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These are rough notes on how to use ruby markup and styling to replicate the ruby-related requirements of the Ruby and Emphasis section of the document Requirements for Japanese Text Layout.

There are three main types of ruby:

  • mono ruby (character-by-character annotation)
  • group ruby (a single ruby text annotation spanning more than one base character; you cannot break a line in the middle)
  • jukugo ruby (ruby text for a compound noun in Japanese where ruby text is normally character-by-character, as for mono-ruby, but when there are more than two ruby characters per base character, the ruby text for one base character can spill over an adjacent base character, if space is available; you can also break a line in the middle of jukugo-ruby)

To mark up mono-ruby

Use simple ruby markup, eg.


Mono-ruby, single kanji K1 kakb k1 K2 kckd k2k3 K3 ke k4k5

Mono-ruby, compound word, simple markup K1 ka K2 kbkc k1 K3 kdke K4 kfkg k2 K5 khkikj K6 kl k3k4

Mono-ruby, compound word, complex markup K1 K2 ka kbkc k1 K3 K4 kdke kfkg k2 K5 K6 khkikj kl k3k4

Jukugo-ruby K1 K2 ka kbkc k1 K3 K4 kdke kfkg k2 K5 K6 khkikj kl k3k4

My test cases


Mono ruby

Mono-ruby, simple ruby markup


ああ あい あう あえ

あああ ああい ああう ああえ

ああああ あああい あああう あああえ

石田 石田 石田

ああ 石田 あい 石田 あう 石田 あえ

あああ 石田 ああい 石田 ああう 石田 ああえ

ああああ石田 あああい 石田 あああう 石田 あああえ