ODRL 2.1 / Creative Commons Profile

Draft Specification: 25 September 2013

Editors:
Renato Iannella, Semantic Identity, riATsemanticidentity.com
Jean-Noël Colin, FUNDP, jean-noel.colinATfundp.ac.be
Stéphane Tournié, FUNDP, stournieATinfo.fundp.ac.be

—–UPDATES to APPLY—-

The following terms have been removed from the ODRL Common Vocabulary:

  • attachPolicy
  • attachSource
  • shareAlike
  • commercialize
  • share

The need to now use the CC terms.

The URI also needs to be updated to http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/

Use the new profile URI

—–UPDATES to APPLY—-

Table of contents


1. Overview

In this document is defined a profile for the expression of Creative Commons licenses using the ODRL 2.0 language [ODRL-MODEL]. It aims to express the core Creative Commons semantics in ODRL 2.0, using already defined ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary and possibilities offer by the core model.

A profile has been defined earlier for the version 1.1 of ODRL [CC11] but since some elements of the language have been changed in version 2.0, defining a new Creative Commons profile for the new version of ODRL offers to meet the new semantics and vocabulary and to take advantage of these.

In the rest of this document, the acronym CC will be used instead of the term Creative Commons.

2. CC licenses characteristics

From the description of the CC licenses, we can highlight three main characteristics :
- Permissions – rights granted by the license
- Prohibitions – rights prohibited
- Requirements – restrictions imposed

Each of these three characteristics contains specific values representing different Permissions, Prohibitions, and Requirements. The main values are summarized in the following table.

Table 1: Main CC characteristics
Type Value Description
Permission Reproduction the work may be reproduced
Permission Distribution the work (and, if authorized, derivative works) may be distributed, publicly displayed, and publicly performed
Permission DerivativeWorks derivative works may be created and reproduced
Permission Sharing non commercial reproduction and distribution (like file-sharing) of the entire work are allowed
Prohibition CommercialUse rights may be exercised for commercial purposes
Requirement Notice copyright and license notices must be kept intact
Requirement Attribution credit must be given to copyright holder and/or author
Requirement ShareAlike derivative works must be licensed under the same terms as the original work

3. CC Profile for ODRL 2.0


3.1 Mapping CC licenses characteristics values to ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary terms

ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary [ODRL-VOC] already covers the semantic of the CC Requirement Attribution, with the attribute action entity name. To meet correctly the CC definition, this action entity name may be used in a Duty. The semantic of the CC Prohibition CommercialUse is covered by the commercialize action entity name.
Then, almost all other values representing the CC Permissions, CC Prohibitions, and CC Requirements have been integrated as ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary terms too. So, for these values, there is no need to define new semantics. A direct mapping to the corresponding terms in the ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary may be done. As action entity names defined in the ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary may be used with Permissions, Prohibitions, and Duties entities, we remind here an indication of how the characteristics values are defined to be used in CC description. Table 2 resumes all CC values that can be mapped to ODRL 2.0 Common Vocabulary terms and in which case these terms may be used to meet the CC definition.

Table 2: Mapping CC elements to ODRL 2.0 vocabulary terms
CC licenses value Characteristic type ODRL 2.0 vocabulary term
Reproduction Permission copy reproduce
Distribution Permission distribute
DerivativeWorks Permission derive modify
Sharing Permission share
CommercialUse Prohibition commercialize
Attribution Duty attribute
Notice Duty attachPolicy
ShareAlike Duty shareAlike
SourceCode Duty attachSource

Since the ODRL 2.0 specification indicates that “If several Permission entities refer to one Duty, then the Duty only has to be fulfilled once for all the Permission entities to become valid” [ODRL-MODEL], a CC Requirement expressed as a Duty in ODRL 2.0 may be defined once in a Permission and then referenced by other Permissions and would have to be meet once for all. This rule corresponds naturally to the needs of the CC definition.

3.2 Referencing human-readable CC Licenses

It can be useful and consistent to add a link from a ODRL expression of a valid license to the corresponding human-readable description of the CC License. This may allow access to the human-readable version of the CC semantics, as well as linking the two machine expressions. This can be achieved using a Dublin Core Metadata [DC] Description element. Linking to the original CC License would be used only if the expressed license in ODRL 2.0 matches exactly a original CC license.

3.3 Expressing additional information

In the second part of the first example below, when the right holder wants to “make clear the exact text that should be used for the Attribution requirement”, we define an Asset containing the text to be used and we make a reference to that (as a target) in the corresponding defined Duty. In the second example below, the text used for the Attribution requirement is asked to be different regarding to the used made of the ressource (modified or not). We use in this case some Dublin Core Metadata entities to define the asset referenced in the Duty. Obviously, there may be a lot of different cases where we may need to add additional information about an entity. Dublin Core or other metadata standards entities can be used to express those semantics within ODRL 2.0 licenses expressions.

4. Examples of use


4.1 CC project example

We are using in this section an example originally given on the CC project website. There is no more active hypertext link to this example but in the aim to express a sample CC license using the CC profile for ODRL 2.0, the basic statements included here are sufficient to understand the meaning. In the following license samples, solely additional information about the right holder Party are not expressed.
“Anita chooses the Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC license.”

<policy xmlns="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/2/"
  type="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#offer" 
  uid="urn:anita:volcanolove:01">
	<dcds:description xmlns:dcds="http://purl.org/dc/xmlns/2008/09/01/dc-ds-xml/">
		<dcds:statement dcds:propertyURI="http://purl.org/dc/terms/source"
								dcds:valueURI="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0">
		<dcds:valueString>Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)</dcds:valueString>
		</dcds:statement>
	</dcds:description>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#copyReproduce"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="d1">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attachPolicy"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d2">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#shareAlike"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d3">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attribute"/>
        </duty>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#distribute"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#deriveModify"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<prohibition>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#commercialize"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
	</prohibition>
</policy>

“Extending the above example, lets say that Anita wants to make two additions. Firstly she wants to limit the Distribution permission to the USA only. Secondly, she wants to make clear the exact text that should be used for the Attribution requirement.” and “Since the above Distribution permission is narrower than the original CC license, Anita removes the link from the reference element to the original CC license.”

<policy xmlns="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/2/"
  type="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#offer" 
  uid="urn:anita:volcanolove:02">
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#copyReproduce"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="d1">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attachPolicy"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d2">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#shareAlike"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d3">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attribute"/>
			<asset uid="http://example.com/text:01" relation="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#target"/>
        </duty>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#distribute"/>
		<constraint name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#spatial" operator="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#eq" rightOperand="urn:iso3166:US"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#deriveModify"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<prohibition>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:songs:volcanoLove.mp3"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#commercialize"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
	</prohibition>
</policy>

“Next, Anita wishes to make the lyrics to her song available. Anita chooses the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC license as this is the closest. However, she decides that she only wants the public to print her lyrics no more than once, so she includes the Display and Print permission with a Count constraint. She does not include the Reproduction permission and does not include a Reference to the CC License (as the semantics are not the same).”

<policy xmlns="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/2/"
  type="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#offer" 
  uid="urn:anita:lyrics:volcanolove:01">
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:lyrics:volcanoLove.pdf"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#distribute"/>	
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="d1">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attachPolicy"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d2">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#shareAlike"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d3">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attribute"/>
        </duty>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:lyrics:volcanoLove.pdf"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#display"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:lyrics:volcanoLove.pdf"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#print"/>
		<constraint name="count" operator="eq" rightOperand="1"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
		<duty uid="#d3"/>
	</permission>
	<prohibition>
		<asset uid="urn:anita-music:lyrics:volcanoLove.pdf"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#commercialize"/>
		<party uid="urn:music-people:id-anita-001" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
	</prohibition>
</policy>

4.2 Australian gov budget example

The second example given here remain from the Australian government. It aims to describe in ODRL the license associated with a budget document [AUS-BUDGET] available for use under a Creative Commons BY Attribution 3.0 Australia license [CC-BY-AT-AUS]. The text to be used with the attribution requirement must be different depending of the modification or not of the initial document. To fullfil this feature, two assets are defined and used.

<policy xmlns="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/2/"
  type="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#offer" 
  uid="urn:budget:gov:au:01">
	<permission>
		<asset uid="http://budget.gov.au/2012-13"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#share"/>
		<party uid="http://www.budget.gov.au" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="d1">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attachPolicy"/>
        </duty>
		<duty uid="d2">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attribute"/>
        	<asset uid="http://www.budget.gov.au/attribute#asSupplied" relation="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#target"/>
        </duty>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="http://budget.gov.au/2012-13"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#modify"/>
		<party uid="http://www.budget.gov.au" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="d3">
        	<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#attribute"/>
        	<asset uid="http://www.budget.gov.au/attribute#modified" relation="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#target"/>
        </duty>
	</permission>
	<permission>
		<asset uid="http://budget.gov.au/2012-13"/>
		<action name="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#commercialize"/>
		<party uid="http://www.budget.gov.au" function="http://w3.org/ns/odrl/vocab#assigner"/>
		<duty uid="#d1"/>
		<duty uid="#d2"/>
	</permission>
</policy>

<!-- External Asset --> 
<dcx:description xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
				 xmlns:dcx="http://purl.org/dc/xml/"
				 dcx:resourceURI="http://www.budget.gov.au/attribute#asSupplied">
    <dc:title>
 	 	<dcx:valueString>Source: The Treasury</dcx:valueString>
	</dc:title>
</dcx:description>

<!-- External Asset -->
<dcx:description xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/"
				 xmlns:dcx="http://purl.org/dc/xml/"
				dcx:resourceURI="http://www.budget.gov.au/attribute#modified">
    <dc:title>
 	 	<dcx:valueString>Based on Treasury data</dcx:valueString>
	</dc:title>
</dcx:description>

References


[CC11] ODRL Creative Commons Profile, ODRL Specification, 6 July 2005 http://www.w3.org/2012/09/odrl/archive/odrl.net/Profiles/CC/SPEC.html
[ODRL-MODEL] R. Iannella & S. Guth & D. Paehler & A. Kasten (eds). Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 2.0 – Core Model. Final Specification, W3C ODRL Community Group, 19 April 2012. http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/two/model/
[ODRL-VOC] R. Iannella & S. Guth & D. Paehler & A. Kasten (eds). Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 2.0 – Common Vocabulary. Final Specification, W3C ODRL Community Group, 19 April 2012. http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/two/vocab/
[DC] The Dublin Core Metadata Intitiative http://dublincore.org
[AUS-BUDGET] Australian government Budget strategy and outlook 2012-13 http://budget.gov.au/2012-13/content/bp1/html/bp1_prelims.htm
[CC-BY-AT-AUS] Attribution 3.0 Australia (CC BY 3.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en

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