This document summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in the Chinese layout requirements, another one is to provide satisfactory equivalent to the current standards (i.e. Unicode), also to promote vendors to implement those relevant features correctly.
This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at https://www.w3.org/TR/.
If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please raise them as github issues. Only send comments by email if you are unable to raise issues on github (see links below). All comments are welcome.
To make it easier to track comments, please raise separate issues or emails for each comment, and point to the section you are commenting on using a URL for the dated version of the document.
Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.
1.1 Basic Features of Chinese Script中文排版的主要特色中文排版的主要特色
Chinese composition exhibits several differences from other writing systems. The major features include:
There are two written scripts in Chinese, using traditional and simplified characters. Apart from the differences between glyphs and strokes, the composition rules can be different as well.
There are two writing modes: vertical and horizontal. The former is often seen in Traditional Chinese publications.
In principal, the characters, including Chinese (hanzi) characters and punctuation, used in Chinese composition are squares with the ratio of 1:1, and are seamlessly arranged with one another.
1.2 Purpose of this document目的本文書之目的
Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. The transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.
As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document summarizes the text composition requirements in the Chinese writing system. One of the goals of the task force is to describe the issues in Chinese layout requirements, another is to provide satisfactory equivalents to the current standards (i.e. Unicode), and another is to prompt vendors to implement those relevant features correctly.
1.3.1 Languages Used in this Document本文档所使用的中文语言本文档所使用的中文语言
This document was developed by people working in both Simplified and Traditional Chinese. We very much appreciate the contributions of the editors and collaborators from different linguistic backgrounds, and their willingness to collaborate across linguistic boundaries. In this early version of the Working Draft, the version of the script used for the Chinese text depends on the person who contributed the text. We expect to create separate translations of the Chinese text in future versions of this document, but at this early stage the original contributions are kept as is to enable rapid development of the text.
It describes presentational results and considers these results as issues and requirements for Chinese text layout. Meanwhile, it offers principles or methods for for handling these issues, without describing particular technological solutions.
It suggests solutions for, or explains, present-day issues that people face in Chinese composition.
It provides typical instances of Chinese composition and their actual use cases as much as possible.
In consideration of non-Chinese readers of this document, figures are used for explanation wherever possible.
It mainly explains modern Chinese publications. Looking back to the publications in the time of movable type, there may be some differences, but they are still considered part of Chinese composition. The document does not yet fully cover ancient books. Future editions may be revised with such features in mind.
For non-Chinese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome of any accurate research, but arise from the long experience of the authors. Non-Chinese readers should understand that they are intuitive for ordinary Chinese readers. These frequencies provide only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues.
The main target of this document is common books. Other publications, such as magazines or newspapers, are also included.
2. Basics of Chinese Composition中文排版基础中文排版基礎
2.1 Characters and Principles for Setting them in Chinese Composition中文排版所使用的文字和基本原则中文排版所使用的文字和基本原则
2.1.1 Characters used for Chinese composition中文排版所使用的文字中文排版所使用的文字
The majority of the text used in Chinese composition consists of Han characters (hanzi).
Chinese characters include Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese alternatives. The former, which is also known as Upright Characters or Traditional Han, is commonly used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao while the latter is commonly used in Mainland China, Singapore and Malaysia. In this document, the number of strokes and the compositional nature of a character are considered to be the major differences between Simplified Chinese characters and Traditional Chinese characters.
Different glyphs are used in different regions. One unicode code point does not match just one glyph, but rather depends on the operating system and fonts. The focus of this document is Chinese composition and we will not discuss glyph variations.
In addition to the Chinese (hanzi) characters, various punctuation marks, as well as Western characters such as European numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters, may be used in Chinese text.
One Simplified Chinese character may have more than one corresponding Traditional form. For example, the Simplified Chinese character 发 can be matched to either the Traditional Chinese character 發 or 髮. By contrast, the circumstances where one Traditional Chinese character corresponds to more than one Simplified Chinese character are rare, but still need attention. For example, the Traditional Chinese character 乾 may be matched to either the Simplified Chinese character 干 or 乾. The relationships between Traditional and Simplified characters depend on their particular context.
Chinese characters have square character frames of equal dimensions. Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the character frame, there is a smaller box called the letter face, which contains the actual symbol. (There should be some space left between the letter face and the frame). Most of the punctuation marks for Chinese characters share the same size as the other characters, however some of them differ, such as the ellipsis, which is one-character high and two-characters wide.
Character size is measured by the size of the character frame. Character advance is a term used to describe the advance width of the character frame of a character, which should be the same as the width of the character.
2.1.3 Principles for Arranging Characters during Chinese Composition汉字的配置原则漢字的配置原則
In principle, when composing a line with Chinese characters, no extra space appears between their character frames. This is called solid setting.
Unlike the letterpress printing era, when several sizes of the original pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, in today's digital era the same original pattern is used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust the inter-character space when composing lines at large character sizes. When composing lines at small character sizes in outline fonts, hinting data is used to ensure that the width of the strokes that make up a character look correct. When only a small portion of the fonts are smaller, they will be displayed as bitmaps, and there is no need to make extra adjustments.
Depending on the context, in addition to solid setting several alternative setting methods can be used, as described below.
220.127.116.11 Increased inter-character spacing增加字距增加字距
It is common in books to increase the space between each character frame (i.e. loose setting) for the following cases:
To achieve a balance between running heads with different numbers of characters, increased inter-character spacing is used for running heads with few characters.
For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters, increased inter-character spacing is used to balance with the size of an illustration or table.
In some cases, increased inter-character spacing is used for poetry where one line has only a few characters, so as to maintain the balance of the layout.
For publications whose main audience is children, inter-character spacing is increased to make it easier for the children to read.
18.104.22.168 Even inter-character spacing平均排列平均排列
Text may be set with equal inter-character spacing between all characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end. Since the Chinese characters and punctuation marks are all in square shapes with almost the same dimensions, it is natural that each line is aligned to the same line head and line end. Even inter-character spacing is mainly used in the following cases:
To deal with rules that forbid certain characters at the beginning or end of a line. When a punctuation mark which is not supposed to be positioned at the end of a line happens to appear there, even inter-character space setting is used to move the character before the punctuation mark to the next line together with the punctuation mark. When a punctuation mark which is not supposed to be positioned at the beginning of a line happens to appear there it is necessary to move the last character from the previous line to the beginning of the next line, and there will be one or two (or sometimes more) empty spaces left in the previous line. Even inter-character space setting is used to unify the length of each line and justify them.
Even inter-character space setting is used when the number of characters in a table head differs from the table content, such as for person names, so as to justify the table.
22.214.171.124 Reduced inter-character spacing减少字距減少字距
By reducing the inter-character spacing, a portion of two character frames overlap each other (i.e. solid setting). This method is mainly used in the following cases:
For characters in headings in magazines or advertisements, reduced inter-character spacing can be used to keep the characters on one line, or it can also be used to achieve a special effect for presentation.
Since Chinese characters are all square-shaped, this method does not apply to headings and content in books produced by letterpress printing.
2.2 Typefaces for Chinese Characters中文排版常用字体中文排版常用字體
2.2.1 Four Frequently-used Typefaces for Chinese Characters中文排版经常使用的四种字体中文排版經常使用的四種字體
There are four main typefaces in use for Chinese characters:
Fangsong (Imitation Song)仿宋体仿宋體
The following sections describe common practice and contexts for use of these four typefaces.
Song, also known as Songti or Ming, is currently the most common style of type in print for Chinese.
Song is commonly used in text, headings and annotations. When used in headings, the characters will appear in a bold face, so as to distinguish the heading from the text.
Kai also known as Kaiti or regular script, is another of the major typefaces, and provides calligraphic styles for Chinese characters. It is also the most easily and widely recognized style and shows notable handwriting features.
Kai is mainly used in text that needs to be differentiated from the rest of the content, for example, headlines, references, quotations, and dialogs. It is rarely used for emphasis, because of its similarity with Song.
Since Kai retains some calligraphic features, it is widely used in office documents and textbooks.
Hei, also known as Heiti or Gothic, is a type style characterized by strokes of even thickness, reduced curves, and a lack of decoration. It is commonly used in headlines, signs, and personal names in dialogs. In body text, characters in Hei style with thicker strokes typically indicate emphasis.
Traditional publications rarely apply the Hei style for content, but with the growing influence of the World Wide Web and the digital publishing industry, some publications are starting to experiment Hei in this context.
The type area, sometimes called the printing area, is designed in the following sequence. There is no actual definition of what the type area is. I suggest we change the foregoing to something like: The type area, sometimes called the printing area, is the rectangle in the middle of the page that contains the main body of the text. It is surrounded by space containing headers, footers, notes, etc.
First, prepare a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of document pages.
Then, specify the details of actual page elements based on the template.
Books usually use one basic template for page format, whereas magazines often use several templates.
Although in books, there tends to be one template for the page format, some further design effort based around the basic page format will be needed for pages such as the table of contents and indexes. Furthermore, there are many examples of indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and vertically set books often have indexes in horizontal writing mode, and sometimes multiple columns. However, while doing actual design for the page, the size of the type area should not exceed the basic page template. (some doubts about the translation of 版面 here).
Magazines usually contain various kinds of content, which naturally leads to various designs of templates, different sizes of characters, and varying numbers of columns.
2.3.1 Basic Elements of Page Format基础版式设计的主要元素基礎排版體裁的主要元素
The following are the basic elements of a page format.
Trim size and binding side (vertically set Chinese documents are bound on the right-hand side, and horizontally set documents are bound on the left-hand side.)
Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).
Appearance of the type area and its position relative to the trim size.
Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and type area.
Establishing a type area may be seen as defining not only a rectangular area on a page, but also within that area an underlying, logical grid, to guide the placement of such things as characters, headings, and illustrations. Once the grid is established according to the principles of composition, the setting of the characters must align with the grid. If the content contains Chinese characters only, it is an important principle that the first and last characters on a line should align with the border of the type area. When both Chinese characters and Western text are mixed in the content, or forbidden locations of punctuation marks need to be taken into consideration, the setting of the content may not align with the grid.
The type area defines the basic printing style of a book. The following are the basic elements of the type area.
Character size and typeface name
Text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode)
Number of columns and column gap when using multi-column format
Length of a line
Number of lines per page (number of lines per column when using multi-column format)
2.3.3 Type Area and Real Page Format以版心作为实际页面的排版体裁以版心作為實際頁面的排版體裁
This section explains how to create a real page format based on the type area.
Realm and position of headings: The direction and size of the characters of the heading should be based on a number of lines in the type area. The size of the indent is usually specified as a number of characters in the type area.
Size of illustrations: In horizontal writing mode, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be the width of the type area; in horizontal writing mode with multiple columns, the width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be the width of one type area column. The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page. Likewise, in vertical writing mode, the height of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the height of one type area column or the height of the type area. The illustrations are usually set at the right side or left side of the type area.
Page for Table of Contents, Indexes and References: The size of the type area for the table of contents, indexes and references of books is based on the size of the type area for the main body content. There are many examples of tables of contents in vertical writing mode where the left-to-right size is identical to that of the type area, but the top-to-bottom size is a little bit smaller.
2.3.4 Procedure for Defining the Type Area设计版心的顺序設計版心的順序
Specifying the dimensions of the type area
For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per page, and the line gap.
For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the line length (the number of characters per line), the number of lines per column, the line-gap, the number of columns and the column gap.
Determining the position of the type area relative to the trim size. There are various alternative methods for specifying the position of the type area relative to the trim size:
Set the type area at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size.
Position vertically by specifying the size of the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the type area.
Position vertically by centering the type area. Position horizontally by specifying the size of the space for the gutter.
Position vertically by specifying the space at the head (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the foot (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the size of the space for the gutter.
In most cases the type area is set at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size, and then it can be adjusted depending on its dimensions. This design method is mainly inherited from the letter press printing technology. For desktop publishing, the dimensions of the type area are usually calculated based on the space between the type area and the trim size.
2.3.5 Considerations when Designing the Type Area设计版心的注意事项設計版心的注意點
The following are considerations that need to be taken into account when designing the type area:
When deciding the dimensions of the type area, it is necessary to consider both the trim size and the margin. Generally speaking, the shape of the type area could be made similar to that of the trim size.
Character size. For the main target audience of publications, i.e. the adult population, most commonly the character size is 10.5pt (≒3.7mm) or 9pt (≒3.2mm). The minimum acceptable size of type is 8pt (≒2.8mm), except for specialized publications.
There are two traditional size systems for Chinese characters, and old one and a new one. The following shows the equivalence in the Western point system. In the Old size system, Size 0 = 42pt, Size 1 = 27.5pt, Size 2 = 21pt, Size 3 = 15.75pt, Size 4 = 13.75pt, Size 5 = 10.5pt, Size 6 = 7.875pt, and Size 7 = 5.25pt; in the new size system, New Size 0 = 36pt, New Size 1 = 24pt, New Size 2 = 18pt, New Size 3 = 16pt, New Size 4 = 12pt, New Size 5 is 9pt.
Size 5 is usually used for text content. Newspapers and magazines use both Size 5 and New Size 5. The acceptable minimal size for the text in content is Size 6 (7.875pt≒2.8mm). If a smaller size is used, it will be difficult to read due to the complex structure of the Chinese characters.
Line length should be multiples of the character size and each line should be in alignment with each other.
For Chinese composition without intermixed Western scripts, the characters all have a square-shaped frame, so all line lengths except that of the last line of the paragraph should, in principle, be the same.
The line gaps between each line should be the same throughout the book, except for special cases. It would probably help, at this point, to define what the line gap is, since it initially sounds like the same thing as line height. What are the reference points for measuring the line gap?
In Traditional Chinese composition, there are cases where pronunciation marks, referred to as 'ruby' in the Japanese Layout Requirements, are inserted between lines. In such cases the line gap is not changed but is kept constant . If these elements are likely to occur in text, the line gap established during the type area design needs to be of an adequate size to accommodate them.
The line gap for the type area is commonly set to a value between 50% and 100% of the height of the character frame used for the type area. A shorter line gap can be chosen in cases where the line length is short or the character size of the type area is relatively small. On the other hand, the line gap usually does not exceed the character size. Increasing the line gap beyond the character size does not improve the reading experience.
There is another method of specifying the type area that uses line height rather than line gaps. Line height is the distance between two adjacent lines measured from their reference points. The reference point differs from implementation to implementation, however, in vertical writing mode the horizontal center of the character frame is usually used, and with horizontal writing mode, the vertical center of the character frame is used. When the character size is the same for every character, the following calculation is used:
line height = character size / 2 + line gap + character size / 2 = character size + line gap
line gap = line height - character size
2.4 Writing Modes文字书写方向文字書寫方向
2.4.1 Writing Modes in Chinese中文的文字书写方向中文的文字書寫方向
Chinese composition has two text directions, vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. Traditional Chinese can be composed both in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, while Simplified Chinese is mostly composed in horizontal writing mode. There are rare cases where Simplified Chinese is composed in vertical writing mode.
Ever since the letter-press printing period, the characters and punctuation marks used for Chinese composition have basically been designed to have a square character frame. Thus the same collection of printing types can be used in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, simply by changing the direction of text. However, some adjustments will be needed for the punctuation marks so as to match the writing direction of the characters and their composition. This is described in more detail in 3.1Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks
Traditionally, Chinese publications were composed mainly in vertical writing mode, and this tradition has been largely preserved in the regions using Traditional Chinese. However, with the increasing amount of translated publications and mixed-text publications, and the default mode of writing modes in the character processing software, horizontal writing mode is becoming more and more popular. In the Taiwan area, government departments, educational materials and books of natural science mainly use horizontal writing mode while literary works such as poetry and novels still use vertical writing mode. Vertical writing mode still stands as an important cultural characteristic of regions where Traditional Chinese is used.
There is usually only one direction for all text throughout a book, but there are cases where horizontal writing mode is used in certain parts of vertically composed books. Tables, captions for illustrations, running heads, and page numbers are usually composed horizontally in a page with a vertical writing mode.
2.4.2 Major Differences Between Horizontal and Vertical Writing Modes横排与直排的主要差异点橫排與直排的主要差異點
The following are major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode:
Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.
Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.
Columns are arranged horizontally from top to bottom.
A book starts with the left (recto) side and progresses from right to left.
Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.
Traditional Chinese mainly uses vertical writing mode. When characters need to be composed horizontally, each line will contain one character and lines will be arranged from right to left, and no columns will be applied. As a special case for vertical writing mode, this can be seen in stone inscriptions and headings in newspapers and magazines, but now it has been replaced by horizontal writing mode arranged from left to right.
Columns are arranged vertically from left to right.
A book starts with the right (recto) side and progresses from left to right.
Orientation of Western Text and Latin alphanumeric characters in a line.
In vertical writing mode, there are 3 methods for arranging Western text and Latin alphanumeric characters:
One by one, with the same normal orientation as that of the other characters. This is usually applied to one-letter alphanumerics or capitalized abbreviations.
Western text or alphanumeric characters used for this arrangement should have the same fixed size and width as the Chinese characters, rather than using the proportional width.
Rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This is usually applied to English words or sentences.
Set horizontally without changing orientation. This is usually applied to two-digit numbers or numbers with more than two digits.
In principle, if numbers are arranged horizontally in a vertical writing mode, the width of the numbers should not exceed one character width. This rule originated in the letterpress printing era due to the fixed width of each line. Therefore, in vertical writing mode, Western text and alphanumeric characters are not limited to two digits, but the width should not exceed one character width. Some commonly seen examples include "3.0", "A+" and "2B".
In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, i.e. the normal orientation.
Arrangement of tables and/or illustrations.
In vertical writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the right of the page but list the headers on the right side.
In horizontal writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the left of the page but list the headers on the left side.
Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break, or other reason.
In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends. The number of lines in each column is not uniform.
In horizontal writing mode, re-arrange columns so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines.
For most publications in Chinese, no columns are arranged either in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode. This arrangement, referring to the Japanese composition method, is more for books with translated content.
3.1 Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks标点符号与其排版標點符號與其排版
The usage of Chinese punctuation marks differs across different regions in China. One of the major differences is their behavior for composition. Punctuation marks in Traditional Chinese are usually positioned center-aligned with adjacent Han characters, while punctuation marks in Simplified Chinese should be aligned with the character they follow, and this alignment varies according to whether the composition uses vertical or horizontal writing mode. The differences of composition for punctuation in Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese, as well as the correct way to position them, will be introduced in more detail later.
There are differences between the punctuation marks used in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam, but Unicode does not distinguish them using different codes. A number of punctuation marks are shared among Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese and Japanese. Usually the font used for the Han characters will determine the style of the punctuation marks, or they will be adjusted by the composition engine automatically.
The content of the following section is mainly based on the content of General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) issued in Mainland China, as well as the Punctuation Guidance (2008 revised edition) issued by The Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The former is a recommended national standard while the latter is not mandatory for general publications but mainly used to regulate education materials like textbooks.
3.1.1 Categories and Usage of Punctuation Marks标点符号的分类及用法標點符號的分類及用法
126.96.36.199 Pause or Stop Punctuation Marks點號点号
Pause or stop punctuation marks are used to indicate pauses or the end of a sentence. Some of the pause or stop punctuation marks appear within a sentence, such as the slight-pause comma, comma, semicolon, colon, etc., while others appear at the end of a sentence, such as period, question mark and exclamation mark.
Ideographic full stops, fullwidth commas and ideographic comma.
U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。] is the punctuation mark placed at the end of a sentence. U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，] is mainly used for separating parts of a sentence such as clauses, and items in lists, particularly when there are three or more items listed. U+3001 IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA [、] (slight-pause comma) is usually used to separate items in lists, as a way to show sequence.
In many college books, science and technology literature, and grammar books of Western languages, most of which are in horizontal writing mode, Western language text is heavily used. In this case, U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．] can be used as period, while U+002C COMMA [,] or U+FF0C FULLWIDTH COMMA [，] can be used as comma and slight-pause comma.
U+FF1A FULLWIDTH COLON [：] consists of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. It is used to start an enumeration. U+FF1B FULLWIDTH SEMICOLON [；] is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction.
Fullwidth Exclamation Mark and Fullwidth Question Mark.
U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！] is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), and often marks the end of a sentence. U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？] casually known as the interrogation point, query, or eroteme, is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause, or phrase in many languages. The question mark is not used for indirect questions.
惊叹号 U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！]与问号 U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？]，用于句末，前者表示惊讶，后者表示质疑。
驚嘆號U+FF01 FULLWIDTH EXCLAMATION MARK [！]與問號U+FF1F FULLWIDTH QUESTION MARK [？]。驚嘆號及問號用於句末，前者表示驚訝，後者表示質疑。
188.8.131.52 Indicator Punctuation Marks标号標號
In contrast with pause or stop punctuation marks, indicator punctuation marks usually indicate a specific feature of the phrase or sentence. They include brackets, parentheses, em dashes, horizontal ellipsis, black circles or bullets, tildes, middle dots, angle brackets, low lines, and solidus.
Quotation marks, usually used in pairs, are commonly used to emphasize certain characters or words, or to indicate the beginning and ending of the dialog or quoted content. If there is a need to use a bracket within a pair of brackets, the shape of the inner quotation marks will differ from the parenting quotation marks. Quotation marks are a kind of bracket.
When there is a need for quotation marks, Traditional Chinese will apply single quotation marks first and then double quotation marks. Single quotation marks include U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「] and U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]; double quotation marks include U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『] and U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』].
繁体中文采用先单、后双的引号体例。单引号，包含开始单直角引号U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]与结束单直角引号 U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」];双引号，包含开始双 直角引号 U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]与结束双直角引号 U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]。
繁體中文採用先單、後雙的引號體例。單引號，包含開始單直角引號U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]與結束單直角引號U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]；雙引號，包含開始雙直角引號U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]與結束雙直角引號U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]。
On the other hand, Simplified Chinese will apply double quotation marks first and then single quotation marks. For Simplified Chinese, double quotation marks include U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“], U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『], U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”], U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]; the single quotation marks include U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [‘], U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「], U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’] and U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」].
简体中文采用先双、后单的引号体例，弯引号用于横排、直角引号用于直排。双引号，包含开始双弯引号 U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“]、开始双直角引号 U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]、结束双弯引号 U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”]、 结束双直角引号U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]；单引号，包含开始单弯引号 U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK[‘]、开始单直角引号 U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET[「]、 结束单弯引号 U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’]、结束单直角引号 U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]。
簡體中文採用先雙、後單的引號體例，彎引號用於橫排、直角引號用於直排。雙引號，包含開始雙彎引號U+201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [“]、開始雙直角引號U+300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [『]、結束雙彎引號U+201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK [”]、結束雙直角引號U+300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET [』]；單引號，包含開始單彎引號U+2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [‘]、開始單直角引號U+300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET [「]、結束單彎引號U+2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK [’]、結束單直角引號U+300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET [」]。
There are vertical blacket codepoints such like U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET in Unicode. But they are not suitable for author to use directly. They should be replaced by other mechanism.
万国码编码中有如U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET等直立的符号，但不适宜作者直接使用该符号，而是透过其他机制替代使用。
萬國碼編碼中有如U+FE41 PRESENTATION FORM FOR VERTICAL LEFT CORNER BRACKET等直立的符號，但不適宜作者直接使用該符號，而是透過其他機制替代使用。
Some publications in Traditional Chinese might also apply double quotation marks first and then single quotation marks.
Traditional Chinese might also use quotation marks, but it is hardly ever used in vertical writing mode.
Parentheses, also called simply brackets, round brackets, or curved brackets, contain material that serves to clarify, or is aside from the main point.
According to Punctuation Guidance (2008 revised edition) issued by The Ministry of Education in Taiwan, parentheses used in Chinese include U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（], U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）] and U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] or U+2014 EM DASH [—]. Either one two-em dash (U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]) or two consecutive em dashes can be used.
台湾教育部的《重订标点符号手册》(2008年修订版)称括号为夹注号，分甲式及乙式，甲式为 U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（ ]与 U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）]， 乙式则为一对各占两个汉字空间的 U+2014 EM DASH [—](或使用连续两个「——」)。括号 属于括注符号。
台灣教育部的《重訂標點符號手冊》（2008年修訂版）稱括號為夾注號，分甲式及乙式，甲式為U+FF08 FULLWIDTH LEFT PARENTHESIS [（]與U+FF09 FULLWIDTH RIGHT PARENTHESIS [）]，乙式則為一對各佔二個漢字空間的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]或U+2014 EM DASH [—]。括號屬於括注符號。
General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834–2011), the national standard issued by China Central Government, lists em dash as a kind of dash.
There are other brackets and quotation marks which include: U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【], U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】], U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖], U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗], left U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔], U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕], U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［], U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］], U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛], U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET [｝]. These brackets and quotation marks are rarely used in Chinese publications.
其它类括号则有：前方头括号 U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【]、后方头括号 U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】]、前空心方头括号 U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖]、后空心方头括号 U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗]、前六角括号 U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔]、后六角括号 U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕]、前方括号 U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［]、后方括号 U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］]、前花括号 U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛]、后花括号 U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET[｝]。
其餘括號類則有：前方头括号U+3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [【]、后方头括号U+3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET [】]、前空心方头括号U+3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〖]、后空心方头括号U+3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET [〗]、前六角括号U+3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〔]、后六角括号U+3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET [〕]、前方括号U+FF3B FULLWIDTH LEFT SQUARE BRACKET [［]、后方括号U+FF3D FULLWIDTH RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET [］]、前花括号U+FF5B FULLWIDTH LEFT CURLY BRACKET [｛]、后花括号U+FF5D FULLWIDTH RIGHT CURLY BRACKET [｝]。
U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] or U+2014 EM DASH [—] sometimes shows a continuation of tone or sound, an abrupt change in thought, or adding new content to the context. This punctuation takes one-character height and two-character width.
破折号表示语气或声音的延续、语意的转换或行文的补充。是占两个汉字空间的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]或U+2014 EM DASH [—]。
破折號表示語氣或聲音的延續、語意的轉換或行文的補充。為佔二個漢字空間的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺]或U+2014 EM DASH [—]。
In Chinese, the horizontal ellipsis usually consists of 3 dots, U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […], or 6 dots (in two groups of three dots, occupying the same horizontal space as two characters, i.e. "……"). They usually indicate an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text. Depending on their context and placement in a sentence, ellipses can also indicate an unfinished thought, a slight pause, or echoing voice.
Emphasis dots are symbols placed above or beneath characters to emphasize the text, strengthen the tone, or avoid ambiguity. For horizontal writing mode, the emphasis dots are placed under the characters, whereas in vertical writing mode, they are usually placed to the right side of the characters. Both U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●] or U+2022 BULLET [•] can work as emphasis dots.
着重号用于表示相应文本的强调、着重语气或避免歧义。其形态是标注在文字底端或顶端（横排多在下方〔底端〕、直排多在右侧〔顶端〕）的圆形中黑点，可以为 U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●]或 U+2022 BULLET [•]。
着重號用於表示相應文本的強調、着重語氣或避免歧義。其形態為標注於文字底端或頂端（橫排多在下方〔底端〕、直排多在右側〔頂端〕）的圓形中黑點，可以為U+25CF BLACK CIRCLE [●]或U+2022 BULLET [•]。
Punctuation Guidance (revised edition) issued by The Ministry of Education in Taiwan does not include this mark but it is still seen in some publications.
Connector marks are used to indicate the beginning and end of time or space, to indicate quantity, to express the name of a chemical compound, to label a table or illustration, to connect a house number in an address, for a phone number, to separate digits which indicate the year, month and date, or to connect compound nouns, for the romanization as well as the foreign text in the content.
The General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834—2011) does not state the corresponding Unicode code point for the three types of connector marks. However, we can make the deduction that the long connector mark [—] is U+2014 EM DASH [—] and the tilde [~] is U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～] . Since the short connector mark should take half the width of the long connector mark, it should be U+2013 EN DASH [–]. The actual length of these connector marks may depend on the writing system as well as the typeface.
《标点符号用法》(GB/T 15834—2011)中没有指定这三个符号的码位，但是基本上可以推断一字线是 U+2014 EM DASH [—]，浪纹线是 U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～]。但是对于短横线，该标准5.1.6节规定：短横线比汉字『一』略短，占半个字位置，因此可以是 U+2013 EN DASH [–]。这些连接号的实际长短根据所用处理系统和使用字体会有区别。
《标点符号用法》 （GB/T 15834—2011）中没有指定这三个符号的码位，但是基本上可以推断一字线是U+2014 EM DASH [—]，浪纹线是U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE [～]。但是对于「短横线」，该标准5.1.6節规定「横短线比汉字『一』略短，占半个字位置」，因此可以是U+2013 EN DASH [–]。这些连接号的实际长短根据所用处理系统和使用字體会有区别。
U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·], also known as interpoint, middot or centered dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically-centered dot, and is used to separate the first name and family name in names translated from a foreign language, or minority groups names. It is also used with double quotation marks to separate chapters, articles and volumes in publications.
The usage of middle dot differs between Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. In principle, the middle dot, either in vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, should have the same dimensions as a character; while in Simplified Chinese, the middle dot sometimes has half the width of a character when it is used to separate the month and the date, e.g. 9·11.
Due to the fact that BIG-5 Code does not give a detailed definition of the middle dot, sometimes U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．], U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧] and U+2022 BULLET [•] are used as replacement for the middle dot. U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・] is tightly connected to the JIS code system, it is not recommended to use this.
过去因大五码未有详细的语意定义，所以有时混用 U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]、U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧]、U+2022 BULLET [•]等字符作为间隔号的例子，建议使用U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·]。而 U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・]来自日文JIS编码，并非中文编码，不建议使用。
過去因大五碼未有詳細的語意定義，所以時有混用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]、U+2027 HYPHENATION POINT [‧]、U+2022 BULLET [•]等字元作為間隔號的例子，建議使用U+00B7 MIDDLE DOT [·]。而U+30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT [・]來自日文JIS編碼，並非中文編碼，不建議使用。
Book Title Mark.
The book title mark is used to indicate the names of works which usually include books, articles, songs, movies, files, calligraphy and paintings. Generally there are two types of book title marks, wavy low lines or angle brackets. U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [﹏] is positioned beneath the corresponding characters. When two works are listed next to each other, the wavy lines for each should be clearly separated. The angle bracket includes U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《], U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》], U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈] and U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉].The former pair is used for the names of books while the latter pair is used for the names of the articles.
根据台湾教育部的《重订标点符号手册》(2008 年修订版)，书名号分为甲式及乙式，甲式为波浪底线 U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [_]，标注在相应文本底端，两个作品名称相邻时， 甲式书名号间须在视觉上分离予以辨别。乙式有双书名号 U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《]与 U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》]、单书名号 U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈]与 U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉]，前者用于标示书名号、后者用于标示篇名。
根据台灣教育部的《重訂標點符號手冊》（2008年修訂版），書名號分為甲式及乙式，甲式為波浪底線U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE [﹏]，標注在相應文本底端，二個作品名稱相鄰時，甲式書名號間須在視覺上分離予以辨別。乙式有雙書名號U+300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [《]與U+300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET [》]、單書名號U+3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET [〈]與U+3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET [〉]，前者用於標示書名號、後者用於標示篇名。
When two book title marks are positioned next to each other, there should be a clear separation to indicate the difference names.
According to the General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834―2011), the names of books as well as chapters should be quoted using double angle brackets [《》]. When there is a need to indicate the name of another book within the double angle brackets [《》], the ordinary angle brackets [〈〉] should be used.
Punctuation marks used in Traditional Chinese are usually positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space left for them; while in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, some of the punctuation marks are positioned in different directions so as to mark the corresponding characters more accurately. For Simplified Chinese, the punctuation marks are usually positioned following the characters they are supposed to mark; while some punctuation marks might be positioned in different directions due to the vertical or horizontal writing mode. Also, different writing modes might require different punctuation marks to fulfill the same function, e.g. horizontal writing mode requires curved quotation marks while vertical writing mode requires angle brackets.
Pause or stop punctuation marks include the slight-pause comma, comma, semicolon, colon, period, question mark, exclamation mark, etc. In Traditional Chinese, they take the same dimensions as well as the direction as a character does. Traditional Chinese pause or stop punctuation marks are usually positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space left for them. In Simplified Chinese, they are positioned in the top or bottom side in the space left for them following the marked characters. In horizontal writing mode, the pause or stop punctuation marks are placed at the lower left corner in the square space while in vertical writing mode, they are placed in the right upper corner.
Brackets marks include quotation marks, parentheses, title marks, etc. They should be positioned in pairs at each side of the marked character and have the same dimensions as a character, and the same direction as the characters. Bracket quotation marks have different positioning rules in Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese. In Traditional Chinese, single quotation marks will be used first and then double quotation marks, whereas in Simplified Chinese, double quotation marks will be used first and then single quotation marks. Also, the writing mode should be taken into consideration too. Horizontal writing mode requires curved quotation marks while vertical writing mode requires angle brackets.
Ellipsis and long dash, in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space for them, should be one character in height and two-characters in width. They are not supposed to be separated from one line to the next and should be positioned in the same direction as the characters.
Dashes, with the same dimensions as one character, should be positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space for it. Among the dash marks, EN DASH should have a short length to make a clear distinction from the Chinese character [一], which means one. And they should be positioned in the same direction as the characters they mark.
Solidus, with the same dimensions and direction as the character it follows, should be positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space for it. To make a more economical use of the space, or to set the members or characters more solid, sometimes the solidus can have a half character width.
Inline marks like title marks, wavy low lines, and emphasis dots should be positioned underneath the marked characters in horizontal writing mode. In vertical writing mode, emphasis dots should be positioned to the right side of the marked characters so as not to affect the characters above and beneath them.
Solidus should be positioned in the vertical and horizontal center of the square space for it. In Simplified Chinese, it should take half a character width, whereas in Traditional Chinese, there is no clear rule about its dimension but most publications will give them the same dimensions as one character.
3.1.3 Atypical punctuation marks and their composition非典型的标点符号及其配置非典型的標點符號及其配置
184.108.40.206 Science and technology literature科技文献科技文獻
Science and technology literature prefers U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．] to U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。] so as to make a clear distinction from letter [o] or digit .
科技文献中的句号多使用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]替代U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。]，以避免同拉丁字母“o”或数字“0”混淆。
科技文獻中的「句號」多使用U+FF0E FULLWIDTH FULL STOP [．]替代U+3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP [。]，以避免同拉丁字母「o」或數字「0」混淆。
220.127.116.11 Special cases in Traditional Chinese publications繁体中文出版物的特殊情况繁體中文出版品的特殊情況
In Traditional Chinese publications such as ancient books, science and technology literatures, textbooks, or the books that have quotations in Western languages, some pause or stop punctuation marks, including slight-pause comma, colon and period, are positioned following the marked characters. The same applies for Simplified Chinese as well as Japanese so as to make the same style for the punctuation marks in both Chinese and Western languages.
3.1.4 Prohibition Rules for Line Start and Line End行首行尾禁则行首行尾禁則
In order to maintain a smooth reading experience and consistency of the style, there are certain constraints for the positioning of most punctuation marks. In most cases, according to its function, a punctuation mark is prohibited from appearing at the line start or line end. This rule was first implemented during the time of letterpress printing. In Mainland China, the national standard General Rules for Punctuation (GB/T 15834–2011) sets clear rules about the positioning of punctuation marks. In the regions that use Traditional Chinese, there is not yet a standard for the usage and positioning of punctuation marks, but most of the publications apply the rules described in this document.
In Traditional Chinese, there is no strict rule indicating that a punctuation mark must not appear at the line start. In the time of letterpress printing, there were quite a few publications which ignored the prohibition rules for punctuation marks.
In Traditional Chinese publications like newspapers and magazines, columns are often used in the layout, which leads to fewer characters in each line, and prohibition rules of punctuation marks are sometimes ignored under these circumstances.
In order to avoid a punctuation mark appearing at the line start, the last character from the previous line can be moved to the beginning of next line and the extra space left for the previous line should be divided and inserted equally between the characters of previous line. However, in the case where several punctuation marks appear together, for example [。』」], moving one character from previous line might cause too much space left between the characters. In this case, the punctuation marks might be allowed to appear at the line start so as to keep a reasonable space between characters in each line.
Pause or stop punctuation marks including slight-pause comma, comma, semicolon, colon, period, question mark, exclamation mark, as well as right quotation marks, right parentheses, right angle brackets, ellipsis, dash, etc, should not appear at the line start.
3.1.5 Prohibition Rules for Unbreakable Marks符号分离禁则符號分離禁則
18.104.22.168 Punctuation Marks标点符号標點符號
The following punctuation marks should be considered as one unit and take two-character widths. They should not be separated into two lines. In cases where multiples of these punctuation marks appear together, it is allowed to separate them into two lines as described in 3.2.4Handling Western Text in Chinese Text Using Proportional Western Fonts
西文使用比例字體時的混排處理. If they were forced to remain on one line, it might cause too much space between the characters in the previous line and decrease the aesthetics of the entire composition.
In the digital era, these punctuation marks usually take the width of 2 characters but are still considered as one unit.
Em dash and long dash.
U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] or U+2014 EM DASH [—] should take one-character height and two-character widths, and long dash [——] can be used created by using two adjacent em dashes.
乙式括号与破折号是占两个汉字空间的U+2014 EMDASH [—(]或使用连续两个「——」)。
乙式括號與破折號為佔二個漢字空間的U+2E3A TWO-EM DASH [⸺] 或U+2014 EM DASH [—]。
U+2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS […] takes one-character height and two-characters in width. Two horizontal ellipses can be used together 「……] .
22.214.171.124 Digits and their Prefix and Suffix数字及其相应的前后缀单位符号數字及其相應的前後綴單位符號
126.96.36.199 Annotation Marks注释符号注釋符號
3.1.6 Compression Rules for Punctuation Marks标点符号的挤压標點符號的擠壓
Punctuation marks in Chinese usually have the dimensions of one character (or more). This provides a clear distinction between characters and leaves some room for compositional adjustment. However, if there is no character before or after the punctuation mark(s), the empty space around the punctuation mark(s) will seem a bit abrupt. In this case, proper compression for the punctuation mark(s) will make the composition more tightly-knit and readable.
Usually there are two ways to compress punctuation mark(s). First, when multiple punctuation marks appear together, the space between the punctuation marks can be adjusted; second, when multiple punctuation marks appear at the line start or line end, the space at the line start or line end can be adjusted.
188.8.131.52 Compression of adjacent punctuation marks连续标点符号的挤压連續標點符號的擠壓
When opening bracket(s), closing bracket(s), slight-pause comma, comma, period or interpunct appear together, the following rules for space adjustment will make the composition more solid and readable.
In Simplified Chinese, when one or more closing brackets appear behind a slight-pause comma, comma or period, a space of half a character width can be reduced. This rule does not apply to Traditional Chinese.
Most Chinese publications do not use hanging punctuation at line end. According to the Japanese Layout Requirements document, hanging punctuation at the line end is a kind of extension of the prohibition rules at line start. This rule helps to avoid moving characters or punctuation marks between lines and avoids inconsistency of space between the characters in different lines.
In general, the punctuation marks that can be hung at the line end include slight-pause comma, comma and period. In Simplified Chinese, the rest of the pause or stop punctuation marks can be hung at line end since they are set at at the side of the marked characters or in front of the marked characters.
If a punctuation mark (slight-pause comma, comma or period) is expected to be at the start of a line, it should be placed at the end of the line before, to fit in the type area.
However, for Traditional Chinese, which sets the punctuation marks at the center of the square space for it, hanging the punctuation marks might make an abrupt affect on the composition. Therefore, Traditional Chinese does not apply hanging punctuation in horizontal writing mode but only in vertical writing mode.
In the case of a succession of punctuation marks, punctuation hanging should not be applied.
3.2 Composition of Chinese and Western Mixed Texts中、西文混排处理中、西文混排處理
3.2.1 Composition of Chinese and Western Mixed Text中文与西文的混排中文與西文之混排
There are many examples in Chinese text where Western characters, such as Latin letters, Greek letters, or European numerals, are found alongside Han characters. The following are just a few examples:
One Western letter used as a symbol for something, such as 'A' or 'B'.
A Western word is used in a Chinese context, such as 'editor'.
Acronyms, such as 'DTP' or 'GDP'.
Book titles or authors in references to Western books that use the original spelling.
European numerals used to express years or other numbers, such as '1999年'.
Western numeric characters are also used in itemized lists and numbered headings, or as symbols for chemical elements or mathematical formulae. It can be seen from these examples that it is an everyday occurrence to find Western characters mixed with Han characters in Chinese composition.
Western numerals, sometimes called arabic, or arabic-indic numerals, are referred to as European numerals in the context of this document, unless notes indicate otherwise.
Formerly, fullwidth ASCII characters were often used, either to make the presentation look orderly, or simply due to the poorly developed computer technologies available for text layout. Nowadays, typesetting engines allow for proportional or monospace fonts, as required, rather than forcing the user to resort to the old fullwidth blocks of Latin letters and European numerals.
When Western texts are mixed with Han characters, Chinese style punctuation and its common usage should be used in principle since the main text is Chinese, However, in the case of technical documents, if plenty of formula are contained in the text, the full stop can be unified with the western-style period, U+002E FULL STOP [.]. Also in text books on grammar of Western languages etc., which contain plenty of example sentences mixed with Chinese, western-style periods [.] can be used.
中西混排中，由于正文是中文，原则上应该使用中文标点，遵守中文标点的习惯用法。 但是，科学技术中文图书，如果涉及公式较多，句号可以统一使用西文句号 U+002E FULL STOP [.]，省略号使用英文的三点省略号；中文版西文语法教材之类的图书，西文例句较多且多与中文混排时，句号可以统一使用西文句号[.]。
中西混排中，由于正文是中文，原则上应该使用中文标点，遵守中文标点的习惯用法。但是，科学技术中文图书，如果涉及公式较多，句号可以统一使用西文句号U+002E FULL STOP [.]，省略号使用英文的三点省略号；中文版西文语法教材之类的图书，西文例句较多且多与中文混排时，句号可以统一使用西文句号[.]。
3.2.2 Mixed Text Composition in Horizontal Writing Mode横排的中、西文混排配置橫排的中、西文混排配置
In horizontal writing mode, the basic approach uses proportional fonts to represent Western text and uses proportional or monospace fonts for European numerals. In principle, there is tracking or spacing between an adjacent Han character and Western character of up to one quarter of a Han character width, except at the line head or end.
Another approach is to use a Western word space (U+0020 SPACE), in which case the width depends on the font in use.
或可使用西文词间空格（U+0020 SPACE [ ]，其宽度随不同字体有所变化）。
或可使用西文詞間空格（U+0020 SPACE [ ]，其寬度隨不同字體有所變化）。
3.2.3 Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Writing Mode直排的中、西文混排配置直排的中、西文混排配置
For vertical writing mode, the following list describes methods of setting Western letters and European numerals:
Setting Western letters with Han character-width monospace fonts. Letters or European numerals follow each other, one at a time, in the same direction and rotation as the Han characters. This arrangement is usually adopted where the text contains a single letter or digit, or an acronym (such as GDP).
Setting Western letters with proportional fonts, rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This approach is usually adopted where Latin letters compose a word or sentence. There is tracking or spacing between a Han character and an adjacent Western letter or European numeral, up to a width of one quarter of a Han character, except at the line head or end.
Setting European numerals with proportional fonts in horizontal-in-vertical orientation. This style is usually adopted when dealing with a two to three digit number whose width is equal to the default line advance or slightly wider (within an acceptable range).
Han numerals are usually used in vertical writing mode, however in recent years it is becoming more common to see fullwidth European numerals and proportional numerals set as horizontal-in-vertical.
3.2.4 Handling Western Text in Chinese Text Using Proportional Western Fonts西文使用比例字体时的混排处理西文使用比例字體時的混排處理
The following provides composition rules for handling Western characters and European numerals in horizontal writing mode or in situations in vertical writing mode where the Western words/phrases or European numerals are rotated 90 degrees clockwise:
A sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not break across a line-break, except where hyphenation is allowed.
Tracking or spacing between a Han character and a Western letter or numeral is up to a quarter of the width of a Han character.
Justified text alignment is an important feature of Chinese composition. It is harder to align text as expected when a line contains Western characters. Typically, spacing or tracking is applied equally across the line, but such adjustments are only applied between Han characters or between Han and Western letters. The spacing is not equally distributed between characters in Western words and/or European numerals.
Tracking or spacing of Western letters or European numerals before the line head or after the line end are not justified.
Tracking or spacing of Western letters or European numerals is not adjusted before or after Chinese commas or full stops, nor after Chinese opening and before Chinese closing brackets.
3.2.5 Handling of Grid Alignment in Chinese and Western Mixed Text Composition纵横对齐下的中西文混排处理縱橫對齊下的中西文混排處理
Due to the fact that each Han character is of the same width, not only should characters at the start and end of a line be aligned but it is also a requirement for characters within blocks of Han text to be aligned both vertically and horizontally, whether in vertical or horizontal writing mode. When Western text or European numerals intervene, this principle is harder to achieve. Possible approaches are listed below:
Instead of a quarter Han-width tracking between Han and Western letters, it is possible to use flexible spacing of up to half a Han character width. This brings the space occupied by Western characters to a multiple of the width of a Han character. In this way, both the Han character before and after the Western language span snaps to the grid lines.
When a Western word appears at the line end and needs to be broken, rather than breaking the word at a syllable boundary per the Western convention, the word may be forced to break at the line end, in order to ensure correct alignment.
When using grid alignment, it is recommended to deal with line end punctuation marks by hanging the first of them outside the type area as mentioned in section 3.1.7Hanging Punctuation at Line End
行尾點號懸掛. In situations that involve consecutive punctuation marks, the second and following punctuation marks are allowed to appear at the line start.
Grid alignment is adopted more often in Traditional Chinese typesetting, whereas use in Simplified Chinese is rare.
3.3 Interlinear annotations行间注行间注
3.3.1 Usage of Interlinear Annotations行间注的用途行间注的用途
Chinese interlinear annotation, also known as ruby, is small, supplementary text attached to certain characters or words in the main text. Chinese interlinear annotation is usually set in the interlinear space and aligned to the corresponding base text which it annotates. In Chinese typesetting, Chinese interlinear annotation is mainly used to indicate pronunciation or meaning.
184.108.40.206 Indicating the Pronunciation for Chinese characters为汉字标注读音为汉字标注读音
In Chinese, interlinear annotation is most commonly used to indicate the pronunciation of Han characters. Presenting the pronunciation alongside the characters is a great help to beginners, especially to children who are native speakers, or to foreigners intending to study Chinese. Therefore, it is rare to annotate isolated Han characters. Instead, phonetic annotations tend to cover the full text. Also, it is not regular practice in Chinese layout to use interlinear annotation for pronunciation outside these educational contexts, even for the pronunciation of rarely used characters, although sometimes pronunciation is provided inline, possibly inside brackets.
There are two major annotation systems for indicating Chinese pronunciation: Zhuyin and Romanization.
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號) or Taiwanese Dialect Phonetic Symbols (台灣方音符號), hereinafter referred to as ‘Zhuyin’, are systems for phonetic annotation mainly used in Taiwan, although other areas may also include Zhuyin in certain dictionaries or textbooks. In most cases, Zhuyin appears on the right side of its corresponding base text. Exceptions are very rare.
Hanyu Pinyin (汉语拼音), now the official standard in Mainland China, uses the Latin alphabet to transcribe the Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin) pronunciations of Chinese characters. The most common use case in Mainland China is to indicate the pronunciation for all characters of the full text with Hanyu Pinyin. In Taiwan and areas that use Chinese dialects in China, the arrangement of the Taiwanese Romanization System for Minnan (台灣閩南語羅馬字), or romanization systems of other Chinese dialects are similar to those of Hanyu Pinyin.
Due to the characteristics of the Latin alphabet, such annotations appear in horizontal writing mode only. Texts for children who are native speakers usually provide reading assistance for each individual character, while texts for those who are learning Chinese as a second language mainly indicate pronunciation for whole words, but occasionally, both of them are set almost the same. There is space between the base text when whole words are annotated, and the interlinear annotation characters will have unique requirements such as sentence case, or punctuation marks corresponding to base characters. Early publications using Pinyin are very varied and lack consistency. Both character-based and word-based annotations are quite common. No further description of the early pinyin will be found in this document.
220.127.116.11 Indicating Meaning or Other Additional Information标注释义等非语音信息标注释义等非语音信息
Bilingual annotations aim to provide a Chinese translation of text in foreign languages or acronyms, or to offer the original text for words that have been translated into Chinese. This is mainly used for proper nouns, titles or those terms whose concepts are difficult to convey after translation. It is commonly found in translated works, mainly in light novels.
Interlinear comments are ways to annotate the meaning of text fragments or a single word, and are so named for their interlinear positioning. They usually lie in the interlinear space and co-exist with the body text. Compared to other annotation methods, i.e. headnotes or footnotes, interlinear comments are more compact and stick better to the body. These kinds of comments are often found in ancient books, such as Rouge Inkstone, an early commentary of the novel Dream of the Red Chamber.
3.3.2 Overview of Interlinear Annotation Positioning行间注排版概述行间注排版概述
In vertical writing mode, Zhuyin, Romanization or bilingual annotations are usually placed on the right side of the base text (Han characters), while interlinear comments are often placed on the left side. In horizontal writing mode, Zhuyin can be placed above the base text, but in most cases they are still set to the right side of the base text. On the other hand, Romanization and bilingual annotations can appear both above or below the base text, and the interlinear comments are usually placed at the bottom of the base text.
In principle, Zhuyin Phonetic Symbols are of the same size, and the number of Zhuyin symbols for one Han character is never more than three, which is quite easily manageable. Romanization, however, uses Latin letters whose sizes are proportional, their composed lengths are varied and there should be spaces between the words. Thus, these two kinds of phonetic annotations differ greatly in positioning.
Annotating with both Romanization and Zhuyin is a practical way to indicate the reading to readers who know only one of these systems, as well as helping study of or enquiries about the other one. Normally, when Romanization and Zhuyin are both provided, the Zhuyin are placed on the right side of the Han character while Romanization is set at the bottom of the Han character in horizontal writing mode and to the left side in vertical writing mode.
3.3.3 Positioning of Zhuyin Interlinear Annotations注音符号标音的排版注音符号標音的排版
18.104.22.168 Positioning of Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的位置注音符號的位置
According to the Handbook of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (國語注音符號手冊) released by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan, there are two standard ways of positioning Zhuyin: above the corresponding Han character (horizontal Zhuyin), or on the right side of the corresponding Han character (vertical Zhuyin). The use cases for putting Zhuyin above the base characters are rarely found in today's textbooks or other publications, and it is rarely used by the public at large. Therefore, it's always better practice to place Zhuyin annotations on the right side of their corresponding Han character, whether in horizontal or vertical writing mode.
22.214.171.124 Choice of Size and Ratio for Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的比例与大小注音符號的比例與大小
The size of Zhuyin annotation marks, including the phonetic symbols and their tones, should not exceed the size of the corresponding base characters. When Zhuyin annotation marks are placed above or to the right side of the base characters, the width of the zhuyin annotation marks should not exceed the size of the corresponding base characters.
When zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of base characters, in principle they should take half of the space of the corresponding base characters. The space should include the phonetic symbols as well as the tone marks. Zhuyin annotations without tone marks, such as the level tone in Mandarin, should take the same amount of space as annotations with tone marks.
In vertical writing mode, when Zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of the base characters (vertical Zhuyin), the line gap of the paragraph, where the Zhuyin annotations should be placed, needs more than 1.5 times that of the base characters. The type area should be designed to allow the proper space for the line gap. If the line gap is more than 1.5 times that of the height of the base character, the line gap should not be affected, whether there are Zhuyin annotations between the lines or not.
In horizontal writing mode, when Zhuyin annotations are placed to the right side of the base characters (vertical Zhuyin), the spaces between the base characters, where the Zhuyin annotations are placed, should be at least half of the width of those characters. To achieve grid alignment, the characters without Zhuyin annotations, such as punctuation marks, Western words and indented space should keep the same space as well.
In principle, the size of Zhuyin annotations, including the phonetic symbols and the tone marks, should be 25% of the size of the base characters. In vertical Zhuyin, Zhuyin annotations should be placed center-aligned vertically to the base character while in horizontal Zhuyin, Zhuyin annotations should be placed center-aligned over the base character beneath.
In vertical Zhuyin, the width of the space taken by the neutral tone mark does not change but the height should be 10% of the height of the base character. In horizontal Zhuyin, the height of the space taken by the neutral tone mark does not change but the width should be 10% of the height of the base character.
When annotating Zhuyin for paragraphs with characters in larger sizes, the size of the Zhuyin annotations can be adjusted accordingly.
126.96.36.199 Positioning of the Tones in Zhuyin Symbols注音符号的声调号位置注音符號的聲調號位置
Mandarin non-neutral tones and dialectal non-checked tones, are placed outside the upper right corner of the last phonetic symbol. In vertical Zhuyin, half the space taken by a tone mark will be above the top of the adjacent phonetic character; in horizontal Zhuyin, half the space taken by a tone mark will appear to the right of the phonetic character.
The Mandarin neutral tone comes before the phonetic symbols. In vertical Zhuyin, the height of the tone mark is 10% of that of its base character, while its width is the same as that of the phonetic characters. In horizontal Zhuyin, the width of the tone mark is 10% of that of its base characters, while its height is the same as that of the phonetic characters.
In Mandarin Chinese there are syllables that, when part of certain words or sentences, are intentionally read in a shorter and less-emphasized way, therefore losing their original tone. When any syllable is read in this way, we say that it has a neutral tone or “toneless”.
188.8.131.52 Examples of Zhuyin annotations注音标音排版用例注音標音排版用例
184.108.40.206 Line Prohibition Rules for Zhuyin注音标音分离禁则注音標音分離禁則
Like the line prohibition rules for punctuation, vertical Zhuyin annotations should stick to their base characters in horizontal writing mode. They must not appear in the line head, and must be placed on the right side of their corresponding Han character.
3.3.4 Positioning of Romanized Interlinear Annotations罗马拼音标音的排版羅馬拼音標音的排版
220.127.116.11 Basic Requirements基本规则基本规则
Romanization is only available in horizontal writing mode. These phonetic annotations are usually placed on top of the base text. In general, phonetic annotations and their base text stick to each other regardless of space, and both of them are centered-aligned.
In special cases where Romanization is needed in vertical writing mode, the annotations are usually set to the right side of their corresponding base text, but it is difficult to read anyway.
If a Romanized annotation is longer than its base text and is at the line head or end, both the annotation and the base text can be aligned to the beginning of the line head or end.
The space between two adjacent annotations should not be smaller than the size of a normal Western-language space, which is about 1/4 em. Due to the limitation of the typesetting technologies, there is usually no space between the rather long phonetic annotations in many printed publications. Luckily, this is not likely to lead to ambiguity because each Han character contains one syllable and most Pinyin fragments are easy to tell apart. However, these annotations can be misleading sometimes. For example, character-based phonetic annotations may result in the false impression that they are word-based. Also, the accidentally concatenated annotations may disrupt word boundaries, which alters the semantic meanings of the words.
Annotations are allowed to extend to the top of adjacent base text as long as the minimum spacing is ensured.
As most target readers are beginners to Chinese, the body text is usually in larger sizes and in the Kai typeface.
Due to the fact that Latin letters are proportional (width unknown) and that the advance widths in different typefaces deviate greatly from one another, the relationship between the sizes of annotations and their base text is somewhat undetermined. Under the influence of the typesetting of Japanese furigana, however, annotations are usually of half size of the base text.
Annotations usually use a sans-serif typeface which is rather thin and plump. It is generally the opinion in publishing and in education that Hanyu Pinyin must use those typefaces in which ‘a’ and ‘g’ are single story and the second tone mark is thick on the lower part and thin on the upper, as in the handwritten style of the stroke. Actually there have never been any national standards specifying the typefaces and the glyphs for Hanyu Pinyin.
The General Association of Chinese Culture in Taiwan once wrote to the Ministry of Education in Mainland China about the rules for the glyphs of Hanyu Pinyin, and received the response that the glyphs of the letter ‘a’ and ‘g’ correspond to those of Latin. There is no requirement demanding the handwritten glyphs.
What follows is a detailed description of the difference between two typical use cases.
18.104.22.168 Characters as the Basic Units for Annotating Pronunciation单字标音单字标音
The base text is a single Han character. Only Han characters are annotated: European numerals or punctuation marks are excluded.
The phonetic annotations are always on the top.
As the phonetic annotations are often wider than their base text, the tracking of the body text should be larger, to allow annotations to expand and to avoid irregular adjustments within the base text.
Annotations sometimes appear below the Han characters.
Both the phonetic annotations and the base text are separated at word boundaries. The adjacent annotations are separated by a space approximately 1/2 em wide, while the tracking inside the base text is usually normal.
Many word-based annotations indicate the logic of the whole sentence, rather than merely the pronunciation: these phonetic annotations have sentence case, as well as punctuation marks which follow the previous annotations.
3.3.5 Atypical Cases for Han character Phonetic Annotations汉字标音的非典型情况漢字標音的非典型情況
Erhuayin, also known as rhotacization of syllable finals, is a special phonetic phenomenon in Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Due to the limitations of annotating single Han character, the Zhuyin annotations fail to indicate the continuity of Erhuayin and the change of the final sound, while Romanization shows the features of Erhuayin effectively.
Ligatures are special for their multisyllabic nature, thus its interlinear annotation may be typeset incorrectly. The pronunciation of ligatures should be bracketed inline or given in notes instead. Ligatures are rare in the modern Chinese writing system.
3.3.6 Positioning of Bilingual Annotations中外文对照的排版中外文對照的排版
Typesetting of bilingual annotations is actually quite similar to that of Romanization. Annotations are usually placed to the right of the base text in vertical writing mode, or above the base text in horizontal writing mode.
When the length of an annotation is shorter than that of its base text, the annotation can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use larger tracking (in the case of Han characters). There are two methods to satisfy the latter, one is to equally distribute the spacing while the other is to align justified.
When the length of an annotation is longer than that of its base text, the base text can be center-aligned (in the case of Western script) or use a larger tracking (in the case of Han characters).
3.3.7 Positioning of Interlinear Comments行间批语的排版行間批語的排版
Interlinear comments can have very varied layouts and lengths. They are usually placed at the foot side of the annotated text — to the left side of the base text in vertical writing mode or below the base text in horizontal writing mode. Sometimes the interlinear comments are in other colors to help the reader tell the difference from the body text.
Interlinear comments are also used to explain the context and details of a longer text fragment. In such cases, due to the ambiguity of the base text, the annotation can find a suitable place as an anchor and flow down. There's no strict requirement for its length, and sometimes it can be longer than one line.
3.4.1 Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs段首缩排段首縮排
A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs, the following methods are available.
For Chinese publications, line head indent at the beginning of a paragraph usually uses two character-width spaces. Publications like magazines, with multi-column content and less text in each column, might apply a single character-width line head indent at the beginning of paragraph as well.
Line head indent at the beginning of a paragraph is applied to all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method.
Line head indent does not apply to the first paragraph but to the rest of the paragraphs. This method is mostly seen in Western publications.
Line head indent at the beginning of a paragraph is not applied for any paragraph at all. A certain amount of space is inserted between the paragraphs so as to indicate the distinction of different paragraphs. In some books and magazines this method is applied.
In principle, some unfinished paragraphs should be broken rather than apply the line head indent for the following paragraph. Dialogs, quotations or subtitles that the editor inserted might appear before the unfinished paragraph.
In principle, there is no extra space between the paragraphs in Chinese books. The space between the last line of the previous paragraph and the first line of the next paragraph stays the same as the space between the rest of the lines in the paragraph. If a blank line is inserted after a paragraph, usually it indicates the end of the session or chapter. If there is no indent but extra space is added among the lines as an indication of separation, no blank line should be inserted so as to avoid unnecessary amounts of space between the lines.
Alongside the case of applying indents to the beginning of all lines, there is also the method that indents the second and following lines of the paragraph, called aopai [凸排] or itemization, used in cases such as dramatic script lines and lines starting with the name of a person. Numbered list of items, questions and answers (Q&A), and legal provision apply this method as well. Though called aopai [凸排] or itemization, the beginning of the line should not go beyond the type area.
When the aopai [凸排] or itemization method is used, the indent of the second line and the the rest usually takes a fixed amount of space such as three characters plus one colon which takes four-character space. When the name of a person is less than three characters, a certain amount of space should be inserted between the characters so as to keep the same width as four.
The paragraph indent is the indentation of the line head by a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of the type area (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns).This method is usually applied for quotations, poetry or subtitles in a paragraph or between the paragraphs.
Generally speaking, the characters in the paragraphs which apply paragraph indent should be the same as the characters in the body content. Sometimes, due to the different typefaces, the size of characters in the paragraphs which apply paragraph indent differ from the characters in the body content. In this case, a certain amount of space might be added before and after the indent paragraph so as to make a clear distinction from other paragraphs. The space added is usually an integer times the height of paragraphs in the body content
Line alignment method is a process for setting the alignment of each line of text so that the actual position of the text can be matched with their preset position. The following methods are available.
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the amount of space at the line head and line end is made equal, and the center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line.
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.
Line end alignment
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.
Even inter-character spacing
The space between adjacent characters is, in principle, set solid. Also, if there is an explicit instruction to insert spaces, such spaces are inserted. In addition, using the space made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible. The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.
A frequently seen case of even inter-character spacing is that, after applying the punctuation prohibition rules to each line, some lines will have more than one character space left, so in order to align the beginning and ending with the rest of the lines, this line should apply even inter-character spacing.
3.4.4 Handling of Widows and Orphans孤行与孤字处理孤行與孤字處理
In the tradition of Chinese composition, an orphan does not make a line, nor does a widow make a page. The principles are as described below.
If there is only one character or one character with a punctuation mark left in the last line of a paragraph, this character is called an orphan. An orphan can be processed using the following methods, so that more than two characters can be positioned in the last line of a paragraph.
Similar to the handling for the prohibition rule that a punctuation marks should not appear at the line start, the last character of the previous line can be moved the next line, and the previous line should apply even inter-character spacing.
Delete some character(s) of the previous paragraph so that there will be enough space to move the orphan to the previous line.
Adding more characters to the last line.
The definition of orphan in Chinese typesetting has some similarity with the definition of orphan in Latin typesetting. See more content in section 5.2 of Requirements for Latin Text Layout and Pagination.
Orphans and widows might differ in the cases below:
There is only one line in a page and the line consists of one character and a punctuation mark, which makes the text an orphan and widow at the same time.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but the first line is a widow and the first line consists of one character and a punctuation mark, which makes the orphan and widow appear together.
There is only one line in a page, which makes the line a widow.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but the first line is a widow.
There are multiple paragraphs in a page but one of the lines consists of one character only, which make the only character an orphan.
There are different viewpoints about how the orphans and widows should be handled in the cases above due to differences between publishers. Case (a) and case (b) have a bigger affect on the typesetting while case (c) affects it less. Cases (d) and (e) are seem more rarely.
In terms of text composition, there are three types of headings.
Due to the composition requirements, magazines usually handle headings in a variety of ways, while most books have their headings set up in a simpler way. Methods for handling of headings for magazines will not be described in this document.
Whole page headings are used when there is a need to separate sections in a book, usually on a separate page with the following page left blank. Sometimes subheadings, selected sentences, names of the authors or selected paragraphs will also appear with the heading. The back side of the whole page heading page is not necessarily always blank, for example, consider the Han-tobira in Japanese books, whose following even page is not blank, and is used for the main text.
A block heading is the heading occupying a whole, independent line. The main text is set from the very next line. Top level headings and medium level headings are of this type.
Headings are subtitles, which separate and indicate sub-parts with one coherent set of content. Headings are usually classified into several levels such as top level heading, medium level heading and low level heading.
The sequence of the headings on a page should be the name of the book, section heading, top level heading, medium level heading and then low level heading.
The structure of a heading depends on the detailed context of the book. It is suggested not to set too many levels for the headings.
In multi-column format, block headings sometimes span multiple columns. These are called cross-column headings.
A run-in heading is a heading immediately followed by main text without a line break, and is usually used as a low level heading. Note that a low level heading can also appear as a block heading.
4.1.2 Font Selection and Heading Font Size使标题得以突显的方式使標題得以突顯的方式
Since they aim to indicate the structural level, most of the time headings have some special way to indicate their level. Here are some rules for the headings:
Character size for the heading: The character size of headings should be selected as appropriate in accordance with the level of headings. For example, when the character size of main text is 9 point, the small-headings are usually set with 10 points, medium-headings are usually set with 12 points and large-headings are usually set with 14 points.
The character size of headings is usually larger than that of the main text. When this rule is applied, the characters in the heading should be 10% to 20% larger. And the character size of higher level headings is larger than the size of smaller size headings.
Type faces for headings: Both Hei or bold Song are usually used. Other type face designs like Yuan and Kai are sometimes used as well.
In letterpress printing, when Song is used as the type face of the heading, it is always designed with a larger size; while in digital printing, due to its special typography, simply increasing the font size is not enough, the characters usually use bold style to produce emphasis.
When Hei is used for the type face of low level headings, font-weight should be increased to emphasis the heading.
Alignment of headings (inline direction): In the case of horizontal writing mode, large-headings and medium-headings are in most cases centre-aligned. In the case of vertical writing mode, headings are usually aligned to the line head with some indent.
The number of characters of line head indent for a heading depends on the heading level. If the heading level is higher, the indent character number is less, if the heading level is lower, the number of indent characters is more. The character size is based on the main text of the type area. The differences of character numbers are usually around two characters.
Whether to decorate with solid lines, images, or give a symbol on the top of the heading.
4.1.3 How to Handle Headings with New Recto and Page Break单页起、换页处理單頁起、換頁處理
A large heading sometimes starts with a new page following a page break, to clarify the separation between sections, in which case the process below should be followed:
Always begin with odd pages, i.e. new recto.
Books usually begin with page 1. Accordingly, vertical writing mode and books bound on the right-hand side begin with a left page, horizontal writing mode and books bound on the left-hand side begin with a right page after a new recto.
Always begin with new pages, regardless of even pages or odd pages, i.e. page breaking. Used for large-heading.
When medium-headings or small-headings appear at the last line of a page and there is no space left for the following paragraphs, the medium-headings or small-headings should be moved to the next page so as to make a proper composition.
4.1.4 Handling of Spaces just before the New Recto, Page Breaks and New Edges单页起、换页处理时,前一页的处理單頁起、換頁處理時，前一頁的處理
Spaces just before new rectos, page breaks and new columns are treated as follows (the last pages are treated as the same):
In the case of single column typesetting, the spaces just before the new rectos and page breaks are left as they are.
In the case of multiple columns, the remaining space of preceding columns is left as it is.
In the case of vertical writing mode, columns are filled with text lines from upper right to lower left. There is no need to align line numbers of the upper column and lower column, and remaining spaces are left as they are.
In horizontal writing mode and multi-column format, the number of lines for each column is set to be the same, but where the result of the total number of lines divided by the column number chosen for the type area results in an odd number, the last column may have a smaller number of lines and may be followed by blank space.
4.1.5 Processing of Run-in Headings同行标题的处理方式同行標題的處理方式
Run-in headings are usually used for low level headings. The following are some examples of run-in headings. Inter-character space between the run-in heading and following main text is usually a one character space of the base character size decided for the type area. Note that the run-in heading may be set at the last line of the page, or of the column in multi column style.
The run-in heading is set with the same character size as the main text and with Hei or Song.
Set the run-in heading with one level smaller character size than the main text and use Hei or Song.
The space that the run-in headings take is not an integer times larger than the characters in the body content, and the space between the run-in headings and body content can be adjusted so as to align the body content as well as the line start and line end.