Checklist of Checkpoints for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0

This version:
http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/WD-WCAG10-20000826 /full-checklist
(plain text, postscript, pdf)
This document is an appendix to:
Latest version of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0:
Wendy Chisholm, Trace R & D Center, University of Wisconsin -- Madison
Gregg Vanderheiden, Trace R & D Center, University of Wisconsin -- Madison
Ian Jacobs, W3C


This document is an appendix to "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0" [WCAG10]. It provides a list of all checkpoints from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0, organized by concept, as a checklist for Web content developers. Please refer to the Guidelines document for introductory information, information about related documents, a glossary of terms, and more. Each checkpoint also includes a link to pertinent techniques in "Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0" [WCAG10-TECHS].

This list may be used to review a page or site for accessibility. For each checkpoint, indicate whether the checkpoint has been satisfied, has not been satisfied, or is not applicable.

A list version of the checkpoints is also available.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. The latest status of this document series is maintained at the W3C.

This document is an appendix to a document that has been reviewed by W3C Members and other interested parties and has been endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. This is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited as a normative reference from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and universality of the Web.

A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR.

This document is part of a series of accessibility documents published by the Web Accessibility Initiative. WAI Accessibility Guidelines are produced as part of the WAI Technical Activity. The goal of the Web Content Guidelines Working Group is discussed in the Working Group charter.

Please send comments about this document to wai-wcag-editor@w3.org.


Each checkpoint has a priority level assigned by the Working Group based on the checkpoint's impact on accessibility.

[Priority 1]
A Web content developer must satisfy this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more groups will find it impossible to access information in the document. Satisfying this checkpoint is a basic requirement for some groups to be able to use Web documents.
[Priority 2]
A Web content developer should satisfy this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more groups will find it difficult to access information in the document. Satisfying this checkpoint will remove significant barriers to accessing Web documents.
[Priority 3]
A Web content developer may address this checkpoint. Otherwise, one or more groups will find it somewhat difficult to access information in the document. Satisfying this checkpoint will improve access to Web documents.

Some checkpoints specify a priority level that may change under certain (indicated) conditions.

Priority 1 checkpoints

In General (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 1.1 Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content). This includes: images, graphical representations of text (including symbols), image map regions, animations (e.g., animated GIFs), applets and programmatic objects, ascii art, frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (played with or without user interaction), stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video, and video. (Techniques for 1.1)    
Checkpoint 2.1 Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup. (Techniques for 2.1)    
Checkpoint 4.1 Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document's text and any text equivalents (e.g., captions). (Techniques for 4.1)    
Checkpoint 6.1 Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets. For example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated style sheets, it must still be possible to read the document. (Techniques for 6.1)    
Checkpoint 6.2 Ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes. (Techniques for 6.2)    
Checkpoint 7.1 Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker. (Techniques for 7.1)    
Checkpoint 14.1 Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content. (Techniques for 14.1)    
And if you use images and image maps (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 1.2 Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map. (Techniques for 1.2)    
Checkpoint 9.1 Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. (Techniques for 9.1)    
And if you use tables (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 5.1 For data tables, identify row and column headers. (Techniques for 5.1)    
Checkpoint 5.2 For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells. (Techniques for 5.2)    
And if you use frames (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 12.1 Title each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation. (Techniques for 12.1)    
And if you use applets and scripts (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 6.3 Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not supported. If this is not possible, provide equivalent information on an alternative accessible page. (Techniques for 6.3)    
And if you use multimedia (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 1.3 Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation. (Techniques for 1.3)    
Checkpoint 1.4 For any time-based multimedia presentation (e.g., a movie or animation), synchronize equivalent alternatives (e.g., captions or auditory descriptions of the visual track) with the presentation. (Techniques for 1.4)    
And if all else fails (Priority 1) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 11.4 If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page. (Techniques for 11.4)    

Priority 2 checkpoints

In General (Priority 2) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 2.2 Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen. [Priority 2 for images, Priority 3 for text]. (Techniques for 2.2)    
Checkpoint 3.1 When an appropriate markup language exists, use markup rather than images to convey information. (Techniques for 3.1)    
Checkpoint 3.2 Create documents that validate to published formal grammars. (Techniques for 3.2)    
Checkpoint 3.3 Use style sheets to control layout and presentation. (Techniques for 3.3)    
Checkpoint 3.4 Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values. (Techniques for 3.4)    
Checkpoint 3.5 Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification. (Techniques for 3.5)    
Checkpoint 3.6 Mark up lists and list items properly. (Techniques for 3.6)    
Checkpoint 3.7 Mark up quotations. Do not use quotation markup for formatting effects such as indentation. (Techniques for 3.7)    
Checkpoint 6.5 Ensure that dynamic content is accessible or provide an alternative presentation or page. (Techniques for 6.5)    
Checkpoint 7.2 Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink (i.e., change presentation at a regular rate, such as turning on and off). (Techniques for 7.2)    
Checkpoint 7.4 Until user agents provide the ability to stop the refresh, do not create periodically auto-refreshing pages. (Techniques for 7.4)    
Checkpoint 7.5 Until user agents provide the ability to stop auto-redirect, do not use markup to redirect pages automatically. Instead, configure the server to perform redirects. (Techniques for 7.5)    
Checkpoint 10.1 Until user agents allow users to turn off spawned windows, do not cause pop-ups or other windows to appear and do not change the current window without informing the user. (Techniques for 10.1)    
Checkpoint 11.1 Use W3C technologies when they are available and appropriate for a task and use the latest versions when supported. (Techniques for 11.1)    
Checkpoint 11.2 Avoid deprecated features of W3C technologies. (Techniques for 11.2)    
Checkpoint 12.3 Divide large blocks of information into more manageable groups where natural and appropriate. (Techniques for 12.3)    
Checkpoint 13.1 Clearly identify the target of each link. (Techniques for 13.1)    
Checkpoint 13.2 Provide metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites. (Techniques for 13.2)    
Checkpoint 13.3 Provide information about the general layout of a site (e.g., a site map or table of contents). (Techniques for 13.3)    
Checkpoint 13.4 Use navigation mechanisms in a consistent manner. (Techniques for 13.4)    
And if you use tables (Priority 2) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 5.3 Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized. Otherwise, if the table does not make sense, provide an alternative equivalent (which may be a linearized version). (Techniques for 5.3)    
Checkpoint 5.4 If a table is used for layout, do not use any structural markup for the purpose of visual formatting. (Techniques for 5.4)    
And if you use frames (Priority 2) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 12.2 Describe the purpose of frames and how frames relate to each other if it is not obvious by frame titles alone. (Techniques for 12.2)    
And if you use forms (Priority 2) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 10.2 Until user agents support explicit associations between labels and form controls, for all form controls with implicitly associated labels, ensure that the label is properly positioned. (Techniques for 10.2)    
Checkpoint 12.4 Associate labels explicitly with their controls. (Techniques for 12.4)    
And if you use applets and scripts (Priority 2) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 6.4 For scripts and applets, ensure that event handlers are input device-independent. (Techniques for 6.4)    
Checkpoint 7.3 Until user agents allow users to freeze moving content, avoid movement in pages. (Techniques for 7.3)    
Checkpoint 8.1 Make programmatic elements such as scripts and applets directly accessible or compatible with assistive technologies [Priority 1 if functionality is important and not presented elsewhere, otherwise Priority 2.] (Techniques for 8.1)    
Checkpoint 9.2 Ensure that any element that has its own interface can be operated in a device-independent manner. (Techniques for 9.2)    
Checkpoint 9.3 For scripts, specify logical event handlers rather than device-dependent event handlers. (Techniques for 9.3)    

Priority 3 checkpoints

In General (Priority 3) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 4.2 Specify the expansion of each abbreviation or acronym in a document where it first occurs. (Techniques for 4.2)    
Checkpoint 4.3 Identify the primary natural language of a document. (Techniques for 4.3)    
Checkpoint 9.4 Create a logical tab order through links, form controls, and objects. (Techniques for 9.4)    
Checkpoint 9.5 Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links (including those in client-side image maps), form controls, and groups of form controls. (Techniques for 9.5)    
Checkpoint 10.5 Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render adjacent links distinctly, include non-link, printable characters (surrounded by spaces) between adjacent links. (Techniques for 10.5)    
Checkpoint 11.3 Provide information so that users may receive documents according to their preferences (e.g., language, content type, etc.) (Techniques for 11.3)    
Checkpoint 13.5 Provide navigation bars to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism. (Techniques for 13.5)    
Checkpoint 13.6 Group related links, identify the group (for user agents), and, until user agents do so, provide a way to bypass the group. (Techniques for 13.6)    
Checkpoint 13.7 If search functions are provided, enable different types of searches for different skill levels and preferences. (Techniques for 13.7)    
Checkpoint 13.8 Place distinguishing information at the beginning of headings, paragraphs, lists, etc. (Techniques for 13.8)    
Checkpoint 13.9 Provide information about document collections (i.e., documents comprising multiple pages.). (Techniques for 13.9)    
Checkpoint 13.10 Provide a means to skip over multi-line ASCII art. (Techniques for 13.10)    
Checkpoint 14.2 Supplement text with graphic or auditory presentations where they will facilitate comprehension of the page. (Techniques for 14.2)    
Checkpoint 14.3 Create a style of presentation that is consistent across pages. (Techniques for 14.3)    
And if you use images and image maps (Priority 3) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 1.5 Until user agents render text equivalents for client-side image map links, provide redundant text links for each active region of a client-side image map. (Techniques for 1.5)    
And if you use tables (Priority 3) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 5.5 Provide summaries for tables. (Techniques for 5.5)    
Checkpoint 5.6 Provide abbreviations for header labels. (Techniques for 5.6)    
Checkpoint 10.3 Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render side-by-side text correctly, provide a linear text alternative (on the current page or some other) for all tables that lay out text in parallel, word-wrapped columns. (Techniques for 10.3)    
And if you use forms (Priority 3) Satisfied Comments
Checkpoint 10.4 Until user agents handle empty controls correctly, include default, place-holding characters in edit boxes and text areas. (Techniques for 10.4)    


For the latest version of any W3C specification please consult the list of W3C Technical Reports at http://www.w3.org/TR.

"Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0", W. Chisholm, G. Vanderheiden, and I. Jacobs, eds., 5 May 1999. This WCAG 1.0 Recommendation is http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/WAI-WEBCONTENT-19990505.
"Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0", W. Chisholm, G. Vanderheiden, I. Jacobs, eds. This document explains how to implement the checkpoints defined in "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0". The latest draft of the techniques is available at http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/WCAG10-TECHS/.