OWL 2 Web Ontology Language
Quick Reference Guide

W3C Working Draft 21 April11 June 2009

This version:
Latest version:
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-owl2-quick-reference-20081202/ Authors:http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-owl2-quick-reference-20090421/ (color-coded diff)
Jie Bao, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Elisa F. Kendall, Sandpiper Software, Inc.
Deborah L. McGuinness, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Bell Labs Research, Alcatel-Lucent
Li Ding, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Ankesh Khandelwal, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Peter F. Patel-Schneider , Bell Labs Research, Alcatel-LucentThis document is also available in these non-normative formats: PDF version.


The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information written in RDF, and OWL 2 ontologies themselves are primarily exchanged as RDF documents. The OWL 2 Document Overview describes the overall state of OWL 2, and should be read before other OWL 2 documents.

his document provides a quick reference guide to the OWL 2 language, similar to what was provided in the Language Synopsis section of the OWL Web Ontology Language Overview . Inspiration for this effort includes work by the ebiquity Research Group at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) on earlier versions of a Reference Card for the Semantic Web . A draft printable version is available , but it is obsolete with respect to the current wiki version.Status of this Document

May Be Superseded

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

Summary of Changes

This Working Draftdocument has numerous editorial changes since the previous version of 02 December 2008. In particular, theundergone significant presentation has been significantly improved,changes and a reorganization.

Last Call

The content has been updated to reflect changes inWorking Group believes this document is now essentially done, so this is a "Last Call" draft. The language specification.document is not expected to change significantly, going forward.

Please Comment By 12 May30 July 2009

The OWL Working Group seeks public feedback on this Working Draft. Please send your comments to public-owl-comments@w3.org (public archive). If possible, please offer specific changes to the text that would address your concern. You may also wish to check the Wiki Version of this document and see if the relevant text has already been updated.

No Endorsement

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.


This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. This document is informative only. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Table of Contents

Editor's Note: To do list:

1 Names, Prefixes, and Notation

Names in OWL 2 are IRIs, often written in a little bit disturbing, maybe try other typographic trick, e.g., some lighter colour. whether we could findshorthand prefix:local_name, where prefix: is a trick soprefix name that we can switch on/off highlight the OWL 1/2 differencesexpands to an IRI, and local_name is the '?' links that refer toremainder of the NF&R. 1 Namespacesname. The standard namespaces and prefixesprefix names in OWL 2 areare:

Prefix URI rdfName Expansion

2 OWL 2 constructs and axioms Features in bold are only available in OWL 2. Each table has columns: 1st: Feature's name and link to Primer and New Features and Rationale (if applicable)(as "(N)") 2nd: functional syntax and link to Syntax 3rd: RDF syntax with link to Mapping to RDF GraphsWe use notation conventions in the following notation conventions: unless stated otherwise, "C" is an OWL class, "D" is atable*:

Letters Meaning Letters Meaning Letters Meaning Letters Meaning
C class expression CN class name D data range, "P" and "Q" arerange DN datatype name
P object properties, "R" and "S" areproperty expression PN object property name R data properties, "a" is an OWL individual, "u" and "v" are literals, "n" isproperty A annotation property
a individual aN individual name _:a anonymous individual (a blank node label) v literal
n non-negative integer, "_:x" isinteger** f facet ON ontology name U IRI
s IRI or anonymous individual. All names may have subscripts. "(aindividual t IRI, anonymous individual, or literal p prefix name _:x blank node
(a1 … an )" in the 3rd column stands for a) RDF list

. Editor's Note: Christine suggested to use same naming convention* All of the above can have subscripts. ** as in Syntax, e.g., CE, DR, OPE, DPE,a shorthand for "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger

2 OWL 2 constructs and ltaxioms

For an OWL 2 DL ontology, there are some global restrictions on axioms.

In the following tables the first column provides links to the Primer (if applicable) and the 2nd column provides links to the Functional Syntax.

2.1 ClassesClass Expressions

Predefined and Named Classes

all OWL individualsLanguage FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named class CN CN
universal class owl:Thing owl:Thing
empty class owl:Nothing owl:Nothing

Boolean Connectives and Enumeration of Individuals

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
intersection ObjectIntersectionOf(C1 … Cn) _:x rdf:type owl:Class.
_:x owl:intersectionOf ( C1 … Cn ).
union ObjectUnionOf(C1 … Cn) _:x rdf:type owl:Class.
_:x owl:unionOf ( C1 … Cn ).
complement ObjectComplementOf(C) _:x rdf:type owl:Class.
_:x owl:complementOf C.
enumeration ObjectOneOf(a1 … an) _:x rdf:type owl:Class.
_:x owl:oneOf ( a1 … an ).

Object Property Restrictions

Every owl:Restriction is an owl:Class.Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
universal ObjectAllValuesFrom(P C) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:allValuesFrom C
existential ObjectSomeValuesFrom(P C) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:someValuesFrom C
individual value ObjectHasValue(P a) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:hasValue i.a.
local reflexivity ( N )ObjectHasSelf(P) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:hasSelf "true"^^xsd:boolean.
exact cardinality ObjectExactCardinality(n P) ObjectExactCardinality (n P C ) ( N )_:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:cardinality n.
(withoutqualified exact cardinality ObjectExactCardinality(n P C) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:qualifiedCardinality n.
_:x owl:onClass C.
(with C)maximum cardinality ObjectMaxCardinality(n P) ObjectMaxCardinality (n P C ) ( N )_:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:minCardinality n.
(withoutqualified maximum cardinality ObjectMaxCardinality(n P C) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:minQualifiedCardinality n.
_:x owl:onClass C.
(with C)minimum cardinality ObjectMinCardinality(n P) ObjectMinCardinality (n P C ) ( N )_:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:maxCardinality n.
(withoutqualified minimum cardinality ObjectMinCardinality(n P C) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.
_:x owl:maxQualifiedCardinality n.
_:x owl:onClass C.

(with C)Data Property Restrictions

Every owl:Restriction is an owl:Class.Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
universal DataAllValuesFrom(R D) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:allValuesFrom D.
existential DataSomeValuesFrom(R D) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:someValuesFrom D.
individualliteral value DataHasValue(R u)v) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:hasValue u.v.
exact cardinality DataExactCardinality(n R) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:cardinality n.
qualified exact cardinality DataExactCardinality(n R D ) ( N )D) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P. _:x owl:cardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger.R.
_:x owl:qualifiedCardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger. (without D)n.
_:x owl:onDataRange D.
(with D)maximum cardinality DataMaxCardinality(n R) DataMaxCardinality (n R D ) ( N )_:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P.R.
_:x owl:maxCardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger. (without D) _:x owl:maxQualifiedCardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger. _:x owl:onDataRange D. (withn.
qualified maximum cardinality DataMaxCardinality(n R D) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:maxQualifiedCardinality n.
_:x owl:onDataRange D.
minimum cardinality DataMinCardinality(n R) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty R.
_:x owl:minCardinality n.
qualified minimum cardinality DataMinCardinality(n R D ) ( N )D) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperty P. (without D) _:x owl:minCardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger.R.
_:x owl:minQualifiedCardinality "n"^^xsd:nonNegativeInteger.n.
_:x owl:onDataRange D.

(with D)Restrictions Using n-ary Data Range

"DIn the following table 'Dn "' is aan n-ary data range (cf #Data Ranges ).range.

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
n-ary universal ( N )DataAllValuesFrom(R1 … Rn Dn) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperties ( R1 … Rn ).
_:x owl:allValuesFrom Dn.
n-ary existential ( N )DataSomeValuesFrom(R1 … Rn Dn) _:x rdf:type owl:Restriction.
_:x owl:onProperties ( R1 … Rn).
_:x owl:someValuesFrom Dn.

2.1.1 Class Axioms subclasses SubClassOf (C 1 C 2 ) C 1 rdfs:subClassOf C 2 . equivalent classes EquivalentClasses (C 1 C n ) C 1 owl:equivalentClass C 2 . C n-1 owl:equivalentClass C n . disjoint classes DisjointClasses (C 1 C 2 ) C 1 owl:disjointWith C 2 . pairwise disjoint classes ( N ) DisjointClasses (C 1 C n ) _:x rdf:type owl:AllDisjointClasses. _:x owl:members ( C 1 C n ). disjoint union ( N ) DisjointUnionOf (C C 1 C n ) C owl:disjointUnionOf ( C 1 C n ).2.2 Properties

2.2.1Object Property Expressions

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named object Properties are instances of owl:ObjectPropertyproperty PN PN
universal object property ( N )owl:topObjectProperty owl:topObjectProperty
bottomempty object property ( N )owl:bottomObjectProperty owl:bottomObjectProperty
inverse property ObjectInverseOf (P)(PN) _:x owl:inverseOf P Datatype Properties are instances of owl:DatatypePropertyPN

Data Property Expressions

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named data property R R
universal datatypedata property ( N )owl:topDataProperty owl:topDataProperty
bottom datatypeempty data property ( N )owl:bottomDataProperty owl:bottomDataProperty

2.2.2 Property Axioms Object Property Axioms subproperty SubObjectPropertyOf (P Q) P rdfs:subPropertyOf Q. property chain inclusion ( N ) SubObjectPropertyOf (ObjectPropertyChain(P 1 P n ) Q) Q owl:propertyChainAxiom (P 1 P n ). property domain ObjectPropertyDomain (P C) P rdfs:domain C. property range ObjectPropertyRange (P C) P rdfs:range C. equivalent properties EquivalentObjectProperties (P2.3 Individuals & Literals

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named individual aN aN
anonymous individual _:a _:a
literal (datatype value) "abc"^^DN "abc"^^DN

2.4 Data Ranges

Data Range Expressions

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named datatype DN DN
data range complement DataComplementOf(D) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
_:x owl:datatypeComplementOf D.
data range intersection DataIntersectionOf(D1…Dn) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
_:x owl:intersectionOf (D1…Dn).
data range union DataUnionOf(D1…Dn) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
_:x owl:unionOf (D1…Dn).
literal enumeration DataOneOf(v1Pvn) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
_:x owl:oneOf ( v1 vn ).
datatype restriction DatatypeRestriction(DN f1 v1 fn vn) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
_:x owl:onDatatype DN.
_:x owl:withRestrictions (_:x1 ... _:xn).
_:xj fj vj.      j=1…n

2.5 Axioms

Class Expression Axioms

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
subclass SubClassOf(C1 C2) C1 rdfs:subClassOf C2.
equivalent classes EquivalentClasses(C1 Cn) Cj owl:equivalentClass Cj+1. j=1…n-1
disjoint classes DisjointClasses(C1 C2) C1 owl:disjointWith C2.
pairwise disjoint classes DisjointClasses(C1 Cn) _:x rdf:type owl:AllDisjointClasses.
_:x owl:members ( C1 Cn ).
disjoint union DisjointUnionOf(CN C1 Cn) CN owl:disjointUnionOf ( C1 Cn ).

Object Property Axioms

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
subproperty SubObjectPropertyOf(P1 P2) P1 owl:equivalentPropertyrdfs:subPropertyOf P2.
property chain inclusion SubObjectPropertyOf(ObjectPropertyChain(P1 … P n-1 owl:equivalentPropertyn) P) P owl:propertyChainAxiom (P1 Pn . disjoint).
property domain ObjectPropertyDomain(P C) P rdfs:domain C.
property range ObjectPropertyRange(P C) P rdfs:range C.
equivalent properties (EquivalentObjectProperties(P1 Pn) Pj owl:equivalentProperty Pj+1. j=1…n-1
disjoint properties DisjointObjectProperties(P1 P2) P1 owl:propertyDisjointWith P2.
pairwise disjoint properties ( N )DisjointObjectProperties(P1 … Pn) _:x rdf:type owl:AllDisjointProperties.
_:x owl:members ( P1 … Pn ).
inverse properties InverseObjectProperties(P Q)1 P2) P1 owl:inverseOf Q.P2.
functional property FunctionalObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:FunctionalProperty.
inverse functional property InverseFunctionalObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:InverseFunctionalProperty.
reflexive property ( N )ReflexiveObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:ReflexiveProperty.
irreflexive property ( N )IrreflexiveObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:IrreflexiveProperty.
symmetric property SymmetricObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:SymmetricProperty.
asymmetric property ( N )AsymmetricObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:AsymmetricProperty.
transitive property TransitiveObjectProperty(P) P rdf:type owl:TransitiveProperty.

DatatypeData Property Axioms

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
subproperty SubDataPropertyOf(R S)1 R2) R1 rdfs:subPropertyOf S.R2.
property domain DataPropertyDomain(R C) R rdfs:domain C.
property range DataPropertyRange(R C)D) R rdfs:range C.D.
equivalent properties EquivalentDataProperties(R1 … Rn) R 1 owl:equivalentProperty R 2 . R n-1j owl:equivalentProperty R nj+1. j=1…n-1
disjoint properties ( N )DisjointDataProperties(R S)1 R2) R1 owl:propertyDisjointWith S.R2.
pairwise disjoint properties ( N )DisjointDataProperties(R1 … Rn) _:x rdf:type owl:AllDisjointProperties.
_:x owl:members ( R1 … Rn ).
functional property FunctionalDataProperty(R) R rdf:type owl:FunctionalProperty.

2.3 Data Ranges Built-in datatypes are unary data ranges. OWL 2 does not provide direct support for n-ary data ranges but provides syntactical hooks for applications to add them. data range complement ( N ) DataComplementOf (D) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype. _:x owl:datatypeComplementOf D. data range intersection DataUnionOf (D 1 …D n ) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype. _:x owl:unionOf (D 1 …D n ). data range union DataIntersectionOf (D 1 …D n ) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype. _:x owl:intersectionOf (D 1 …D n ). literal enumeration DataOneOf (v 1 v n ) _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype. _:x owl:oneOf ( v 1 v n ).Datatype restriction ( N ) DatatypeRestriction (D f 1 v 1 f n v n ) D a built-inDefinitions

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
datatype f j a constraining facet, v j a restriction value _:x rdf:type rdfs:Datatype. _:x owl:onDatatypedefinition DatatypeDefinition(DN D) DN owl:equivalentClass D.

_:x owl:withRestrictions (y1 ... yn). y1 f 1 v 1 . ... yn f n v n . 2.4 Keys Keys ( N ) HasKey (C (P 1 P m ) (R 1 R n ) ) C owl:hasKey (P 1 P m R 1 R n ). 2.5Assertions

individual equality SameIndividual (a 1 a 2 ) a 1 owl:sameAs a 2 . n-aryLanguage FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
individual equality SameIndividual(a1 … an) aj owl:sameAs aj+1. j=1…n-1
individual inequality DifferentIndividuals(a1 a2) a1 owl:differentFrom a2.
pairwise individual inequality DifferentIndividuals(a1 … an) _:x rdf:type owl:AllDifferent.
_:x owl:members (a1 … an).
class assertion ClassAssertion(C a) ia rdf:type C.
positive object property assertion ObjectPropertyAssertion( PPN a1 a2 ) a1 P a 2 . positive inverse object property assertion ObjectPropertyAssertion ( ObjectInverseOf(P) a 1PN a2 ) a 2 P a 1.
positive data property assertion DataPropertyAssertion( PR a v ) a PR v.
negative object property assertion ( N )NegativeObjectPropertyAssertion(P a1 a2 ) _:x rdf:type owl:NegativePropertyAssertion.
_:x owl:sourceIndividual a1.
_:x owl:assertionProperty P.
_:x owl:targetIndividual a2.
negative datatypedata property assertion ( N )NegativeDataPropertyAssertion(R a uv ) _:x rdf:type owl:NegativePropertyAssertion.
_:x owl:sourceIndividual a.
_:x owl:assertionProperty R.
_:x owl:targetValue uv.


Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
Key HasKey(C (P1 Pm) (R1 Rn) ) C owl:hasKey (P1 Pm R1 Rn).

2.6 Declarations

Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
class Declaration( N ) Declaration(Class( CCN ) ) CCN rdf:type owl:Class.
datatype Declaration( N ) Declaration(Datatype( DDN ) ) DDN rdf:type rdfs:Datatype.
object property Declaration( N ) Declaration(ObjectProperty( PPN ) ) PPN rdf:type owl:ObjectProperty.
datatypedata property Declaration( N ) Declaration(DataProperty( R ) ) R rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty.
annotation property Declaration( N ) Declaration(AnnotationProperty( A ) ) A rdf:type owl:AnnotationProperty.
named individual Declaration( N ) Declaration(NamedIndividual( aaN ) ) aaN rdf:type owl:NamedIndividual.

2.7 Annotations


Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
annotation of an object s the annotation subject, v a resource; AP annotation property. annotation assertionsassertion AnnotationAssertion ( AP(A s v)t) s AP v.A t.
annotation of an axiom
where the axiom in RDF is one or (ifmore triples with the assertion itself has annotation)same predicate s AP v.i U ti
AXIOM(Annotation(A t) …) _:xi A t.
si U ti.
_:xi rdf:type owl:Annotation.owl:Axiom.
_:x owl:subject s.i owl:annotatedSource si.
_:x owl:predicate AP.i owl:annotatedProperty U.
_:x owl:object v. Note: an annotated object can be an ontology, an ontology entity, an anonymous individual, or another annotation.i owl:annotatedTarget ti.
annotation of an axiom
ywhere the annotated object, AP annotation property, v a resourceaxiom annotations ( N )in RDF starts with _:x
AXIOM(Annotation ( AP v)(A t) )
s p o._:x rdf:type owl:Axiom.A t.
_:x owl:subject s.….
annotation of another annotation
(the other annotation in RDF starts with s1)
Annotation(Annotation(A t) A1 t1) _:x owl:predicate p.A t.
s1 A1 t1.
_:x owl:object o.rdf:type owl:Annotation.
_:x AP v. If AXIOM(...) becomesowl:annotatedSource s p o. _:x p o1.
_:x AP v. If AXIOM(...) becomesowl:annotatedProperty A1.
_:x p o. Note: for n-ary axioms of type EquivalentClasses, EquivalentProperties or SameIndividual, they will first be broken up into several RDF triples of their binary forms, then each triple is reified using the above rule.owl:annotatedTarget t1.

Annotation Properties

allLanguage FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
named annotation properties are instances of owl:AnnotationPropertyproperty A A
human-readable name Labelrdfs:label rdfs:label
human-readable descriptioncomment rdfs:comment rdfs:comment
additional information rdfs:seeAlso rdfs:seeAlso
defining agent rdfs:isDefinedBy rdfs:isDefinedBy
version information owl:versionInfo owl:versionInfo
deprecation Deprecatedowl:deprecated owl:deprecated
backwards compatibility owl:backwardCompatibleWith owl:backwardCompatibleWith
incompatibility owl:incompatibleWith owl:incompatibleWith
prior version owl:priorVersion owl:priorVersion

Annotation Axioms

AP annotation property, U an IRI.Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
annotation subproperties ( N )SubAnnotationPropertyOf (AP(A1 APA2) APA1 rdfs:subPropertyOf APA2.
annotation property domain ( N )AnnotationPropertyDomain (AP(A U) APA rdfs:domain U.
annotation property range ( N )AnnotationPropertyRange (AP(A U) APA rdfs:range U.

Deprecation C an OWL class or a datatype, P an object property, datatype property or annotation property. deprecated class C Deprecated C rdf:type owl:DeprecatedClass. deprecated property P Deprecated P rdf:type owl:DeprecatedProperty. Note: "Deprecated" is the short for owl:deprecated "true"^^xsd:boolean2.8 OWLOntologies

Annotations ofOntologies

O an ontology, U an ontology IRI, V an IRI.Language FeatureFunctional SyntaxRDF Syntax
OWL ontology
(importing ))*

Ontology (O [V]([ON [U]]
  Import (U)... Annotation(AP, v)...(ON1)...
  Annotation(A t)
OON rdf:type owl:Ontology.
[O[ON owl:versionIRI V.] OU.]
ON owl:imports U.ON1. ...
O AP v.ON A t.
Note: if Oprefix declaration** Prefix(p=U) @prefix p U.

Note *: in the RDF syntax _:x is unnamed, then Oused in place of ON if there is mapped to _:x (an anonymous individual).no ontology Properties are instances of owl:OntologyProperty backwards compatibility O owl:backwardCompatibleWith U. incompatibility O owl:incompatibleWith U. prior version O owl:priorVersion U. 2.9 Deprecated Vocabularyname. ** RDF syntax is in OWL 2 owl:DataRange replaced by rdfs:Datatype owl:distinctMembers replaced by owl:membersTurtle, other RDF serializations may vary.

3 Built-in Datatypes and Facets

3.1 Built-in Datatypes

The value space is a set determining the set of values of the datatype. A literal value "abc" of theUniversal Datatype DT can be given in the form "abc"^^DT.rdfs:Literal
Numbers OWL Numeric Datetypes :owl:rational (rational numbers)owl:real
( N )(real numbers) XSD Numeric Datatypesxsd:double xsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:long xsd:unsignedLongxsd:float xsd:nonPositiveInteger xsd:int xsd:unsignedIntxsd:decimal xsd:positiveInteger xsd:short xsd:unsignedShortxsd:integer
xsd:negativeIntegerxsd:long xsd:int xsd:short xsd:byte
xsd:nonNegativeInteger xsd:nonPositiveInteger
xsd:positiveInteger xsd:negativeInteger
xsd:unsignedLong xsd:unsignedInt
xsd:unsignedShort xsd:unsignedByte
Strings : value space is of the form <"abc", tag> Strings with a Language Tag : tag is either an empty string or a lowercase language tag rdf:text: A Datatype for Internationalized Text Jie Bao, Axel Polleres, Boris Motik. W3C Working Draft, 21 April 2009, http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/WD-rdf-text-20090421/ . Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-text/ . Strings without a Language Tag : tag is an empty stringrdf:PlainLiteral (RDF plain literals)
xsd:string xsd:NCName xsd:normalizedStringxsd:Name xsd:NMTOKEN
xsd:token xsd:language xsd:Namexsd:normalizedString
Boolean Values xsd:boolean (value space has only two values:space: true and false)
Binary Data xsd:base64Binary xsd:hexBinary
IRIs xsd:anyURI
IRIs as defined in XML Schema Datatypes Time Instants xsd:dateTimeTime Instants withxsd:dateTime (optional time zone offsetoffset)
xsd:dateTimeStamp time instants without(required time zone offsetoffset)
XML Literals rdf:XMLLiteral
Note: owl:rational and rdf:XMLLiteral are at Risk in OWL 22.

3.2 Facets

TheFacet space is a set of pairs of the form < f v >, where f is an IRI called a constraining facet, and v is a value. Each such pair is mapped to a subset of theValue space of the datatype. Notations : Numeric Datatype, String Datatype and Binary datatype refer to a set ofApplicable Datatypes based on the classification done in the prior section. Facet ( N ) f Datatype Value vExplanation
xsd:minInclusive, xsd:maxInclusive, xsd:minExclusive,xsd:minInclusive
Numeric Datatype DT, Time instant DTliteral in DTthe corresponding datatype Numbers,
Time Instants
Restricts the value-space to greater than (equal to) or lesser than (equal to) a value
xsd:minLength, xsd:maxLength,xsd:minLength
String Datatype, Binary Datatype, xsd:anyURI NonnegativeNon-negative integer Strings,
Binary Data,
Restricts the value-space based on the
lengths of the literals
xsd:pattern String Datatype, xsd:anyURIxsd:string literal whose value isas a regular expression Strings,
Restricts the value space to literals thatthat> match the regular expression
rdf:langRange rdf:textxsd:string literal whose value isas a regular expression rdf:PlainLiteral Restricts the value space to literals with language tags that match the regular expression

4 Appendix

4.1 New Features in OWL 2

Class Expressions
Class Axioms
Property Expressions
Property Axioms
Data Ranges
Extra Built-in Datatypes
  • owl:rational, owl:real, xsd:dateTimeStamp, rdf:PlainLiteral

4.2 Additional Vocabulary in OWL 2 RDF Syntax

Feature Vocabulary Note
data range owl:DataRange deprecated in OWL 2, replaced by rdfs:Datatype
membership of a set of pairwise different individuals owl:distinctMembers can alternatively use owl:members
ontology property owl:OntologyProperty
deprecation owl:DeprecatedClass,
alternative RDF syntax:
s rdf:type owl:DeprecatedClass . or
s rdf:type owl:DeprecatedProperty .
can be replaced by

s owl:deprecated "true"^^xsd:boolean .

5 Acknowledgments

The starting point for the development of OWL 2 was the OWL1.1 member submission, itself a result of user and developer feedback, and in particular of information gathered during the OWL Experiences and Directions (OWLED) Workshop series. The working group also considered postponed issues from the WebOnt Working Group.

This document has been produced by the OWL Working Group (see below), and its contents reflect extensive discussions within the Working Group as a whole. The editors extend special thanks to Bernardo Cuenca Grau (Oxford University), Christine Golbreich (Université de Versailles St-Quentin and LIRMM), Ivan Herman (W3C/ERCIM), and Bijan Parsia (University of Manchester) and Peter F. Patel-Schneider (Bell Labs Research, Alcatel-Lucent)for their thorough reviews.

The regular attendees at meetings of the OWL Working Group at the time of publication of this document were: Jie Bao (RPI), Diego Calvanese (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano), Bernardo Cuenca Grau (Oxford University), Martin Dzbor (Open University), Achille Fokoue (IBM Corporation), Christine Golbreich (Université de Versailles St-Quentin and LIRMM), Sandro Hawke (W3C/MIT), Ivan Herman (W3C/ERCIM), Rinke Hoekstra (University of Amsterdam), Ian Horrocks (Oxford University), Elisa Kendall (Sandpiper Software), Markus Krötzsch (FZI), Carsten Lutz (Universität Bremen), Deborah L. McGuinness (RPI), Boris Motik (Oxford University), Jeff Pan (University of Aberdeen), Bijan Parsia (University of Manchester), Peter F. Patel-Schneider (Bell Labs Research, Alcatel-Lucent), Sebastian Rudolph (FZI), Alan Ruttenberg (Science Commons), Uli Sattler (University of Manchester), Michael Schneider (FZI), Mike Smith (Clark & Parsia), Evan Wallace (NIST), andZhe Wu (Oracle Corporation).Corporation), and Antoine Zimmermann (DERI Galway). We would also like to thank past members of the working group: Jeremy Carroll, Jim Hendler, Vipul Kashyap.