kym Huang, Shane Hudson, Vinicius Ianni, Tomomi Imura, Philip Ingrey, Bryn Jackson, Rihnna Jakosalem, Brett Jankord, Scott Jehl, Dave Johnson, Nathanael Jones, Danny Jongerius, Michael Jovel, Chao Ju, Tim Kadlec, Raj Kaimal, Kevin Joe Kanger, Frédéric Kayser, Serge K. Keller, Arthur Khachatryan, Jin Kim, Andreas Klein, Peter Klein, John Kleinschmidt, Daniel Konopacki, Darius Kruythoff, Zoran Kurtin, Vitaliy Kuzmin, Gerardo Lagger, Adam Lake, Chris Lamothe, Tom Lane, Matthieu Larcher, Christopher Latham, Bruce Lawson, Zach Leatherman, Silas Lepcha, Kornel Lesinski, Chris Lilley, grappler login, william lombardo, Tania Lopes, Amie Lucas, André Luís, Jacine Luisi, David Maciejewski, Kevin Mack, Ethan Malasky, Josh Marinacci, Eduardo Marques, Mathew Marquis, Daniel Martínez, Tom Maslen, Jacob Mather, Chris McAndrew, Mark McDonnell, Andre Jay Meissner, Benjamin Melançon, Julian Mendl, Rick Messer, Zane Milakovic, Denys Mishunov, Sabine Moebs, Ian Moffitt, Orestis Molopodis, jason morita, David Moulton, Bobby Mozumder, Brian Muenzenmeyer, Emi Myoudou, Irakli Nadareishvili, Giorgio Natili, Jonathan Neal, Christian Neuberger Jr, David Newton, Todd Nienkerk, Ashley Nolan, Johnna Nonboe, Kenneth Nordahl, Mark Nottingham, Lewis Nyman, Darrel O'Pry, Alejandro Oviedo, David Owens, Paddy O’Hanlon, Isabel Palomar, suzanne peter, Hassadee Pimsuwan, Guy Podjarny, Andreas Pollak, gentian polovina, Dave Poole, Florent Preynat, Manik Rathee, François REMY, Venkatesh Rengasamy, Jen Reynolds, Ricardo Andrade Belo Ricardo Belo, Michael Riethmuller, Carlo Rizzante, John Rodler, César Rodríguez, Nestor Rojas, Adrian Roselli, David Rupert, Chris Ruppel, Oguzcan Sahin, Viljami Salminen, Luca Salvini, Ana Sampaio, Luke Sands, crazyrohila sanjay, aron santa, Osny Santos, Jad Sarout, Brandon Satrom, Jeroen Savat, Stéphane Savona, Christoph Saxe, Doug Schepers, Jason Schmidt, Christopher Schmitt, Joe Schmitt, Greg Schumacher, Boaz Sender, SHAHINA SHEIK, Tomoyuki Shimizu, Ariel Shkedi, Abdul Wahid Sial, Pandapotan Silaban, Mauricio Silva Teixeira de Nobrega, Jen Simmons, Michael Singleterry, Katerina Skotalova, David Sleight, Michael[tm] Smith, Nick Snyder, Ignacio Soriano Cano, Steve Souders, Brenden Sparks, Aaron Staker, Aaron Stanush, Walter Stevenson, Bridget Stewart, Jared Stilwell, Matt Stow, Shari Sullivan, Kevin Suttle, Patrick Szalapski, Satoru Takagi, Rob Tarr, Philipp Tautz, Nguyen Thao Thao, Edward Thurgood, Anthony Ticknor, Erek Tinker, Sebastián Tromer, Tsvetan Tsvetkov, Yusuke Uchida, Mads Ulsø Østergaard, Katarina Ur, Adam van den Hoven, Jacob van Zijp, Lucas Vilaboim, Jitendra Vyas, Amy W, Tady Walsh, Yoav Weiss, George White, Michael Whittet, Matt Wilcox, Richard Wild, John Albin Wilkins, Chris Williams, Rory Wilson, Owen Winkler, Robin Winslow, Cyril Wolfangel, Mike Woodard, Jeremy Worboys, Mike Wu, Bruce Zawalsky, Carlos Zepeda, and jintian zheng.

A complete list of participants of the Responsive Images Community Group is available at the W3C Community Group Website.