[ contents ]

W3C

Requirements of Japanese Text Layout

W3C Working Draft 15 October 2008

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-jlreq-20081015/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/jlreq/
Previous version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-jlreq-20080411/
Editors:
Yasuhiro Anan, Microsoft
Hiroyuki Chiba, Invited Expert
Junsaburo Edamoto, Invited Expert
Richard Ishida, W3C
Keiichiro Ishino, Antenna House
Tatsuo Kobayashi, JustSystems
Toshi Kobayashi, Invited Expert
Kenzou Onozawa, Invited Expert
Felix Sasaki, W3C

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: Japanese version. The English version of this document is the authoritative version.


Abstract

This document describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051. However, it addresses also areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. The document is currently in draft stage.

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This is an updated Working Draft of "Requirements of Japanese Text Layout". This document is also available in a Japanese version. The English version of this document is the authoritative version.

This document describes requirements for general Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051. However, it addresses also areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051. The document is currently in draft stage. It contains most of the material which the task force intends to publish as a Working Group note in December 2008.

This document was developed by participants from four W3C Groups - the CSS, Internationalization Core, SVG and XSL Working Groups - , working together as part of the Japanese Layout Task Force. The Task Force expects to advance this Working Draft to Working Group Note.

Feedback about the content of this document is encouraged until 15 November 2008. Send your comments to www-i18n-comments@w3.org. Use "[Comment on jlreq WD]" in the subject line of your email, followed by a brief subject. The archives for this list are publicly available.

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by groups operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. The groups do not expect this document to become a W3C Recommendation. W3C maintains a public list of disclosures for each group: CSS Working Group disclosures, i18n Core Working Group disclosures, SVG Working Group disclosures, and XSL Working Group disclosures. Those pages also include instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.


Table of Contents

Introduction
   1.1 Purpose of This Document
   1.2 How This Document was Created
   1.3 Basic Principles for Development of this Document
   1.4 The Structure of This Document
   1.5 Reference of Definition and Others
Basics of Japanese Composition
   2.1 Page Formats for Japanese Documents
      2.1.1 Specification of Page Formats
      2.1.2 Basic Templates of page Formats
      2.1.3 Elements of Page Formats
      2.1.4 Elements of Kihon-hanmen
      2.1.5 Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format
   2.2 Japanese Characters - Dimensions of Kanji and Kana Characters
      2.2.1 Characters Used for Japanese Composition
      2.2.2 Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana
      2.2.3 Principles of Arrangement of Kanji and Kana Characters
   2.3 Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode
      2.3.1 Directional Factors in Japanese Composition
      2.3.2 Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode
   2.4 Specifying the Kihon-hanmen
      2.4.1 Procedure for Defining the Kihon-hanmen
      2.4.2 Considerations in Designing the Kihon-hanmen
   2.5 Pagewise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements
      2.5.1 Examples of Items Jutting Out of the Kihon-hanmen
      2.5.2 Line Positioning based on the Kihon-hanmen Design
      2.5.3 Character Positioning based on Kihon-hanmen Design
   2.6 Running Heads and Page Numbers
      2.6.1 Positioning of Running Heads and Page Numbers
      2.6.2 Principles of Arrangements of Running Heads and Page Numbers
      2.6.3 Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers
Line Composition
   3.1 Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks
      3.1.1 Differences in Vertical and Horizontal Composition in Use of Punctuation Marks
      3.1.2 Positioning of Punctuation Marks (Commas, Periods and Brackets)
      3.1.3 Exceptional Positioning of [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)and [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT)
      3.1.4 Positioning of Consecutive the opening brackets(cl-01), the closing brackets(cl-02), the commas(cl-07) and the full stops(cl-06)
      3.1.5 Positioning of the opening brackets(cl-01) at Line Head
      3.1.6 Positioning of the dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) ([?] (QUESTION MARK) and [!] (EXCLAMATION MARK) and the hyphens(cl-03)
      3.1.7 Characters Not Starting Line
      3.1.8 Characters Not Ending Line
      3.1.9 Positioning of the closing brackets(cl-02), the full stops(cl-06), the commas(cl-07) and the middle dots(cl-05) at Line End
      3.1.10 Unbreakable Character Sequence
      3.1.11 Unbreakable Character Sequence
      3.1.12 Examples of Line Adjustment
   3.2 Japanese and Western Mixed Text Composition (including Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Composition)
      3.2.1 Composition of Japanese and Western Mixed Texts
      3.2.2 Mixed Text Compostion in the Horizontal Writing Mode
      3.2.3 Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Settings
      3.2.4 Setting Method for Full Width Mono-space Latin Letters and Western-Arabic Numerals
      3.2.5 Handling of Tatechuyoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings)
      3.2.6 Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using proprtional Western Fonts
   3.3 Ruby and Emphasis Dots
      3.3.1 Usage of Ruby
      3.3.2 Choice of Base Characters to be annotated by Ruby
      3.3.3 Choice of Sizes for Ruby Characters
      3.3.4 Choice of Sides for Ruby with respect to Base Characters
      3.3.5 Positioning of Mono-Ruby with respect to Base Characters
      3.3.6 Positioning of Group-Ruby with respect to Base Characters
      3.3.7 Positioning of Jukugo-Ruby with respect to Base Characters
      3.3.8 Adjustments of Ruby of which length is longer than that of Base Characters
      3.3.9 Composition of Emphasis Dots
   3.4 Inline Cutting Note (Warichu)
      3.4.1 The Situations Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) is used.
      3.4.2 Character Size for Inline cutting note and Line Gaps
      3.4.3 Handling of inline cutting note, when the inline cutting note is set straddled over two base text lines
   3.5 Paragraph Adjustment Rules
      3.5.1 Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs
      3.5.2 Line Head Indent and Line End Indent
      3.5.3 Justification Processing
      3.5.4 Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs
   3.6 Tab Setting
      3.6.1 The Usage of Tab Setting
      3.6.2 The Types of Tab Settings
      3.6.3 The setting method of the target text
   3.7 Other Rules of Japanese Typesetting
      3.7.1 Superscript and superscript
      3.7.2 Furiwake
      3.7.3 Jidori Processing
      3.7.4 Processing of Math Symbols and Math Operators
   3.8 Line Adjustment
      3.8.1 Necessity for Line Adjustment
      3.8.2 Reduction and Addition of Inter Character Space
      3.8.3 Procedures for Inter Character Space Reduction
      3.8.4 Procedures for Inter Character Space Expansion
   3.9 About Character Classes
      3.9.1 Differences in Positioning of Characters and Symbols
      3.9.2 Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning
      3.9.3 Positioning Methods for each Character Class

Appendix
1 Character classes
2 Spacing between characters
3 Possibility of separation between characters
4 Positions which allow for line adjustment by interletter space-reduction
5 Positions which allow for line adjustment by interletter space-addition
6 Positioning of Jukugo-ruby
7 Terminology
8 References (Non-Normative)
9 Revision Log (Non-Normative)
10 謝辞(参考)


1 Introduction

1.1  Purpose of This Document

Writing systems are important aspect of a culture, together with languages and scripts.Editors note: I'm not sure many people will appreciate the difference between 'writing system' and 'script', so I'd suggest rewording this. Each cultural community has its own language, script and writing system. In that sense, the transfer of each writing system into cyberspace is a task with very high importance for information and communication technology.

As one of the basic work items of this task force, this document describes issues of text composition in the Japanese writing system. The goal of the task force is not to propose actual solutions but describe important issues as basic information for actual implementations.

1.2  How This Document was Created

This document was created by the W3C Japanese Layout Task Force. The Task Force has discussed many issues and harmonized the requirements from user communities and solutions from technological experts. It includes the following participants:

  1. Japanese text composition experts (The editors of "JIS X 4051:Formatting rules for Japanese documents").

  2. Internationalization and standardization experts in Japan (from Microsoft, Antenna House, Justsystems).

  3. Members of the W3C CSS, i18n Core, SVG and XSL Working Groups.

This task force also constitutes an important innovation due to its bilingual work-flow. Discussion is mainly conducted in Japanese, because of the Japanese composition issues, but, minutes and mailing list are written in English. To support the development, the task force held already two face-to-face meetings with participating Working Groups.

The document itself was also developed bilingually, and is published bilingually. We carefully avoided using jargon for technical terms. Even if there were English words corresponding to the Japanese, we carefully studied any potential differences in the nuances of meaning, and if there were differences between corresponding concepts, we provided the Japanese jargon in romaji (Latin transliteration) for future discussion. Moreover, we prepared as many figures as possible, with clear and understandable English, to help non-Japanese readers.

1.3  Basic Principles for Development of this Document

Japanese composition exhibits several differences from Western composition. Major differences include:

  1. The use of not only horizontal writing mode but also vertical writing mode.

  2. The fact that, in principle, the width of all ideographic (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16) characters is full-width and fixed-width, and these characters are composed using solid setting.

Accordingly, this document mainly explains the characteristics of Japanese composition along the lines of the following policy.

  1. It does not fully cover all issues of the Japanese composition system, but mainly discusses the differences from Western composition systems.

  2. It focuses on the requirements for the Japanese visual presentation form of text composition. Technology-specific interpretations of the requirements and/or how to implement them are out of scope for this document.

  3. It explicitly refers to JIS X 4051 "Formatting rules for Japanese documents" as much as possible. Unless an issue is not explained in JIS X 4051, this document focuses on basic issues of Japanese layout, and for more detail references the corresponding clause of JIS X 4051. To implement a high quality Japanese text layout system, the implementers will have to refer to JIS X 4051, however, the descriptions in this document are sufficient to recognize the basic characteristics of Japanese composition. On the other hand, some issues, which are not described in JIS X 4051, are described in detail.

    In accordance with this policy, this document provides tutorial- or summary-like, supplementary explanations, related background, and additional descriptions for JIS X 4051 information. This document covers all the basic issues of Japanese text layout, but the reader will need to refer to JIS X 4051 for advanced discussion.

  4. It provides typical examples in actual use for key composition features, to enable better understanding of their usage.

  5. For non-Japanese readers, frequency of use is indicated for each requirement. These frequencies are not the outcome from any accurate research, but from the long experience of the authors. They are intuitive for ordinary Japanese text readers, however, for non-Japanese readers it may be difficult to imagine without explicit information. These frequencies are only rough information to prioritize the importance of issues. A couple of examples:

    "warichu (inline cutting note) is not frequently used, but is useful to simply annotate persons, things, and so on, at the place where the text appears, especially in classic texts or translations." "ruby is frequently used in modern documents, including newspapers."

  6. In consideration of non-Japanese readers of this document, figures are used for explanations wherever possible.

  7. Text layout rules and recommendations for readable design are different things, however, these two issues are difficult to discuss independently. In this document, these two aspects are carefully separated. The cosmetic design recommendations are mainly described using notes.

  8. The main target of this document is common books. The authors' experiences are mainly related to common books, and the quality required for common books is the highest in the market. There are many kinds of books in the market, and the requirements are quite diverse. The task force has a lot of accumulated experience in requirements and solutions for Japanese text composition. Nonetheless, many issues, which have been discussed over a long period of time, are applicable for other kinds of publication.

    In terms of frequency of use, the importance of magazines, technical manuals, Web documents show no difference fromrates alongside common books. However, there are several characteristics in these publications, which are different from common books. These issues should be treated more fully in future documents.

1.4  The Structure of This Document

This document consists of three parts:

1 The basics of specifying Japanese text composition.

2 The processing of line composition.

3 The approach to hanmen design.

[sec. 2] explains the characteristics of letters and symbols which are used in Japanese composition, their differences in vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode, and the design and adaptation of kihon-hanmen.

[sec. 3] explains line composition methods for ideographic characters (cl-19), hiragana (cl-15), katakana (cl-16), and punctuation marks, together with ruby (inter-line pronunciation information and annotation) and the mixing of Japanese and Latin letters.

[sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-heading3] describes construction methods and composition methods for headings, notes, illustrations and tables.

In principle, characters in Japanese composition are full-width, fixed-width, and positioned without spaces (solid setting). This is taken as a basic premise for the design of the kihon-hanmen, the basis of book layout. Furthermore, the design of kihon hanmen, illustrations, characters, symbols etc. are placed in an actual page. For the understanding of to understand Japanese layout, it is important to understand the design of the kihon-hanmen and how to position illustrations, characters, symbols etc. in relation to it. Hence, [sec. 2] describes in detail the design of the kihon-hanmen and its dependenciesapplication methods in detail . In particular, [sec. 2.5] provides prototypical patterns for the three guidelines listed after this paragraph: what is strictly recommendedrecommendations need to be strictly taken into account, and what exceptions are possible. (The goal of these explanations is an understanding of Japanese composition. Since detailed explanations of the various elements of kihon-hanmen are given in [sec. 3] and [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-heading3], some explanations are repeated.)

  1. Keep to the basic size and column numbers that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen.

  2. Keep to the line positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

  3. Keep to the letter positions that were decided upon in setting up the kihon-hanmen, with some exceptions.

1.5  Reference of Definition and Others

The definitions of technical terms are described in a separate document. The notation of technical terms and reference to the definitions are as follows:

TBD

2  Basics of Japanese Composition

2.1  Page Formats for Japanese Documents

2.1.1  Specification of Page Formats

The page format of a Japanese document is specified by:

  • Firstly, preparing a template of the page format, which determines the basic appearance of pages of the document;

  • Then, specifying the details of actual page elements based on the templates.

2.1.2  Basic Templates of page Formats

Generally, books use only one template forof page format and magazines often use several templates.

Although in books, as mentioned before, there tends to be one template for the page format, the basic pattern is typically adapted. For example, the table of contents may contain small modifications. Furthermore, there are many examples of indices indexes with a different page format than the basic page format, and books in vertical writing mode, often have indexes in horizontal writing mode. It holds also for such cases where the goal is to make the size of the hanmen for indices close to the size of hanmen in the basic page format. ???

Magazines gather articles of different kinds. Often the layout will differ depending on the content of the article. For example, one part may have 9 point character size and 3 columns, and another part 8 point character size and 4 columns.

2.1.3  Elements of Page Formats

An Example of a Page Template for vertical writing mode

[Fig.1]: An Example of a Page Format for Vertical Writing Mode

The following are the basic elements of a Page Format. [Fig.1] illustrates an example of a page format using vertical writing mode).

  1. Trim size and binding side (Japanese documents with vertical writing mode mode are bound on the right-hand side, and documents with horizontal writing mode are bound on the left-hand side. See [Fig.2]. )

  2. Principal text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode).

  3. Appearance of kihon-hanmen and its position relative to the trim size.

  4. Appearance of running heads and page numbers, and their positions relative to the trim size and kihon-hanmen.

Binding-Side (Left-Hand Side Binding and Right-Hand Side Binding)

[Fig.2]: Binding-side (bound on the right-hand side and bound on the left-hand side)

2.1.4  Elements of Kihon-hanmen

kihon-hanmen is the hanmen style designed as the basis of a book. The following are the basic elements of kihon-hanmen (See [Fig.3]).

(note 1)

To understand the characteristics of Japanese composition it is important to understand how the various elements of kihon-hanmen are applied to a real page. The details will be explained later.

(note 2)

The normative definition of kihonhanmen is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.

(note 3)

Format examples (including running heads and page numbers) and composition examples for kihonhanmen in different paper sizes are available in JIS X 4051 annexes 3 and 4.

Elements of KIHON HANMEN (Example in vertical writing mode)

[Fig.3]: Elements of kihon-hanmen (Example in vertical writing mode)

  1. Character size and typeface name

  2. Text direction (vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode)

  3. Number of columns and column space when using multi-column format

  4. Number of characters per line

  5. Number of lines per page (number of lines per column when using multi-column format)

  6. Line gap (or line feed)

2.1.5  Kihon-hanmen and Examples of Real Page Format

Below are several examples of how the basic page format is created, and how then various elements are placed on a real text page (This and other aspects of how the various elements of kihon-hanmen are arranged on each page are explained in [sec. 2.5].).

  1. Space and position of headings

    The space around headings in the block direction is specified by using the line positions provided by the kihon-hanmen as a basis, and by deciding how many lines need to be used. (Details of this processing are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.3.3.d). The line head indent of the inline direction for the heading is normally specified using the character positionsgrid of the kihon-hanmen. The line head indent is specified as a number of character positions. In the example in [Fig.4] the heading is placed in the middle line of three lines of the kihon-hanmen grid. It is indented by 4 characters of the kihon-hanmen grid.

    Layout example of a heading based on the line position which is designed via KIHON HANMEN

    [Fig.4]: Layout example of a heading based on the line positions established via kihon-hanmen

    (note 1)

    Details of the different types of heading, creation of headings, methods for placing headings, etc. are explained in [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-subheading3_1].

  2. Size of illustrations

    In horizontal writing mode with two columnsthe width of illustrations should, if at all possible, be either the width of one kihon-hanmen column or the width of the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.5]). The illustrations are usually set at the head or the foot of the page (See [Fig.5]).

    Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal setting

    [Fig.5]: Example of illustrations in two columns, horizontal writing mode

    (note 1)

    Details of illustration positioning are explained in [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-subheading3_3].

  3. Hanmen size for the table of contents

    The hanmen size for the table of contents of books is based on the size of the kihon-hanmen. There are many examples of tables of contents in vertical writing mode where the size of the left-to-right line feedleft-to-right size is identical to that of the kihon-hanmen, but the text direction size for head and foot top-to-bottom size is a little bit smaller (See [Fig.6]).

    Design example for the table of contents in vertical layout

    [Fig.6]: Design example for the table of contents in vertical writing mode

    (note 1)

    There are cases when a different hanmen than the kihon-hanmen is used for positioning of running heads and page numbers. This will be discussed in [sec. 2.6.2] (See [Fig.49]).

2.2  Japanese Characters - Dimensions of Kanji and Kana Characters

2.2.1  Characters Used for Japanese Composition

Japanese letters used for composing Japanese text mainly consist of ideographic (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters (see [Fig.7]).

KANJI, HIRAGANA and KATAKANA

[Fig.7]: Kanji, hiragana and katakana

(note 1)

In addition to kanji and kana, various punctuation marks (see [Fig.8]) as well as Western-Arabic numerals, Latin letters and/or Greek letters may be used in Japanese text.

Examples of punctuation marks

[Fig.8]: Examples of punctuation marks

(note 2)

The details of characters and character classes used in this document will be explained in [sec. 3.9], as well as in a separate document about the terminology of Japanese Layout. Also, the mapping from letters and symbols in each character class to Unicode code points will be shown in an appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd](Editor's note: replace with the actual appendix number.) to this document.

2.2.2 Kanji, Hiragana and Katakana

Ideographic (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters are the same size, and have square imaginary bodies of equal dimensions (also known as the outer frame of a character). Aligned with the vertical and horizontal center of the imaginary body there is a smaller box called the letter face, which contains the actual symbol. Character size is measured by the size of the imaginary body (see [Fig.9]). "Character width" is a term to describe the advance width of the imaginary body of a character. By definition it is equal to the "width" of a character in horizontal writing mode, whereas it is the height of a character in vertical writing mode (see [Fig.9]).

The Size of KANJI and KANA, and their imaginary bodies

[Fig.9]: The Size of Kanji and Hiragana, and the Imaginary Bodies

(note 1)

In vertical writing mode, the letter face of small kana (cl-11) characters (っ, ょ, ュ, ァ, ィ, ゥ, etc) is placed at the vertical center and to the right of the horizontal center of the imaginary body ; in horizontal writing mode, it is placed at the horizontal center and below the vertical center (see [Fig.10]). Also there are punctuation marks with letter faces that are not placed at the vertical and horizontal center of the imaginary body.

Small KANA letter and the position of its letter face in the imaginary body

[Fig.10]: Small kana letters and the position of their letter face in the imaginary body.

2.2.3  Principles of Arrangement of Kanji and Kana Characters

In principle, when composing a line with ideographic (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters no extra space appears between their imaginary bodies. This is called  solid setting (see [Fig.11]).

Example of solid setting in horizontal composition

[Fig.11]: Example of solid setting in horizontal writing mode.

(note 1)

SinceIn the letterpress printing era, ideographic (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) letters were designed so that they were easy to read in solid setting, regardless of text direction. However, unlike the letterpress printing era, when several sizes of the original, physical, pattern of a letter were required to create matrices, in today's digital era the same original pattern can be used for any size simply by enlargement or reduction. Because of this, it might be necessary to adjust the inter-letter space when composing lines at large character sizes.

(note 2)

Depending on the contents context , there are several settings in addition to the solid setting, as shown below.

  1. Fixed inter-letter spacing: Text set with a fixed size space between each imaginary body (see [Fig.12]).

    Examples of AKIGUMI in horizontal composition

    [Fig.12]: Examples of fixed inter-letter spacing in horizontal writing mode.

    Fixed inter-letter spacing in books is used for the following reasons:

    1. To achieve a balance between  running heads with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-letter spacing is used for the running heads with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-letter spacing for running heads are given in JIS X 4051, annex 5.

    2. To achieve a balance between headings with few and with many characters. Fixed inter-letter spacing is used for the headings with few characters. Examples of fixed inter-letter spacing for headings are given in JIS X 4051, annex 6.

    3. For captions of illustrations and tables, which only have a few characters. Fixed inter-letter spacing is used to balance with the size of the illustration or table.

    4. In some cases, fixed inter-letter spacing is used for Chinese and Japanese poetry where one line has only a few characters.

    (note 1)

    Fixed inter-letter spacing, including also even tsumegumi, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1 b.

  2. Even inter-letter spacing: Text set with equal inter-letter spacing between characters on a given line, so that each line is aligned to the same line start and line end (see [Fig.13]).

    Example of equal inter-character space setting in horizontal composition

    [Fig.13]: Example of even inter-character space setting in horizontal writing mode

    Even inter-character space setting in books is used for unifying the length of table headings with Japanese text (see [Fig.14]). There are also examples (e.g. lists of names) in which parts of person names receive equal spacing.

    Example of a table with equal spacing

    [Fig.14]: Example of a table with equal spacing

    (note 1)

    Even inter-letter spacing, including processing of jidori, is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18.1.

  3. Tsumegumi (kerning / tracking) : Text is set with negative inter-letter space reduced inter-letter space than solid setting by by arranging characters so that a portion of two imaginary bodies overlap each other. This is divided further into two types, depending on the methods of inter-character space reduction. One method involves reducing by the same amount of inter-character space (even tsumegumi or tracking, see [Fig.15]) and the other is to determine the amount of space to reduce based on the distance between the two letter faces of adjacent characters (face tsumegumi or letter face kerning, see [Fig.16]).

    Example of tracking in horizonatl setting

    [Fig.15]: Example of even tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode (2nd and 4th lines. The 1st and 3rd lines are the same text with solid setting, for comparison)

    Example of letter face kerning in horizontal composition

    [Fig.16]: Example of face tsumegumi in horizontal writing mode (2nd and 4th lines. The 1st and 3rd lines are the same text with solid setting, for comparison)

    In the main text of books, the most reader-friendly approach is to use solid setting. However, if the character size is larger, it may occur that the distance between characters becomes unbalanced, and tsumegumi or face tsumegumi will be applied. For example, there are books where tsumegumi and face tsumegumi are used with headings set in large character sizes. These methods are rarely used in books, for which ease of reading is very important. But in magazines or advertisements there are many more examples of tsumegumi and face tsumegumi. Probably for magazines the structuring of pages is very important, and characters on a page need to be settled. Magazines tend to use type to differentiate themselves from others, and so devices like this are sometimes used for that purpose.

2.3 Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

2.3.1  Directional Factors in Japanese Composition

Japanese composition has two layout directions. One is vertical direction (vertical writing mode), the other is horizontal direction (horizontal writing mode). Depending on the contentcontext , either of the directions may be chosen.

(note 1)

Ideographic (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15) and katakana (cl-16) characters for Japanese composition have basically been designed to have a square body with the same dimensions. Thus the same collection of printing types can be used in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode, simply by changing the direction of text, (see [Fig.17]). There were some attempts to develop printing types designed exclusively for horizontal writing mode, but they were not widely accepted.

Vertical writing mode and horizontal composition

[Fig.17]: Vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode. (The arrows show the reading direction.)

(note 2)

There is little market data comparing the number of pages with vertical writing mode  and horizontal writing mode, but it is said that both are almost the same.

(note 3)

For official (e.g. governmental) documentation, horizontal writing mode is recommended. Educational material (with the exception of certain topics) is mostly in horizontal writing mode. Readers of "mobile novels" are increasing, and it is expected that in the future horizontal writing mode will increase in this area as well. However, most of the large newspapers are written completely in vertical writing mode, and most of the large journals for ordinary readers are almost completely set in vertical writing mode. In addition, novels, which are the most widely read kind of book publication, are almost completely in vertical writing mode (some readers say that they cannot read a novel if it is not in vertical writing mode). Hence it can be expected that the importance of vertical writing mode for Japanese will not change for the time being.

(note 4)

There's usually only one direction for all text throughout a book, but there are cases where horizontal writing mode is used in certain parts of vertically composed books (see [Fig.18]). Tables, captions for illustrations, running heads, and  page numbers composed horizontally in a page with a vertical writing mode.

Example of partial adoption of horizontal composition in vertically composed books

[Fig.18]: Example of horizontal writing mode in parts of vertically composed books

2.3.2  Major Differences between Vertical Writing Mode and Horizontal Writing Mode

The following are major differences between vertical writing mode and horizontal writing mode.

  1. Arrangement of characters, lines, columns and pages; direction of page progression.

    (note 1)

    The positioning of characters, lines and paragraphs in vertical and horizontal writing mode is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.4.

    1. Vertical writing mode. See [Fig.19] for an example of vertical writing mode with two columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement for characters and other elements in vertical writing mode.

      [Fig.19]: Direction of arrangement of characters and other elements in vertical writing mode.

      1. Characters are arranged from top to bottom, lines are arranged from right to left.

      2. Columns are arranged from top to bottom. A book starts with the left(recto) side and progresses from right to left (see [Fig.20]).

        Progression of pages for a book with vertical writing mode

        [Fig.20]: Progression of pages for a book with vertical writing mode.

    2. Horizontal composition. See [Fig.21] for an example of horizontal text layout with two-columns per page.

      Direction of arrangement for characters and other elements in horizontal composition

      [Fig.21]: Direction of arrangement of characters and other elements in horizontal writing mode.

      1. Characters are arranged from left to right, and lines are arranged from top to bottom.

      2. Columns are arranged from left to right. A book starts with the right(recto) side and progresses from left to right (see [Fig.22]).

        Progression of pages for a book with horizontal composition

        [Fig.22]: Progression of pages for a book with horizontal writing mode

    3. Orientation of Latin alphanumeric characters in a line.

      1. There are three ways to arrange Latin alphanumerics in vertical writing mode:

        1. One by one with the same normal orientation as that of Japanese characters. This is usually applied to one letter alphanumerics or capitalized abbreviations (see [Fig.23]).

          Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - 1

          [Fig.23]: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - normal orientation.

          (note 1)

          The alphanumeric characters used for this arrangement have different typographic features than those with propotional width used for Western text. They are of fixed-width and full-width design, and have been used this way since the letterpress printing era.

        2. Rotated 90 degrees clockwise. This is usually applied to English words or sentences (see [Fig.24]).

          Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - 2

          [Fig.24]: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - rotated 90 degrees clockwise.

          (note 1)

          In [Fig.24], there are spaces before and after the imaginary body for the Western word “editor”. These spaces are necessary for composition of mixed Japanese and Western text, and details will be provided in a later section.

        3. Set horizontally without changing orientation (called tatechuyoko, which means horizontal-in-vertical composition) (see [Fig.25]). This is usually applied to two-digit numbers (see JIS X 4051, sec. 4.8 for the definition).

          Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode -3 (TATECHUYOKO)

          [Fig.25]: Arrangement of alphanumerics in vertical writing mode - tatechuyoko.

      2. In horizontal writing mode there is only one way of arranging alphanumerics, ie. normal orientation.

    4. Arrangement of tables and/or illustrations rotated 90 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise for size considerations. (This processing is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.3.).

      1. In vertical writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the right of page (see [Fig.26]).

        Example arrangement of a table rotated clockwise 90 degrees in vertical writing mode

        [Fig.26]: Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees clockwise in vertical writing mode.

      2. In horizontal writing mode, align the top of tables/illustrations to the left of page (see [Fig.27]).

        Example arrangement of a table rotated counterclockwise 90 degrees in horizontal writing mode

        [Fig.27]: Example of arrangement of a table rotated 90 degrees counterclockwise in horizontal writing mode.

        (note 1)

        The orientation is chosen to minimise interference with the overall reading flow of the book.

  2. Arrangement of an incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page due to new recto, page break or other reasons. (The processing of new recto and page break is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.1.1.).

    1. In vertical writing mode, just finish the line where it ends ("nariyuki"). The number of lines in each column is not uniform (see [Fig.28]).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page. An example in vertical writing mode.

      [Fig.28]: How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page. An example in vertical writing mode.

    2. In horizontal writing mode, re-arrange columns so that each column has the same number of lines. In case the number of lines is not divisible by the number of columns, add the smallest number to make it divisible and re-arrange columns using the quotient as the number of lines so that only the last column shall have the incomplete number of lines (see [Fig.29]).

      How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page. An example in horizontal composition.

      [Fig.29]: How to process incomplete number of lines on a multi-column format page. An example in horizontal writing mode.

      (note 1)

      Neither horizontal nor vertical balance of column arrangement would break the stability of vertical page layout very much, while horizontal balance of column arrangement is determinant for horizontal page layout. In vertical text it doesn't matter too much whether columns are balanced or not. For horizontally set text it is best to balance columns wherever possible..

2.4  Specifying the Kihon-hanmen

2.4.1  Procedure for Defining the Kihon-hanmen

In Japanese composition, first the size of the kihon-hanmen is defined, using the square imaginary bodies of characters in solid setting. Taking this as a base, the position of kihonhanmen with regards to the trim size is then specified. The following are procedures for determining the size and position of the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.30]).

  1. Specifying the dimensions of the kihon-hanmen.

    1. For a document with a single column per page, specify the character size, the number of characters per line, the number of lines per page, and the line gap.

    2. For a document with multiple columns per page, specify the character size, the number of characters per line, the number of lines per column, the line-gap, and the number of columns and the column space.

      Procedures to determine KIHON HANMEN Step 1

      [Fig.30]: Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon hanmen, step 1.

  2. Determining the position of the kihon hanmen relative to the trim size.

    There are various alternative methods for specifying the position of the kihon hanmen relative to the trim size (see [Fig.31]):

    1. Position vertically head and foot: by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    2. Position vertically by specifying the space at the top (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the bottom (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by centering the kihon-hanmen.

    3. Position vertically by centering the kihon-hanmen. Position horizontally by specifying the space of the gutter.

    4. Position vertically by specifying the space at the top (for horizontal writing mode) or the space at the bottom (for vertical writing mode). Position horizontally by specifying the space of the gutter (See [Fig.31]).

    Procedures to determine KIHON HANMEN Step 2

    [Fig.31]: Procedures to determine the size and position of the kihon-hanmen, step 2.

    (note 1)

    In most cases the kihon hanmen is set at the horizontal and vertical center of the trim size, which should be the default positioning, but depending on the dimensions of the kihon hanmen there may be cases where the default needs to be changed; for example, by moving the kihon hanmen up, down, to the left or to the right of the default position.

    (note 2)

    It is technically possible to determine the dimensions of the kihon hanmen by specifying the trim size and margins of all sides, but this method is not common in the tradition of Japanese composition. If this is the only way an implementation allows, the margins of each side need to be determined in relation to the dimensions of the kihon hanmen and its position in the trim size.

2.4.2  Considerations in Designing the Kihon-hanmen

The following are considerations to take into account when designing the kihon-hanmen. (Items (a) and (b) of this topic are not about processing, but rather an explanation of design preferences. The definition of kihon-hanmen is given in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.4.1.)

  1. Trim size and margins. It would be best if the shape of the kihon-hanmen could be made similar to that of the trim size.

  2. Character size. Generally 9 point (~3.2mm) type is common. Except for specialised publications such as dictionaries, the minimum size of type is 8 point (~2.8mm).

    (note 1)

    In Western text layout, 10 point (~3.5mm) or 12 point (~4.2mm) type is common. This is mainly because of a difference in design principles between Japanese and Latin characters.

  3. Line length should be multiples of the character size (see [Fig.32]).

    Line length should be multiples of the character size

    [Fig.32]: Line length should be multiples of the character size

    (note 1)

    There are basically two reasons why line length should be multiples of the character size.

    1. For Japanese composition, all line lengths except that of the last line of the paragraph should, in principle, be the same. Only the first line of a paragraph is shorter, since in principle it is indented.

    2. In principle, for printing, Japanese characters like ideographic characters (cl-19)hiragana (cl-15)and katakana (cl-16) are uniformly designed in the same square and they are set solid (no extra space between adjacent imaginary bodies).

    (note 2)

    The best line length (number of characters per line) is around 52 characters, maximum, in vertical writing mode, and 40 characters in horizontal writing mode. If the trim size would take lines beyond the recommended length, consider using a multi-column format and making the line length shorter.

  4. Use the same amount of line gap throughout the book, except for special cases. The size of kihon-hanmen in the block direction is specified using the number of lines and the size of the line feed, including line-gap.

    (note 1)

    In Japanese composition, there are cases where ruby or emphasis (kenten, bousen, underlines, etc.) are inserted between lines. In such cases the line gap is not changed but is kept constant (see [Fig.33]). It is also possible to insert references to notes between lines within the main text. This case is handled in the same manner. Further explanations about the placement of ruby will be given in [sec. 3]. Editors note: Maybe add a note here to say that, of course, the line gap must be designed so that it is adequate to support such typographic features. What are the minimum dimensions required for such?

    Inserting RUBY or other items between lines

    [Fig.33]: Inserting ruby or other items between lines

    (note 2)

    Warichu (inline cutting note) juts out of the line width in the block direction (the character size designed via kihon-hanmen). Also for these cases, the line gap is defined for the parts without warichu, and the passages with warichu are made narrower (See [Fig.34]). Hence, for warichu, line gap is larger to some extend. Editors note: ??? The same is true for tatechuyoko or sub- and super-ornament characters. Further explanations of the placement of warichu and other items is provided in [sec. 3].

    Example of inter-line processing with inline cutting note between lines

    [Fig.34]: Example of inter-line processing with warichu between lines

    (note 3)

    It is common that the line gap for kihon-hanmen is set a value between 1/2 em space and full width (em) of the character size in kihon-hanmen. 1/2 em space can be chosen in cases where the number of characters per line is small, but full width (em) or close to it is more appropriate when the number of characters is larger than 35.

    (note 4)

    Unless ruby or other design elements are placed in the space between lines (eg. for books like classics, with many annotations), there's no need to make the line-gap larger than full width, since this would decrease legibility.

    (note 5)

    It is said that the standard line-gap in Western text layout is 1/3 em space, which is smaller than that in Japanese composition. This difference again comes from the difference in the design of Latin and Japanese characters.

2.5  Pagewise Arrangement of Kihon-hanmen Elements

2.5.1  Examples of Items Jutting Out of the Kihon-hanmen

If at all possible, the various elements of a page should remain inside the boundaries of the hanmen size. This is which is determined by kihon-hanmen. However, there are exceptions such as the following:

  1. Ruby or emphasis marks (side- or  underline, emphasis dots, etc.) to the right side (for vertical writing mode) or top (for horizontal setting) of the hanmen or the first paragraph of a page Editors note: for"to the right side...of the hanmen" I'd prefer to just say "at the before edge of the hanmen". Is this acceptable? It would make things a lot simpler. For the text that follows, you could then say, "at the after edge of the hanmen or paragraph" We should, of course, define 'before' and 'after' and link to the definitions. , are placed outside the hanmen or the area of the paragraph (see [Fig.35]). The same applies in cases where ruby, emphasis, etc. appear to the left of (in vertical writing mode) or below (in horizontal writing mode) a line touching the opposite side of the hanmen or the end of the paragraph. Like the handling of exceptions mentioned below, the purpose here is to preserve the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. It is also possible to insert note reference marks between lines within the main text. Editors note: Not sure why stuff between lines is relevant here. These are handled in the same way.

    Example of ruby annotation placed outside of KIHON HANMEN

    [Fig.35]: Example of ruby annotation placed outside of the kihon-hanmen.

  2. When inline items are larger than the characters that make up a line in the kihon-hanmen (in the dimension of the block-progression), and when those elements appear in the first or last line of a page or column, the parts that jut out beyond the regular line of characters also jut out of the hanmen area or outer side of the column. Editors note: OR When there are inline elements whose dimensions extend beyond the before edge and the after edge of a line of characters as determined by the kihon-hanmen, and when those elements appear in the first or last line of a page or column, the parts that jut out beyond the regular line of characters also jut out of the hanmen area or outer side of the column. Editors note: Is it worth referring to the column here. Doesn't referring to the page do the job? When there are elements, which jut out of the line width in the block direction given by kihon-hanmen (the character size specified via kihon-hanmen), in the first line or the last line of page/column, the parts of the item which jut out of the line width in the block direc tion given by kihon-hanmen, are put jutting out of the hanmen area or outer side of the column For example, this is the case when the width of a sequence of characters which are set to tatechuyoko is wider than the characters set for the kihon-hanmen. In addition, warichu (inline cutting note) or sub- and superscript (ornament characters) are handled in the same way. (The processing rules for this item and the previous item are defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 12.1.1.)

  3. Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is only necessary for [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP) and [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) when they would otherwise need to be wrapped to the line head. The character is placed so that it touches the hanmen at the line end or the outside area of a column (see [Fig.36]). (Hanging punctuation is not defined in JIS X 4051, but there is an explanation in sec. 8.1, c.)

    Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP hanging below off of the KIHON HANMEN

    [Fig.36]: Example of IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP placed below the kihon-hanmen.

    (note 1)

    Hanging punctuation is a method of reducing line adjustment, which relies on line gap Editors note:I don't understand the reliance on line gap .

    (note 2)

    A lot of books apply hanging punctuation.

  4. Illustrations and tables are normally placed inside the area defined by the kihon-hanmen. However, there may also be cases in which a particular illustration or table juts outside the kihon-hanmen.

    1. Cases in which it is necessary to make the illustration or table larger than the kihon-hanmen. Editors note: I think this sentence should follow on from the previous one, as the introduction to the list, not the first item.

    2. For the sake of visual effect, the table or illustration may bleed into the complete paper area. This is not often used in books, but is often used in magazines (see [Fig.37]).

      Example of bleeds

      [Fig.37]: Example of bleeds

  5. Magazines may place the captions of  illustrations outside the column area or between columns. (Some people regard this as bad style.)

2.5.2  Line Positioning based on the Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, pagewise positioning of lines relies on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen. This holds for ruby or emphasis dots as shown in [Fig.33], and also for characters within a line that are smaller than the character size established for the kihon-hanmen, as shown in [Fig.38]. The line positions given by kihon-hanmen are followed as the basic guide line, and the subsequent lines also use these positions. Editors note: What are 'subsequent lines'?

Positioning of lines with a mix of a smaller size of text

[Fig.38]: Positioning of lines with a smaller size of text.

(note 1)

Characters within brackets are made smaller, since the text is an additional explanation. Such cases are handled in the following three ways. The last method, making only characters in restricted places smaller, is the most commonly usedEditors note: I think it should therefore come first in the list .

  1. Make all characters within brackets smaller (as shown in [Fig.38]).

  2. Make all characters within brackets the same size as the character size established for the kihon-hanmen.

  3. Make the characters smaller only in restricted places, for example for references.

The following are exceptions when handling line position:

  1. When inserting more than one illustration or table item in horizontal writing mode, assuming that there is no text to the left or right of the items, the items may either slip off the lines established for the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.39]), or stick to the lines (see [Fig.40]). The former approach is used, whenever possible, to achieve equal spacing before and after illustrations or tables, whenever possible. (This method is often used in books.) (This processing method is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 10.3.2., d.)

    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1

    [Fig.39]: Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 1.

    Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2

    [Fig.40]: Positioning of lines with multiple illustrations - 2.

  2. The size of characters in endnotes inserted between paragraphs or those in footnotes at the bottom of the page (in horizontal writing mode) is smaller than the character size established for the kihon-hanmen. As a result, the line distance Editors note: Should this say 'line-height? is also smaller, and so the line positions are no longer identical to those established for the kihon-hanmen. As an example, [Fig.41] shows the position of an endnote between paragraphs in vertical writing mode. (The processing of endnotes is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 9.3, and the processing of footnotes in sec. 9.4.)

    Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode

    [Fig.41]: Positioning of an endnote in vertical writing mode.

  3. As mentioned above, the position of a heading may not be identical to the lines established for the kihon-hanmen. Nevertheless, in the block direction, headings base their alignment on the line positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.4]).

2.5.3  Character Positioning based on Kihon-hanmen Design

In principle, the characters in each line follow the solid setting positions of characters established for the kihon-hanmen. However, as already shown in some of the previous figures, there are examples where this is not the case. Such cases are rather common, and here we will show some prototypical examples (details will be given in [sec. 3]).

(note 1)

Where character sizes differ from the solid setting sizes established for the kihon-hanmen, line lengths may not be identical; it is necessary to align the ends of the lines, with the exception of the last line in a paragraph. The processing method for this is explained in [sec. 3.8] about line adjustment.

  1. When 9pt is the character size used to establish the kihon-hanmen, characters smaller than 9pt may be inserted in part of a line (see [Fig.38]). In such cases, the parts set at 9pt and any parts set at a smaller, say, 8pt size both use solid setting, with imaginary bodies at the respective sizes for each part.

  2. In cases where proportional Latin letters are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (see [Fig.24]), the proportional letters are placed according to their proportional widths. Hence, they do not fit to the character positions established for the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.42]). Japanese letters following the Latin letters consequently slip away from the default positions as well.

    Positioning of a mix of Western and Japanese letters in a line

    [Fig.42]: Positioning of a mixture of Western and Japanese letters in a line.

  3. There are several methods for positioning opening brackets (cl-01) at the head of line feed lines or lines after the first line of a paragraph (details are explained in [sec. 3.1.5]). In cases where the indentation of line feed lines is full width, or if the tentsuki position is used for the bracket (that is, there is no space at the line head), the second character will be in a position which is not established for the kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.43]). However, the adaptations made during the alignment of line ends ensures that the character at the end of a line is at a position that fits with the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of positioning of characters off to the grid due to the brackets at the line head

    [Fig.43]: Example of positioning of characters off the grid due to opening brackets at the line head.

  4. [sec. 3] explains that full stops (cl-06), commas (cl-07), opening brackets (cl-01) and closing brackets (cl-02)  are half-width. If these punctuation marks and brackets are adjacent to ideographic (cl-19)katakana (cl-16) or hiragana (cl-15) characters, in principle there should be a 1/2 em space before or after the punctuation mark or brackets, so that these occupy in effect a full width size. However, if they are adjacent to other punctuation marks or brackets, the 1/2 em space is not used. In such cases, the character positions are different than the positions given via kihon-hanmen (see [Fig.44]). This is done to improve the visual appearance.

    Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks

    [Fig.44]: Example of lines with consecutive punctuation marks.

  5. [sec. 3] explains the principle that closing brackets (cl-02)full stops (cl-06) and commas (cl-07) should not be placed at the line head (so-called line head wrap). If these characters appear at the line head, some kind of adjustment processing becomes necessary (so-called line head wrap). As a result of such adjustment, it may happen that characters are placed at positions which are different from the positions established for the kihon-hanmen.

    Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which should not start a line, such as closing brackets

    [Fig.45]: Example of line adjustment to avoid those characters which shall not start a line, such as closing brackets

2.6  Running Heads and Page Numbers

2.6.1  Positioning of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Typical positions for running heads and page numbers in vertical writing mode is as shown in [Fig.46].

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers in vertical writing mode

[Fig.46]: Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers in vertical writing mode.

Typical positions for running heads and page numbers in horizontal writing mode is as shown in [Fig.47].

Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers in horizontal composition

[Fig.47]: Typical positioning of running heads and page numbers in horizontal writing mode.

In principle, positions of running heads and page numbers should be specified relative to the kihon-hanmen, not with absolute coordinates in the trim size. (Positioning of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.4. Positioning of page numbers is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.5.4.)

(Example) Positioning a running head above the top left corner (to head and fore-edge) of kihon-hanmen in vertical writing mode (See [Fig.48])

9 points above kihon-hanmen (vertical space)

9 points from the left edge of kihon-hanmen (horizontal space)

Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode)

[Fig.48]: Positioning of a running head (vertical writing mode)

The following recommendations should be taken into account in positioning running heads and page numbers with reference to kihon-hanmen.

  1. When positioning running heads and page numbers horizontally with reference to kihon-hanmen in vertical writing mode, the amount of vertical space between the edge of kihon-hanmen and the running head is full width of character size in kihon-hanmen. If kihon-hanmen is horizontally set, take more vertical space than the character size in kihon-hanmen.

  2. Regardless of direction of text in kihon-hanmen, running heads and page numbers in horizontal writing mode on the left page should be aligned either at the left edge of kihon-hanmen or at the full width horizontal space off to the right from the left edge. On the right page, the tail of the running heads or page numbers be aligned either at the right edge of kihon-hanmen or at the full width space off to left from the right edge.

  3. When arranging running heads and page numbers together horizontally, space between the running head and the page number should be double or one and a half time of the character size for the running head.

  4. When positioning running heads and page numbers vertically to the fore-edge in vertical writing mode (See the bottom left spread in [Fig.46] for example), the minimum horizontal distance from kihon-hanmen should be the same as that of the line-gap of kihon-hanmen. The running head should be positioned approximately four characters of kihon-hanmen below off the head, and page numbers should be positioned approximately five characters of kihon-hanmen above off the foot.

    (note 1)

    In general, Ideographic numerals are used for vertically set page numbers, and Western-Arabic numerals for horizontal pagination. When giving different pagination on the front matter, small Roman numbers are used for the horizontal pagination.

2.6.2  Principles of Arrangements of Running Heads and Page Numbers

Positioning of all running heads and page numbers in the same book should be consistent.

(note 1)

Even on a page with text area, smaller than kihon-hanmen in size such as for table of contents or Index, positioning of running head and page number shall be the same. Therefore, the positioning of running heads and page numbers with reference to those areas smaller than kihon-hanmen in size, shall be changed. The following [Fig.49] demonstrates the relations of the hanmen for table of contents and running heads or page numbers. As shown in [Fig.6], this hanmen is smaller than kihon-hanmen. [Fig.50] demonstrates the relations of positions of running heads and page numbers for the hanmen of indices. These hanmens are not only 4 points smaller at the left and right, but also 5 points smaller at the top and bottom.

Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages on which HANMEN is smaller than KIHON HANMEN in size

[Fig.49]: Positioning of running heads and page numbers on TOC pages on which hanmen is smaller than kihon-hanmen in size.

Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages on which HANMEN is smaller than KIHON HANMEN in size

[Fig.50]: Positioning of running heads and page numbers on index pages on which hanmen is smaller than kihon-hanmen in size.

Because the start of page shall be on the recto side, the right-hand page of a spread in vertical writing mode is always even page and the left-hand page is always odd page (See [Fig.51]). Likewise, the left-hand page of a spread in horizontal writing mode is always even page and the right-hand page is always odd page (See [Fig.52]).

Page Numbers on a spread in vertical writing mode

[Fig.51]: Page Numbers on a spread in vertical writing mode

Page Numbers on a spread in horizontal composition

[Fig.52]: Page Numbers on a spread in horizontal writing mode

2.6.3  Ways of Arranging Running Heads and Page Numbers

There are two ways to arrange running heads. One is the single running head system and the other is the double running head system. (Arrangement of running heads is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 7.6.2. Page Numbers are defined in sec. 7.5.2.).

  • Double running heads: Place running heads on both even pages and odd pages (See [Fig.53]).

  • Single running heads: Place running heads only on odd pages (See [Fig.54]).

Double running head method

[Fig.53]: Double running head method

Single running head method

[Fig.54]: Single running head method

(note 1)

In general, there will be only one running head per page. However, in some cases, such as in dictionaries, multiple running heads are printed to indicate contents.

(note 2)

In general, there will be only one page number per page. However in some cases multiple page numbers are printed as in the following examples:

  1. When a horizontally set index and/or bibliography appears at the end of a volume in vertical writing mode, both reverse pagination and continuous pagination are printed.

  2. For multivolume works, both serial page numbers throughout the work and page numbers per volume are printed.

  1. In the double running head system, the primary heading or the book title is used for the running heads on the even pages, and the secondary heading on the odd pages, Editors note: it's not clear to me what the following text means: does one level below mean physically positioned lower on the page, or is it attempting to explain what a secondary heading is? one level below the ones on the even pages. Where there is no secondary heading, such as on the page containing the table of contents, the same running head is used on both even and odd pages.

    (note 1)

    Which information is used for the running heads depends on the content of the book . Given that the main purpose of running heads is to signpost to readers what is written on each page, or the content of the current page, it does not make much sense to use the book title for the running head. The most common approach for a book with three levels of headings is to use the top level heading and the second level heading.

  2. In the single running head system, one of the headings between the top and third levels is used.

  3. In principle, the contents of running heads will be the same as those of headings with the following differences;

    1. Numbers and words in Latin alphanumeric characters in vertically set headings should be changed to horizontal notation for horizontally set running heads. Editors note: What does horizontal notation mean here? Change numbers from kanji to ascii digits, etc? If so, (a) we should link to the section that describes that, and (b) i'm then unsure what 'words' are being referred to.

    2. If headings are too long, they should be made shorter by paraphrasing them in fewer characters. Running heads with too many characters will not look good.

    3. For certain publications, such as a collection of monographs, the names of authors may be added in parentheses at the end of the headingsrunning head.

  4. In principle, the text direction of running heads and page numbers should be the same as that of kihon-hanmen. For vertical composition, however, it is more common to set running heads and page numbers horizontally.

  5. In principle, for the single running head system running heads are printed on all odd pages, and for the double running head system on all even and odd pages. However, for the sake of appearance, running heads may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which running heads should be hidden:

      1. Naka-tobira and han-tobira.

      2. Pages where a running head overlaps with other elements such as illustrations.

      3. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which running heads may be hidden:

      1. Pages where a figure or a table is positioned adjacent to the running head.

      2. Pages with a heading right after a new recto or new page.

  6. In principle, page numbers are printed on all pages. However, for the sake of appearance, they may be omitted as follows:

    1. Pages on which page numbers should be hidden:

      1. Pages on which a illustration or a table is positioned adjacent to the page number.

      2. Blank pages.

    2. Pages on which page numbers may be hidden:

      1. Divisional title and simplified divisional title pages.Editors note: here (and in many other places) the highlighted terms in the Japanese text didn't make it through to the English. This presumably needs to be rectified.

      2. Pages in horizontal writing mode with a page number placed in the margin at the top of the page, and with a heading right after a new recto or new page. (In this case, it is also possible to move the page numbers to the center of the margin at the foot of the page.)

    (note 1)

    Pages are not counted in cases such as the following:

    1. If the main title page is the enclosure; Editors note: not sure what this means. Does it just mean, 'on the main title page'?

    2. if a frontispiece is inserted in the opening page of a book; or

    3. if an illustration of the enclosure or a divisional title is present in the main text.

  7. There are two types of page numbering. "Continuous pagination" means that page numbers continue throughout the complete book. "Different pagination" means that page numbers start from "1" separately at beginning of the front matter and back matter. There is also, for example in manuals, the method of starting each chapter from page number "1". (In such cases, it is common that the name of the chapter is added as a prefix before the page number.)

    (note 1)

    If the front matter and the main text have different page numbers, each starts with page number "1". In this case, it is common to use Roman numerals for the pages of the front matter, in order to distinguish them from the main text.

    (note 2)

    For books in vertical writing mode with indexes in horizontal writing mode, the following methods are available.

    1. Reverse pagination. The index reads from the end of the book, but page numbers are added starting with "1" in reverse the same order.

    2. Continuous pagination. The index reads from the end of the book, and page numbers start with "1" and flow in the same order as the book. (The index pages flow in the reverse order to the page numbers.)

    3. Both reverse pagination and continuous pagination. In this case, the page numbers for continuous pagination are in the same position as the page numbers of the main text, and page numbers in reverse pagination are in a different position (for example, if serial pagination is in the foot of the page, reverse pagination is in the head). Often other methods are applied to distinguish the different paginations, such as using Arabic numbers, as in the main text, but adding brackets before and after.

3  Line Composition

3.1  Line Composition Rules for Punctuation Marks

3.1.1  Differences in Vertical and Horizontal Composition in Use of Punctuation Marks

There are some punctuation marks that could be used uniquely in either vertical writing mode or horizontal writing mode. In this document, characters and symbols are treated as members of character classes, classified by the behavior to be composed. Each class name is followed by class id, like opening brackets(cl-01) The following are some typical examples:

  1. Full stops(cl-06) and commas(cl-07)

    1. In vertical writing mode, [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP) and [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) shall be used for 読点類(cl-07) and 句点類(cl-06).

    2. In horizontal writing mode, there are three conventions in choice of symbols for 読点類(cl-07) and 句点類(cl-06):

      1. Using COMMA(,) [,] (COMMA) and FULL STOP (.) [.] (FULL STOP) (See [Fig.55]).

        Example text using COMMA and FULL STOP

        [Fig.55]: Example text using [,] (COMMA) and [.] (FULL STOP)

      2. Using [,] (COMMA) (,) and [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP) (See [Fig.56]).

        Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP

        [Fig.56]: Example text using COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP

      3. Using [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) and [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP) (See [Fig.57]).

        Example text using IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA and IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP

        [Fig.57]: Example text using [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) and [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP)

      (note 1)

      In the horizontal writing mode, there are many cases of Japanese and Western mixed text compositions. The convention shown in (i) is a way to apply the same [,] (COMMA) and [.] (FULL STOP) to both Western and Japanese texts for consistency, which is commonly seen in books on science and technology. The convention shown in (ii) was invented because of the problem in (i) that the size of [.] (FULL STOP) appears too small for Japanese texts and using [。] (IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP) for period would mitigate it. This convention has been adopted to the Japanese official publications (In the past, [,] (COMMA) and [.] (FULL STOP) were adopted to some official publications.).

  2. [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET), [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET), [“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) and [”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK)

    1. In vertical writing mode, [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET) shall be used for quotation (See [Fig.58]).

      Examples of quoted texts in corner brackets

      [Fig.58]: Examples of quoted texts in [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET)

    2. In horizontal writing mode, pairs of [“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) and [”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) or pairs of [‘] (LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) and [’] (RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) may be used in place of [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET).

      Examples of quoted texts in double quotation marks

      [Fig.59]: Examples of quoted texts in [“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) and [”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK)

      (note 1)

      This is because [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET), especially [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET) may not look good in horizontal writing mode, but adoption of corner brackets in horizontal writing mode seems increasing.

      (note 2)

      Though [〟] (LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK) and [〝] (REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK) are similar to double quotation marks in appearance (See [Fig.60]), they are exclusively for vertical writing mode and shall not be used in horizontal writing mode.

      Examples of quoted texts in double prime quotation marks

      [Fig.60]: Examples of quoted texts in [〟] (LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK) and [〝] (REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK)

      (note 3)

      [“] (LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) and[”] (RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK) are exclusively for horizontal writing mode and shall not be used in vertical writing mode. Also, [‘] (LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) and [’] (RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK) are exclusively for horizontal writing mode and shall not be used in vertical writing mode. However, in vertical writing mode, when Western characters(cl-27) are composed 90 degree rotated clockwise, these quotation marks are sometimes used.

  3. [[] (LEFT SQUARE BRACKET), []] (RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET)[〔] (LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET) and [〕] (RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET)

    [〔] (LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET) and [〕] (RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET) are vertical variation of [[] (LEFT SQUARE BRACKET) and []] (RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET) in horizontal writing mode. Therefore, square brackets should be used in horizontal writing mode except for special cases.

(note 1)

The position of the letter face of commas(cl-07) and full stops(cl-06) on the imaginary bodyis different in vertical and horizontal writing mode. The same letter face of opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02) and hyphens(cl-03) can be used in both vertical and horizontal writing mode by rotating clockwise 90 degrees to the inline direction. Again, the position of the letter face of small kanas(cl-11) symbols on the imaginary body is different in vertical and horizontal writing mode. In addition, as to [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK), the difference in vertical and horizontal writing mode is not only in the orientation of the letter face to the inline direction but also the shape of the symbol. The shape of katakana-hiraganaprolongedsoundmark for horizontal writing mode is not the same as the one for vertical writing mode rotated counterclockwise 90 degrees (See [Fig.61]).

KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK for vertical and horizontal composition

[Fig.61]: [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) for vertical and horizontal writing mode

3.1.2  Positioning of Punctuation Marks (Commas, Periods and Brackets)

Positioning punctuation marks (commas, periods and brackets) in line is as follows.

(note 1)

Characters and symbols, including punctuation marks, which are subject to the consideration of  line start wrapping, line end wrapping and inter-letter space adjustment, will be described in detail in Sec. 2.9 "Character Class". Every combination of character class is provided as a complete table in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd].

Character width of commas(cl-07), full stops(cl-06), opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02) or middle dots(cl-05) is half width(1/2 em). But when those punctuation marks are placed side by side with ideographic characters(cl-19) and/or hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) characters, a given amount of space will be inserted before or after the symbols in principle, which makes them as if they were full width (1 em) intrinsically (See [Fig.62]). As for middle dots(cl-05), the space will be inserted before and after the middle dot This principle makes the symbols consistent with kanji and kana characters in character width and at the same time helps making organization of text clearer with the space for punctuation. The space before / after the punctuation marks added in principle is subject to the line adjustment and may be removed eventually, except those added after periods.

  1. After commas(cl-07), 1/2 em space is added in principle.

  2. Full stops(cl-06), 1/2 em space is added in principle.

  3. Before opening brackets(cl-01), 1/2 em space is added in principle.

  4. After closing brackets(cl-02), 1/2 em space is added in principle.

  5. Before and after middle dots(cl-05), 1/4 em space is added in principle.

Character width of punctuation marks and the space appended before / after the symbols - 1Character width of punctuation marks and the space appended before / after the symbols - 2

[Fig.62]: Character width of commas, periods, and the space appended before and/or after the symbols

(note 1)

The implementation of punctuation marks in fonts can give a different character width to them, but it is expected that it's capable to follow the line composition rules explained here as the result. In letterpress printing, it was also a common practice to combine the punctuation marks with half width body and 1/2 em space in order to make it easier to remove the space later for adjustment. And because of that, the types were picked up but punctuation marks at the type-picking phase according to a manuscript and the punctuation marks were picked up only when they were necessary in composing a page. Later, with increasing adoption of Monotype machines, punctuation marks of full width body became popular and both full width and half width punctuation marks have been used in a mix since then.

(note 2)

Among opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02), [(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS)[)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS)[〈] (LEFT ANGLE BRACKET) and [〉] (RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET) are used to indicate supplementary explanations and they are slightly different in usage from other opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02). To reflect the difference, there's a convention not to append 1/2 em space before / after the parentheses and angle brackets and just set them solid (See [Fig.63]).

Positioning of parentheses and angle brackets

[Fig.63]: Positioning of [(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS), [)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS) and [〈] (LEFT ANGLE BRACKET), [〉] (RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET) (Shown in left is an example of setting them solid.)

3.1.3 Exceptional Positioning of [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA)and [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT)

The space usually added after [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) and the space before and after [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) are in principle omitted for cosmetic reasons in the following cases.

  1. In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits and [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) used as a decimal separator are set solid (as in the right line on [Fig.64] ).

    An example of the exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA

    [Fig.64]: An example of the exceptional positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA

    (note 1)

    In vertical writing mode, ideographic digits with [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) to represent an approximate number are expected to be set solid too (as in the right line on [Fig.65]).

    An example of the positioning of the IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number

    [Fig.65]: An example of the positioning of [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) with ideographic digits to represent an approximate number

  2. Ideographic digits and [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) representing a decimal point shall be set solid (as in the right line on [Fig.66] ).

    An example of the exceptional positioning of the KATAKANA middle dot

    [Fig.66]: An example of the exceptional positioning of [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT)

3.1.4  Positioning of Consecutive the opening brackets(cl-01), the closing brackets(cl-02), the commas(cl-07) and the full stops(cl-06)

In case multiple punctuation marks, such as opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02), commas(cl-07), full stops(cl-06) and middle dots(cl-05) come one after the other, the following space adjustments are made for cosmetic reasons (See [Fig.67]).Note also that the 1/2 em or 1/4 em spaces, appended usually before and/or after the punctuation marks but those after full stops(cl-06), can be candidates of removal for line adjustments.

  1. When closing brackets(cl-02) come immediately after commas(cl-07) or full stops(cl-06), remove the default 1/2 em space between them and in principle add 1/2 em space after the closing brackets (See [Fig.67] (1)).

  2. When commas(cl-07) come immediately afterclosing brackets(cl-02), remove the default 1/2 em space between them and in principle add 1/2 em space after the commas. Wen full stops(cl-06) come immediately after closing brackets(cl-02), remove the default 1/2 em space between them and in principle add 1/2 em space after the full stops (See [Fig.67] (2)).

  3. When opening brackets(cl-01) come immediately after commas(cl-07), in principle, add 1/2 em space between them (See [Fig.67] (3)). When  opening brackets(cl-01) come immediately afterfull stops(cl-06), add 1/2 em space between them;

  4. When opening brackets(cl-01) come immediately after closing brackets(cl-02), in principle add 1/2 em space between them (See [Fig.67] (4)).

  5. When opening brackets(cl-01) come immediately after other opening brackets(cl-01), set them solid and in principle add 1/2 em space before the first one (See [Fig.67] (5)).

  6. When closing brackets(cl-02) come immediately after other closing brackets(cl-02), set them solid and in principle add 1/2 em space after the last closing brackets (See [Fig.67] (6)).

  7. When middle dots(cl-05) come immediately after closing brackets(cl-02), in principle add 1/4 em space before the succeeding middle dots (See [Fig.67] (7)).

  8. When opening brackets(cl-01) come immediately after middle dots(cl-05), in principle, add 1/4 em space after the preceding middle dots (See [Fig.67] (7)).

Examples of line adjustment with multiple brackets, commas or periods

[Fig.67]: Examples of line adjustment with multiple opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02), commas(cl-07) , full stops(cl-06) or middle dots(cl-05)

The line adjustment rules shown above have been established because the default 1/2 em spacing before or after the consecutive punctuation marks, or 1/4 em space before and after them, makes the line sparse and it doesn't convey a proportioned appearance (See [Fig.68]).

Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple brackets, commas or periods

[Fig.68]: Examples of bad line composition with unadjusted spaces between multiple opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02). commas(cl-07), full stops(cl-06) or middle dots(cl-05)

(note 1)

Japanese composition is based on the full width design of characters, but strictly following the full width based composition sometimes produces an unbalanced appearance. In such exceptional cases, the appearance as a result of the composition must be given higher priority than the full width design principle. When and how to invoke such exceptional procedures has a direct bearing on the quality of the text layout. In other words, it is a matter of how to resolve the conflicts between the principle and the products of it.

3.1.5  Positioning of the opening brackets(cl-01) at Line Head

When starting a new line with opening brackets(cl-01), there are some patterns as shown in [Fig.69]. Note that the amount of line indent after the line feed (the first line indent of a new paragraph) is assumed to be full width across the patterns.

  1. The first line indent after the line feed is set full width (1 em) and the next line after the first line break starts with no space (so-called TENTSUKI. See [Fig.69] (1)).

  2. The first line indent after the line feed is set 1.5 em (3/2 of full width) and the next line indent after the first line break is set 1/2 em (See [Fig.69] (2)).

  3. The first line indent after the line feed is set 1/2 em and the next line after the first line break is set TENTSUKI (See [Fig.69] (3)).

Examples of Positioning of Brackets at Line Head

[Fig.69]: Examples of Positioning of opening brackets(cl-01) at Line Head

(note 1)

Because the inherent character width of brackets is half width, [Fig.69] (1) can be explained as the result of applying the principle that any line should start with no space. On the other hand, the principle represented by [Fig.69] (2) is to assume opening brackets should be always accompanied by the preceding 1/2 em space as if they were full width and then apply the same principle as in [Fig.69] (1). JIS X 4051 adopts the principle shown in (1) (the patterns shown in (2) and (3) are offered as options) . The pattern shown in (3) was first invented in such books as novels which use frequent line feeds and corner brackets in dialogues, for which the first line indent with 1 em or 1.5 em would give superfluously too much space in appearance (And then this pattern was accepted and adopted by general books). Japanese major publishers which deal with literature, such as Kodansha, Shinchosha, Bungei Shunju, Chuoh Kouronsha, Chikuma shobo, adopts the pattern shown in (3). In contrast, Iwanami shoten and other publishers adopt the pattern shown in (1). Because Iwanami shoten once adopted the pattern (2) in vertical composition, there were many examples of it, but few examples of (2) can be found today.

(note 2)

The first line indent of a new paragraph is full width in principle. However, the following exceptions can be seen.

  1. The first line indent of all new paragraphs is set full width. This is the most popular scheme. However, the line indent of those new paragraphs which are constituent with the preceding paragraph is set TENTSUKI as shown in [Fig.70] (There are books such as novels which adopt full width line indent without exception.). Similarly, in horizontal writing mode, the line indent is set TENTSUKI for the new line which continues to the preceding line of mathematical expression connected by conjunctions such as "therefore".

    Examples of line indent followed by the preceding line with quoted text (as in dialogues)

    [Fig.70]: Examples of line indent followed by the preceding line with quoted text (as in dialogues)

  2. When headings have no line indent, the first line indent of the first paragraph after headings can be also set TENTSUKI for cosmetic reasons. However, it is not recommended to set the first line indent TENTSUKI for all paragraphs, because it would make paragraph breaks unclear.

3.1.6  Positioning of the dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) ([?] (QUESTION MARK) and [!] (EXCLAMATION MARK) and the hyphens(cl-03)

The dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) ([?] (QUESTION MARK) and [!] (EXCLAMATION MARK)) should be of full-width, and they are typeset as follows.

  1. Basically add no space before dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) at the end of a sentence and add 1 em space after them (See [Fig.71]). However when a closing brackets(cl-02) follows right after the dividing punctuation marks, add no space after the dividing punctuation marks either and add 1/2 em space after the closing bracket (See [Fig.71]).

    Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks (Examples in vertical writing mode)

    [Fig.71]: Positioning of dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) (Examples in vertical writing mode)

    (note 1)

    Many implementations use fulwidth ideographic space(cl-14) for 1 em space appended after dividing punctuation marks(cl-04).

    (note 2)

    No full stops(cl-06) should be appended after dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) at the end of a sentence.

    (note 3)

    There're some cases where dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) are used in the middle of a sentence, not at the end. In those cases, add either no space or 1/4 em space before and after the dividing punctuation marks (See [Fig.72]).

    Examples of Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode)

    [Fig.72]: Examples of Positioning of dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) in the middle of a sentence (in vertical writing mode)

    (note 4)

    The details of composition rule fordividing punctuation marks(cl-04) andhyphens(cl-03) are described in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, following the description of character classes in [sec. 3.9].

  2. When dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) at the end of a sentence come to the end of a line, apply the following rules (See [Fig.73]).

    Examples of Positioning of Dividing Punctuation Marks at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode)

    [Fig.73]: Examples of Positioning of dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) at the end of a line (in vertical writing mode)

    1. Suppose the line length is of 13 character width, and when dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) comes at 12th character position, 1 em space should be appended after it.

    2. Suppose the line length is of 13 character width, and when dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) comes at 13th character position, no space should be appended after it. In addition, do not carry over the 1 em space usually appended after the dividing punctuation marks to the line head of the next line, which in this case should be of no space (TENTSUKI).

Character width of the hyphens(cl-03) varies by each. [‐] (HYPHEN) should be of SIBUNKAKU (1/4 em width), [–] (EN DASH) and [゠] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN) should be of half-width (1/2 em width), [〜] (WAVE DASH) should be of full-width. Basically there should be no space before and after hyphens(cl-03). However, 1/2 em space should be appended in principle when opening brackets(cl-01) follow right after hyphens(cl-03) and 1/4 em space when middle dots(cl-05) follow.

3.1.7  Characters Not Starting Line

In principle, any line should not begin with closing brackets(cl-02), hyphens(cl-03), dividing punctuation marks(cl-04), middle dots(cl-05), full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07), iteration marks(cl-09), prolonged sound marks(cl-10) , small kanas(cl-11) and  warichu closing brackets(cl-29), otherwise it would give the odd appearance to lines.

(note 1)

Not a small number of books adopt a weaker set of rules which allows [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK) (one of iteration marks(cl-09)), prolonged sound marks(cl-10) and small kanas(cl-11) to start a line. There is another method for [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK) to replace to base kanji character when happen to set at the head of a line. For example, "家(bottom of a line) + 々(head of the next line)" will be changed to "家(bottom of a line) + 家(head of the next line)".

(note 2)

There's yet another weaker rule to allow [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) to start a line.

(note 3)

In newspaper text layout, dividing punctuation marks(cl-04) ([?] (QUESTION MARK) and [!] (EXCLAMATION MARK)) are allowed to start a line. This is due to the fact that the line lengths are shorter in newspapers. When the line is very short, there'll be fewer opportunities for inter-character space adjustment, which makes it difficult to preserve the number of characters per line as much as possible. It is thought that this is the reason why the weaker set of line head wrapping rules has been adopted in newspaper text layout.

(note 4)

The details of characters not starting line and not ending line are described in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, following the description of character classes in [sec. 3.9]

3.1.8  Characters Not Ending Line

Any line should not end with opening brackets(cl-01) and warichu opening brackets(cl-28) (line end wrapping), otherwise it would give the odd appearance to lines.

(note 1)

The process of formatting lines to avoid non-starter characters at the line head, non-ending characters at the line end, spaces before and/or after inseparable characters, line breaking before and/or after unbreakable characters, etc., is generally called KINSOKUSYORI.

3.1.9  Positioning of the closing brackets(cl-02), the full stops(cl-06), the commas(cl-07) and the middle dots(cl-05) at Line End

For closing brackets(cl-02), full stops(cl-06) orcommas(cl-07) at the line end, in principle there is 1/2 em space after and before them (See [Fig.74]). The KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT[・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) character in principle also has 1/4 em space before and after, and is handled like a full width character (See [Fig.74]). In principle it is appropriate to apply line adjustment processing (adjustment of inter character space) to the places with the 1/2 em or 1/4 em space.

Example of handling brackets and punctuation marks at the line end like fuill width characters

[Fig.74]: Example of handling closing brackets(cl-02), full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) and [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) at the line end like full width characters

(note 1)

The following processing is defined in JIS X 4051.

full stops(cl-06)

After full stops(cl-06), there must be 1/2 em space.

commas(cl-07)

After commas(cl-07),solid setting is applied (See [Fig.76]).

closing brackets(cl-02)

After closing brackets(cl-02), solid setting is applied (See [Fig.76]).

(note 2)

In letterpress printing era, the following methods were common (See [Fig.75]).

  1. For full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) and closing brackets(cl-02), if possible, 1/2 em space was preserved. Using 1/2 em space was the general approach.

  2. If the line length is not sufficient or too much and adaptation becomes necessary (see below), the 1/2 em space after a punctuation mark was replaced with solid setting. The reason was that this was at the line end, and there would arise no problems even if the 1/2 em space would become solid setting. The option of replacing the 1/2 em space after punctuation marks with 1/4 em space instead of removing the whole 1/2 em space was not used. That meant that there was the choice between either 1/2 em space after punctuation marks or solid setting.

Examples of punctuation marks at the end of a line with either 1/2 em space after or solid setting

[Fig.75]: Examples of closing brackets(cl-02), commas(cl-07) and full stops(cl-06) at the end of a line with either 1/2 em space after or solid setting

(note 3)

In some of DTP systems etc., after full stops(cl-06)commas(cl-07) orclosing brackets(cl-02) at the line end, the line end is always solid setting (See [Fig.76]).

Example of applying always solid setting after brackets, full stops and commnas at the line end

[Fig.76]: Example of applying always solid setting after closing brackets(cl-02), full stops(cl-06), and commas(cl-07) at the line end

3.1.10 Unbreakable Character Sequence

If the following characters and symbols appear in sequence there will be no line break inbetween them (so called BUNKATSUKINSHI). The reason is that these characters and symbols are to be handled as one unit.

(note 1)

Both line head wrap and line end wrap mean that there will be no line break between characters or symbols. For line head wrap there is no break (BUNKATSUKINSHI) between the line head wrap character and the character or symbol before. For line end wrap, there is no break (BUNKATSUKINSHI) between the line end wrap character and the following character or symbol.

(note 2)

The details of unbreakable character sequences are described in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, following the description of character classes in [sec. 3.9].

  1. Between [—] (EM DASH) in sequence (to be more specific, a double dash, see [Fig.77]).

    BUNKATSUKINSHI for a sequence of EM DASH

    [Fig.77]: A sequence of EM DASH is unbreakable

    (note 1)

    Other characters and punctuation marks before and after[—] (EM DASH) are in solid setting. However, in following cases, some space should be set between[—] (EM DASH) and other characters. As mentioned in next note, […] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS) and [‥] (TWO DOT LEADER), prefixed abbreviations(cl-12) and postfixed abbreviations(cl-13) behave similar to [—] (EM DASH).

    1. In case closing brackets(cl-02) or commas(cl-07) are followed by[—] (EM DASH), 1/2 em space is inserted between them, in principle.

    2. In case [—] (EM DASH) is followed by opening brackets(cl-01), 1/2 em space is inserted between them, in principle.

    3. In case [—] (EM DASH) and middle dots(cl-05) are set side by side, 1/4 em space is inserted between them, in principle.

    (note 2)

    A double dash is handled as one unit, hence line break is forbidden. Also, in letterpress printing, breaking of the double dash was forbidden very strongly, since the double dash was created as a double full body, so it was actually not possible to break it. Nevertheless, if it was not possible to avoid it, two EM DASH were used instead the double dash. That made it possible to have a line break between them.

  2. Between […] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS) or [‥] (TWO DOT LEADER) (to be more specific, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS[ ……] or double TWO DOT LEADER[‥‥]).

    BUNKATSUKINSHI in a sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS or TWO DOT LEADER

    [Fig.78]: Unbreakable in a sequence of […] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS) or [‥] (TWO DOT LEADER)

    (note 1)

    In the letterpress printing era, double HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS etc. were created as a sequence of HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS. Hence, compared to double dash, the line break between them was not so strongly forbidden.

  3. Between an prefixed abbreviations(cl-12) ([¥] (YEN SIGN)[$] (DOLLAR SIGN)[¢] (CENT SIGN) etc.) and the following arabic or ideographic numeral (See [Fig.79]). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    BUNKATSUKINSHI between an abbreviated prefix and the following Western-Arabic numeral

    [Fig.79]: BUNKATSUKINSHI between prefixed abbreviations(cl-12) and the following Western-Arabic numeral

  4. Between a postfixed abbreviations(cl-13) ([%] (PERCENT SIGN), [‰] (PER MILLE SIGN) etc.) and the preceding Western-Arabic numeral or ideographic numeral (See [Fig.80]). The reason is that such character sequences are to be handled as one unit.

    BUNKATSUKINSHI between an abbreviated suffix and the preceding Western-Arabic numeral

    [Fig.80]: BUNKATSUKINSHI between postfixed abbreviations(cl-13) and the preceding Western-Arabic numeral

    (note 1)

    Some people think that it is appropriate to have a line break between the [%] (PERCENT SIGN) and the preceding arabic or ideographic numeral. The reason seems to be that [%] (PERCENT SIGN) has a high level of independency. Furthermore it is possible to have a line break between "0" and "パ" in cases like "50パーセント" (meaning "50 percent", where "percent" is written with KATAKANA).

  5. Between Western-Arabic numerals (See [Fig.79], [Fig.80], and [Fig.81].). Western-Arabic numerals indicate ranks via the position of a numeral.

    (note 1)

    It is possible to have a line break between ideographic numerals. Also it is possible to have a line break after [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) as a decimal separator or an indicator for approximate number, and [・] (KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT) as a decimal point. The reason is that the natural usage of ideographic numerals is to write them like "二百三十五", that is with inserted rank indicators (An example: "二" means "two", "百" means "hundred". "二百" means "two hundred". "三" means "three", "十" means "ten". "三十" means "thirty"."五" means "five". The complete sequence "二百三十五" means "Two hundred thirty five".). Hence, it is not necessary to express ranks via positions. In contrast, line break is forbidden for Western-Arabic numerals, since it is necessary to express the rank via the position. Furthermore, if in vertical writing mode Western-Arabic numerals are placed in appropriate direction side by side, they are used like the ideographic numerals, and it is possible to have a line break inbetween them.

    (note 2)

    When writing Western-Arabic numerals, [.] (FULL STOP) is used as a decimal point, [,] (COMMA) or space is used as a rank indicator. Before and after these characters are inseparable (See [Fig.81]: the space before "4" expresses a rank.).

  6. Inter-letter space among Western characters(cl-27) in a word (or, sequence of letters, which are not able to hyphenate),  or unit indicators (km, kg, mm etc.) in Latin letters (See [Fig.81]).

    BUNKATSUKINSHI between unit indicators in Latin letters

    [Fig.81]: It is not able to line break between letters in unit symboles(cl-25)  in Latin letters

    (note 1)

    Using [‐] (HYPHEN) at the end of a line, it becomes possible to have a line break within Western characters(cl-27).

    (note 2)

    In this document, description of units with proportional Western characters, such as km and kg, are treated as unit symboles(cl-25).

    (note 3)

    In fig.2-28, there is a 1/4 em space between "4" and "k", because of the convention to insert 1/4 em between unit symboles(cl-25) and following Arabic numerals or Western characters(cl-27). It is permited to line break between "4" and "k". In this case, there are no 1/4 em space in neither the head nor bottom or lines.

  7. Inter-letter space among ruby letters, composed as mono-ruby  to handle mono-ruby as one object. Note that it is breakable between base characters with mono-ruby.

  8. Inter-letter space among ruby letters or base characters, composed as group-ruby  to handle group-ruby as one object.

    BUNKATSUKINSHI with mono RUBY and group RUBY

    [Fig.82]: Example of unbreakable cases of ruby sequence

    (note 1)

    With  ruby used for compound words (jukugo-ruby), a group of ruby characters is attached to each base character. It is possible to have a line break between such groups of ruby letters and base characters (See [Fig.83]).  However, each group of ruby letters and base character should not be line breaked within the group to handle them as one object.

    Example of a line break for JUKUGO RUBY

    [Fig.83]: Example of a line break for jukugo-ruby

  9. Between sub- and superscript before or after the base character (See [Fig.84]). Inter-letter gap among base characters with ornament characters  or inter-letter gap among the ornament itself. The reason is that these character sequences are to be handled as one object.

    BUNKATSUKINSHI between a character and the related subscript

    [Fig.84]: BUNKATSUKINSHI between a character and the related subscript

  10. In order to create a correspondence between notes and the related main text, often an reference marks (aijirushi) is being added. It is unbreakable before the reference mark and among letters of the reference mark itself. (See [Fig.85]). The application of unbreakable rule here is a matter of style.

    BUNKATSUKINSHI before an AIJIRUSHI (reference marks, Western-Arabic numerals or ideographic numerals)

    [Fig.85]: BUNKATSUKINSHI before an AIJIRUSHI (reference marks, Western-Arabic numerals or ideographic numerals)

    (note 1)

    In this document, characters in reference marks are treated as characters followed by reference marks(cl-20).

    (note 2)

    Often there are full stops(cl-06) after reference marks. In these cases, it is also unbreakable between the reference marks and the full stops. The reason is that full stops shall not be set at the head of lines (See [Fig.85]).

  11. After warichu opening brackets(cl-28), which open warichu, or before warichu closing brackets(cl-29), wich close warichu.

  12. A unit of furiwake. A unit of furiwake is handled as one object.

    (note 1)

    Unbreakable and breakable combinations of character class is described as a complete table in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd], following [sec. 3.9].

3.1.11 Unbreakable Character Sequence

For line adaptation processing, it is not allowed to put spaces between the following characters (This prohibition is called BUNRIKINSHI.). The reason is that these characters or symbols should appear as one unit.

(note 1)

The main places where for line adaptation processing solid setting may be dropped are the space among hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16), ideographic characters(cl-19). Furthermore, for example the amount of space between words in Western text is also the target of space adaptation.

  1. There must be no space between all characters described in Unbreakable Character Sequence.

    (note 1)

    Some people think that only for cases without the possibility of regular line adaptation processing, it is permissive to increase space between letters in Western words.

  2. In addition to the cases mentioned above, the following cases also require BUNRIKINSHI.

    1. Before or after opening brackets(cl-01) or closing brackets(cl-02).

      (note 1)

      After opening brackets(cl-01) or before closing brackets(cl-02) there is always BUNRIKINSHI. In contrast, before opening brackets or after closing brackets there is no BUNRIKINSHI. full stops(cl-06) and commas(cl-07) are handled the same as the closing brackets.

    2. Before or after full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07).

    3. Before or after middle dots(cl-05).

    4. Before or after dividing punctuation marks(cl-04).

    5. Before or after hyphens(cl-03).

    6. Before or after 1 em, 1/2 em, 1/4 em etc. spaces which are between Japanese Characters.

    7. Among base characters with jukugo-ruby.

      (note 1)

      Combinations of character classes, where spaces are able to insert for line alignment, are described as a complete table in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd], following [sec. 3.9].

3.1.12 Examples of Line Adjustment

Methods for line adjustment processing are discussed in different sections of this document. However, since layout processing of punctuation marks is one reason for the need for line adjustment processing, here we will introduce two main examples where line adjustment processing is necessary, and shows adjustment examples (see ① at [Fig.86]).

  1. The principal approach in Japanese composition is that with the exception of the last line of a paragraph, the length of all lines is aligned. As explained before, the line length is set to be n-times of the character size. Hence, as long as full width characters are used, all lines have the same length (See [Fig.86]).

  2. In [Fig.86] at ②, there is a [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) followed by a [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET), and the complete space taken by the two characters is 1.5 em. That means that in that line, 1/2 em space is missing. To achieve a uniform line lenght, in this case line adjustment processing is applied like shown at ③ in [Fig.86]: the missing 1/2 em space can be gained since it is possible to apply line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, that means to adjust 1/2 em space before and after the LEFT CORNER BRACKETto 1/4 em space.

  3. At ④ in [Fig.86], the 15th character is opening brackets(cl-01). This makes it necessary to avoid the position at the line end. If possible, full width space reduction would be applied, and the character "前" in the second line would be moved in the first line into the 15th position. In that way, the problem could be avoided. However, in this example a full width space reduction is not possible, so line adjustment processing as shown at ⑤ in [Fig.86] is applied: The opening brackets(cl-01) is moved to the second line, and line adjustment by inter-character space expansion is applied. That means that space is inserted in the first line at places where possible.

    Examples of line adjustment

    [Fig.86]: Examples of line adjustment

3.2  Japanese and Western Mixed Text Composition (including Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Composition)

3.2.1  Composition of Japanese and Western Mixed Texts

There are a lot of examples of Japanese text, in which Western and/or Greek letters are mixed among Japanese letters. Examples are as follows:

  1. Use one Latin letter as a symbol for something, like "A" and "B".

  2. Use a Western word in Japanese context, like "editor".

  3. Use acronyms of things and organization names, like "DTP" and "GDP"

  4. Write Western book titles and authors in lists of referred books with original spelling.

Latin letters are also used in Itemization and headings for count up, besides symbols for unit, symbols for chemical element, mathematical symbols. As can be judged from these examples, mixture of Latin letters among Japanese letters is daily used in Japanese composition.

note 1)

There are some examples which include whole Western paragraphs in Japanese documents.  However, there are few ordinary books, which include whole Western paragraphs in Japanese documents. There are a lot of examples of textbooks for foreign language, in which one or more Western paragraphs followed by annotations in Japanese language. Also, there are some examples in treatises and journals, which contain whole Western paragraphs.

note 2)

In Vertical Settings, symbols for units are usually described with katakanas(cl-16) , such as センチメートル(centimeter) or センチ(abbreviation of centimeter in katakana "senchi"). In Horizontal Settings, the International System of Units(SI) is usually used, such as "cm".

note 3)

The treatment of mixture of Japanese Characters and Western Characters are also described in JIS X 4051 4.7.

3.2.2  Mixed Text Compostion in the Horizontal Writing Mode

In Horizontal Settings, basically proportional Western Fonts are used. ([Fig.87]). As for Western-Arabic Numerals, both half width fonts and proportional fonts are used.

Example of proportional Western fonts used in Horizontal Japanese Setting

[Fig.87]: Example of Proportional Western fonts used in Horizontal Japanese Setting

Example of Western Full Width Mono-space fonts used in Horizontal Japanese Setting. (In Horizontal Setting, Western Full Width Mono-space fonts are usually not recommended.)

[Fig.88]: Example of Western Full Width Mono-space fonts used in Horizontal Japanese Setting. (In Horizontal Setting, Western Full Width monospace fonts are usually not recommended.)

note 1)

As shown in [Fig.88], there are some examples of Western Full Width Mono-space fonts used in Horizontal Japanese typesetting, these usage are not recommended, because of cosmetic reason.

note 2)

Usually, in Horizontal Japanese Settings, Western-Arabic Numerals fonts, which are easy to balance and harmonize with Japanese fonts, are used. Considering line adjustment, it is recommended to use monospacehalf width Western-Arabic Numerals fonts. There are some cases of Japanese font with half width monospace Western-Arabic Numerals.

note 3)

There are two choises for those glyphs of Latin letters and numerals used in Japanese and Western mixed text compositons. One way is to use those glyphs for Western characters built into the same Japanese font. The other is to combine an independent Western font for Western characters and the Japanese font for Japanese characters. (Example: [Fig.89] is composed using proportional glyphs of Latin letters and numerals included in Ryumin R-KL. [Fig.90] is composed with Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Latin letters and numerals.)

Example: Mixture of Ryumin R-KL for Japanese Characters Western Proportional fonts and Western-Arabic Numeral fonts included in R-KL for Western Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals Characters.

[Fig.89]: Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with the same font Ryumin R-KL for both Japanese characters and proportional Western characters.

Example of mixture of Ryumin R-KL and Times Roman for Western Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals Characters.

[Fig.90]: Example of Japanese and Western mixed text with two distinct fonts - Ryumin R-KL for Japanese characters and Times New Roman for Western characters.

3.2.3  Mixed Text Composition in Vertical Settings

As explained in the Chapter 1, there are three different styles to set Latin letters and Western-Arabic numerals in Vertical Settings:

  1. Set Latin letters and/or Western-Arabic numerals one by one in inline direction with Japanese characters (See [Fig.91]). This style is adopted typically when composing a single Latin letter or Western-Arabic numeral between the adjacent Japanese letters. Full width monospace glyphs are specified for those Latin letters and Western-Arabic numerals in this style.

    A2-TBD Example of Latin letters in normal orientation

    [Fig.91]: Example of Latin letters in normal orientation

  2. Set Latin letters and/or Western-Arabic numerals rotated 90 degrees clockwise in Vertical Settings. ([Fig.92]). This style is adopted usually when Latin letters compose a word or sentences. Proportional fonts are specified for those characters in this style as in HorizontalSettings (or half width monospace fonts for Western-Arabic numerals).

    Example of Latin letters rotated clockwise 90 degrees

    [Fig.92]: Example of Latin letters rotated 90 degrees clockwise

  3. Set Latin letters and/or Western-Arabic numerals in TATECHUYOKO (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings, see [Fig.93]). TATECHUYOKO layout is adopted usually when composing a two-digit number in Western-Arabic numerals, or a combination of two or three Latin letters, the length of which is equal to the default size of the line in pragraph direction or longer than that just to an acceptable extent (A combination of two or three Latin letters may be rotated 90 degrees clockwise rather than set it in TATECHUYOKO layout). Proportional glyphs (or half width monospace glyphs for Western-Arabic numerals) are used for those characters in TATECHUYOKO layout.

    Example of Western-Arabic numerals in TATECHUYOKO (Horizontal-in-Vertical layout)

    [Fig.93]: Example of Western-Arabic numerals in TATECHUYOKO (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings)

    note 1)

    Acronyms, such as "GNP", and abbreviations like "Web", are usually set one by one character-wise in normall orientation (See [Fig.94]). However, there are some cases where acronyms and abbreviations are rotated 90 degrees clockwise (See [Fig.91]).

    Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation

    [Fig.94]: Example of acronyms set one by one in normal orientation

    A2-TBD Example of acronyms rotated clockwise 90 degrees

    [Fig.95]: Example of acronyms rotated 90 degrees clockwise

    note 2)

    The ideographic numerals were traditionally used in VerticalSettings instead of Western-Arabic numerals (The Road numbers and Car numbers were few examples of exceptions). However, the more newspapers and other publications have been adopting Western-Arabic numerals in vertical writing mode, the more the use of TATECHUYOKO layout for Western-Arabic numerals has also been increasing.

3.2.4  Setting Method for Full Width Mono-space Latin Letters and Western-Arabic Numerals

When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or Arabic numerals are set in vertical writing mode as "quasi" Japanese character, inter-letter spaces between these characters and hiraganas(cl-15)katakanas(cl-16) or ideographic characters(cl-19) are solid setting ,similar to ordinary ideographic characters(cl-19) (Fig. 2-2-8). Also, when full-wodth and fixed-width Western characters or Arabic numerals are set after full stops(cl-06)commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), or, before opening brackets(cl-01), insert 1/2 space after commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), or, before opening brackets(cl-01), in principle. In addition, in these cases, insert 1/2 em after full stops(cl-06). When full-width and fixed-width Western characters or Arabic numerals are set before full stops(cl-06)commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), or, after opening brackets(cl-01), the inter-letter space before full stops, commas or closing brackets are solid, or, after opening brackets are solid.

Setting example of Full Width Mono-space Latin Letters and Western-Arabic Numerals

[Fig.96]: Setting example of Full Width Mono-space Latin Letters and Western-Arabic Numerals

note 1)

In this document, full-width and fixed-width Western characters and Arabic numerals are treated as members of ideographic characters(cl-19) class.

note 2)

The details of ideographic characters(cl-19), includeing full-width and fixed-width Western characters and Arabic numerals, are described as a complete table in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd], following [sec. 3.9].

3.2.5  Handling of Tatechuyoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings)

Strings, to be set as tatechuyoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Settings), are firstly set from left to right assolid setting, then set the whole strings align in center of the vertical line.([Fig.97]). When hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) orideographic characters(cl-19) are set before/after tatechuyoko, the inter-letter space is solid. When tatechuyoko is set afterfull stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) orclosing brackets(cl-02), or, beforeopening brackets(cl-01), 1/2 em is inserted, in principle. In addition, when tatechuyoko is set afterfull stops(cl-06), 1/2 em is inserted. When tatechuyoko is set before full stops, commas or closing brackets, or, after opening brackets, the inter-letter space is solid.

Setting example of TATECHUYOKO (Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Setting)

[Fig.97]: Setting example of tatechuyoko (Horizontal-in-Vertical Text Setting

note 1)

The details of handling of inter-letter spaces between strings in tatechuyoko (cl-30) and adjacent other character classes are described as a complete table in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd], following [sec. 3.9].

3.2.6  Handling of Western Text in Japanese Text using proprtional Western Fonts

Composition rules of Western characters, Western texts and Arabic numerals, set rotated 90 degrees clockwaise in vertical writing mode, and horizontal writing mode, are as follows:

  1. Sequence of Western characters in a Western word should not be line breaked, except  hyphenation capable positions.

  2. When line adjustment is done with inter-letter space reduction mode, Western word spaces(cl-26) are used with first priority. Also, when line adjustment is done with line adjustment by inter-letter space addition mode, Western word spaces are used with first priority.

  3. When line adjustment by inter-letter space addition mode is used, inter-letter spaces within Western words and Arabic numerals are not used to space expansion.

  4. Inter-letter space, between hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) or ideographic characters(cl-19), and, Western characters or Arabic numerals, is 1/4 em [Fig.98]. The issue, whether the 1/4 em space can be used for line end adjustment or not, is discussed in [sec. 3.8.2] and [sec. 3.8.4].

Example of 1/4 EM Inter Character Space between Japanese Characters and Latin Characters

[Fig.98]: Example of 1/4 EM inter-letter space between hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) and ideographic characters(cl-19), and Latin Characters

note 1)

In this document, proportional Western characters and Arabic numerals are treated as members of Western characters(cl-27) class. Note that half- and fixed-width Arabic numerals, designed to use in mixture with Japanese text, are treated as members of grouped numerals(cl-24).

note 2)

The reason why there need 1/4 EM inter-letter space is that the design concept of Latin fonts and Japanese fonts are different each other, so it looks too tight without the spaces.([Fig.99])

Example of Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals Japanese Characters without Inter-Character Spaces (This method is not recommended)

[Fig.99]: Example of solid setting between hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) and ideographic characters(cl-19), and, Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals (This method is not recommended).

However, in following cases, there are no 1//4 EM spaces ([Fig.100]).

  1. At the start of the line, there is no space before Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals. At the end of the line, there is no space after Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals.

  2. In the case that Latin characters and Arabic numerals are following full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), in principle, 1/2 em space is inserted. In the case that Latin characters and Arabic numerals are following full stops(cl-06), 1/2 em space is inserted.

  3. In the case that Latin characters and Arabic numerals are set before full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), or, after opening brackets(cl-01), the inter-letter space is solid.

Example of no Inter-Character space before and after Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals

[Fig.100]: Example of no Inter-Character space before and after Latin Characters and Western-Arabic Numerals

3.3  Ruby and Emphasis Dots

3.3.1  Usage of Ruby

Ruby is a small size supplementary text attached to a character or a group of characters in the main text. A run of ruby text, usually attached to the right of the characters in VerticalSettings or immediately above them in Horizontal Settings, indicates the reading or the meaning of them (See [Fig.101]). Those characters in the main text, annotated by ruby, are called "base characters". KANA characters are often used for ruby to indicate readings of KANJI characters, which are also referred to as "FURIGANA".

Ruby and Principal Characters

[Fig.101]: Ruby and Basic Characters

note 1)

The changes of the view of KANJI usage to compose Japanese and the changes of the ruby implementation in the text layout methods have been affecting the usage of ruby itself. The use of ruby was not very popular while "TOYO KANJI HYO" (The list of KANJI characters for everyday use, issued by the Government on November 16, 1946) was put in effect because it discouraged the use of 'FURIGANA' in principle in its 'directions of use' section. "Jouyou Kanji Hyou(常用漢字表)" (The list of kanji characters in common use, issued by the Government to replace "Toyo Kanji Hyou (当用漢字表)" on October 10, 1981) has changed the scope of the list ("Toyo Kanji Hyou" defined the list of all Kanji characters that can be used for any documents, while "Jouyou Kanji Hyou" was designed to be a 'reference guide' for the use of Kanji to compose contemporary Japanese for general use in society.). For example, the preface of "Jouyou Kanji Hyou" states that one may consider the use of 'Furigana (Annotation to indicate pronouciation'  when the text appears too difficult to read, which is why the use of ruby has been increasing today. The use of ruby was common in magazines and books, and even newspapers have begun to use ruby these days.

note 2)

The specification of the ruby composition was first introduced at the second revision of JIS X 4051, which was further revised in 2004 to add JUKUGO-ruby, KATATSUKI-ruby and the dual ruby composition with which two distinct runs of ruby are attached to the same basic characters ("4.12 Ruby Composition").

In terms of the purpose of annotation, ruby has several functionarities as described below. Depending on the purpose and/or the function of ruby, there are different ruby composition methods (the details of the composition methods will be provided in the later sections.).

  1. PURPOSE: The ruby annotation with KANA (usually HIRAGANA) characters to provide readings of KANJI characters. There are two types ruby for this purpose depending on the type of base characters:

    1. Add one or more hiraganas(cl-15) or katakanas(cl-16) ruby characters to indicate the reading (Japanese onyomi or kunyomi) for each base ideographic characters(cl-19) character (See [Fig.102]).  This method, attach one or several hiraganas or katakanaz for each base kanji, is called mono-ruby.

      Example of Ruby Annotation for the Reading per KANJI Character

      [Fig.102]: Example of Ruby Annotation for the Reading per KANJI Character

    2. In Japanese writing system, there occasionally appear compound words, constructed with a couple of kanjis. When ruby is attached for these compound words, there are two different method to attach ruby letters for base kanji characters.

      1. Atattch ruby letters for each base kanji character, similar to previous section. It is called mono-ruby (See [Fig.103]).

        Ex-1 of Ruby in Phrase-wise Layout for Phrasal KANJIs

        [Fig.103]: Ex-1 of Ruby in Phrase-wise Layout for Phrasal KANJIs (Editor's note: to be changed with Figure Ex-2?)

        note 1)

        In [Fig.103], there is a 1/4 em space between base characters, "凝" and "視". So, when this line happens to appear in middle of a paragraph, there needs some line adjustment process.

      2. The method, both incidate pronounciation of each base kanji, and consider the positioning as a phrase, together [Fig.104]. This method is called jukugo-ruby. Jukugo-ruby intends to handle Kanji phrase as one object.

        Example of ruby for phrasal Kanjis with jukugo-ruby

        [Fig.104]: Example of ruby for phrasal Kanjis with jukugo-ruby(Figure Ex-1と入れ替わり?)

        note 1)

        There is no difference between [Fig.103] of mono-ruby and [Fig.104] of jukugo-ruby, in condition that number of ruby letters for each base kanji character are one or two. When mono-ruby method is adapted, the inter-letter space between base kanji characters can be expanded for line adjustment(In fig.2-3-3, inter-letter space between "鬼" and "門", or, "方" and "角" can be expanded). When jukugo-ruby method is adate, base kanji characters can not used for line adjustment.

        note 2)

        Following examples are the relation among ruby letters and base kanji characters.
        Example of mono-ruby:凝+(ぎよう) 視+(し)
        Example of jukugo-ruby(1):[凝+(ぎよう) 視+(し)]
        Example of jukugo-ruby(2):(凝視)+(ぎよう/し)

        note 3)

        Books commonly adopt the phrase-wise kana ruby for phrasal kanjis. However, due to technical difficulties to realize phrase-wise ruby in machine-assisted text layout, the adoption of the character-wise kana ruby is increasing. For examples, newspapers do not adopt the phrase-wise ruby, and study aid books generally adopt the character-wise ruby because it is considered more important to show the readings of each kanji character for students than the beauty of the layout.

        note 4)

        Multiple phrasal kanjis can form one compound phrase. In this case, there are two ways to attach ruby, i.e. attaching ruby to the compound phrase as a whole, or to each phrase which forms the compound (See [Fig.105]). Similarly, a Japanese personal name consists of a given name and a family name, which together form a compound of a full name, and it is an editorial decision either to attach two runs of ruby for each given name and family name or to attach the full ruby text which represents the reading of the full name to the compound.

        Example of Ruby for Compound Phrase

        [Fig.105]: Examples of Ruby Attachment for a Compound Phrase

        note 5)

        The reading of a phrasal KANJI is just a concatenation of readings of each KANJI character in most cases, but some phrases have their own native readings (known as JUKUJI readings), which cannot be derived from the readings of each character. Attaching ruby to those phrases which are usually sequences of two or three KANJI characters, is essentially the same as attaching ruby in KATAKANA to principal characters of KANJI and/or KANA (See [Fig.106]).

        Examples of Ruby for JUKUJI readings

        [Fig.106]: Examples of Ruby for JUKUJI readings

  2. PURPOSE: The ruby annotation with KANA characters by attaching another word than the reading for a given word in KANJI and/or KANA. The purpose is to annotate the word by providing its meaning rather than its reading. In terms of the ruby layout, it is essentially the same as attaching the reading to a kanji character (e.g. attaching the reading “いち” in KANA to a KANJI character “市”), in the case of attaching ruby text to a single character in KANJI or KANA (e.g. attaching ruby text “バザール”, 'Bazaar' in KANA to a KANJI character “市” ). In case of attaching ruby text to a run of text consisting of two or more characters in KANJI and/or KANA, the ruby text needs to be positioned as if it were corresponding to the annotated text itself no matter how the ruby characters are distributed to each basic character in the annotated text. The most typical example of this case is to attach a ruby text to a phrasal KANJI to indicate its corresponding loan word in KATAKANA (See [Fig.106]). The use of ruby text of this kind is on the increase in proportion to the growing need for translations and loan words. This type of ruby, namely, ruby letters are attached to two or more base characters as one object, is called group-ruby. Group-ruby and it's base characters are unbreakable, because of their behavior as one object (jukugo-ruby is line breakable between its base kanji characters).

    Examples of ruby for phrasal KANJIs to indicate corresponding words in HIRAGANA

    [Fig.107]: Examples of ruby for phrasal KANJIs to indicate corresponding words in HIRAGANA

    note 1)

    Having said that, the layout of ruby text to a single KANJI character is not entirely the same depending on the use of ruby whether it is for indicating the reading or the meaning. In fact, the KATATSUKI, one of ruby layout per character which will be described in the later section, does allow the NAKATSUKI layout for those ruby which indicate the meanings.

  3. PURPOSE: Ruby annotation usually with katakana characters to indicate the reading or the meaning of a Western word used in base text (See [Fig.108]). There are opposite cases where attaching the synonymous Western word in Latin characters as a ruby annotation to a Japanese word in kana or kanji in base text (See [Fig.108]).These cases are less used than a and b, however, quite common among study guides, translated books and travel guides.

    Examples of Latin Characters Used either in Principal or Ruby Text for Western Words

    [Fig.108]: Examples of Latin Characters Used either in Base or Ruby Text for Western Words

  4. PURPOSE: FURI-KANJI, a ruby annotation with KANJI to a word such as in HIRAGANA in base text, which is very rarely found.

Hereafter, mainly the usage of (a) and (b) will be explained.

note 1)

There is no difference in positioning of ruby text whether attaching ruby characters in KANA to a Western word in Latin characters or attaching ruby in Latin to a Japanese word in KANJI or KANA, in that the ruby text in either case should be positioned to a run of base text to be annotated as in b). However, there is a difference in cases where the length of basetext and ruby text is different. When the length of a ruby text in KANA or KANJI is shorter than the corresponding base text, the ruby text is, in general, to be stretched by adding inter-character spaces among ruby characters so that the ruby and base text look similar in length (See [Fig.103]). On the other hand, no inter-character space will be added to any ruby text in Latin characters no matter how different the ruby and base text look in length (See [Fig.103]).

3.3.2  Choice of Base Characters to be annotated by Ruby

There are several methods how to attach ruby annotations to which base characters.

  1. The 'general-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to all those base characters in KANJI.

  2. The 'para-ruby' is the method of attaching ruby annotations to only those base characters in KANJI which readings are difficult.

    note 1)

    The 'para-ruby' method is further divided into the method of attaching ruby annotations regardless of multiple occurrences of the same base KANJI character and the method of attaching ruby annotations to only the first instance of the same base KANJI character. Furthermore, the latter method has several variations in counting the first instance for the entire book, each chapter, or each spread, etc.

Note that Ruby should be attached to whole KANJI charecters in a compound phrase, because of the wholeness of compound phrese in reading. To attach Ruby to a part of KANJI characters in a compound pharse is not recommended (See [Fig.109]).

Examples of Ruby on Phrasal KANJIs

[Fig.109]: Examples of Ruby on phrasal kanjis(Left side : recommended. Right side : not recommended.)

3.3.3  Choice of Sizes for Ruby Characters

The size of ruby characters is in principle the half size of base characters (See [Fig.110]).

Examples of Ruby with the Half Size of the Principal Characters

[Fig.110]: Examples of Ruby with the Half Size of the Base Characters

The 'one-third ruby' characters are rarely used to attach three ruby characters to one full-width KANJI character. The one-third ruby for vertical layout has the dimension of the half of the base character in width and the one third in height. Those for Horizontal Settings have the dimension of the half of the base characters in height and one third in width (See [Fig.111]).

Examples of One-Third Ruby

[Fig.111]: Examples of One-Third Ruby

When ruby is attached to twelve points or larger base characters, the size of ruby letter generaly smaller than the half size of the base characters, considering the proportion of the sizes of base characters and ruby. Anyway, these cases are very rare.

Examples of Ruby with the Size Smaller Than the Half Size of the Principal Characters

[Fig.112]: Examples of Ruby with the Size Smaller Than the Half Size of the Base Characters

note 1)

There are cases where the body size is twelve points in those books designed for infants or aged people. In these cases, the size of ruby can be six points, exactly the half size of the base characters.

note 2)

When the size of base characters is very small (for e.g. smaller than seven points), the ruby, the size of which is the half size, is further small and illegible. In such cases where the size of base characters is very small, ruby is not a suitable way for annotation. In those cases, consider other annotations such as adding the reading in parenthesis immediately after the base character.

note 3)

It is slightly different from the size issue of ruby, there is a choice whether or not small KANA characters should be used in ruby annotations. Because of the size being too small, there was no choice of using small KANA in letterpress printing. Today there are cases where small KANA are used in ruby annotations, but taking legibility into consideration, it should be limited to those for accurate readings such as for proper nouns.

3.3.4  Choice of Sides for Ruby with respect to Base Characters

In principle, ruby is attached to the right of base characters in Vertical Settings, and to the above in Horizontal Settings.

In some special cases, ruby can be seen to the left of base characters in Vertical Settings, and to the below in Horizontal Settings, both of which are very rare.

There are cases where attaching two kinds of ruby to both sides of base characters, one for readings and the other for meanings (See [Fig.113]), which are also very rare.

An Example of Ruby Attaching Both Sides of Principal Characters

[Fig.113]: An Example of Ruby Attaching Both Sides of Base Characters

In the following sections, the ruby composition methods will be explained assuming the size of ruby is the half size of the base characters and they will be attached to the right in VerticalSettings and to the above in Horizontal Settings. First, the basic composition rules of mono-ruby, group-ruby and JUKUGO-ruby, then the rules of positioning of ruby with respect to those characters which come before and after the base characters, and finally the composition rules at the line start and at the line end.

3.3.5  Positioning of Mono-Ruby with respect to Base Characters

When mono-ruby characters are Japanese, they are set solid. If mono-ruby characters have their own character widths such as Western characters or numerals, they are set according to their own widths and then the ruby text is placed so that its center matches to that of its base character. There are more variations depending on the combination of the base character and ruby text and accordingly various composition rules have been invented, which will be explained with examples.

When attaching two kana ruby characters to a single base character, both lengths are the same and they are positioned as shown in [Fig.114].

An Example of Composition with Two Ruby Characters

[Fig.114]: An Example of Composition with Two Ruby Characters

When attaching a single ruby character to a single base character, there are two ways of positioning the ruby character.

  1. In vertical writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its vertical center matches to that of the base character (See [Fig.115]). In horizontal writing mode, attach a ruby character so that its horizontal center matches to that of the base character (See [Fig.115]). These positioning of a ruby character is called 'naka-tsuki' (center-alignment).

  2. In Vertical Settings, attach a ruby character so that the top of its virtual body is aligned with the top of that of the base character (See [Fig.115]). This positioning of a ruby character is called 'KATA-TSUKI' (top-alignment). For Horizontal Settings, 'KATA-TSUKI' should not be adopted. If a ruby character is attached so that the left-edge of its virtual body is aligned with the left-edge of that of the base character, it would result in the lost of center of balance, which doesn't look good (See [Fig.116]).

Examples of NAKA-TSUKI Alignment and KATA-TSUKI Alignment

[Fig.115]: Examples of NAKA-TSUKI Alignment and KATA-TSUKI Alignment

An Example of KATA-TSUKI Alignment in Horizontal Layout (this is intentional and should not be applied)

[Fig.116]: An Example of KATA-TSUKI Alignment in Horizontal Layout (this is intentional and should not be applied)

note 1)

Kata-tsuki alignment was commonly used in letterpress printing era, but today the adoption of naka-tsuki alignment is increasing even in vertical writing mode. However, there is still an opinion in support of kata-tsuki alignment because it is familiar and readable.

When attaching more than three hiragana ruby characters to a single base character, the ruby characters are set solid. In this case where the length of a ruby text is longer than that of its base character, positioning of the ruby text depends on which alignment has been adopted for a single ruby character. There is another issue how to maintain the spatial balance of the ruby characters hanging over those characters which are not its base characters. The adjustment of inter-character spacing for those characters which come before and after the base character will be explained in the later section.

  1. When naka-tsuki alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, position a ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character in vertical wriging mode (See [Fig.117]). In horizontal writing mode, position a ruby text so that its horizontal center is aligned with that of its base character (See [Fig.118]).

    Example-1 Positioning of Ruby Text with More Than Three Characters

    [Fig.117]: Example-1 Positioning of Ruby Text with More Than Three Characters

  2. When KATA-TSUKI alignment is adopted for a single ruby character, there are two ways as follows.

    1. Position a ruby text so that its vertical center is aligned with that of its base character (See [Fig.117])

    2. Depending on the type of script of adjacent characters of the base character and the number of ruby characters, the decision is made whether the ruby hangover is allowed on the character before its base character or on the character after or on both adjacent characters. At break-even situation, the hangover is usually on the character after its base character (See [Fig.118]).

Example-2 Positioning of Ruby Text with More Than Three Characters (vertical layout)

[Fig.118]: Example-2 Positioning of Ruby Text with More Than Three Characters (Vertical Settings)

note 1)

The terms KATA-TSUKI and NAKA-TSUKI were originally used for the ruby alignment only when a single ruby character is attached to a single base character. However there are cases where the meaning of them is stretched so that they can be used when more than three ruby characters are involved. We use the terms KATA-TSUKI and NAKA-TSUKI with their original meaning throughout this document.

note 2)

The preference for the choice of the ruby hangover on the character after its base character is due to the preference of avoiding adjustment of inter-character spacing between base characters and their adjacent characters, which was common in letterpress printing.

As for MONO-RUBY, base characters and adjacent ruby characters shall be handled as one object, and prohibited to be linke-breaked.

3.3.6  Positioning of Group-Ruby with respect to Base Characters

In case the length (number-of-characters * advance-width-of-each-character) of a sequence of base characters and that of the ruby text are the same, each text shall be set solid and the center of both texts shall be aligned each other (See [Fig.119]).

Examples of Group-Ruby which length is the same as that of the Text of Principal Characters

[Fig.119]: Examples of Group-Ruby which length is the same as that of the Text of Base Characters

In case the length of a ruby text is shorter than that of the text of its base characters, stretch the ruby text by adding a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent ruby characters so that both texts balance each other. To be more specific, for 2 units of inter-character space between ruby character, adding 1 unit of space before the leading character and after the trailing character will give a balanced appearance, which is the method specified in JIS X 4051 (See [Fig.120]). Another way is to first align the top of both leading characters for the basetext and ruby text and the bottom of both trailing characters and then to add the same amount of inter-character space between the rest of the ruby characters (See [Fig.121]).

Example-1 Distribution of Group-Ruby alongside of Principal Characters where the length of Ruby is shorter than that of the Text of Principal Characters

[Fig.120]: Example-1 Distribution of Group-Ruby alongside of Base Characters where the length of Ruby is shorter than that of the Text of Base Characters

Example-2 Distribution of Group-Ruby alongside of Principal Characters where the length of Ruby is shorter than that of the Text of Principal Characters

[Fig.121]: Example-2 Distribution of Group-Ruby alongside of Base Characters where the length of Ruby is shorter than that of the Text of Base Characters

note 1)

In letterpress printing, there were not many choices in adjustments of inter-character space between ruby characters. Therefore, depending on the number of characters in basetext and its ruby text, the choice was whether to add a certain amount of space before the leading ruby character and after the trailing character or not. In the former case it had been said that for 2 units of inter-character space between each adjacent ruby characters, adding 1 unit of the leading and trailing space would give a balanced appearance.

note 2)

In case the length of the ruby text is far shorter than that of the base text, the method specified in JIS X 4051 could result in the twice the size of a ruby character for the leading and the trailing space, which might give a misleading appearance. Therefore, a criteria whether or not to adopt the method of JIS X 4051 is to see if the amount of the leading and the trailing space exceeds the fullwidth (or up to 3/2 of the size) of a ruby character (See [Fig.122]).

Examples of Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is extremely shorter than that of the Text of Principal Characters

[Fig.122]: Examples of Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is extremely shorter than that of the Text of Principal Characters

In case the length of a ruby text is longer than that of the text of its base characters, balance with the ruby text by adding a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent base characters. To be more specific, for 2 units of inter-character space, add 1 unit of the leading and the trailing space, as specified in JIS X 4051 (See [Fig.123]). Another way is to first align the top of both the leading characters and the bottom of the trailing characters and then add a certain amount of inter-character space between each adjacent principal characters (See [Fig.124]).

Example-1 Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is longer than that of Principal Characters

[Fig.123]: Example-1 Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is longer than that of Base Characters

Example-2 Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is longer than that of Principal Characters

[Fig.124]: Example-2 Distribution of Group-Ruby where the length is longer than that of Base Characters

As for groub-ruby, base characters and adjacent ruby characters shall be handled as one object, and prohibited to be line-breaked. Also, the object constructed with base characters and adjacent ruby characterss is prohibited to insert additional spaces between each characters for line adjustment.

3.3.7  Positioning of Jukugo-Ruby with respect to Base Characters

If the number of ruby characters are two or less than two for each Kanji character, which participates in a Jukugo (a phrasal Kanji), for each run of ruby text for each base character, compose ruby characters as described in [sec. 3.3.5] (See [Fig.125]).

Example-1 Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

[Fig.125]: Example-1 Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

If there is any Kanji character in a given phrasal Kanji which needs more than three ruby characters, the Jukugo-ruby layout cannot be made because the character-wise attachment of ruby character is not feasible for all principal characters. In this case, attach the ruby text phrase-wise to the phrasal Kanji. The methods include the layout as specified in JIS X 4051 which is similar to the group-ruby method described in [sec. 3.3.6] (See [Fig.126]), and the layout decided by the phonetic structure of the phrasal Kanji and the type of script of the adjacent characters (See [Fig.127]). The latter method can be used unless a run of ruby text for the base character hangs over another base character more than the fullwidth (or one and a half of the fullwidth) of a ruby character in length.

Example-2 Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

[Fig.126]: Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

Example-3 Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

[Fig.127]: Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby

note 1)

There are often the cases that JUKUGO-ruby consists of one ruby character followed by three ruby characters, and vice versa, for a phrasal KANJI of two base characters. If the mono-ruby layout were chosen for these cases, it would look like as shown in [Fig.128], which wouldn't look very beautiful.

An Example of Distribution as Mono-Ruby for JUKUGO

[Fig.128]: An Example of setting of ruby for a phrasal word as moo-ruby

A JUKUGO-ruby can be split into two lines at a boundary of each unit of ruby text attached to one KANJI character. When a phrasal KANJI consists of two characters, each unit will be processed using the mono-ruby method. When dividing a phrasal KANJI consists of three, use the mono-ruby method for the first KANJI character and use the JUKUGO-ruby method for the remaining two KANJI characters, and vice versa. In order to maintain the correspondence of each KANJI to its ruby annotation, the layout of ruby may be different after the division (See [Fig.129]). Note that jukugo-ruby and its base characters as one object can not be subject of inter-letter space expansion for line adjustment.

熟語ルビを2行に分割して配置した例

[Fig.129]: Examples of Distribution of JUKUGO-Ruby split into two lines

3.3.8  Adjustments of Ruby of which length is longer than that of Base Characters

When the length of any ruby text is shorter than that of the base characters, the main text can be just set solid because there is no need for any adjustment of the inter-character spacing between base characters with ruby annotations and their adjacent characters in the main text.

Set Solid when the length of Ruby Text is shorter than that of Principal Characters

[Fig.130]: Set Solid when the length of Ruby Text is shorter than that of Base Characters

When the length of a ruby text is longer than that of the base characters, how to compose the main text depends on how much the ruby text can hang over those characters of KANJI, KANA or punctuation marks, which are adjacent to the principal characters. The following are the general rules (See [Fig.131] and [Fig.132]). They were established especially to avoid misreading and to maintain the beauty of the layout.

  1. A ruby text shall not hang over the ideographic characters(cl-19) adjacent to the base characters.

  2. When the adjacent character is hiraganas(cl-15)katakanas(cl-16)prolonged sound marks(cl-10) or small kanas(cl-11), a ruby text may hang over the character up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters.

  3. The ruby letter may go over the base characters and hang over the 1/2 em spaces, which are inserted after closing brackets(cl-02), full stops(cl-06) or commas(cl-07), set befor the target ruby object, up to the amount of full-wdth size of ruby letter. Also, the ruby letter may go over the base characters and hang over the 1/2 em spaces, which are inserted before opening brackets(cl-01), set after the target ruby object, up to the amount of full -width size of ruby letter.Note that when the spaces are reduced for line adjustment, the room for ruby letter overwrap is also compressed (For example, if the space is.1/4 em in base character size, the ruby letter can overwrap by 1/2 em in ruby letter size). 

  4. When the adjacent character is one of inseparable characters(cl-08), a ruby text may hang over the character up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters.

  5. When the adjacent character is one of the middle dots(cl-05), a ruby text may hang over the middle dots, in principle, up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters. But if there is any reduction of space before and after the middle dots as a result of the line adjustment, the amount of the extension shall be up to the amount of space after the middle dots plus 1/2 of ruby character size in case the middle dots are set befor the ruby object, or, space before the middle dots plus 1/2 of ruby character size incase the middle dots are set after the ruby object.

  6. When the adjacent character is one of the closing brackets(cl-02), a ruby text may go over the principal characters up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters. Note that the hang over shall not exceed beyond the closing bracket itself.

  7. When the adjacent character is one of commas(cl-07) or full stops(cl-06), a ruby text may go over the base characters and hang over the commas or full stops up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters. Note that the hang over shall not exceed beyond the commas or the periods itself.

  8. Also, when the adjacent character is one of opening brackets(cl-01) before the ruby object, a ruby text may go over the base characters and hang over the opening brackets up to the full width size of the ruby characters. Note that the hang overshall not exceed beyond the opening brackets..

Example-1 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

[Fig.131]: Example-1 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

Example-2 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

[Fig.132]: Example-2 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

note 1)

There is a opinion that it is not good style to hang ruby characters over the opening brackets(cl-01), especially [「] LEFT CORNER BRACKET and [」] RIGHT CORNER BRACKET. When this opinion is adapted, there are two possibilities. One is not  allow ruby characters hang over the opening brackets(cl-01). The other is allow ruby characters hang over hte opening brackets up to 1/2 size of ruby characters.

note 2)

JIS X 4051 classifies katakana characters and kanji characters in same class. Accordingly, in JIS X 4051, it is prohibited to hang ruby characters over adjacent katakana characters.

note 3)

There is another variation that allows a ruby text to hang over any of ideographic characters(cl-19), hiraganas(cl-15) or katakanas(cl-16) characters up to the fullwidth size of the ruby characters (See [Fig.133]).

Example-3 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

[Fig.133]: Example-3 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

note 4)

There is a further variation that does not allow a ruby text to hang over any of ideographic characters(cl-19), hiraganas(cl-15) or katakana(cl-16) characters (See [Fig.134]).

Example-4 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

[Fig.134]: Example-4 Distribution of Ruby Characters hanging over the Adjacent Characters

When the line head starts with a ruby annotated text, of which ruby text length is shorter than that of the base characters, compose the text so that the first base character should be aligned with the line head. Similarly, when a ruby annotated text ends at the line end and the ruby length is shorter than that of the basic characters, compose the text so that the last basic character should be aligned with the line end.

When the ruby text length is longer than that of the basic characters, compose the text so that the first ruby character which are forced out should be aligned with the line head, and vice versa (See [Fig.135]). Or there is a variation to compose the text so that the first basic character should be aligned with the line head, and vice versa (See [Fig.136]).

Example-1 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

[Fig.135]: Example-1 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

Example-2 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

[Fig.136]: Example-2 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

When aligning the first base character to the line head and the last base character to the line end, a ruby text is not allowed to extend beyond the HANMEN or the area of the column. If it does, the following adjustments should be considered in positioning base characters and ruby characters.

  1. Mono-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the base characters (See [Fig.136]).

  2. Mono-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the last base character (See [Fig.136]).

  3. Group-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the first base character, and adding the same amount of inter-letter space between the base characters and after the last base character(the method specified in JIS X 4051. See [Fig.137]).

    Example-3 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

    [Fig.137]: Example-3 Positioning of Ruby Characters at the Line Head and at the Line End

  4. Group-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the last base character,  and adding the same amount of inter-letter space between the base characters and the space before the base characters (the method specified in JIS X 4051. See [Fig.137]).

  5. JUKUGO-ruby at the line head or at the line end: Make the same adjustments described in c or d as for the group-ruby.

  6. JUKUGO-ruby at the line head: Make adjustments so that the top of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the first base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may hang over the adjacent base characters of the same phrasal KANJI, up to the fullwidth size (or one and a half of it) of the ruby characters. If the extension should go over beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  7. JUKUGO-ruby at the line end: Make adjustments so that the bottom of the ruby text should be aligned with that of the last base character. A run of ruby characters for a base character may hang over the adjacent base characters of the same phrasal KANJI, up to the fullwidth size (or one and a half of it) of the ruby characters. If the extension should go over beyond the limit, just force the ruby text out of the base characters, or make a further adjustment by adding inter-character space between the base characters.

  8. JUKUGO-ruby split into two lines: JUKUGO-ruby can be split into two lines, one at the line end and the other at the line head. In the case of a phrase with two KANJI characters, it is as the same as dealing with one KANJI character with a mono-ruby text at the line end and the other KANJI character with another mono-ruby text at the next line head. In the case of a phrase with three KANJI characters, one KANJI character with a mono-ruby text and the remaining two KANJI characters with a JUKUGO-ruby, and vice versa. The layout of one KANJI character with a mono-ruby text will be composed by the method a or be described above. The layout of two KANJI characters with a jukugo-ruby text will be composed by the method f or g above.

note 1)

The composition of Jukugo-ruby changes depending with consideration of  the construction of jukugo, the position in the head of the line, middle of the line or bottom of the line, and, adjacent characters before or after, The detail of this issue is too complicated to discuss here, so is discussed in [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd].

note 2)

The complexes of base characters with ruby characters are classified to simple-ruby character complex(cl-22) and phrasal-ruby character complex(cl-23).The handling and positioning of these complexes with adjacent characters is discussed in [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, following [sec. 3.9].

3.3.9  Composition of Emphasis Dots

Emphasis dots (also known as bouten or side dots) are those symbols alongside of a run of kanji or kana characters to emphasize the text.

note 1)

There are many ways to emphasize a run of text in the Japanese composition. Besides attaching emphasis dots, one may emphasize a certain run of text by selecting a different typeface (for e.g. Mincho face for normal text and Gothic face for emphasis), a different color (for e.g. turning to red for emphasis), by enclosing the text within brackets (for e.g.  [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET) or [〈] (LEFT ANGLE BRACKET) and [〉] (RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET)), by drawing a line alongside of the text (or underline the text), and so on. It is an editorial decision which emphasis method to adopt. Selecting a different typeface and enclosing a text within brackets are generally used and popular emphasis methods. Attaching emphasis dots is not very common but one of long-established and traditional methods typically used in KANBUN (classic Chinese text).

note 2)

As a practice, emphasis dots are not used for commas(cl-07), full stops(cl-06), opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02).

Compositions of emphasis dots are as follows (See [Fig.138]).

  1. The size of emphasis dots shall be the half size of the base characters to be emphasized.

  2. Emphasis dots shall be attached to the right of the base characters in vertical writing mode, or to the above of them in horizontal writing mode. The center of emphasis dots shall be aligned with that of the base characters.

  3. There are many symbols that could be specified for use as emphasis dots.[﹅] (SESAMI DOT) in vertical writing mode and[•] (BULLET) in horizontal writing mode are those used for emphasis dots in general.

Compositions of Emphasis Dots

[Fig.138]: Compositions of Emphasis Dots

3.4  Inline Cutting Note (Warichu)

3.4.1  The Situations Inline Cutting Note (Warichu) is used.

Warichu (inline cutting note) is a type of inline notation, which is inserted with two lines of small characters, as the style called Warichu (divide a line into two sub lines). The frequency of inline cutting note is not so high. However, inline cutting note is very important for study guides, travel guudes, reference books, encyclopedias and manuals,  because it is very effective to notify the target word where the word is happen to appear.([Fig.139]). Accordingly, inline cutting note is usually used in vertical writing mode. It is very few that inline cutting note is used in horizontal writing mode.

Example of Warichu (Inline cutting note

[Fig.139]: Warichu (Inline cutting note

note 1)

JIS X 4051 specifies inline cutting note in 4.16 "Handling of inline cutting note".

3.4.2  Character Size for Inline cutting note and Line Gaps

Character size of inline cutting note depends on the basic character size. Usually around 6 point size is used.([Fig.139]).

The space between adjacent inline cutting note lines is zero, namely there is no line gap between them.([Fig.140]).

As shown in [Fig.140], inline cutting note usually has two lines, and parenthesized with [(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS) and [)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS), which are double size of inline cutting note itself. There are no space between base text and parenthesis for inline cutting note.

note 1)

There is a style of inline cutting note, which has no opening brackets(cl-01) or closing brackets(cl-02), and has instructed spaces between base text and inline cutting note.

note 2)

Handling of Inter-letter space between warichu opening brackets(cl-28) or warichu closing brackets(cl-29) and adjacent characters is described in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, using concept of character class described in [sec. 3.9].

Example of instruction for inline cutting note

[Fig.140]: Example of instruction for Inline Cutting Note

Symbols, like opening brackets(cl-01), closing brackets(cl-02), commas(cl-07) and full stops(cl-06) are also used in inline cutting note text. In such cases, the handling of suchsymbols is same as basic text.

The horizontal width of inline cutting note area is wider than the width of base text line. The inline cutting note area and the base text line are aligned in center line of inline direction. The line gap used to determine the kihon hanmen should not be affected by the horizontal width of the inline cutting note area. In other words, the line gap for the kihon hanmen needs to be designed wider than usual in consideration of inline cutting note.

The length of the two lines of inline cutting note should be aligned to as same as possible. If the inline cutting note can be set in one base text line, the inline cutting note text will be break into two lines, where the line can be break and nearest position from the center. Note that the rule for line break, that is to say, line breakable place, is as same as the rule for main text. The second line (left line) should not be longer than the first line (right line).([Fig.141]).

The example that the inline cutting note can be set in one base text line.

[Fig.141]: The example that the inline cutting note can be set in one base text line.

3.4.3  Handling of inline cutting note, when the inline cutting note is set straddled over two base text lines

inline cutting note is set straddled over two or more than three base text lines, when the inline cutting note can not be set in one base text line. In these cases, the inline cutting note text will be set as given in [Fig.142] or [Fig.143].

The example of inline cutting note straddled over two base text lines.

[Fig.142]: The example of inline cutting note straddled over two base text lines.

The example of inline cutting note straddled over three base text lines.

[Fig.143]: The example of inline cutting note straddled over three base text lines.

(note 1)

Normally, inline cutting note is used for short notations for persons and matters. Therefore, the text size should be not so much. That is the reason why the inline cutting note is set in the base text line. Accordingly, there several times happens that inline cutting note is set straddled over two base text line. However, there scarcely happens that inline cutting note is set straddled over three or more base text lines. If the notation text size is too large, other possible notation styles should be considered to use.

3.5  Paragraph Adjustment Rules

3.5.1  Line Head Indent at the Beginning of Paragraphs

A paragraph, a section of a document which consists of one or more sentences to indicate a distinct idea, usually begins on a new line. For the related line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs (in JIS 4051, this is called "paragraph line head indent") the following methods are available. As for the amount of space for the indentation, in principle the full-width size of the characters in the paragraph is used.

(note 1)

The definition of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.17 "paragraph appearance processing".

(note 2)

The layout processing of opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02) in the case of full-width line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs, is described in this document, [sec. 3.1.5].

  1. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is applied for all paragraphs. Nearly all books and magazines make use of this method (See [Fig.144]).

    Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs

    [Fig.144]: Example of line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs

    (note 1)

    In case of for example written conversation continued with e.g. "she said", where line break is used and parts are bound together via [「] (LEFT CORNER BRACKET) and [」] (RIGHT CORNER BRACKET), it is assumed that the phrases of "she said " and the conversation are one continuous phrase. Hence, there is no line head indent at the beginning of "she sed" phrase, after conversation part (See [Fig.145]). With a (mathematical) formula in a separate line in Horizontal Settings, and a line break with an expression like "will be", there is also no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs. However, in novels etc., there is also the approach to apply first line indent to all paragraphs (See [Fig.146]).

    Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation

    [Fig.145]: Layout example 1 of a line immediately following a written conversation

    Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation

    [Fig.146]: Layout example 2 of a line immediately following a written conversation

  2. Line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is not applied for any paragraph at all, and the tentsuki position is used (See [Fig.147]). There are examples of this method used in certain books and magazines for the sake of styling, but this is rather hard to read.

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs

    [Fig.147]: Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs

  3. In principle line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs is being applied, however not for paragraph immediately following headings, and set as "tentsuki" (See [Fig.147]). There are also cases unifying the style with headings which use tentsuki, and in some books and magazines this method is being applied for horizontal writing method..

    Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings

    [Fig.148]: Example of no line head indent at the beginning of paragraphs immediately following headings

Furthermore, for example with itemisation, on the contrary there is also the method to indent the line following the second line of the paragraph (See [Fig.149]). This is the so-called "questions and answers" form (Q&A). It has the effect that numbers (if used) stand out.

Layout example for itemisation

[Fig.149]: Layout example for itemisation

(note1)

The definition of itemisation is provided in JIS X 4051, sec. 8.4 "itemisation processing".

3.5.2  Line Head Indent and Line End Indent

The line head indent is the indentation of the line head about a fixed amount, starting from the line head side of HANMEN (in the case of one column) or of the column area (in the case of several columns). On the contrast, the indentation of the line end position about a fixed amount, starting from the line head, is called line end indent.

There are examples of line head indent for a quotation in separate lines (See [Fig.150]) or for headings in separate lines. Line end indent is used for example for headings in separate lines.

Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line

[Fig.150]: Example of line head indent for a quotation in a separate line

(note 1)

For quotations in different lines, there are the following methods: either the character size is the same as for the main text, and the difference to the main text is expressed only via line head indent; or the character size is made smaller than the main text. The former method is applied frequently. With this method, often the line head indent is made the double of the normal character size of the main text. If there are large quotations inserted frequently, there is also the method that full-width line head indent is used, and furthermore, before and after the quotation in a separate line, an empty line is inserted. For the method of line head indent with characters smaller than the main text, see [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-subheading3_2] Editor's note: this section is in part 3, which will not be published..

(note 2)

Line head indent is also applied for endnotes. This is explained in [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #en-subheading3_2] Editor's note: this section is in part 3, which will not be published.

3.5.3  Justification Processing

Justification means to unify the position of a character sequence in a line to a fixed position. There are the following methods (See [Fig.151]).

(note 1)

Justification processing is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.18 "Justification Processing".

  1. Centering. The space between adjacent characters is in principle solid setting (if there is space necessary because of Latin script text or before or after opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02), that space is inserted). If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the amount of space at the line head and line end is made equal, and the center of the character sequence is unified with the center of the line.

  2. Line head justification. The space between adjacent characters is in principle solid setting (if there is space necessary because of Latin script text or before or after opening brackets(cl-01) or closing brackets(cl-02), that space is inserted). If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the start of the character sequence is unified with the line head, and if the line is not full, the line end is kept empty.

  3. Line end justification. The space between adjacent characters is in principle solid setting (if there is space necessary because of Latin script text or before or after opening brackets(cl-01) or closing brackets(cl-02), that space is inserted). If there is not solid setting but a fixed space between characters, this is used; the end of the character sequence is unified with the line end, and if the line is not full, the line head is kept empty.

  4. Equal justification. The space between adjacent characters is in principle solid setting (if there is space necessary because of Latin script text or before or after opening brackets(cl-01) or closing brackets(cl-02), that space is inserted). In addition, using the space made available during line adjustment processing, equal character spacing is applied where possible (or character space reduction is applied where possible). The start of the character sequence is aligned to the position of the line head, and the end of the character sequence to the position of the line end.

Example of Justification

[Fig.151]: Example of Justification

(note 1)

There are several justification methods being applied for positioning of headings or items of tables. For example for headings in HorizontalSettings often centering is used, taking the left-right balance is taken into account. However, there are also examples of line head justification.

(note 2)

Equal justification is often used for printing Haiku in separate lines (See [Fig.152]).

Example of Haiku positioning with equal justification

[Fig.152]: Example of Haiku positioning with equal justification

3.5.4  Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs

The intent of widow adjustment of paragraphs is to avoid that the last line of a paragraph contains less characters than a given number. This is also called "character widow" processing.

(note 1)

Widow adjustment of paragraphs is defined in JIS X 4051, sec. 4.20 "Widow Adjustment of Paragraphs".

(note 2)

Widow adjustment of paragraphs is not regarded as very important in Japanese composition. However, care is taken to avoid cases like a single character in the last line of a paragraph (often this is tolerated), or - even more extreme - that there is just one character on a page just before a page break or a new recto (See [Fig.153]).

Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided)

[Fig.153]: Example of just one character on a page just before a page break (to be avoided)

3.6 Tab Setting

3.6.1  The Usage of Tab Setting

The Tab Setting is setting a specific series of characters in a indicated align position of the line. This method is able to use to set series of characters in a indicated align position of the line. This method is useful for alignment of Table data, itemized data, etc. (See [Fig.154]).

An example for the setting using Tab Setting functionarity

[Fig.154]: An example for the setting using Tab Setting functionality

note 1)

there is a description about Tab Setting in "JIS X 04051 4.21 Tab Setting".

For Tab Setting, it is necessary to identify Tab Position, Tab Type (How to align the characters in the Tab position), and the characters to be set. For this purpose, it is necessary to insert a Tab sign before the Tabbed character. A series of characters, just after the Tab sign is the target characters (See [Fig.155]). If there are more than one Tab signs, it is necessary to indicate as same numbers of Tab positions and Tab Types as the numbers of Tab signs.

Tab Signs and the target text of Tab Setting

[Fig.155]: Tab Signs and the target text of Tab Setting

3.6.2  The Types of Tab Settings

There are following types of Tab Setting to align texts with the Tab Setting.

  1. Top (Left) alignment Tab Setting. The start position of the text is aligned to the Tab position (See [Fig.156]). Left alignment is used for Horizontal Settings and Top alignment is used for Vertical Settings.

    A series of Left (Top) alignment Tab Settings

    [Fig.156]: A series of Left (Top) alignment Tab Settings

  2. Right (Bottom) alignment Tab Setting. The bottom (right) position of the text is aligned to the Tab position (See [Fig.157]). Right alignment Tab Setting is used for Horizontal Settings, and bottom alignment Tab Setting is used for Vertical Settings.

    A series of right (bottom) alignment Tab Setting

    [Fig.157]: A series of right (bottom) alignment Tab Setting

  3. Center alignment Tab Setting. The center of the text is aligned to the Tab position (See [Fig.158]).

    A series of Center alignment Tab Settings

    [Fig.158]: A series of Center alignment Tab Settings

  4. Alignment with specified character Tab Setting. The start position of specified character or sign (ex. period) in the text is aligned to the Tab position (See [Fig.159]).

    A series of the Alignment with specified character Tab Settings

    [Fig.159]: A series of the Alignment with specified character Tab Settings

3.6.3  The setting method of the target text

Set the text from the top of the line to the position before the Tab sign in the first Tab position, set the text from the first Tab sign to the next Tabsign in the second Tab position, and so on. The behavior of opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02), etc. is same as the basic text.

Following are some of the examples. The behavior of b and after are very difficult to anticipate, so it is necessary to re-design with trials and errors.

  1. If the target string is the first series of the Line, the characters should be set in the first Tab position from the Start of the Line, and, one after another (See [Fig.160]).

    An example of Tab Setting 1

    [Fig.160]: An example of Tab Setting 1

  2. If the target string of text if too long to set before the next tab position and overflow, the next string of text is aligned to the tag position after the bottom of the preceding string (See [Fig.161]).

    An example of Tab Setting 2

    [Fig.161]: An example of Tab Setting 2

  3. If the top of the string is overwrapped with the bottom of the preceding string as the result of the Tap Setting indication, the following string is set just after the preceding string (See [Fig.162]).

    An example of Tab Setting 3

    [Fig.162]: An example of Tab Setting 3

  4. If there is no Tab position corresponding to the target string, the string should be set from the Tab position of the next line, and so forth. (See [Fig.163]).

    An example for Tab Setting 4

    [Fig.163]: An example for Tab Setting 4

3.7  Other Rules of Japanese Typesetting

3.7.1  Superscript and superscript

Superscripts and Subscripts are small letters associated with a base characters used to indicate unit symboles of SI, or used for Mathematical formula and Chemical formula.

note 1)

Superscripts and Subscripts are described in JIS X 4051 sec.4.13.

Superscripts are usually set after the base character, with some exception of chemical formula (before the base character). Subscripts are usually set after the base character, with some exception of chemical formula (before the character). Super scripts and subscripts should be set solid.

Examples of superscripts and subscripts([Fig.164]). In this document, superscripts and subscripts and their base characters are handled as ornamented character complex(cl-21)

An example of superscripts and subscripts 添え字superscript / subscriptの配置列

[Fig.164]: An example of superscripts and subscripts

note 1)

Inter-letter space betweenornamented character complex(cl-21) and adjacent characters is described in detail in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] in accordance with character class concept in [sec. 3.9].

JIS X 4051 specifies the character size and the positioning of superscripts and subscripts alongside of the base character in the block direction to be implementation definable parameters. However it is recommended that the size of superscripts and subscripts are around 60% of the base character depending the size of the base character.

It is prohibited to line break within ornamented character complex(cl-21). Also, it is prohibited to use the inter-letter spacen within ornamented character complex(cl-21) for line adjuctment.

note 1)

In case of vertical writing mode, characters with superscript or subscript, that is ornamented character complex(cl-21), are turned 90 degree clock wise. If the length of the sequence is short enough, the sequence can be set as tatechuyoko.

note 2)

When both the superscript and the subscript are following the base character, usually the subscript is set first with solid space followed by the superscript with solid space. As for chemical formula, both superscript and subscript are sometimes set vertically same position with solid space between the base character, because of the meaning of the formula.

3.7.2  Furiwake

Furiwake is a typesetting style to set multiple phrases or sentenses in halfway of a line. furiwake also used to indicate options. ([Fig.165]).Study guides, manuals and reference books sometimes use furiwake. In many furiwake style, multiple lines are indicated with opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02), etc.

An example of FURIWAKE 振分けの列

[Fig.165]: An example of FURIWAKE

Furiwake is usually done as follows:([Fig.166]). In this clause, the strings which are the target of furiwake, are called furiwake-gyou.

  1. The character size of furiwake-gyou is usually as same as the sieze of base paragraph. Sometimes, the size of uriwake-gyou is a lttle bit smaller than the size of the base paragraph. Sometimes, the font style of furiwake-gyou is changed from the style of the base paragraph.

  2. In same furiwake process, the top positions of all the furiwake^gyous are aligned.

  3. The line length of the furiwake block is the line length of the longest furiwake-gyou. However, it is permitted to indicate the length of furiwake block, and break the furiwake-gyous. In this style, the start positions of the breaked line should be explicitly indicated. When there are linebreak mark in the furiwake-gyou, the line is broken in the indicated places. In this style, the start position of the broken lines are aligned to the first line. The space between broken lines should be solid.

  4. The Line-Feed space of each furiwake block should be exlicitly indicated.

  5. The center line of the furiwake block should be aligned with the center line of the base text.

  6. When the furiwake block is enclosed by opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02), etc. the width of brackets should be same as the width of FURIWAKE block.

  7. One FURIWAKE block should be set in a base text line. One FURIWAKE block should not be extended to multiple base text lines.

Setting method of FURIWAKE 振分けの配置方法

[Fig.166]: Setting method of FURIWAKE

The Line-Feed space of the paragraph, which containes the FURIWAKE block, should be explicitly indicated. The space should be decided with the consideration of the content of the FURIWAKE block.

In general, the width of FURIWAKE block is larger than the width of inline cutting note block. Accordingly, the whole FURIWAKE block should be set inside of the KIHON-HANMEN, or a column of the KIHON-HANMEN. To set FURIWAKE blocl over the border of the kihon hanmen is prohibited.

3.7.3  Jidori Processing

In case of Japanese human name list, or similar cases, the length of some part of the base string is sometimes explicitly indicated. In these cases, the indicated letters are set with the adjustment of inter-character spacing. It is the jidori processing. ([Fig.167]). JIDORI is very useful to align different letter number in same aligned length, such as human names.

An example of JIDORI-Processing 1 字取り処理の例1

[Fig.167]: An example of JIDORI-Processing 1

Sometimes in Running Heads in Horizontal Settings, texts, except chapter and clause numbers, are processed with JIDORI-processing. For example, 2 letters are set in the length of 6 times of character size of the Running Head, 3 letters to 6 letters are set in the length of 7 times of the character size of the Running Head ([Fig.168]). In this case, more than 7 letters are set in solid setting.

An example of JIDORI-Processing 2 字取り処理の例2

[Fig.168]: An example of JIDORI-Processing 2

The Process of jidori-processing should be done as follows:

  1. The length of jidori-processing should be indicated with integer times of the base character size.

  2. The JIDORI text should be adjusted with the spacing among characters, and the length from the top of the text to the bottom of the text should be aligned in the indicated length. However, the following positions should be solid space.

    1. Positions where line breaging is prohibited; Inter-Character Spacing among Western-Arabic Numerals; Space between [—] (EM DASH) and [—] (EM DASH); Space between [‥] (TWO DOT LEADER) and [‥] (TWO DOT LEADER); Space between […] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS) and […] (HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS), and so on. These strings are expected to be treated as one block.

      note 1)

      The set of ideographic characters(cl-19) with group-ruby is basically treated as one group, accordingly, in principal, also in jidori-processing, the inter-letter space should be solid. However, there is another method  to use inter-letter space among the base characters of the group-ruby to adjust the jidori-processing.

      note 2)

      The handling of opening brackets(cl-01) and closing brackets(cl-02) in the jidori-processing is also very controversial. Usually, the space before opening brackets and space after closing brackets are usually solid. However, in jidoti-processing, the space before openting brackets and the space after closing brackets may be used for line adjustment. But, the space after opening brackets and the space before the closing brachets should not used for adjustment, because, these positions is prohibited to line break.

    2. Only the space befor Western word space(cl-26) and fulwidth ideographic space(cl-14) shall be used for the adjustment of jidori-processing. If bothe the spaces the befor and the after are used, the total length of the spaces are too long.

  3. When there is no place to insert space for adjustment, like the text with only one letter, the space after the text should be blank.

3.7.4  Processing of Math Symbols and Math Operators

Math symbols and math operators, such as [=] (EQUALS SIGN), [≒] (APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO OR THE IMAGE OF), [+] (PLUS SIGN) and [−] (MINUS SIGN) are commonly used not only scientific and technical documents but also usual books. In Japanese composition system, there are two different groups of math symbols, which are differently treated eatch other. So, in this document, math symbols are classified to two different classes; math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18)

note 1)

The members of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) are described in [sec. 3.9]. Also, the handling of inter-letter spaces between these math symbols and adjacent characters are described in Appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, in accordance with the concept of character class, described in  [sec. 3.9].

note 2)

Because the math symbols, such as [√] (SQUARE ROOT), [∫] (INTEGRAL) and [Σ] (GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA), are not frequently used in common books, the handling of these math symbols are considered to be out of scope of this document. Also, mathimatical and scientific notations like numerical formula are out of scope of this document.

Composition rules of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) are as follows:

《このブロックは削除する》

  1. The width of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) are full width, e.g. 1 em (See [Fig.169]).

  2. The inter-letter space between math symbols(cl-17) or math operators(cl-18) and before and after adjacent characters, such as grouped numerals(cl-24)Western characters(cl-27)ornamented character complex(cl-21)  in one line is solid (See. [Fig.169]).

    An example of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) set within ordinary line

    [Fig.169]: An example of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) set within ordinary line

    note 1)

    The inter-letter space between ideographic characters(cl-19) or hiraganas(cl-15), and, math symbols(cl-17) or math operators(cl-18) is solid. However, it is better to insert 1/4 em space between math operators(cl-18) and  adjacent grouped numerals(cl-24) or Western characters(cl-27).

  3. When math formula or chemical formula is set in one indipendent line, the inter-letter space between math symbols(cl-17) and adjacent grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27) and ornamented character complex(cl-21) shall be 1/4 em. Also, when math formula or chemical momula is set in a individual line, ther inter-letter space between math operators(cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27) or ornamented character complex(cl-21), shall be solid.

    An example of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) in one independent line.

    [Fig.170]: An example of math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) in one independent line.

    note 1)

    In most case when math formula or chemical formula is set in one independent line, the position of the formula is the center of the line in horizontal writing mode, and with some indicated character number of intend from the head of line in vertical writing mode.

    note 2)

    In the formula in one independent line, there is another method to set the inter-letter space, between grouped numerals(cl-24) or Western characters(cl-27) and math symbols(cl-17) , solid or 1/2 em. When the inter-letter space before and after the math symbols(cl-17) is set to 1/4 em or 1/2 em, there is another method to set the inter-letter space, between math operators(cl-18) and grouped numerals(cl-24) or Western characters(cl-27), 1/4 em.

    [Fig.171]: Another example to set math symbols(cl-17) and math operators(cl-18) in one independent formula line

  4. It is line breakable between math symbols(cl-17) or math operators(cl-18) and adjacent grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27) or ornamented character complex(cl-21).

    note 1)

    In independent formula line, when there are more than one line breakable place, the first priority is before the math symbols(cl-17), and the next is before the math operators(cl-18).

    note 2)

    The inter-letter space, before and after [・] (KATKANA MIDDLE DOT), before opening brackets(cl-01) and after closing brackets(cl-02) in independent formula line, is solide, except for the case to set space between these characters and adjacent math symbols(cl-17) or math operators(cl-18).

3.8  Line Adjustment

3.8.1  Necessity for Line Adjustment

Within a paragraph, lines are created by separating character sequences at places where line breaking is not prohibited. Except for the bottom of the last line of a paragraph, it becomes necessary to set the heads and bottoms of each line on expected aligned position. Line adjustment processing is applied for cases where some space is missing from the line length e.g. because of line wrap and other reasons.

There are various reasons for line adjustment processing. The most important ones will be exemplified below.

  1. Mixed usage of characters and symbols (e.g. grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27)) where not all characters are full width (see [Fig.172]).

    Example of Latin script text with numerals

    [Fig.172]: Example of grouped numerals(cl-24) and Western characters(cl-27)

  2. Sequences of punctuation marks. For example, a sequence of a closing brackets(cl-02) and an full stops(cl-06) takes 1.5 em space together (see [Fig.173]). However, if immediately after the full stopsan opening brackets(cl-01) is following, these punctuation marks will need 2 em space together. Hence, there is no space missing (see [Fig.173]).

    Example of sequences of punctuation marks

    [Fig.173]: Example of sequences of punctuation marks

  3. Mixture of characters with different sizes (see [Fig.174])

    Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size

    [Fig.174]: Example of characters within brackets which are made a level smaller than the normal character size

    (note 1)

    In cases that additional information like page references, explanations of terminology etc. appears within brackets, sometimes the character size is a level smaller than the character size defined by kihon hanmen.

  4. Cases where line head wrapping, line end wrapping or inseparable should be avoided (See [Fig.86]).

3.8.2  Reduction and Addition of Inter Character Space

Line adjustment processing targets places with a predefined space or solid setting. Methods for line adjustment are as follows.

  1. Line adjustment by inter-letter space reduction. This means that 1/2 em space is reduced aftercommas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02), or, before opening brackets(cl-01), and Western word space(cl-26) is reduced within a defined extent.

  2. Lline adjustment by inter-letter space expansion. Line adjustment by inter-letter space expansion means expanding inter-letter space for line adjustment, where inter-letter space is allowed to be extended within a defined extent, such as Western word space(cl-26), or not prohibited to extend inter-letter space.

Normally line adjustment by inter-character space reduction is preferred. Only when this is not possible space for reduction, line adjustment by inter-character space expansion is executed. The reason for the preference of line adjustment by inter-character space reduction comes from the thinking that characters in solid setting should not have more inter character space, if at all possible.

(note 1)

line adjustment by hanging punctuationis a method to avoid line head wrap of full stops(cl-06) and commas(cl-07). This method is not formally defined in JIS X 4051, however, JIS X 4051 provides explanatory material about it.

Line adjustment by hanging punctuation is a method which is only applied to full stops(cl-06) and commas(cl-07). These touch the hanmen and are put on a place outside the defined line length (See [Fig.175]). This is also applied in e.g. books, in order to avoid the addition of inter character space beyond solid setting. However, line adjustment by hanging punctuation is not an appropriate method for the mixture of Japanese and Latin script text, since the latter principally does not apply line adjustment by hanging punctuation. In addition, there is an arguing against line adjustment by hanging punctuation. Originally it was a method in letterpress printing, used to make the task of line adjustment easier. Furthermore, as shown at the end of line 1 and 5 of [Fig.175], if possible the full stops(cl-06) or commas(cl-07) are placed at the line end (the 18th position). In DTP there are examples of hanging punctuation like in line 3, but this may be regarded as unnecessary processing.

Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation

[Fig.175]: Examples of line adjustment by hanging punctuation

3.8.3  Procedures for Inter Character Space Reduction

For line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, normally first the preferred order of reduction processing options, and the maximum amount of space reduction are decided. In JIS X 4051, the following processing order is defined.

(note 1)

JIS X 4051 provides also definitions for the adaptation of inline cutting note, but for the purpose of this section, these are rather complex and hence left out.

(note 2)

There are also examples for which JIS X 4051 does not provide definitions. These are cases (See Fig. 2-21) where if full stops(cl-06), commas(cl-07) or closing brackets(cl-02) are at the bottom of line, the preferred processing is to change 1/2 em space after comma, period or closing bracket to solid setting.

  1. Western word space(cl-26) is reduced equally with proportional character size, up to 1/4 em space.

  2. The 1/4 em space before or after middle dots(cl-05) is reduced equally with proportional character size up to solid setting.

  3. The 1/2 em space beforeopening brackets(cl-01), or, after closing brackets(cl-02) or commas(cl-07) are reduced equally with proportional character size, up to solid setting.

    (note 1)

    With the exception of the line end position, the 1/2 space after full stops(cl-06) should not adapted, since it plays an importantrole as a sentence separator.

    (note 2)

    commas(cl-07) fulfil different roles than opening brackets(cl-01) andclosing brackets(cl-02). Hence, there are examples where it is preferred to reduce the 1/2 em space before or after brackets, rather than to reduce the 1/2 em space after commas.

    (note 3)

    The reduction of the 1/2 em space before opening brackets(cl-01) or after closing brackets(cl-02) and commas(cl-07) up to solid setting is regarded as too much reduction. Hence, there are examples where the maximum amount of space reduction is up to 1/4 em space.

  4. The 1/4 em space between Japanese text (hiraganas(cl-15)katakanas(cl-16) and ideographic characters(cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27) and unit symboles(cl-25)), is reduced equally with proportional character size, up to 1/8 em space.

    (note 1)

    There are also examples where the 1/4 em space between Japanese text (hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16)andideographic characters(cl-19) ) and Latin script text (Western characters(cl-27), grouped numerals(cl-24) or unit symboles(cl-25)) is regarded as a fixed space, and space adaptation is not being applied.

    (note 2)

    The detail of the places where space reduction is possible for line adjustment is described in appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, in accordance with the concept of character class in [sec. 3.9].

3.8.4  Procedures for Inter Character Space Expansion

Like with line adjustment by inter-character space reduction, for line adjustment by inter-character space expansion, first the order of processing and the maximum amount of space to be added are defined. In JIS X 4051, the following processing order is defined.

  1. Western word space(cl-26) is added equally with proportional character size up to 1/2 em space.

  2. The 1/4 em space between Japanese text (hiraganas(cl-15)katakanas(cl-16) and ideographic characters(cl-19)) and Latin script text (grouped numerals(cl-24), Western characters(cl-27) and unit symboles(cl-25)) is increased equally with proportional character size, up to 1/2 em space (or 1/3 em space)

    (note 1)

    Like with inter character space reduction, there are also examples there the 1/4 em space between Japanese text (hiraganas(cl-15), katakanas(cl-16) and ideographic characters(cl-19)) and Latin script text (Western characters(cl-27), grouped numerals(cl-24) and unit symboles(cl-25)) is regarded as a fixed space, and space adaptation is not being applied.

  3. For places which do not fall under a) or b) and which do not have BUNRIKINSHI, space is added equally with proportional character size up to 1/4 em space.

  4. In addition to the adaptation in the manner of a), b) and c), in cases where such processing is not possible, space is added equally with proportional character size, with the exception of places which require BUNRIKINSHI.

    (note 1)

    JIS X 4051 provides a definition in addition to d). This says that it depends on each layout processing system whether inter-letter space should be added equally. This includes the space between Western characters(cl-27).

    (note 2)

    The detail of the places where space expansion is possible for line adjustment is described in appendix [sec. WARNING! No anchor for section reference: #tbd] as a complete table, in accordance with the concept of character class in [sec. 3.9].

3.9  About Character Classes

3.9.1  Differences in Positioning of Characters and Symbols

The positioning of characters and symbols may vary depending on the following aspects.

  1. Is the character width full width, half width, or something else?

  2. Is it allowed to place the character or symbol at the line head, or forbidden? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  3. Is it allowed to place the character or symbol at the line end, or forbidden? If it is allowed, how will it be placed?

  4. Are characters and symbols appearing in sequence in solid setting, or will there be a fixed space between them? For example, sequences of ideographic characters(cl-19) and hiraganas(cl-15) are in solid setting, and for Western characters(cl-27) following hiraganas(cl-15) there will be 1/4 em space.

  5. Is it allowed to have a line break within a sequence of characters? For example, there must not be a line break in a sequence of grouped numerals(cl-24).

  6. Is it allowed to use the space between characters in a sequence during line adjustment processing? For example, is inter character space reduction or addition between the characters appearing in sequence possible? Another issue to be decided is the preference order of adjustment processing and the amount of the allowed adjustment.

3.9.2  Grouping of Characters and Symbols depending on their Positioning

During layout processing, the issues mentioned in the previous section are addressed by grouping characters and symbols according to their characteristics, and handle them as character classes.

JIS X 4051 also provides similar but a little bit different character classes from this document. Furthermore JIS X 4051 states that it is implementation defined how to handle characters not explicitly mentioned, e.g. whether they should belong to either class or not.

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051 Annex 1, the member  characters and sysbols of each character class are specified as a mapping table to JIS X 0213 character name.

A few character classes of this document are modified from JIS X 4051. All character classes of this document are as follows:

(1) opening brackets(cl-01)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(2) closing brackets(cl-02)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) and [,] (COMMA) are classified as closing brackets(cl-02), because of similar positioning method. However, in this document, the handling of [、] (IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA) and [,] (COMMA)  are described as an indipendent class, named commas(cl-07).

(3) hyphens(cl-03)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(4) dividing punctuation marks(cl-04)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(5) middle dots(cl-05)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(6) full stops(cl-06)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(7) commas(cl-07)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(8) inseparable characters(cl-08)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(9) iteration marks(cl-09)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, iteration marks such as [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK) are classified as "not line breakable characters before them". In this document, [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK) etc. are classified as iteration marks(cl-09).

(note 2)

There is another method it is permited to line break before [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK). In this case, [々] (IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK) is regarded as a member of ideographic characters(cl-19).

(10) prolonged sound marks(cl-10)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 405, [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) is a member of "Japanese characters prohibited to line break before them". In this document [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) is the only one member of prolonged sound marks(cl-10).

(note 2)

In JIS X 4051, it is permitted to exclude [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) from "Japanese characters prohibited to line break before them" character class.

(note 3)

When [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) is permitted to line bread before it, [ー] (KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK) is regarded as a member of katakanas(cl-16) class.

(11) small kanas(cl-11)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, small katakana letters, such as [ッ] (KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU), are regarded as members of "Japanese characters prohibited to line break before them" character class. In this document, small katakana letters are classified in small kanas(cl-11). Accordingly, "Japanese characters prohibited to line break before them" character class in JIS X 4051 is divided to three separate classes; iteration marks(cl-09), prolonged sound marks(cl-10) and small kanas(cl-11).

(note 2)

In JIS X 4051, it is permitted to exclude small kanas(ぁぃぅァィゥ etc.) from "Japanese characters prohibited to line break before them" character class as implementation definable option.

(note 3)

When small kanas are permitted to line break before them, small hiraganas(ぁぃぅetc.) are regarded as members of hiraganas(cl-15) class, and small katakanas(ァィゥetc.) are regarded as members of katakanas(cl-16) class.

(12) prefixed abbreviations(cl-12)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(13) postfixed abbreviations(cl-13)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(14) fulwidth ideographic space(cl-14)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(15) hiraganas(cl-15)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

The reason, why kanji etc.(Japanese characters except (1)~(12)) and hiragana are regarded different classes in JIS X 4051, is the difference in the case of ruby, that is the handling of jutting out of the base characters and hang over to adjacent characters.

(16) katakanas(cl-16)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, katakana and kanji are included in the same class ("Japanese characters except for (1) to (12))". However, in this document,  when ruby characters are jutting out of hte base characters and hang over to adjacent hiragana or katana, hte handling is same. Thati is the reason why in this document, katakanas(cl-16) is an indipendent character class.

(17) math symbols(cl-17)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, math symbols(+-÷×etc.) and math operators(=≠<>≦≧∞⊆⊇∪∩etc.) are included in "Japanese characters excluded from (1) to (12))" class or Western character class. However, handling of math symbols and math operators adjacent to Western character or Arabic numerals is defferent from kanji. So, in this document, new math operators(cl-18) and math symbols(cl-17) classes are defined.

(18) math operators(cl-18)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(19) ideographic characters(cl-19)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

In JIS X 4051, corresponding character class for ideographic characters(cl-19) is "Japanese characters excluded from (1) to (12)".

(20) characters as reference marks(cl-20)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

Characters which are inside verifiaction seal (those are characters inside a verification seal that appear in the line just after the item applicable for references of notes)

(21) ornamented character complex(cl-21)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in ornamented base characters complex". The meaning of "base characters complex" is characters in a complex including ruby, ornament and emphasis dots.

(22) simple-ruby character complex(cl-22)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in base characters complex with ruby ( excluding jukugo-ruby)".

(23) phrasal-ruby character complex(cl-20)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

The name of this class in JIS X 4051 is "Characters included in base characters complex with jukugo-ruby".

(24) grouped numerals(cl-24)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

Sequences of Western-Arabic numerals which are not full width and are handled as Japanese text, the decimal point or the comma and space used as grade indicator in number.

(25) unit symboles(cl-25)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

Units described here include combinations of Latin script and Greek script characters used for international units (SI).

(note 2)

There are units created with combinations of Latin and Greek script characters with a full width imaginary body (full width units). Such units are not part of the characters for units described here. Furthermore, full width characters for units are mainly used in vertical writing mode. Their usage in horizontal writing mode is regarded as bad style and should be avoided (See [Fig.176]).

Example of a unit which encompasses a full width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part)

[Fig.176]: Example of a unit which encompasses a full width unit character (upper part) and characters for Latin script text (lower part)

(26) Western word space(cl-26)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(27) Western characters(cl-27)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

Western characters(cl-27) includes punctuation marks, such as commas, used in Western context. In these punctuation marks, several marks are use both Japanese context and Western context. However, these marks have different shapes whether in Japanese context or Western context. For example, [(] (LEFT PARENTHESIS) and [)] (RIGHT PARENTHESIS) has not only different width (Japanese:1/2 em, Western:proportional) but also different in line position (Japanese:center of imaginary body in inline direction, Western:base line and descender line dependent) and design(Japanese:slight bent, constant line thickness, Western:strong bent, dynamic line thickness). The usage of these two differently designed commas shopuld be explicitly instructed. Usually, in Japanese context, Japanese design is used, and in Western context, Western design is used. Howebver, there are some ambiguous cases, such as "エディタ(editor)は……". In this case, English spelling is indicated with parentheses, in Japanese text line. In this particular case, Japanese design is the better.

(28) warichu opening brackets(cl-28)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(29) warichu closing brackets(cl-29)

【Each member character will be provided later】

(note 1)

Opening and closing brackets of inline cutting note encompass brackets used for surrounding inline cutting note and the space before and after. They are in a separate class since they differ from normal brackets and their processing.

(30) warichu characters(cl-30)

【Each member character will be provided later】

3.9.3  Positioning Methods for each Character Class

For each character class it is possible to describe whether the characters may appear at the line head or line end or not, the positioning method for the line head or line end positions (if available), the amount of space between sequences of several characters, and the combination with character classes before or after the characters (in a 2 dimensional table). In JIS X 4051 this is shown in table 5 "Amount of space (between characters)".

(note 1)

For the presentation as a two dimensional table, it becomes necessary for each class to have separate items about "line head" (the column about the character classes appearing before) and "line end" (the column about the character classes appearing after). If it is forbidden that the characters of the class appear at the line head or line end, JIS X 4051 uses an "X" mark in the columns for "line head" and "line end".

Also, it can be defined for each combination of the character classes (in a two dimensional table) whether the characters of classes appearing in sequence allow for having a break into two lines inbetween, or whether it is possible during line adjustment processing to add inter character space. In JIS X 4051 these items are also shown in a two dimensional table. Table 6 shows whether a break into two lines is possible, and table 7 shows if it is possible to add inter character space.

(note 1)

It is also possible to define for each combination of character classes whether it is possible to apply kerning during line adjustment processing for character classes appearing in sequence. However, JIS X 4051 does not provide this information as a two dimensional table, but only as a textual description.

このドキュメントにおける,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合の文字間の空き量の表をAppenxix 〓に掲げる.

このドキュメントにおける,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合に,その字間で2行に渡る分割が可能かどうかを示す表をAppendix 〓に掲げる.

このドキュメントにおける,それぞれの文字クラスの文字・記号が並んだ場合に,行の調整の際に字間を空けてよいか,詰めてよいかを示す表をAppenxix 〓に掲げる.また,その際の優先順序を示す表をAppendix 〓に掲げる.

1 Character classes

1. Opening brackets (cl-01)

Character UCS Name Remark
2018 LEFT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201C LEFT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS
3014 LEFT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005B LEFT SQUARE BRACKET
007B LEFT CURLY BRACKET
3008 LEFT ANGLE BRACKET
300A LEFT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300C LEFT CORNER BRACKET
300E LEFT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3010 LEFT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2985 LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3018 LEFT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3016 LEFT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
« 00AB LEFT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301D REVERSED DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

2. Closing brackets (cl-02)

Character UCS Name Remark
2019 RIGHT SINGLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
201D RIGHT DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK used horizontal composition
0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS
3015 RIGHT TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
005D RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET
007D RIGHT CURLY BRACKET
3009 RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET
300B RIGHT DOUBLE ANGLE BRACKET
300D RIGHT CORNER BRACKET
300F RIGHT WHITE CORNER BRACKET
3011 RIGHT BLACK LENTICULAR BRACKET
2986 RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
3019 RIGHT WHITE TORTOISE SHELL BRACKET
3017 RIGHT WHITE LENTICULAR BRACKET
» 00BB RIGHT-POINTING DOUBLE ANGLE QUOTATION MARK
301F LOW DOUBLE PRIME QUOTATION MARK used vertical composition

3. Hyphens (cl-03)

Character UCS Name Remark
2010 HYPHEN 1/4 em width
301C WAVE DASH
30A0 KATAKANA-HIRAGANA DOUBLE HYPHEN half width
2013 EN DASH half width

4. Dividing punctuation marks (cl-04)

Character UCS Name Remark
003F QUESTION MARK
0021 EXCLAMATION MARK
203C DOUBLE EXCLAMATION MARK
2047 DOUBLE QUESTION MARK
2048 QUESTION EXCLAMATION MARK
2049 EXCLAMATION QUESTION MARK

5. Middle dots (cl-05)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FB KATAKANA MIDDLE DOT
003A COLON
003B SEMICOLON used horizontal composition

6. Full stops (cl-06)

Character UCS Name Remark
3002 IDEOGRAPHIC FULL STOP
002E FULL STOP used horizontal composition

7. Commas (cl-07)

Character UCS Name Remark
3001 IDEOGRAPHIC COMMA
002C COMMA used horizontal composition

8. Inseparable characters (cl-08)

Character UCS Name Remark
2014 EM DASH
2026 HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS
2025 TWO DOT LEADER
3033 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
3035 follows this
3034 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT WITH VOICED SOUND MARK UPPER HALF used vertical composition
3035 follows this
3035 VERTICAL KANA REPEAT MARK LOWER HALF used vertical composition

9. Iteration marks (cl-09)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FD KATAKANA ITERATION MARK
30FE KATAKANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
309D HIRAGANA ITERATION MARK
309E HIRAGANA VOICED ITERATION MARK
3005 IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK
303B VERTICAL IDEOGRAPHIC ITERATION MARK

10. Prolonged sound mark (cl-10)

Character UCS Name Remark
30FC KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK

11. Small kanas (cl-11)

Character UCS Name Remark
3041 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL A
3043 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL I
3045 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL U
3047 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL E
3049 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL O
30A1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL A
30A3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL I
30A5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL U
30A7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL E
30A9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL O
3063 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL TU
3083 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YA
3085 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YU
3087 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL YO
308E HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL WA
3095 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KA
3096 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL KE
30C3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TU
30E3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YA
30E5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YU
30E7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL YO
30EE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL WA
30F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KA
30F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KE
31F0 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL KU
31F1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SI
31F2 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL SU
31F3 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL TO
31F4 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL NU
31F5 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HA
31F6 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HI
31F7 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU
31F8 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HE
31F9 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HO
31FA KATAKANA LETTER SMALL MU
31FB KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RA
31FC KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RI
31FD KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RU
31FE KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RE
31FF KATAKANA LETTER SMALL RO
ㇷ゚ <31F7, 309A> <KATAKANA LETTER SMALL HU, COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK>

12. Prefixed abbreviations (cl-12)

Character UCS Name Remark
00A5 YEN SIGN
0024 DOLLAR SIGN
00A3 POUND SIGN
0023 NUMBER SIGN
20AC EURO SIGN
2116 NUMERO SIGN

13. Postfixed abbreviations (cl-13)

Character UCS Name Remark
° 00B0 DEGREE SIGN proportional
2032 PRIME proportional
2033 DOUBLE PRIME proportional
2103 DEGREE CELSIUS
00A2 CENT SIGN
0025 PERCENT SIGN
2030 PER MILLE SIGN
33CB SQUARE HP
2113 SCRIPT SMALL L

14. Fulwidth ideographic space (cl-14)

Character UCS Name Remark
  3000 IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE

15. Hiraganas (cl-15)

Character UCS Name Remark
3042 HIRAGANA LETTER A
3044 HIRAGANA LETTER I
3046 HIRAGANA LETTER U
3048 HIRAGANA LETTER E
304A HIRAGANA LETTER O
304B HIRAGANA LETTER KA
304C HIRAGANA LETTER GA
304D HIRAGANA LETTER KI
304E HIRAGANA LETTER GI