This section describes the status of this document at the time of its
publication. Other documents may supersede this document. The latest status
of this document series is maintained at the W3C.
This version of Techniques for Authoring Tool Accessibility is a working
draft of an update to a W3C Note, published as an informative appendix to
"Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines". This document is a draft for Working
Group review. It is intended that it will update the previous version of this
Note but this draft does not represent consensus within the WAI Authoring
Tools Guidelines (AUWG) Working
Group, nor within W3C. This document is likely to change and should not be
cited as anything other than "work in progress". The Working Group expects
to update this document in response to queries raised by implementors of the
Guidelines, for example to cover new technologies. Suggestions for additional
techniques are welcome.
This document represents an attempt to make it clearer how to use the
techniques for different types of tools. It begins the process of publishing
the techniques as a multi-part hypertext document. It also begins the
process, in its markup, of preparing for a techniques document to match the
"wombat" drafts of the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines.
For further information about Working Group decisions, please consult the minutes
of AUWG Meetings.
This document has been produced by the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines
Working Group (AUWG)
as part of the Web Accessibility Initiative
(WAI). The goals of the
Working Group are discussed in the AUWG charter.
Please send comments about this document to the public mailing list: email@example.com (public archives).
Please note that this document may contain typographical errors. It was
published as soon as possible since review of the content itself is
important, although noting typographical errors is also helpful.
A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents
including Working Drafts and Notes can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR.
This document has been divided into a multi-part hypertext document to keep
individual pages to a manageable size. There are publishing conventions used
to identify various features and parts of the document. Some of these will be
used to provide multiple views of the techniques - for example implementation
techniques for a particular kind of tool, or references for particular techniques.
Other conventions are used to ensure that this document is compatible with ATAG
version 1.0 or will be compatible with ATAG wombat with a minimum of difficulty
Note on applicability of techniques: The following techniques
are applicable to all kinds of authoring tools, including those that are insertable
components of other authoring tools. For example, if an authoring tool for designing
on-line courses (courseware) has a prefabricated chat facility that the instructor
can drag on to their page, this component must comply with all the techniques
for accessible authoring interface (guideline 1) and accessible Web content
output (guidelines 2-7) and .
Note: For the purposes of these techniques, authoring tools
may fall into one or more of the following categories. For example, an HTML
categories, Markup Editing Tools and Programming Tools. A SMIL editor that includes
a text-only view of the markup and a preview mode would be considered both a
Markup Editing Tool and a Multimedia Creation Tool. @@This
is still tentative@@
- Markup Editing Tools:
Tools that assist authors to produce markup documents. These include text-based
and WYSIWYG markup editors for HTML, XHTML, SMIL, etc. and word processors
that save in markup formats.
- Multimedia Creation Tools:
Tools that assist authors to create multimedia Web content without the
author having control over the raw markup or code of the output format.
These include multimedia production tools outputting SMIL or QuickTime as
well as image editors, video editors, sounds editors, etc.
- Content Management Tools:
Tools that assist authors to create and organize specific types of Web content
without the author having control over the markup or programming implementation.
Good examples include courseware in which the author is prompted to enter
various information which is then displayed in a format determined by the
tool. Note: If the tool allows the author to control the
markup that is actually used to implement the higher-order content, then that
functionality would be considered to be a Markup Editing Tool.
- Programming Tools:
Tools for creating all kinds of Web Applications, including Java applets,
Flash, server and client-side scripts, etc. Also includes tools that assist
authors to create markup languages (i.e. XML) and tools that assist authors
to create user interfaces (i.e. UIML?).
- Conversion Tools:
Tools for converting content from one format to another. This includes tools
for changing the format of images, for conversion of other document formats
to XHTML, for importing document formats and document management systems and
Implementation Techniques by Guideline
Ensure that the authoring tool is accessible to authors with disabilities:
- : Ensure that the authoring
interface follows all operating environment conventions that benefit accessibility
(Applies at three priority levels: [Priority 1] for standards and conventions
that are essential to accessibility; [Priority 2] for those that are important
to accessibility; [Priority 3] for those that are beneficial to accessibility).
- : Ensure that the authoring
interface enables accessible editing of all element
and object properties. [Priority 1]
Ensure that the authoring interface enables the author to edit the structure
of the document [Priority 2]
Allow the display preferences of the authoring interface
to be changed without affecting the document markup [Priority 1]
- : Ensure that the authoring
interface enables accessible navigation of editing
views via the document structure. [Priority 1]
Ensure the authoring interface allows the author to search within the editing
views. [Priority 2]
Generate standard markup:
- W3C Recommendations when
they are available and appropriate for a task. [Priority 2].
Use the latest versions of
- : Ensure that markup which the
tool automatically generates is valid for the language the tool is generating.
Support accessible authoring practices:
- : Ensure that the author can produce accessible
content in the markup language(s)
supported by the tool. [Priority 1]
- : Ensure that the tool preserves all accessibility
information during transformations,
and conversions. [Priority 1]
- : Ensure that when the tool automatically
generates markup it conforms to WCAG 2.0 [WCAG20].
- : Ensure that all pre-authored
content for the tool conforms to WCAG 2.0 [WCAG20].
- : Allow the author to preserve
markup not recognized by the tool. [Priority 3]
Guide the author to produce accessible content:
- : Assist the author to create
structured content. [Relative Priority]
- : Assist the author to separate
information from its presentation. [Relative Priority]
- : Assist the author to ensure
device independent control. [Relative Priority]
- : Prompt
the author to provide equivalent alternative
information (e.g., captions,
auditory descriptions, and collated
text transcripts for video). [Relative Priority]
- : Do not automatically generate
or reuse previously authored alternatives without author confirmation, except
when the function is known with certainty. [Priority 1]
- : Provide functionality for
managing, editing, and reusing equivalent
alternatives for multimedia objects. [Priority 3]
Provide ways of checking for and correcting inaccessible content:
Promote accessibility in help and documentation:
- : Document all features that
promote the production of accessible content. [Priority 1]
- : Document the process
of using the tool to produce accessible content. [Priority 3]
Integrate accessibility solutions into the overall "look and feel":
for checkpoint 4.1 Ensure that the functionalities for checkpoints 3.1,
3.2 and 4.1 are always clearly available to the user. [Priority 1]
- : Ensure that accessible
authoring practices supporting the minimum level requirements for all
WCAG 2.0 [WCAG20] checkpoints
are among the most obvious and easily initiated by the author.@@changed
- due to WCAG changes@@ [Priority 2]
- : Ensure that all functionality
(prompts, checkers, information icons, etc.) related to accessible
authoring practices is naturally integrated into the overall look and
feel of the tool. [Priority 2]
Ensure that creating accessible content is a naturally integrated
part of the documentation, including examples. [Priority ?]
Other technique documents
Contents | Guideline 1 | Guideline 2
| Guideline 3 | Guideline 4 | Appendix
A: Prompting | Glossary | References