XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)

A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0

W3C Recommendation 26 January 2000, revised 1 August 2002
superseded 27 March 2018

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See acknowledgments.

Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. See also translations.

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: Multi-part XHTML file, PostScript version, PDF version, ZIP archive, and Gzip'd TAR archive.


This specification defines the Second Edition of XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the foundation for future extensibility of XHTML. Compatibility with existing HTML user agents is possible by following a small set of guidelines.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. The latest status of this document series is maintained at the W3C.

This specification is a Superseded Recommendation. A newer specification exists that is recommended for new adoption in place of this specification. New implementations should follow the latest version of the HTML specification.

This document is the second edition of the XHTML 1.0 specification incorporating the errata changes as of 1 August 2002. Changes between this version and the previous Recommendation are illustrated in a diff-marked version.

This second edition is not a new version of XHTML 1.0 (first published 26 January 2000). The changes in this document reflect corrections applied as a result of comments submitted by the community and as a result of ongoing work within the HTML Working Group. There are no substantive changes in this document - only the integration of various errata.

This document has been produced as part of the W3C HTML Activity.

At the time of publication, the working group believed there were zero patent disclosures relevant to this specification. A current list of patent disclosures relevant to this specification may be found on the Working Group's patent disclosure page.

A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents can be found at https://www.w3.org/TR/.

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