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  1. 3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents
    1. 3.1 Documents
      1. 3.1.1 The Document object
      2. 3.1.2 Security
      3. 3.1.3 Resource metadata management
      4. 3.1.4 DOM tree accessors

3 Semantics, structure, and APIs of HTML documents

3.1 Documents

Every XML and HTML document in an HTML UA is represented by a Document object. [DOMCORE]

The document's address is an absolute URL that is initially set when the Document is created but that can change during the lifetime of the Document, for example when the user navigates to a fragment identifier on the page or when the pushState() method is called with a new URL.

Interactive user agents typically expose the document's address in their user interface. This is the primary mechanism by which a user can tell if a site is attempting to impersonate another.

When a Document is created by a script using the createDocument() or createHTMLDocument() APIs, the document's address is the same as the document's address of the script's document, and the Document is both ready for post-load tasks and completely loaded immediately.

Each Document object has a reload override flag that is originally unset. The flag is set by the document.open() and document.write() methods in certain situations. When the flag is set, the Document also has a reload override buffer which is a Unicode string that is used as the source of the document when it is reloaded.

When the user agent is to perform an overridden reload, it must act as follows:

  1. Let source be the value of the browsing context's active document's reload override buffer.

  2. Navigate the browsing context to a resource whose source is source, with replacement enabled. When the navigate algorithm creates a Document object for this purpose, set that Document's reload override flag and set its reload override buffer to source.

3.1.1 The Document object

The DOM Core specification defines a Document interface, which this specification extends significantly:

partial interface Document {
  // resource metadata management
  [PutForwards=href] readonly attribute Location? location;
           attribute DOMString domain;
  readonly attribute DOMString referrer;
           attribute DOMString cookie;
  readonly attribute DOMString lastModified;
  readonly attribute DOMString readyState;

  // DOM tree accessors
  getter object (DOMString name);
           attribute DOMString title;
           attribute DOMString dir;
           attribute HTMLElement? body;
  readonly attribute HTMLHeadElement? head;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection images;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection embeds;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection plugins;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection links;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection forms;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection scripts;
  NodeList getElementsByName(DOMString elementName);

  // dynamic markup insertion
  Document open(optional DOMString type, optional DOMString replace);
  WindowProxy open(DOMString url, DOMString name, DOMString features, optional boolean replace);
  void close();
  void write(DOMString... text);
  void writeln(DOMString... text);

  // user interaction
  readonly attribute WindowProxy? defaultView;
  readonly attribute Element? activeElement;
  boolean hasFocus();
           attribute DOMString designMode;
  boolean execCommand(DOMString commandId);
  boolean execCommand(DOMString commandId, boolean showUI);
  boolean execCommand(DOMString commandId, boolean showUI, DOMString value);
  boolean queryCommandEnabled(DOMString commandId);
  boolean queryCommandIndeterm(DOMString commandId);
  boolean queryCommandState(DOMString commandId);
  boolean queryCommandSupported(DOMString commandId);
  DOMString queryCommandValue(DOMString commandId);
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection commands;

  // event handler IDL attributes
           attribute EventHandler onabort;
           attribute EventHandler onblur;
           attribute EventHandler oncancel;
           attribute EventHandler oncanplay;
           attribute EventHandler oncanplaythrough;
           attribute EventHandler onchange;
           attribute EventHandler onclick;
           attribute EventHandler onclose;
           attribute EventHandler oncontextmenu;
           attribute EventHandler oncuechange;
           attribute EventHandler ondblclick;
           attribute EventHandler ondrag;
           attribute EventHandler ondragend;
           attribute EventHandler ondragenter;
           attribute EventHandler ondragleave;
           attribute EventHandler ondragover;
           attribute EventHandler ondragstart;
           attribute EventHandler ondrop;
           attribute EventHandler ondurationchange;
           attribute EventHandler onemptied;
           attribute EventHandler onended;
           attribute OnErrorEventHandler onerror;
           attribute EventHandler onfocus;
           attribute EventHandler oninput;
           attribute EventHandler oninvalid;
           attribute EventHandler onkeydown;
           attribute EventHandler onkeypress;
           attribute EventHandler onkeyup;
           attribute EventHandler onload;
           attribute EventHandler onloadeddata;
           attribute EventHandler onloadedmetadata;
           attribute EventHandler onloadstart;
           attribute EventHandler onmousedown;
           attribute EventHandler onmousemove;
           attribute EventHandler onmouseout;
           attribute EventHandler onmouseover;
           attribute EventHandler onmouseup;
           attribute EventHandler onmousewheel;
           attribute EventHandler onpause;
           attribute EventHandler onplay;
           attribute EventHandler onplaying;
           attribute EventHandler onprogress;
           attribute EventHandler onratechange;
           attribute EventHandler onreset;
           attribute EventHandler onscroll;
           attribute EventHandler onseeked;
           attribute EventHandler onseeking;
           attribute EventHandler onselect;
           attribute EventHandler onshow;
           attribute EventHandler onstalled;
           attribute EventHandler onsubmit;
           attribute EventHandler onsuspend;
           attribute EventHandler ontimeupdate;
           attribute EventHandler onvolumechange;
           attribute EventHandler onwaiting;

  // special event handler IDL attributes that only apply to Document objects
  [LenientThis] attribute EventHandler onreadystatechange;

3.1.2 Security

User agents throw a SecurityError exception whenever any properties of a Document object are accessed by scripts whose effective script origin is not the same as the Document's effective script origin.

3.1.3 Resource metadata management

document . referrer

Returns the address of the Document from which the user navigated to this one, unless it was blocked or there was no such document, in which case it returns the empty string.

The noreferrer link type can be used to block the referrer.

In the case of HTTP, the referrer IDL attribute will match the Referer (sic) header that was sent when fetching the current page.

Typically user agents are configured to not report referrers in the case where the referrer uses an encrypted protocol and the current page does not (e.g. when navigating from an https: page to an http: page).

document . cookie [ = value ]

Returns the HTTP cookies that apply to the Document. If there are no cookies or cookies can't be applied to this resource, the empty string will be returned.

Can be set, to add a new cookie to the element's set of HTTP cookies.

If the contents are sandboxed into a unique origin (e.g. in an iframe with the sandbox attribute), a SecurityError exception will be thrown on getting and setting.

document . lastModified

Returns the date of the last modification to the document, as reported by the server, in the form "MM/DD/YYYY hh:mm:ss", in the user's local time zone.

If the last modification date is not known, the current time is returned instead.

document . readyState

Returns "loading" while the Document is loading, "interactive" once it is finished parsing but still loading sub-resources, and "complete" once it has loaded.

The readystatechange event fires on the Document object when this value changes.

3.1.4 DOM tree accessors

The html element of a document is the document's root element, if there is one and it's an html element, or null otherwise.

document . head

Returns the head element.

The head element of a document is the first head element that is a child of the html element, if there is one, or null otherwise.

document . title [ = value ]

Returns the document's title, as given by the title element.

Can be set, to update the document's title. If there is no head element, the new value is ignored.

In SVG documents, the SVGDocument interface's title attribute takes precedence.

The title element of a document is the first title element in the document (in tree order), if there is one, or null otherwise.

document . body [ = value ]

Returns the body element.

Can be set, to replace the body element.

If the new value is not a body or frameset element, this will throw a HierarchyRequestError exception.

The body element of a document is the first child of the html element that is either a body element or a frameset element. If there is no such element, it is null.

document . images

Returns an HTMLCollection of the img elements in the Document.

document . embeds
document . plugins

Return an HTMLCollection of the embed elements in the Document.

document . links

Returns an HTMLCollection of the a and area elements in the Document that have href attributes.

document . forms

Return an HTMLCollection of the form elements in the Document.

document . scripts

Return an HTMLCollection of the script elements in the Document.

collection = document . getElementsByName(name)

Returns a NodeList of elements in the Document that have a name attribute with the value name.

The dir attribute on the Document interface is defined along with the dir content attribute.