Authoring Techniques for XHTML & HTML Internationalization:
Characters and Encodings 1.0

W3C Working Group Note 27 January 2015

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Richard Ishida, W3C


It is important to consider character encoding when producing web pages, and to understand how to choose and declare encodings, how and when to use character escapes, etc.

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

Work on this document has been discontinued and it should not be referenced or used as a basis for implementation. For up-to-date information on on this subject look for articles and tutorials by the W3C Internationalization Activity.

The document aimed to provide practical techniques related to character sets, encodings, and other character-specific matters that HTML content authors can use to ensure that their HTML is easily adaptable for an international audience. The W3C Internationalization Activity home page already provides links to tutorials and articles that provide this information, and the Internationalization Working Group considers that it is not useful to duplicate the information here.

This Working Group Note was published by the Internationalization Working Group. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to www-i18n-comments@w3.org (archive).

Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document has been produced under the 24 January 2002 CPP as amended by the W3C Patent Policy Transition Procedure. The Working Group maintains a public list of patent disclosures relevant to this document; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

This document is governed by the 1 August 2014 W3C Process Document.