W3C

HTML 5

A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML

W3C Working Draft 22 January 2008

This Version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-html5-20080122/
Latest Published Version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/
Latest Editor's Draft:
http://www.w3.org/html/wg/html5/
Editors:
Ian Hickson, Google, Inc.
David Hyatt, Apple, Inc.

Abstract

This specification defines the 5th major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web, HTML. In this version, new features are introduced to help Web application authors, new elements are introduced based on research into prevailing authoring practices, and special attention has been given to defining clear conformance criteria for user agents in an effort to improve interoperability.

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-html-comments@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All feedback is welcome.

Implementors should be aware that this specification is not stable. Implementors who are not taking part in the discussions are likely to find the specification changing out from under them in incompatible ways. Vendors interested in implementing this specification before it eventually reaches the Candidate Recommendation stage should join the aforementioned mailing lists and take part in the discussions.

The publication of this document by the W3C as a W3C Working Draft does not imply that all of the participants in the W3C HTML working group endorse the contents of the specification. Indeed, for any section of the specification, one can usually find many members of the working group or of the W3C as a whole who object strongly to the current text, the existence of the section at all, or the idea that the working group should even spend time discussing the concept of that section.

The W3C HTML Working Group is the W3C working group responsible for this specification's progress along the W3C Recommendation track. This specification is the 22 January 2008 First Public Working Draft.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Stability

Different parts of this specification are at different levels of maturity.

Some of the more major known issues are marked like this. There are many other issues that have been raised as well; the issues given in this document are not the only known issues! There are also some spec-wide issues that have not yet been addressed: case-sensitivity is a very poorly handled topic right now, and the firing of events needs to be unified (right now some bubble, some don't, they all use different text to fire events, etc). It would also be nice to unify the rules on downloading content when attributes change (e.g. src attributes) - should they initiate downloads when the element immediately, is inserted in the document, when active scripts end, etc. This matters e.g. if an attribute is set twice in a row (does it hit the network twice).

Table of contents


1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

The World Wide Web's markup language has always been HTML. HTML was primarily designed as a language for semantically describing scientific documents, although its general design and adaptations over the years has enabled it to be used to describe a number of other types of documents.

The main area that has not been adequately addressed by HTML is a vague subject referred to as Web Applications. This specification attempts to rectify this, while at the same time updating the HTML specifications to address issues raised in the past few years.

1.1. Scope

This section is non-normative.

This specification is limited to providing a semantic-level markup language and associated semantic-level scripting APIs for authoring accessible pages on the Web ranging from static documents to dynamic applications.

The scope of this specification does not include addressing presentation concerns (although default rendering rules for Web browsers are included at the end of this specification).

The scope of this specification does not include documenting every HTML or DOM feature supported by Web browsers. Browsers support many features that are considered to be very bad for accessibility or that are otherwise inappropriate. For example, the blink element is clearly presentational and authors wishing to cause text to blink should instead use CSS.

The scope of this specification is not to describe an entire operating system. In particular, hardware configuration software, image manipulation tools, and applications that users would be expected to use with high-end workstations on a daily basis are out of scope. In terms of applications, this specification is targeted specifically at applications that would be expected to be used by users on an occasional basis, or regularly but from disparate locations, with low CPU requirements. For instance online purchasing systems, searching systems, games (especially multiplayer online games), public telephone books or address books, communications software (e-mail clients, instant messaging clients, discussion software), document editing software, etc.

For sophisticated cross-platform applications, there already exist several proprietary solutions (such as Mozilla's XUL, Adobe's Flash, or Microsoft's Silverlight). These solutions are evolving faster than any standards process could follow, and the requirements are evolving even faster. These systems are also significantly more complicated to specify, and are orders of magnitude more difficult to achieve interoperability with, than the solutions described in this document. Platform-specific solutions for such sophisticated applications (for example the MacOS X Core APIs) are even further ahead.

1.1.1. Relationship to HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.1, DOM2 HTML

This section is non-normative.

This specification represents a new version of HTML4 and XHTML1, along with a new version of the associated DOM2 HTML API. Migration from HTML4 or XHTML1 to the format and APIs described in this specification should in most cases be straightforward, as care has been taken to ensure that backwards-compatibility is retained.

This specification will eventually supplant Web Forms 2.0 as well. [WF2]

1.1.2. Relationship to XHTML2

This section is non-normative.

XHTML2 [XHTML2] defines a new HTML vocabulary with better features for hyperlinks, multimedia content, annotating document edits, rich metadata, declarative interactive forms, and describing the semantics of human literary works such as poems and scientific papers.

However, it lacks elements to express the semantics of many of the non-document types of content often seen on the Web. For instance, forum sites, auction sites, search engines, online shops, and the like, do not fit the document metaphor well, and are not covered by XHTML2.

This specification aims to extend HTML so that it is also suitable in these contexts.

XHTML2 and this specification use different namespaces and therefore can both be implemented in the same XML processor.

1.1.3. Relationship to XUL, Flash, Silverlight, and other proprietary UI languages

This section is non-normative.

This specification is independent of the various proprietary UI languages that various vendors provide. As an open, vender-neutral language, HTML provides for a solution to the same problems without the risk of vendor lock-in.

1.2. Structure of this specification

This section is non-normative.

This specification is divided into the following important sections:

The DOM
The DOM, or Document Object Model, provides a base for the rest of the specification.
The Semantics
Documents are built from elements. These elements form a tree using the DOM. Each element also has a predefined meaning, which is explained in this section. User agent requirements for how to handle each element are also given, along with rules for authors on how to use the element.
Browsing Contexts
HTML documents do not exist in a vacuum — this section defines many of the features that affect environments that deal with multiple pages, links between pages, and running scripts.
APIs
The Editing APIs: HTML documents can provide a number of mechanisms for users to modify content, which are described in this section.
The Communication APIs: Applications written in HTML often require mechanisms to communicate with remote servers, as well as communicating with other applications from different domains running on the same client.
Repetition Templates: A mechanism to support repeating sections in forms.
The Language Syntax
All of these features would be for naught if they couldn't be represented in a serialised form and sent to other people, and so this section defines the syntax of HTML, along with rules for how to parse HTML.

There are also a couple of appendices, defining shims for WYSIWYG editors, rendering rules for Web browsers, and listing areas that are out of scope for this specification.

1.2.1. How to read this specification

This specification should be read like all other specifications. First, it should be read cover-to-cover, multiple times. Then, it should be read backwards at least once. Then it should be read by picking random sections from the contents list and following all the cross-references.

1.3. Conformance requirements

All diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative, as are all sections explicitly marked non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in the normative parts of this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119. For readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification. [RFC2119]

Requirements phrased in the imperative as part of algorithms (such as "strip any leading space characters" or "return false and abort these steps") are to be interpreted with the meaning of the key word ("must", "should", "may", etc) used in introducing the algorithm.

This specification describes the conformance criteria for user agents (relevant to implementors) and documents (relevant to authors and authoring tool implementors).

There is no implied relationship between document conformance requirements and implementation conformance requirements. User agents are not free to handle non-conformant documents as they please; the processing model described in this specification applies to implementations regardless of the conformity of the input documents.

User agents fall into several (overlapping) categories with different conformance requirements.

Web browsers and other interactive user agents

Web browsers that support XHTML must process elements and attributes from the HTML namespace found in XML documents as described in this specification, so that users can interact with them, unless the semantics of those elements have been overridden by other specifications.

A conforming XHTML processor would, upon finding an XHTML script element in an XML document, execute the script contained in that element. However, if the element is found within an XSLT transformation sheet (assuming the UA also supports XSLT), then the processor would instead treat the script element as an opaque element that forms part of the transform.

Web browsers that support HTML must process documents labelled as text/html as described in this specification, so that users can interact with them.

Non-interactive presentation user agents

User agents that process HTML and XHTML documents purely to render non-interactive versions of them must comply to the same conformance criteria as Web browsers, except that they are exempt from requirements regarding user interaction.

Typical examples of non-interactive presentation user agents are printers (static UAs) and overhead displays (dynamic UAs). It is expected that most static non-interactive presentation user agents will also opt to lack scripting support.

A non-interactive but dynamic presentation UA would still execute scripts, allowing forms to be dynamically submitted, and so forth. However, since the concept of "focus" is irrelevant when the user cannot interact with the document, the UA would not need to support any of the focus-related DOM APIs.

User agents with no scripting support

Implementations that do not support scripting (or which have their scripting features disabled) are exempt from supporting the events and DOM interfaces mentioned in this specification. For the parts of this specification that are defined in terms of an events model or in terms of the DOM, such user agents must still act as if events and the DOM were supported.

Scripting can form an integral part of an application. Web browsers that do not support scripting, or that have scripting disabled, might be unable to fully convey the author's intent.

Conformance checkers

Conformance checkers must verify that a document conforms to the applicable conformance criteria described in this specification. Conformance checkers are exempt from detecting errors that require interpretation of the author's intent (for example, while a document is non-conforming if the content of a blockquote element is not a quote, conformance checkers do not have to check that blockquote elements only contain quoted material).

Conformance checkers must check that the input document conforms when scripting is disabled, and should also check that the input document conforms when scripting is enabled. (This is only a "SHOULD" and not a "MUST" requirement because it has been proven to be impossible. [HALTINGPROBLEM])

The term "HTML5 validator" can be used to refer to a conformance checker that itself conforms to the applicable requirements of this specification.

XML DTDs cannot express all the conformance requirements of this specification. Therefore, a validating XML processor and a DTD cannot constitute a conformance checker. Also, since neither of the two authoring formats defined in this specification are applications of SGML, a validating SGML system cannot constitute a conformance checker either.

To put it another way, there are three types of conformance criteria:

  1. Criteria that can be expressed in a DTD.
  2. Criteria that cannot be expressed by a DTD, but can still be checked by a machine.
  3. Criteria that can only be checked by a human.

A conformance checker must check for the first two. A simple DTD-based validator only checks for the first class of errors and is therefore not a conforming conformance checker according to this specification.

Data mining tools

Applications and tools that process HTML and XHTML documents for reasons other than to either render the documents or check them for conformance should act in accordance to the semantics of the documents that they process.

A tool that generates document outlines but increases the nesting level for each paragraph and does not increase the nesting level for each section would not be conforming.

Authoring tools and markup generators

Authoring tools and markup generators must generate conforming documents. Conformance criteria that apply to authors also apply to authoring tools, where appropriate.

Authoring tools are exempt from the strict requirements of using elements only for their specified purpose, but only to the extent that authoring tools are not yet able to determine author intent.

For example, it is not conforming to use an address element for arbitrary contact information; that element can only be used for marking up contact information for the author of the document or section. However, since an authoring tools is likely unable to determine the difference, an authoring tool is exempt from that requirement.

In terms of conformance checking, an editor is therefore required to output documents that conform to the same extent that a conformance checker will verify.

When an authoring tool is used to edit a non-conforming document, it may preserve the conformance errors in sections of the document that were not edited during the editing session (i.e. an editing tool is allowed to round-trip errorneous content). However, an authoring tool must not claim that the output is conformant if errors have been so preserved.

Authoring tools are expected to come in two broad varieties: tools that work from structure or semantic data, and tools that work on a What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get media-specific editing basis (WYSIWYG).

The former is the preferred mechanism for tools that author HTML, since the structure in the source information can be used to make informed choices regarding which HTML elements and attributes are most appropriate.

However, WYSIWYG tools are legitimate, and this specification makes certain concessions to WYSIWYG editors.

All authoring tools, whether WYSIWYG or not, should make a best effort attempt at enabling users to create well-structured, semantically rich, media-independent content.

Some conformance requirements are phrased as requirements on elements, attributes, methods or objects. Such requirements fall into two categories; those describing content model restrictions, and those describing implementation behaviour. The former category of requirements are requirements on documents and authoring tools. The second category are requirements on user agents.

Conformance requirements phrased as algorithms or specific steps may be implemented in any manner, so long as the end result is equivalent. (In particular, the algorithms defined in this specification are intended to be easy to follow, and not intended to be performant.)

User agents may impose implementation-specific limits on otherwise unconstrained inputs, e.g. to prevent denial of service attacks, to guard against running out of memory, or to work around platform-specific limitations.

For compatibility with existing content and prior specifications, this specification describes two authoring formats: one based on XML (referred to as XHTML5), and one using a custom format inspired by SGML (referred to as HTML5). Implementations may support only one of these two formats, although supporting both is encouraged.

XHTML documents (XML documents using elements from the HTML namespace) that use the new features described in this specification and that are served over the wire (e.g. by HTTP) must be sent using an XML MIME type such as application/xml or application/xhtml+xml and must not be served as text/html. [RFC3023]

Such XML documents may contain a DOCTYPE if desired, but this is not required to conform to this specification.

According to the XML specification, XML processors are not guaranteed to process the external DTD subset referenced in the DOCTYPE. This means, for example, that using entities for characters in XHTML documents is unsafe (except for <, >, &, " and '). For interoperability, authors are advised to avoid optional features of XML.

HTML documents, if they are served over the wire (e.g. by HTTP) must be labelled with the text/html MIME type.

The language in this specification assumes that the user agent expands all entity references, and therefore does not include entity reference nodes in the DOM. If user agents do include entity reference nodes in the DOM, then user agents must handle them as if they were fully expanded when implementing this specification. For example, if a requirement talks about an element's child text nodes, then any text nodes that are children of an entity reference that is a child of that element would be used as well.

1.3.1. Common conformance requirements for APIs exposed to JavaScript

A lot of arrays/lists/collections in this spec assume zero-based indexes but use the term "indexth" liberally. We should define those to be zero-based and be clearer about this.

Unless other specified, if a DOM attribute that is a floating point number type (float) is assigned an Infinity or Not-a-Number value, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised.

Unless other specified, if a DOM attribute that is a signed numeric type is assigned a negative value, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised.

Unless other specified, if a method with an argument that is a floating point number type (float) is passed an Infinity or Not-a-Number value, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised.

Unless other specified, if a method is passed fewer arguments than is defined for that method in its IDL definition, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised.

Unless other specified, if a method is passed more arguments than is defined for that method in its IDL definition, the excess arguments must be ignored.

Unless other specified, if a method is expecting, as one of its arguments, as defined by its IDL definition, an object implementing a particular interface X, and the argument passed is an object whose [[Class]] property is neither that interface X, nor the name of an interface Y where this specification requires that all objects implementing interface Y also implement interface X, nor the name of an interface that inherits from the expected interface X, then a TYPE_MISMATCH_ERR exception must be raised.

Anything else? Passing the wrong type of object, maybe? Implied conversions to int/float?

1.3.2. Dependencies

This specification relies on several other underlying specifications.

XML

Implementations that support XHTML5 must support some version of XML, as well as its corresponding namespaces specification, because XHTML5 uses an XML serialisation with namespaces. [XML] [XMLNAMES]

XML Base

User agents must follow the rules given by XML Base to resolve relative URIs in HTML and XHTML fragments. That is the mechanism used in this specification for resolving relative URIs in DOM trees. [XMLBASE]

It is possible for xml:base attributes to be present even in HTML fragments, as such attributes can be added dynamically using script.

DOM

Implementations must support some version of DOM Core and DOM Events, because this specification is defined in terms of the DOM, and some of the features are defined as extensions to the DOM Core interfaces. [DOM3CORE] [DOM3EVENTS]

ECMAScript

Implementations that use ECMAScript to implement the APIs defined in this specification must implement them in a manner consistent with the ECMAScript Bindings for DOM Specifications specification, as this specification uses that specification's terminology. [EBFD]

This specification does not require support of any particular network transport protocols, style sheet language, scripting language, or any of the DOM and WebAPI specifications beyond those described above. However, the language described by this specification is biased towards CSS as the styling language, ECMAScript as the scripting language, and HTTP as the network protocol, and several features assume that those languages and protocols are in use.

This specification might have certain additional requirements on character encodings, image formats, audio formats, and video formats in the respective sections.

1.3.3. Features defined in other specifications

Some elements are defined in terms of their DOM textContent attribute. This is an attribute defined on the Node interface in DOM3 Core. [DOM3CORE]

Should textContent be defined differently for dir="" and <bdo>? Should we come up with an alternative to textContent that handles those and other things, like alt=""?

The interface DOMTimeStamp is defined in DOM3 Core. [DOM3CORE]

The term activation behavior is used as defined in the DOM3 Events specification. [DOM3EVENTS] At the time of writing, DOM3 Events hadn't yet been updated to define that phrase.

The rules for handling alternative style sheets are defined in the CSS object model specification. [CSSOM]

See http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/~checkout~/csswg/cssom/Overview.html?rev=1.35&content-type=text/html;%20charset=utf-8

Certain features are defined in terms of CSS <color> values. When the CSS value currentColor is specified in this context, the "computed value of the 'color' property" for the purposes of determining the computed value of the currentColor keyword is the computed value of the 'color' property on the element in question. [CSS3COLOR]

If a canvas gradient's addColorStop() method is called with the currentColor keyword as the color, then the computed value of the 'color' property on the canvas element is the one that is used.

1.4. Terminology

This specification refers to both HTML and XML attributes and DOM attributes, often in the same context. When it is not clear which is being referred to, they are referred to as content attributes for HTML and XML attributes, and DOM attributes for those from the DOM. Similarly, the term "properties" is used for both ECMAScript object properties and CSS properties. When these are ambiguous they are qualified as object properties and CSS properties respectively.

To ease migration from HTML to XHTML, UAs conforming to this specification will place elements in HTML in the http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml namespace, at least for the purposes of the DOM and CSS. The term "elements in the HTML namespace", or "HTML elements" for short, when used in this specification, thus refers to both HTML and XHTML elements.

Unless otherwise stated, all elements defined or mentioned in this specification are in the http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml namespace, and all attributes defined or mentioned in this specification have no namespace (they are in the per-element partition).

The term HTML documents is sometimes used in contrast with XML documents to mean specifically documents that were parsed using an HTML parser (as opposed to using an XML parser or created purely through the DOM).

Generally, when the specification states that a feature applies to HTML or XHTML, it also includes the other. When a feature specifically only applies to one of the two languages, it is called out by explicitly stating that it does not apply to the other format, as in "for HTML, ... (this does not apply to XHTML)".

This specification uses the term document to refer to any use of HTML, ranging from short static documents to long essays or reports with rich multimedia, as well as to fully-fledged interactive applications.

For readability, the term URI is used to refer to both ASCII URIs and Unicode IRIs, as those terms are defined by RFC 3986 and RFC 3987 respectively. On the rare occasions where IRIs are not allowed but ASCII URIs are, this is called out explicitly. [RFC3986] [RFC3987]

The term root element, when not qualified to explicitly refer to the document's root element, means the furthest ancestor element node of whatever node is being discussed, or the node itself is there is none. When the node is a part of the document, then that is indeed the document's root element. However, if the node is not currently part of the document tree, the root element will be an orphaned node.

An element is said to have been inserted into a document when its root element changes and is now the document's root element.

The term tree order means a pre-order, depth-first traversal of DOM nodes involved (through the parentNode/childNodes relationship).

When it is stated that some element or attribute is ignored, or treated as some other value, or handled as if it was something else, this refers only to the processing of the node after it is in the DOM. A user agent must not mutate the DOM in such situations.

When an XML name, such as an attribute or element name, is referred to in the form prefix:localName, as in xml:id or svg:rect, it refers to a name with the local name localName and the namespace given by the prefix, as defined by the following table:

xml
http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace
html
http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
svg
http://www.w3.org/2000/svg

For simplicity, terms such as shown, displayed, and visible might sometimes be used when referring to the way a document is rendered to the user. These terms are not meant to imply a visual medium; they must be considered to apply to other media in equivalent ways.

Various DOM interfaces are defined in this specification using pseudo-IDL. This looks like OMG IDL but isn't. For instance, method overloading is used, and types from the W3C DOM specifications are used without qualification. Language-specific bindings for these abstract interface definitions must be derived in the way consistent with W3C DOM specifications. Some interface-specific binding information for ECMAScript is included in this specification.

The current situation with IDL blocks is pitiful. IDL is totally inadequate to properly represent what objects have to look like in JS; IDL can't say if a member is enumerable, what the indexing behaviour is, what the stringification behaviour is, what behaviour setting a member whose type is a particular interface should be (e.g. setting of document.location or element.className), what constructor an object implementing an interface should claim to have, how overloads work, etc. I think we should make the IDL blocks non-normative, and/or replace them with something else that is better for JS while still being clear on how it applies to other languages. However, we do need to have something that says what types the methods take as arguments, since we have to raise exceptions if they are wrong.

The construction "a Foo object", where Foo is actually an interface, is sometimes used instead of the more accurate "an object implementing the interface Foo".

A DOM attribute is said to be getting when its value is being retrieved (e.g. by author script), and is said to be setting when a new value is assigned to it.

If a DOM object is said to be live, then that means that any attributes returning that object must always return the same object (not a new object each time), and the attributes and methods on that object must operate on the actual underlying data, not a snapshot of the data.

The terms fire and dispatch are used interchangeably in the context of events, as in the DOM Events specifications. [DOM3EVENTS]

The term text node refers to any Text node, including CDATASection nodes (any Node with node type 3 or 4).

Some of the algorithms in this specification, for historical reasons, require the user agent to pause until some condition has been met. While a user agent is paused, it must ensure that no scripts execute (e.g. no event handlers, no timers, etc). User agents should remain responsive to user input while paused, however.

1.4.1. HTML vs XHTML

This section is non-normative.

This specification defines an abstract language for describing documents and applications, and some APIs for interacting with in-memory representations of resources that use this language.

The in-memory representation is known as "DOM5 HTML", or "the DOM" for short.

There are various concrete syntaxes that can be used to transmit resources that use this abstract language, two of which are defined in this specification.

The first such concrete syntax is "HTML5". This is the format recommended for most authors. It is compatible with all legacy Web browsers. If a document is transmitted with the MIME type text/html, then it will be processed as an "HTML5" document by Web browsers.

The second concrete syntax uses XML, and is known as "XHTML5". When a document is transmitted with an XML MIME type, such as application/xhtml+xml, then it is processed by an XML processor by Web browsers, and treated as an "XHTML5" document. Authors are reminded that the processing for XML and HTML differs; in particular, even minor syntax errors will prevent an XML document from being rendered fully, whereas they would be ignored in the "HTML5" syntax.

The "DOM5 HTML", "HTML5", and "XHTML5" representations cannot all represent the same content. For example, namespaces cannot be represented using "HTML5", but they are supported in "DOM5 HTML" and "XHTML5". Similarly, documents that use the noscript feature can be represented using "HTML5", but cannot be represented with "XHTML5" and "DOM5 HTML". Comments that contain the string "-->" can be represented in "DOM5 HTML" but not in "HTML5" and "XHTML5". And so forth.

2. The Document Object Model

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a representation — a model — of a document and its content. [DOM3CORE] The DOM is not just an API; the conformance criteria of HTML implementations are defined, in this specification, in terms of operations on the DOM.

This specification defines the language represented in the DOM by features together called DOM5 HTML. DOM5 HTML consists of DOM Core Document nodes and DOM Core Element nodes, along with text nodes and other content.

Elements in the DOM represent things; that is, they have intrinsic meaning, also known as semantics.

For example, an ol element represents an ordered list.

In addition, documents and elements in the DOM host APIs that extend the DOM Core APIs, providing new features to application developers using DOM5 HTML.

2.1. Documents

Every XML and HTML document in an HTML UA is represented by a Document object. [DOM3CORE]

Document objects are assumed to be XML documents unless they are flagged as being HTML documents when they are created. Whether a document is an HTML document or an XML document affects the behaviour of certain APIs, as well as a few CSS rendering rules. [CSS21]

A Document object created by the createDocument() API on the DOMImplementation object is initially an XML document, but can be made into an HTML document by calling document.open() on it.

All Document objects (in user agents implementing this specification) must also implement the HTMLDocument interface, available using binding-specific methods. (This is the case whether or not the document in question is an HTML document or indeed whether it contains any HTML elements at all.) Document objects must also implement the document-level interface of any other namespaces found in the document that the UA supports. For example, if an HTML implementation also supports SVG, then the Document object must implement HTMLDocument and SVGDocument.

Because the HTMLDocument interface is now obtained using binding-specific casting methods instead of simply being the primary interface of the document object, it is no longer defined as inheriting from Document.

interface HTMLDocument {
  // Resource metadata management
  readonly attribute Location location;
  readonly attribute DOMString URL;
           attribute DOMString domain;
  readonly attribute DOMString referrer;
           attribute DOMString cookie;
  readonly attribute DOMString lastModified;
  readonly attribute DOMString compatMode;

  // DOM tree accessors
           attribute DOMString title;
           attribute DOMString dir;
           attribute HTMLElement body;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection images;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection links;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection forms;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection anchors;
  NodeList getElementsByName(in DOMString elementName);
  NodeList getElementsByClassName(in DOMString classNames);

  // Dynamic markup insertion
           attribute DOMString innerHTML;
  HTMLDocument open();
  HTMLDocument open(in DOMString type);
  HTMLDocument open(in DOMString type, in DOMString replace);
  Window open(in DOMString url, in DOMString name, in DOMString features);
  Window open(in DOMString url, in DOMString name, in DOMString features, in boolean replace);
  void close();
  void write(in DOMString text);
  void writeln(in DOMString text);

  // Interaction
  readonly attribute Element activeElement;
  readonly attribute boolean hasFocus;

  // Commands
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection commands;

  // Editing
           attribute boolean designMode;
  boolean execCommand(in DOMString commandId);
  boolean execCommand(in DOMString commandId, in boolean doShowUI);
  boolean execCommand(in DOMString commandId, in boolean doShowUI, in DOMString value);
  Selection getSelection();


};

Since the HTMLDocument interface holds methods and attributes related to a number of disparate features, the members of this interface are described in various different sections.

2.1.1. Security

User agents must raise a security exception whenever any of the members of an HTMLDocument object are accessed by scripts whose origin is not the same as the Document's origin.

2.1.2. Resource metadata management

The URL attribute must return the document's address.

The domain attribute must be initialised to the document's domain, if it has one, and null otherwise. On getting, the attribute must return its current value. On setting, if the new value is an allowed value (as defined below), the attribute's value must be changed to the new value. If the new value is not an allowed value, then a security exception must be raised instead.

A new value is an allowed value for the document.domain attribute if it is equal to the attribute's current value, or if the new value, prefixed by a U+002E FULL STOP ("."), exactly matches the end of the current value. If the current value is null, new values other than null will never be allowed.

If the Document object's address is hierarchical and uses a server-based naming authority, then its domain is the <host>/<ihost> part of that address. Otherwise, it has no domain.

The domain attribute is used to enable pages on different hosts of a domain to access each others' DOMs, though this is not yet defined by this specification.

we should handle IP addresses here

The referrer attribute must return either the URI of the page which navigated the browsing context to the current document (if any), or the empty string if there is no such originating page, or if the UA has been configured not to report referrers, or if the navigation was initiated for a hyperlink with a noreferrer keyword.

In the case of HTTP, the referrer DOM attribute will match the Referer (sic) header that was sent when fetching the current page.

The cookie attribute must, on getting, return the same string as the value of the Cookie HTTP header it would include if fetching the resource indicated by the document's address over HTTP, as per RFC 2109 section 4.3.4. [RFC2109]

On setting, the cookie attribute must cause the user agent to act as it would when processing cookies if it had just attempted to fetch the document's address over HTTP, and had received a response with a Set-Cookie header whose value was the specified value, as per RFC 2109 sections 4.3.1, 4.3.2, and 4.3.3. [RFC2109]

Since the cookie attribute is accessible across frames, the path restrictions on cookies are only a tool to help manage which cookies are sent to which parts of the site, and are not in any way a security feature.

The lastModified attribute, on getting, must return the date and time of the Document's source file's last modification, in the user's local timezone, in the following format:

  1. The month component of the date.
  2. A U+002F SOLIDUS character ('/').
  3. The day component of the date.
  4. A U+002F SOLIDUS character ('/').
  5. The year component of the date.
  6. A U+0020 SPACE character.
  7. The hours component of the time.
  8. A U+003A COLON character (':').
  9. The minutes component of the time.
  10. A U+003A COLON character (':').
  11. The seconds component of the time.

All the numeric components above, other than the year, must be given as two digits in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE representing the number in base ten, zero-padded if necessary.

The Document's source file's last modification date and time must be derived from relevant features of the networking protocols used, e.g. from the value of the HTTP Last-Modified header of the document, or from metadata in the filesystem for local files. If the last modification date and time are not known, the attribute must return the string 01/01/1970 00:00:00.

The compatMode DOM attribute must return the literal string "CSS1Compat" unless the document has been set to quirks mode by the HTML parser, in which case it must instead return the literal string "BackCompat". The document can also be set to limited quirks mode (also known as "almost standards" mode). By default, the document is set to no quirks mode (also known as "standards mode").

As far as parsing goes, the quirks I know of are:

2.2. Elements

The nodes representing HTML elements in the DOM must implement, and expose to scripts, the interfaces listed for them in the relevant sections of this specification. This includes XHTML elements in XML documents, even when those documents are in another context (e.g. inside an XSLT transform).

The basic interface, from which all the HTML elements' interfaces inherit, and which must be used by elements that have no additional requirements, is the HTMLElement interface.

interface HTMLElement : Element {
  // DOM tree accessors
  NodeList getElementsByClassName(in DOMString classNames);

  // dynamic markup insertion
           attribute DOMString innerHTML;

  // metadata attributes
           attribute DOMString id;
           attribute DOMString title;
           attribute DOMString lang;
           attribute DOMString dir;
           attribute DOMString className;
  readonly attribute DOMTokenList classList;

  // interaction
           attribute boolean irrelevant;
           attribute long tabIndex;
  void click();
  void focus();
  void blur();
  void scrollIntoView();
  void scrollIntoView(in boolean top);

  // commands
           attribute HTMLMenuElement contextMenu;

  // editing
           attribute boolean draggable;
           attribute DOMString contentEditable;

  // data templates
           attribute DOMString template;
  readonly attribute HTMLDataTemplateElement templateElement;
           attribute DOMString ref;
  readonly attribute Node refNode;
           attribute DOMString registrationMark;
  readonly attribute DocumentFragment originalContent;

  // event handler DOM attributes
           attribute EventListener onabort;
           attribute EventListener onbeforeunload;
           attribute EventListener onblur;
           attribute EventListener onchange;
           attribute EventListener onclick;
           attribute EventListener oncontextmenu;
           attribute EventListener ondblclick;
           attribute EventListener ondrag;
           attribute EventListener ondragend;
           attribute EventListener ondragenter;
           attribute EventListener ondragleave;
           attribute EventListener ondragover;
           attribute EventListener ondragstart;
           attribute EventListener ondrop;
           attribute EventListener onerror;
           attribute EventListener onfocus;
           attribute EventListener onkeydown;
           attribute EventListener onkeypress;
           attribute EventListener onkeyup;
           attribute EventListener onload;
           attribute EventListener onmessage;
           attribute EventListener onmousedown;
           attribute EventListener onmousemove;
           attribute EventListener onmouseout;
           attribute EventListener onmouseover;
           attribute EventListener onmouseup;
           attribute EventListener onmousewheel;
           attribute EventListener onresize;
           attribute EventListener onscroll;
           attribute EventListener onselect;
           attribute EventListener onsubmit;
           attribute EventListener onunload;

};

As with the HTMLDocument interface, the HTMLElement interface holds methods and attributes related to a number of disparate features, and the members of this interface are therefore described in various different sections of this specification.

2.2.1. Reflecting content attributes in DOM attributes

Some DOM attributes are defined to reflect a particular content attribute. This means that on getting, the DOM attribute returns the current value of the content attribute, and on setting, the DOM attribute changes the value of the content attribute to the given value.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a DOMString attribute whose content attribute is defined to contain a URI, then on getting, the DOM attribute must return the value of the content attribute, resolved to an absolute URI, and on setting, must set the content attribute to the specified literal value. If the content attribute is absent, the DOM attribute must return the default value, if the content attribute has one, or else the empty string.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a DOMString attribute whose content attribute is defined to contain one or more URIs, then on getting, the DOM attribute must split the content attribute on spaces and return the concatenation of each token URI, resolved to an absolute URI, with a single U+0020 SPACE character between each URI; and on setting, must set the content attribute to the specified literal value. If the content attribute is absent, the DOM attribute must return the default value, if the content attribute has one, or else the empty string.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a DOMString whose content attribute is an enumerated attribute, and the DOM attribute is limited to only known values, then, on getting, the DOM attribute must return the value associated with the state the attribute is in (in its canonical case), or the empty string if the attribute is in a state that has no associated keyword value; and on setting, if the new value case-insensitively matches one of the keywords given for that attribute, then the content attribute must be set to that value, otherwise, if the new value is the empty string, then the content attribute must be removed, otherwise, the setter must raise a SYNTAX_ERR exception.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a DOMString but doesn't fall into any of the above categories, then the getting and setting must be done in a transparent, case-preserving manner.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a boolean attribute, then the DOM attribute must return true if the attribute is set, and false if it is absent. On setting, the content attribute must be removed if the DOM attribute is set to false, and must be set to have the same value as its name if the DOM attribute is set to true. (This corresponds to the rules for boolean content attributes.)

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a signed integer type (long) then the content attribute must be parsed according to the rules for parsing signed integers first. If that fails, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 0 if there is no default value. On setting, the given value must be converted to a string representing the number as a valid integer in base ten and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is an unsigned integer type (unsigned long) then the content attribute must be parsed according to the rules for parsing unsigned integers first. If that fails, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 0 if there is no default value. On setting, the given value must be converted to a string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer in base ten and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is an unsigned integer type (unsigned long) that is limited to only positive non-zero numbers, then the behavior is similar to the previous case, but zero is not allowed. On getting, the content attribute must first be parsed according to the rules for parsing unsigned integers, and if that fails, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value. On setting, if the value is zero, the user agent must fire an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception. Otherwise, the given value must be converted to a string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer in base ten and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is a floating point number type (float) and the content attribute is defined to contain a time offset, then the content attribute must be parsed according to the rules for parsing time ofsets first. If that fails, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or the not-a-number value (NaN) if there is no default value. On setting, the given value must be converted to a string using the time offset serialisation rules, and that string must be used as the new content attribute value.

If a reflecting DOM attribute is of the type DOMTokenList, then on getting it must return a DOMTokenList object whose underlying string is the element's corresponding content attribute. When the DOMTokenList object mutates its underlying string, the attribute must itself be immediately mutated. When the attribute is absent, then the string represented by the DOMTokenList object is the empty string; when the object mutates this empty string, the user agent must first add the corresponding content attribute, and then mutate that attribute instead. DOMTokenList attributes are always read-only. The same DOMTokenList object must be returned every time for each attribute.

If a reflecting DOM attribute has the type HTMLElement, or an interface that descends from HTMLElement, then, on getting, it must run the following algorithm (stopping at the first point where a value is returned):

  1. If the corresponding content attribute is absent, then the DOM attribute must return null.
  2. Let candidate be the element that the document.getElementById() method would find if it was passed as its argument the current value of the corresponding content attribute.
  3. If candidate is null, or if it is not type-compatible with the DOM attribute, then the DOM attribute must return null.
  4. Otherwise, it must return candidate.

On setting, if the given element has an id attribute, then the content attribute must be set to the value of that id attribute. Otherwise, the DOM attribute must be set to the empty string.

2.3. Common DOM interfaces

2.3.1. Collections

The HTMLCollection, HTMLFormControlsCollection, and HTMLOptionsCollection interfaces represent various lists of DOM nodes. Collectively, objects implementing these interfaces are called collections.

When a collection is created, a filter and a root are associated with the collection.

For example, when the HTMLCollection object for the document.images attribute is created, it is associated with a filter that selects only img elements, and rooted at the root of the document.

The collection then represents a live view of the subtree rooted at the collection's root, containing only nodes that match the given filter. The view is linear. In the absence of specific requirements to the contrary, the nodes within the collection must be sorted in tree order.

The rows list is not in tree order.

An attribute that returns a collection must return the same object every time it is retrieved.

2.3.1.1. HTMLCollection

The HTMLCollection interface represents a generic collection of elements.

interface HTMLCollection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  Element item(in unsigned long index);
  Element namedItem(in DOMString name);
};

The length attribute must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

The item(index) method must return the indexth node in the collection. If there is no indexth node in the collection, then the method must return null.

The namedItem(key) method must return the first node in the collection that matches the following requirements:

If no such elements are found, then the method must return null.

In ECMAScript implementations, objects that implement the HTMLCollection interface must also have a [[Get]] method that, when invoked with a property name that is a number, acts like the item() method would when invoked with that argument, and when invoked with a property name that is a string, acts like the namedItem() method would when invoked with that argument.

2.3.1.2. HTMLFormControlsCollection

The HTMLFormControlsCollection interface represents a collection of form controls.

interface HTMLFormControlsCollection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  HTMLElement item(in unsigned long index);
  Object namedItem(in DOMString name);
};

The length attribute must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

The item(index) method must return the indexth node in the collection. If there is no indexth node in the collection, then the method must return null.

The namedItem(key) method must act according to the following algorithm:

  1. If, at the time the method is called, there is exactly one node in the collection that has either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key, then return that node and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, if there are no nodes in the collection that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key, then return null and stop the algorithm.
  3. Otherwise, create a NodeList object representing a live view of the HTMLFormControlsCollection object, further filtered so that the only nodes in the NodeList object are those that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key. The nodes in the NodeList object must be sorted in tree order.
  4. Return that NodeList object.

In the ECMAScript DOM binding, objects implementing the HTMLFormControlsCollection interface must support being dereferenced using the square bracket notation, such that dereferencing with an integer index is equivalent to invoking the item() method with that index, and such that dereferencing with a string index is equivalent to invoking the namedItem() method with that index.

2.3.1.3. HTMLOptionsCollection

The HTMLOptionsCollection interface represents a list of option elements.

interface HTMLOptionsCollection {
           attribute unsigned long length;
  HTMLOptionElement item(in unsigned long index);
  Object namedItem(in DOMString name);
};

On getting, the length attribute must return the number of nodes represented by the collection.

On setting, the behaviour depends on whether the new value is equal to, greater than, or less than the number of nodes represented by the collection at that time. If the number is the same, then setting the attribute must do nothing. If the new value is greater, then n new option elements with no attributes and no child nodes must be appended to the select element on which the HTMLOptionsCollection is rooted, where n is the difference between the two numbers (new value minus old value). If the new value is lower, then the last n nodes in the collection must be removed from their parent nodes, where n is the difference between the two numbers (old value minus new value).

Setting length never removes or adds any optgroup elements, and never adds new children to existing optgroup elements (though it can remove children from them).

The item(index) method must return the indexth node in the collection. If there is no indexth node in the collection, then the method must return null.

The namedItem(key) method must act according to the following algorithm:

  1. If, at the time the method is called, there is exactly one node in the collection that has either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key, then return that node and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, if there are no nodes in the collection that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key, then return null and stop the algorithm.
  3. Otherwise, create a NodeList object representing a live view of the HTMLOptionsCollection object, further filtered so that the only nodes in the NodeList object are those that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to key. The nodes in the NodeList object must be sorted in tree order.
  4. Return that NodeList object.

In the ECMAScript DOM binding, objects implementing the HTMLOptionsCollection interface must support being dereferenced using the square bracket notation, such that dereferencing with an integer index is equivalent to invoking the item() method with that index, and such that dereferencing with a string index is equivalent to invoking the namedItem() method with that index.

We may want to add add() and remove() methods here too because IE implements HTMLSelectElement and HTMLOptionsCollection on the same object, and so people use them almost interchangeably in the wild.

2.3.2. DOMTokenList

The DOMTokenList interface represents an interface to an underlying string that consists of an unordered set of unique space-separated tokens.

Which string underlies a particular DOMTokenList object is defined when the object is created. It might be a content attribute (e.g. the string that underlies the classList object is the class attribute), or it might be an anonymous string (e.g. when a DOMTokenList object is passed to an author-implemented callback in the datagrid APIs).

interface DOMTokenList {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  DOMString item(in unsigned long index);
  boolean has(in DOMString token);
  void add(in DOMString token);
  void remove(in DOMString token);
  boolean toggle(in DOMString token);
};

The length attribute must return the number of unique tokens that result from splitting the underlying string on spaces.

The item(index) method must split the underlying string on spaces, sort the resulting list of tokens by Unicode codepoint, remove exact duplicates, and then return the indexth item in this list. If index is equal to or greater than the number of tokens, then the method must return null.

In ECMAScript implementations, objects that implement the DOMTokenList interface must also have a [[Get]] method that, when invoked with a property name that is a number, acts like the item() method would when invoked with that argument.

The has(token) method must run the following algorithm:

  1. If the token argument contains any spaces, then raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, split the underlying string on spaces to get the list of tokens in the object's underlying string.
  3. If the token indicated by token is one of the tokens in the object's underlying string then return true and stop this algorithm.
  4. Otherwise, return false.

The add(token) method must run the following algorithm:

  1. If the token argument contains any spaces, then raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, split the underlying string on spaces to get the list of tokens in the object's underlying string.
  3. If the given token is already one of the tokens in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string then stop the algorithm.
  4. Otherwise, if the last character of the DOMTokenList object's underlying string is not a space character, then append a U+0020 SPACE character to the end of that string.
  5. Append the value of token to the end of the DOMTokenList object's underlying string.

The remove(token) method must run the following algorithm:

  1. If the token argument contains any spaces, then raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, remove the given token from the underlying string.

The toggle(token) method must run the following algorithm:

  1. If the token argument contains any spaces, then raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception and stop the algorithm.
  2. Otherwise, split the underlying string on spaces to get the list of tokens in the object's underlying string.
  3. If the given token is already one of the tokens in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string then remove the given token from the underlying string, and stop the algorithm, returning false.
  4. Otherwise, if the last character of the DOMTokenList object's underlying string is not a space character, then append a U+0020 SPACE character to the end of that string.
  5. Append the value of token to the end of the DOMTokenList object's underlying string.
  6. Return true.

In the ECMAScript DOM binding, objects implementing the DOMTokenList interface must stringify to the object's underlying string representation.

2.3.3. DOM feature strings

DOM3 Core defines mechanisms for checking for interface support, and for obtaining implementations of interfaces, using feature strings. [DOM3CORE]

A DOM application can use the hasFeature(feature, version) method of the DOMImplementation interface with parameter values "HTML" and "5.0" (respectively) to determine whether or not this module is supported by the implementation. In addition to the feature string "HTML", the feature string "XHTML" (with version string "5.0") can be used to check if the implementation supports XHTML. User agents should respond with a true value when the hasFeature method is queried with these values. Authors are cautioned, however, that UAs returning true might not be perfectly compliant, and that UAs returning false might well have support for features in this specification; in general, therefore, use of this method is discouraged.

The values "HTML" and "XHTML" (both with version "5.0") should also be supported in the context of the getFeature() and isSupported() methods, as defined by DOM3 Core.

The interfaces defined in this specification are not always supersets of the interfaces defined in DOM2 HTML; some features that were formerly deprecated, poorly supported, rarely used or considered unnecessary have been removed. Therefore it is not guarenteed that an implementation that supports "HTML" "5.0" also supports "HTML" "2.0".

2.4. DOM tree accessors

The html element of a document is the document's root element, if there is one and it's an html element, or null otherwise.

The head element of a document is the first head element that is a child of the html element, if there is one, or null otherwise.

The title element of a document is the first title element that is a child of the head element, if there is one, or null otherwise.

The title attribute must, on getting, run the following algorithm:

  1. If the root element is an svg element in the "http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" namespace, and the user agent supports SVG, then the getter must return the value that would have been returned by the DOM attribute of the same name on the SVGDocument interface.

  2. Otherwise, it must return a concatenation of the data of all the child text nodes of the title element, in tree order, or the empty string if the title element is null.

On setting, the following algorithm must be run:

  1. If the root element is an svg element in the "http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" namespace, and the user agent supports SVG, then the setter must defer to the setter for the DOM attribute of the same name on the SVGDocument interface. Stop the algorithm here.

  2. If the head element is null, then the attribute must do nothing. Stop the algorithm here.
  3. If the title element is null, then a new title element must be created and appended to the head element.
  4. The children of the title element (if any) must all be removed.
  5. A single Text node whose data is the new value being assigned must be appended to the title element.

The title attribute on the HTMLDocument interface should shadow the attribute of the same name on the SVGDocument interface when the user agent supports both HTML and SVG.

The body element of a document is the first child of the html element that is either a body element or a frameset element. If there is no such element, it is null. If the body element is null, then when the specification requires that events be fired at "the body element", they must instead be fired at the Document object.

The body attribute, on getting, must return the body element of the document (either a body element, a frameset element, or null). On setting, the following algorithm must be run:

  1. If the new value is not a body or frameset element, then raise a HIERARCHY_REQUEST_ERR exception and abort these steps.
  2. Otherwise, if the new value is the same as the body element, do nothing. Abort these steps.
  3. Otherwise, if the body element is not null, then replace that element with the new value in the DOM, as if the root element's replaceChild() method had been called with the new value and the incumbent body element as its two arguments respectively, then abort these steps.
  4. Otherwise, the the body element is null. Append the new value to the root element.

The images attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only img elements.

The links attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only a elements with href attributes and area elements with href attributes.

The forms attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only form elements.

The anchors attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only a elements with name attributes.

The getElementsByName(name) method a string name, and must return a live NodeList containing all the a, applet, button, form, iframe, img, input, map, meta, object, select, and textarea elements in that document that have a name attribute whose value is equal to the name argument.

The getElementsByClassName(classNames) method takes a string that contains an unordered set of unique space-separated tokens representing classes. When called, the method must return a live NodeList object containing all the elements in the document that have all the classes specified in that argument, having obtained the classes by splitting a string on spaces. If there are no tokens specified in the argument, then the method must return an empty NodeList.

The getElementsByClassName() method on the HTMLElement interface must return a live NodeList with the nodes that the HTMLDocument getElementsByClassName() method would return when passed the same argument(s), excluding any elements that are not descendants of the HTMLElement object on which the method was invoked.

HTML, SVG, and MathML elements define which classes they are in by having an attribute in the per-element partition with the name class containing a space-separated list of classes to which the element belongs. Other specifications may also allow elements in their namespaces to be labelled as being in specific classes. UAs must not assume that all attributes of the name class for elements in any namespace work in this way, however, and must not assume that such attributes, when used as global attributes, label other elements as being in specific classes.

Given the following XHTML fragment:

<div id="example">
 <p id="p1" class="aaa bbb"/>
 <p id="p2" class="aaa ccc"/>
 <p id="p3" class="bbb ccc"/>
</div>

A call to document.getElementById('example').getElementsByClassName('aaa') would return a NodeList with the two paragraphs p1 and p2 in it.

A call to getElementsByClassName('ccc bbb') would only return one node, however, namely p3. A call to document.getElementById('example').getElementsByClassName('bbb  ccc ') would return the same thing.

A call to getElementsByClassName('aaa,bbb') would return no nodes; none of the elements above are in the "aaa,bbb" class.

The dir attribute on the HTMLDocument interface is defined along with the dir content attribute.

2.5. Dynamic markup insertion

The document.write() family of methods and the innerHTML family of DOM attributes enable script authors to dynamically insert markup into the document.

bz argues that innerHTML should be called something else on XML documents and XML elements. Is the sanity worth the migration pain?

Because these APIs interact with the parser, their behaviour varies depending on whether they are used with HTML documents (and the HTML parser) or XHTML in XML documents (and the XML parser). The following table cross-references the various versions of these APIs.

document.write() innerHTML
For documents that are HTML documents document.write() in HTML innerHTML in HTML
For documents that are XML documents document.write() in XML innerHTML in XML

Regardless of the parsing mode, the document.writeln(...) method must call the document.write() method with the same argument(s), and then call the document.write() method with, as its argument, a string consisting of a single line feed character (U+000A).

2.5.1. Controlling the input stream

The open() method comes in several variants with different numbers of arguments.

When called with two or fewer arguments, the method must act as follows:

  1. Let type be the value of the first argument, if there is one, or "text/html" otherwise.

  2. Let replace be true if there is a second argument and it has the value "replace", and false otherwise.

  3. If the document has an active parser that isn't a script-created parser, and the insertion point associated with that parser's input stream is not undefined (that is, it does point to somewhere in the input stream), then the method does nothing. Abort these steps and return the Document object on which the method was invoked.

    This basically causes document.open() to be ignored when it's called in an inline script found during the parsing of data sent over the network, while still letting it have an effect when called asynchronously or on a document that is itself being spoon-fed using these APIs.

  4. onbeforeunload, onunload

  5. If the document has an active parser, then stop that parser, and throw away any pending content in the input stream. what about if it doesn't, because it's either like a text/plain, or Atom, or PDF, or XHTML, or image document, or something?

  6. Remove all child nodes of the document.

  7. Create a new HTML parser and associate it with the document. This is a script-created parser (meaning that it can be closed by the document.open() and document.close() methods, and that the tokeniser will wait for an explicit call to document.close() before emitting an end-of-file token).

  8. Mark the document as being an HTML document (it might already be so-marked).
  9. If type does not have the value "text/html", then act as if the tokeniser had emitted a pre element start tag, then set the HTML parser's tokenisation stage's content model flag to PLAINTEXT.

  10. If replace is false, then:

    1. Remove all the entries in the browsing context's session history after the current entry in its Document's History object
    2. Remove any earlier entries that share the same Document
    3. Add a new entry just before the last entry that is associated with the text that was parsed by the previous parser associated with the Document object, as well as the state of the document at the start of these steps. (This allows the user to step backwards in the session history to see the page before it was blown away by the document.open() call.)
  11. Finally, set the insertion point to point at just before the end of the input stream (which at this point will be empty).

  12. Return the Document on which the method was invoked.

We shouldn't hard-code text/plain there. We should do it some other way, e.g. hand off to the section on content-sniffing and handling of incoming data streams, the part that defines how this all works when stuff comes over the network.

When called with three or more arguments, the open() method on the HTMLDocument object must call the open() method on the Window interface of the object returned by the defaultView attribute of the DocumentView interface of the HTMLDocument object, with the same arguments as the original call to the open() method, and return whatever that method returned. If the defaultView attribute of the DocumentView interface of the HTMLDocument object is null, then the method must raise an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception.

The close() method must do nothing if there is no script-created parser associated with the document. If there is such a parser, then, when the method is called, the user agent must insert an explicit "EOF" character at the insertion point of the parser's input stream.

2.5.2. Dynamic markup insertion in HTML

In HTML, the document.write(...) method must act as follows:

  1. If the insertion point is undefined, the open() method must be called (with no arguments) on the document object. The insertion point will point at just before the end of the (empty) input stream.

  2. The string consisting of the concatenation of all the arguments to the method must be inserted into the input stream just before the insertion point.

  3. If there is a script that will execute as soon as the parser resumes, then the method must now return without further processing of the input stream.

  4. Otherwise, the tokeniser must process the characters that were inserted, one at a time, processing resulting tokens as they are emitted, and stopping when the tokeniser reaches the insertion point or when the processing of the tokeniser is aborted by the tree construction stage (this can happen if a script start tag token is emitted by the tokeniser).

    If the document.write() method was called from script executing inline (i.e. executing because the parser parsed a set of script tags), then this is a reentrant invocation of the parser.

  5. Finally, the method must return.

In HTML, the innerHTML DOM attribute of all HTMLElement and HTMLDocument nodes returns a serialisation of the node's children using the HTML syntax. On setting, it replaces the node's children with new nodes that result from parsing the given value. The formal definitions follow.

On getting, the innerHTML DOM attribute must return the result of running the HTML fragment serialisation algorithm on the node.

On setting, if the node is a document, the innerHTML DOM attribute must run the following algorithm:

  1. If the document has an active parser, then stop that parser, and throw away any pending content in the input stream. what about if it doesn't, because it's either like a text/plain, or Atom, or PDF, or XHTML, or image document, or something?

  2. Remove the children nodes of the Document whose innerHTML attribute is being set.

  3. Create a new HTML parser, in its initial state, and associate it with the Document node.

  4. Place into the input stream for the HTML parser just created the string being assigned into the innerHTML attribute.

  5. Start the parser and let it run until it has consumed all the characters just inserted into the input stream. (The Document node will have been populated with elements and a load event will have fired on its body element.)

Otherwise, if the node is an element, then setting the innerHTML DOM attribute must cause the following algorithm to run instead:

  1. Invoke the HTML fragment parsing algorithm, with the element whose innerHTML attribute is being set as the context and the string being assigned into the innerHTML attribute as the input. Let new children be the result of this algorithm.

  2. Remove the children of the element whose innerHTML attribute is being set.

  3. Let target document be the ownerDocument of the Element node whose innerHTML attribute is being set.

  4. Set the ownerDocument of all the nodes in new children to the target document.

  5. Append all the new children nodes to the node whose innerHTML attribute is being set, preserving their order.

script elements inserted using innerHTML do not execute when they are inserted.

2.5.3. Dynamic markup insertion in XML

In an XML context, the document.write() method must raise an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception.

On the other hand, however, the innerHTML attribute is indeed usable in an XML context.

In an XML context, the innerHTML DOM attribute on HTMLElements and HTMLDocuments, on getting, must return a string in the form of an internal general parsed entity that is XML namespace-well-formed, the string being an isomorphic serialisation of all of that node's child nodes, in document order. User agents may adjust prefixes and namespace declarations in the serialisation (and indeed might be forced to do so in some cases to obtain namespace-well-formed XML). [XML] [XMLNS]

If any of the following cases are found in the DOM being serialised, the user agent must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception:

These are the only ways to make a DOM unserialisable. The DOM enforces all the other XML constraints; for example, trying to set an attribute with a name that contains an equals sign (=) will raised an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception.

On setting, in an XML context, the innerHTML DOM attribute on HTMLElements and HTMLDocuments must run the following algorithm:

  1. The user agent must create a new XML parser.

  2. If the innerHTML attribute is being set on an element, the user agent must feed the parser just created the string corresponding to the start tag of that element, declaring all the namespace prefixes that are in scope on that element in the DOM, as well as declaring the default namespace (if any) that is in scope on that element in the DOM.

  3. The user agent must feed the parser just created the string being assigned into the innerHTML attribute.

  4. If the innerHTML attribute is being set on an element, the user agent must feed the parser the string corresponding to the end tag of that element.

  5. If the parser found a well-formedness error, the attribute's setter must raise a SYNTAX_ERR exception and abort these steps.

  6. The user agent must remove the children nodes of the node whose innerHTML attribute is being set.

  7. If the attribute is being set on a Document node, let new children be the children of the document, preserving their order. Otherwise, the attribute is being set on an Element node; let new children be the children of the the document's root element, preserving their order.

  8. If the attribute is being set on a Document node, let target document be that Document node. Otherwise, the attribute is being set on an Element node; let target document be the ownerDocument of that Element.

  9. Set the ownerDocument of all the nodes in new children to the target document.

  10. Append all the new children nodes to the node whose innerHTML attribute is being set, preserving their order.

script elements inserted using innerHTML do not execute when they are inserted.

2.6. APIs in HTML documents

For HTML documents, and for HTML elements in HTML documents, certain APIs defined in DOM3 Core become case-insensitive or case-changing, as sometimes defined in DOM3 Core, and as summarised or required below. [DOM3CORE].

This does not apply to XML documents or to elements that are not in the HTML namespace despite being in HTML documents.

Element.tagName, Node.nodeName, and Node.localName

These attributes return tag names in all uppercase and attribute names in all lowercase, regardless of the case with which they were created.

Document.createElement()

The canonical form of HTML markup is all-lowercase; thus, this method will lowercase the argument before creating the requisite element. Also, the element created must be in the HTML namespace.

This doesn't apply to Document.createElementNS(). Thus, it is possible, by passing this last method a tag name in the wrong case, to create an element that claims to have the tag name of an element defined in this specification, but doesn't support its interfaces, because it really has another tag name not accessible from the DOM APIs.

Element.setAttributeNode()

When an Attr node is set on an HTML element, it must have its name lowercased before the element is affected.

This doesn't apply to Document.setAttributeNodeNS().

Element.setAttribute()

When an attribute is set on an HTML element, the name argument must be lowercased before the element is affected.

This doesn't apply to Document.setAttributeNS().

Document.getElementsByTagName() and Element.getElementsByTagName()

These methods (but not their namespaced counterparts) must compare the given argument case-insensitively when looking at HTML elements, and case-sensitively otherwise.

Thus, in an HTML document with nodes in multiple namespaces, these methods will be both case-sensitive and case-insensitive at the same time.

Document.renameNode()

If the new namespace is the HTML namespace, then the new qualified name must be lowercased before the rename takes place.

3. Semantics and structure of HTML elements

3.1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

An introduction to marking up a document.

3.2. Common microsyntaxes

There are various places in HTML that accept particular data types, such as dates or numbers. This section describes what the conformance criteria for content in those formats is, and how to parse them.

Need to go through the whole spec and make sure all the attribute values are clearly defined either in terms of microsyntaxes or in terms of other specs, or as "Text" or some such.

3.2.1. Common parser idioms

The space characters, for the purposes of this specification, are U+0020 SPACE, U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab), U+000A LINE FEED (LF), U+000B LINE TABULATION, U+000C FORM FEED (FF), and U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR).

Some of the micro-parsers described below follow the pattern of having an input variable that holds the string being parsed, and having a position variable pointing at the next character to parse in input.

For parsers based on this pattern, a step that requires the user agent to collect a sequence of characters means that the following algorithm must be run, with characters being the set of characters that can be collected:

  1. Let input and position be the same variables as those of the same name in the algorithm that invoked these steps.

  2. Let result be the empty string.

  3. While position doesn't point past the end of input and the character at position is one of the characters, append that character to the end of result and advance position to the next character in input.

  4. Return result.

The step skip whitespace means that the user agent must collect a sequence of characters that are space characters. The step skip Zs characters means that the user agent must collect a sequence of characters that are in the Unicode character class Zs. In both cases, the collected characters are not used. [UNICODE]

3.2.2. Boolean attributes

A number of attributes in HTML5 are boolean attributes. The presence of a boolean attribute on an element represents the true value, and the absence of the attribute represents the false value.

If the attribute is present, its value must either be the empty string or the attribute's canonical name, exactly, with no leading or trailing whitespace, and in lowercase.

3.2.3. Numbers

3.2.3.1. Unsigned integers

A string is a valid non-negative integer if it consists of one of more characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9).

The rules for parsing non-negative integers are as given in the following algorithm. When invoked, the steps must be followed in the order given, aborting at the first step that returns a value. This algorithm will either return zero, a positive integer, or an error. Leading spaces are ignored. Trailing spaces and indeed any trailing garbage characters are ignored.

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let value have the value 0.

  4. Skip whitespace.

  5. If position is past the end of input, return an error.

  6. If the next character is not one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then return an error.

  7. If the next character is one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9):

    1. Multiply value by ten.
    2. Add the value of the current character (0..9) to value.
    3. Advance position to the next character.
    4. If position is not past the end of input, return to the top of step 7 in the overall algorithm (that's the step within which these substeps find themselves).
  8. Return value.

3.2.3.2. Signed integers

A string is a valid integer if it consists of one of more characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), optionally prefixed with a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character.

The rules for parsing integers are similar to the rules for non-negative integers, and are as given in the following algorithm. When invoked, the steps must be followed in the order given, aborting at the first step that returns a value. This algorithm will either return an integer or an error. Leading spaces are ignored. Trailing spaces and trailing garbage characters are ignored.

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let value have the value 0.

  4. Let sign have the value "positive".

  5. Skip whitespace.

  6. If position is past the end of input, return an error.

  7. If the character indicated by position (the first character) is a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character:

    1. Let sign be "negative".
    2. Advance position to the next character.
    3. If position is past the end of input, return an error.
  8. If the next character is not one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then return an error.

  9. If the next character is one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9):

    1. Multiply value by ten.
    2. Add the value of the current character (0..9) to value.
    3. Advance position to the next character.
    4. If position is not past the end of input, return to the top of step 9 in the overall algorithm (that's the step within which these substeps find themselves).
  10. If sign is "positive", return value, otherwise return 0-value.

3.2.3.3. Real numbers

A string is a valid floating point number if it consists of one of more characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), optionally with a single U+002E FULL STOP (".") character somewhere (either before these numbers, in between two numbers, or after the numbers), all optionally prefixed with a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character.

The rules for parsing floating point number values are as given in the following algorithm. As with the previous algorithms, when this one is invoked, the steps must be followed in the order given, aborting at the first step that returns a value. This algorithm will either return a number or an error. Leading spaces are ignored. Trailing spaces and garbage characters are ignored.

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let value have the value 0.

  4. Let sign have the value "positive".

  5. Skip whitespace.

  6. If position is past the end of input, return an error.

  7. If the character indicated by position (the first character) is a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character:

    1. Let sign be "negative".
    2. Advance position to the next character.
    3. If position is past the end of input, return an error.
  8. If the next character is not one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9) or U+002E FULL STOP ("."), then return an error.

  9. If the next character is U+002E FULL STOP ("."), but either that is the last character or the character after that one is not one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then return an error.

  10. If the next character is one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9):

    1. Multiply value by ten.
    2. Add the value of the current character (0..9) to value.
    3. Advance position to the next character.
    4. If position is past the end of input, then if sign is "positive", return value, otherwise return 0-value.
    5. Otherwise return to the top of step 10 in the overall algorithm (that's the step within which these substeps find themselves).
  11. Otherwise, if the next character is not a U+002E FULL STOP ("."), then if sign is "positive", return value, otherwise return 0-value.

  12. The next character is a U+002E FULL STOP ("."). Advance position to the character after that.

  13. Let divisor be 1.

  14. If the next character is one of U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9):

    1. Multiply divisor by ten.
    2. Add the value of the current character (0..9) divided by divisor, to value.
    3. Advance position to the next character.
    4. If position is past the end of input, then if sign is "positive", return value, otherwise return 0-value.
    5. Otherwise return to the top of step 14 in the overall algorithm (that's the step within which these substeps find themselves).
  15. Otherwise, if sign is "positive", return value, otherwise return 0-value.

3.2.3.4. Ratios

The algorithms described in this section are used by the progress and meter elements.

A valid denominator punctuation character is one of the characters from the table below. There is a value associated with each denominator punctuation character, as shown in the table below.

Denominator Punctuation Character Value
U+0025 PERCENT SIGN % 100
U+066A ARABIC PERCENT SIGN ٪ 100
U+FE6A SMALL PERCENT SIGN 100
U+FF05 FULLWIDTH PERCENT SIGN 100
U+2030 PER MILLE SIGN 1000
U+2031 PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN 10000

The steps for finding one or two numbers of a ratio in a string are as follows:

  1. If the string is empty, then return nothing and abort these steps.
  2. Find a number in the string according to the algorithm below, starting at the start of the string.
  3. If the sub-algorithm in step 2 returned nothing or returned an error condition, return nothing and abort these steps.
  4. Set number1 to the number returned by the sub-algorithm in step 2.
  5. Starting with the character immediately after the last one examined by the sub-algorithm in step 2, skip any characters in the string that are in the Unicode character class Zs (this might match zero characters). [UNICODE]
  6. If there are still further characters in the string, and the next character in the string is a valid denominator punctuation character, set denominator to that character.
  7. If the string contains any other characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, but denominator was given a value in the step 6, return nothing and abort these steps.
  8. Otherwise, if denominator was given a value in step 6, return number1 and denominator and abort these steps.
  9. Find a number in the string again, starting immediately after the last character that was examined by the sub-algorithm in step 2.
  10. If the sub-algorithm in step 9 returned nothing or an error condition, return nothing and abort these steps.
  11. Set number2 to the number returned by the sub-algorithm in step 9.
  12. If there are still further characters in the string, and the next character in the string is a valid denominator punctuation character, return nothing and abort these steps.
  13. If the string contains any other characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, return nothing and abort these steps.
  14. Otherwise, return number1 and number2.

The algorithm to find a number is as follows. It is given a string and a starting position, and returns either nothing, a number, or an error condition.

  1. Starting at the given starting position, ignore all characters in the given string until the first character that is either a U+002E FULL STOP or one of the ten characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE.
  2. If there are no such characters, return nothing and abort these steps.
  3. Starting with the character matched in step 1, collect all the consecutive characters that are either a U+002E FULL STOP or one of the ten characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, and assign this string of one or more characters to string.
  4. If string contains more than one U+002E FULL STOP character then return an error condition and abort these steps.
  5. Parse string according to the rules for parsing floating point number values, to obtain number. This step cannot fail (string is guarenteed to be a valid floating point number).
  6. Return number.
3.2.3.5. Percentages and dimensions

valid positive non-zero integers rules for parsing dimension values (only used by height/width on img, embed, object — lengths in css pixels or percentages)

3.2.3.6. Lists of integers

A valid list of integers is a number of valid integers separated by U+002C COMMA characters, with no other characters (e.g. no space characters). In addition, there might be restrictions on the number of integers that can be given, or on the range of values allowed.

The rules for parsing a list of integers are as follows:

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let numbers be an initially empty list of integers. This list will be the result of this algorithm.

  4. If there is a character in the string input at position position, and it is either U+002C COMMA character or a U+0020 SPACE character, then advance position to the next character in input, or to beyond the end of the string if there are no more characters.

  5. If position points to beyond the end of input, return numbers and abort.

  6. If the character in the string input at position position is a U+002C COMMA character or a U+0020 SPACE character, return to step 4.

  7. Let negated be false.

  8. Let value be 0.

  9. Let multiple be 1.

  10. Let started be false.

  11. Let finished be false.

  12. Let bogus be false.

  13. Parser: If the character in the string input at position position is:

    A U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS character

    Follow these substeps:

    1. If finished is true, skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.
    2. If started is true or if bogus is true, let negated be false.
    3. Otherwise, if started is false and if bogus is false, let negated be true.
    4. Let started be true.
    A character in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO .. U+0039 DIGIT NINE

    Follow these substeps:

    1. If finished is true, skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.
    2. Let n be the value of the digit, interpreted in base ten, multiplied by multiple.
    3. Add n to value.
    4. If value is greater than zero, multiply multiple by ten.
    5. Let started be true.
    A U+002C COMMA character
    A U+0020 SPACE character

    Follow these substeps:

    1. If started is false, return the numbers list and abort.
    2. If negated is true, then negate value.
    3. Append value to the numbers list.
    4. Jump to step 4 in the overall set of steps.
    A U+002E FULL STOP character

    Follow these substeps:

    1. Let finished be true.
    Any other character

    Follow these substeps:

    1. If finished is true, skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.
    2. Let negated be false.
    3. Let bogus be true.
    4. If started is true, then return the numbers list, and abort. (The value in value is not appended to the list first; it is dropped.)
  14. Advance position to the next character in input, or to beyond the end of the string if there are no more characters.

  15. If position points to a character (and not to beyond the end of input), jump to the big Parser step above.

  16. If negated is true, then negate value.

  17. If started is true, then append value to the numbers list, return that list, and abort.

  18. Return the numbers list and abort.

3.2.4. Dates and times

In the algorithms below, the number of days in month month of year year is: 31 if month is 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, or 12; 30 if month is 4, 6, 9, or 11; 29 if month is 2 and year is a number divisible by 400, or if year is a number divisible by 4 but not by 100; and 28 otherwise. This takes into account leap years in the Gregorian calendar. [GREGORIAN]

3.2.4.1. Specific moments in time

A string is a valid datetime if it has four digits (representing the year), a literal hyphen, two digits (representing the month), a literal hyphen, two digits (representing the day), optionally some spaces, either a literal T or a space, optionally some more spaces, two digits (for the hour), a colon, two digits (the minutes), optionally the seconds (which, if included, must consist of another colon, two digits (the integer part of the seconds), and optionally a decimal point followed by one or more digits (for the fractional part of the seconds)), optionally some spaces, and finally either a literal Z (indicating the time zone is UTC), or, a plus sign or a minus sign followed by two digits, a colon, and two digits (for the sign, the hours and minutes of the timezone offset respectively); with the month-day combination being a valid date in the given year according to the Gregorian calendar, the hour values (h) being in the range 0 ≤ h ≤ 23, the minute values (m) in the range 0 ≤ m ≤ 59, and the second value (s) being in the range 0 ≤ h < 60. [GREGORIAN]

The digits must be characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), the hyphens must be a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS characters, the T must be a U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T, the colons must be U+003A COLON characters, the decimal point must be a U+002E FULL STOP, the Z must be a U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z, the plus sign must be a U+002B PLUS SIGN, and the minus U+002D (same as the hyphen).

The following are some examples of dates written as valid datetimes.

"0037-12-13 00:00 Z"
Midnight UTC on the birthday of Nero (the Roman Emperor).
"1979-10-14T12:00:00.001-04:00"
One millisecond after noon on October 14th 1979, in the time zone in use on the east coast of North America during daylight saving time.
"8592-01-01 T 02:09 +02:09"
Midnight UTC on the 1st of January, 8592. The time zone associated with that time is two hours and nine minutes ahead of UTC.

Several things are notable about these dates:

Conformance checkers can use the algorithm below to determine if a datetime is a valid datetime or not.

To parse a string as a datetime value, a user agent must apply the following algorithm to the string. This will either return a time in UTC, with associated timezone information for round tripping or display purposes, or nothing, indicating the value is not a valid datetime. If at any point the algorithm says that it "fails", this means that it returns nothing.

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly four characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the year.

  4. If position is beyond the end of input or if the character at position is not a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS character, then fail. Otherwise, move position forwards one character.

  5. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the month.

  6. If month is not a number in the range 1 ≤ month ≤ 12, then fail.
  7. Let maxday be the number of days in month month of year year.

  8. If position is beyond the end of input or if the character at position is not a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS character, then fail. Otherwise, move position forwards one character.

  9. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the day.

  10. If day is not a number in the range 1 ≤ month ≤ maxday, then fail.

  11. Collect a sequence of characters that are either U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T characters or space characters. If the collected sequence is zero characters long, or if it contains more than one U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T character, then fail.

  12. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the hour.

  13. If hour is not a number in the range 0 ≤ hour ≤ 23, then fail.
  14. If position is beyond the end of input or if the character at position is not a U+003A COLON character, then fail. Otherwise, move position forwards one character.

  15. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the minute.

  16. If minute is not a number in the range 0 ≤ minute ≤ 59, then fail.
  17. Let second be a string with the value "0".

  18. If position is beyond the end of input, then fail.

  19. If the character at position is a U+003A COLON, then:

    1. Advance position to the next character in input.

    2. If position is beyond the end of input, or at the last character in input, or if the next two characters in input starting at position are not two characters both in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then fail.

    3. Collect a sequence of characters that are either characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9) or U+002E FULL STOP characters. If the collected sequence has more than one U+002E FULL STOP characters, or if the last character in the sequence is a U+002E FULL STOP character, then fail. Otherwise, let the collected string be second instead of its previous value.

  20. Interpret second as a base ten number (possibly with a fractional part). Let that number be second instead of the string version.

  21. If second is not a number in the range 0 ≤ hour < 60, then fail. (The values 60 and 61 are not allowed: leap seconds cannot be represented by datetime values.)
  22. If position is beyond the end of input, then fail.

  23. Skip whitespace.

  24. If the character at position is a U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z, then:

    1. Let timezonehours be 0.

    2. Let timezoneminutes be 0.

    3. Advance position to the next character in input.

  25. Otherwise, if the character at position is either a U+002B PLUS SIGN ("+") or a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-"), then:

    1. If the character at position is a U+002B PLUS SIGN ("+"), let sign be "positive". Otherwise, it's a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-"); let sign be "negative".

    2. Advance position to the next character in input.

    3. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the timezonehours.

    4. If timezonehours is not a number in the range 0 ≤ timezonehours ≤ 23, then fail.
    5. If sign is "negative", then negate timezonehours.
    6. If position is beyond the end of input or if the character at position is not a U+003A COLON character, then fail. Otherwise, move position forwards one character.

    7. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then fail. Otherwise, interpret the resulting sequence as a base ten integer. Let that number be the timezoneminutes.

    8. If timezoneminutes is not a number in the range 0 ≤ timezoneminutes ≤ 59, then fail.
    9. If sign is "negative", then negate timezoneminutes.
  26. If position is not beyond the end of input, then fail.

  27. Let time be the moment in time at year year, month month, day day, hours hour, minute minute, second second, subtracting timezonehours hours and timezoneminutes minutes. That moment in time is a moment in the UTC timezone.

  28. Let timezone be timezonehours hours and timezoneminutes minutes from UTC.

  29. Return time and timezone.

3.2.4.2. Vaguer moments in time

This section defines date or time strings. There are two kinds, date or time strings in content, and date or time strings in attributes. The only difference is in the handling of whitespace characters.

To parse a date or time string, user agents must use the following algorithm. A date or time string is a valid date or time string if the following algorithm, when run on the string, doesn't say the string is invalid.

The algorithm may return nothing (in which case the string will be invalid), or it may return a date, a time, a date and a time, or a date and a time and and a timezone. Even if the algorithm returns one or more values, the string can still be invalid.

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let results be the collection of results that are to be returned (one or more of a date, a time, and a timezone), initially empty. If the algorithm aborts at any point, then whatever is currently in results must be returned as the result of the algorithm.

  4. For the "in content" variant: skip Zs characters; for the "in attributes" variant: skip whitespace.

  5. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is empty, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

  6. Let the sequence of characters collected in the last step be s.

  7. If position is past the end of input, the string is invalid; abort these steps.

  8. If the character at position is not a U+003A COLON character, then:

    1. If the character at position is not a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character either, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.

    2. If the sequence s is not exactly four digits long, then the string is invalid. (This does not stop the algorithm, however.)

    3. Interpret the sequence of characters collected in step 5 as a base ten integer, and let that number be year.

    4. Advance position past the U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character.

    5. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is empty, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

    6. If the sequence collected in the last step is not exactly two digits long, then the string is invalid.

    7. Interpret the sequence of characters collected two steps ago as a base ten integer, and let that number be month.

    8. If month is not a number in the range 1 ≤ month ≤ 12, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.
    9. Let maxday be the number of days in month month of year year.

    10. If position is past the end of input, or if the character at position is not a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-") character, then the string is invalid, abort these steps. Otherwise, advance position to the next character.

    11. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is empty, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

    12. If the sequence collected in the last step is not exactly two digits long, then the string is invalid.

    13. Interpret the sequence of characters collected two steps ago as a base ten integer, and let that number be day.

    14. If day is not a number in the range 1 ≤ day ≤ maxday, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.

    15. Add the date represented by year, month, and day to the results.

    16. For the "in content" variant: skip Zs characters; for the "in attributes" variant: skip whitespace.

    17. If the character at position is a U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T, then move position forwards one character.

    18. For the "in content" variant: skip Zs characters; for the "in attributes" variant: skip whitespace.

    19. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is empty, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

    20. Let s be the sequence of characters collected in the last step.

  9. If s is not exactly two digits long, then the string is invalid.

  10. Interpret the sequence of characters collected two steps ago as a base ten integer, and let that number be hour.

  11. If hour is not a number in the range 0 ≤ hour ≤ 23, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.

  12. If position is past the end of input, or if the character at position is not a U+003A COLON character, then the string is invalid, abort these steps. Otherwise, advance position to the next character.

  13. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is empty, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

  14. If the sequence collected in the last step is not exactly two digits long, then the string is invalid.

  15. Interpret the sequence of characters collected two steps ago as a base ten integer, and let that number be minute.

  16. If minute is not a number in the range 0 ≤ minute ≤ 59, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.

  17. Let second be 0. It may be changed to another value in the next step.

  18. If position is not past the end of input and the character at position is a U+003A COLON character, then:

    1. Collect a sequence of characters that are either characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9) or are U+002E FULL STOP. If the collected sequence is empty, or contains more than one U+002E FULL STOP character, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.

    2. If the first character in the sequence collected in the last step is not in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9), then the string is invalid.

    3. Interpret the sequence of characters collected two steps ago as a base ten number (possibly with a fractional part), and let that number be second.

    4. If second is not a number in the range 0 ≤ minute < 60, then the string is invalid, abort these steps.

  19. Add the time represented by hour, minute, and second to the results.

  20. If results has both a date and a time, then:

    1. For the "in content" variant: skip Zs characters; for the "in attributes" variant: skip whitespace.

    2. If position is past the end of input, then skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.

    3. Otherwise, if the character at position is a U+005A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z, then:

      1. Add the timezone corresponding to UTC (zero offset) to the results.

      2. Advance position to the next character in input.

      3. Skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.

    4. Otherwise, if the character at position is either a U+002B PLUS SIGN ("+") or a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-"), then:

      1. If the character at position is a U+002B PLUS SIGN ("+"), let sign be "positive". Otherwise, it's a U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS ("-"); let sign be "negative".

      2. Advance position to the next character in input.

      3. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then the string is invalid.

      4. Interpret the sequence collected in the last step as a base ten number, and let that number be timezonehours.

      5. If timezonehours is not a number in the range 0 ≤ timezonehours ≤ 23, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.
      6. If sign is "negative", then negate timezonehours.
      7. If position is beyond the end of input or if the character at position is not a U+003A COLON character, then the string is invalid; abort these steps. Otherwise, move position forwards one character.

      8. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) to U+0039 DIGIT NINE (9). If the collected sequence is not exactly two characters long, then the string is invalid.

      9. Interpret the sequence collected in the last step as a base ten number, and let that number be timezoneminutes.

      10. If timezoneminutes is not a number in the range 0 ≤ timezoneminutes ≤ 59, then the string is invalid; abort these steps.
      11. Add the timezone corresponding to an offset of timezonehours hours and timezoneminutes minutes to the results.

      12. Skip to the next step in the overall set of steps.

    5. Otherwise, the string is invalid; abort these steps.

  21. For the "in content" variant: skip Zs characters; for the "in attributes" variant: skip whitespace.

  22. If position is not past the end of input, then the string is invalid.

  23. Abort these steps (the string is parsed).

3.2.5. Time offsets

valid time offset, rules for parsing time offsets, time offset serialisation rules; in the format "5d4h3m2s1ms" or "3m 9.2s" or "00:00:00.00" or similar.

3.2.6. Tokens

A set of space-separated tokens is a set of zero or more words separated by one or more space characters, where words consist of any string of one or more characters, none of which are space characters.

A string containing a set of space-separated tokens may have leading or trailing space characters.

An unordered set of unique space-separated tokens is a set of space-separated tokens where none of the words are duplicated.

An ordered set of unique space-separated tokens is a set of space-separated tokens where none of the words are duplicated but where the order of the tokens is meaningful.

When a user agent has to split a string on spaces, it must use the following algorithm:

  1. Let input be the string being parsed.

  2. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  3. Let tokens be a list of tokens, initially empty.

  4. Skip whitespace

  5. While position is not past the end of input:

    1. Collect a sequence of characters that are not space characters.

    2. Add the string collected in the previous step to tokens.

    3. Skip whitespace

  6. Return tokens.

When a user agent has to remove a token from a string, it must use the following algorithm:

  1. Let input be the string being modified.

  2. Let token be the token being removed. It will not contain any space characters.

  3. Let output be the output string, initially empty.

  4. Let position be a pointer into input, initially pointing at the start of the string.

  5. If position is beyond the end of input, set the string being modified to output, and abort these steps.

  6. If the character at position is a space character:

    1. Append the character at position to the end of output.

    2. Increment position so it points at the next character in input.

    3. Return to step 5 in the overall set of steps.

  7. Otherwise, the character at position is the first character of a token. Collect a sequence of characters that are not space characters, and let that be s.

  8. If s is exactly equal to token, then:

    1. Skip whitespace (in input).

    2. Remove any space characters currently at the end of output.

    3. If position is not past the end of input, and output is not the empty string, append a single U+0020 SPACE character at the end of output.

  9. Otherwise, append s to the end of output.

  10. Return to step 6 in the overall set of steps.

This causes any occurrences of the token to be removed from the string, and any spaces that were surrounding the token to be collapsed to a single space, except at the start and end of the string, where such spaces are removed.

3.2.7. Keywords and enumerated attributes

Some attributes are defined as taking one of a finite set of keywords. Such attributes are called enumerated attributes. The keywords are each defined to map to a particular state (several keywords might map to the same state, in which case some of the keywords are synonyms of each other; additionally, some of the keywords can be said to be non-conforming, and are only in the specification for historical reasons). In addition, two default states can be given. The first is the invalid value default, the second is the missing value default.

If an enumerated attribute is specified, the attribute's value must be one of the given keywords that are not said to be non-conforming, with no leading or trailing whitespace. The keyword may use any mix of uppercase and lowercase letters.

When the attribute is specified, if its value case-insensitively matches one of the given keywords then that keyword's state is the state that the attribute represents. If the attribute value matches none of the given keywords, but the attribute has an invalid value default, then the attribute represents that state. Otherwise, if the attribute value matches none of the keywords but there is a missing value default state defined, then that is the state represented by the attribute. Otherwise, there is no default, and invalid values must simply be ignored.

When the attribute is not specified, if there is a missing value default state defined, then that is the state represented by the (missing) attribute. Otherwise, the absence of the attribute means that there is no state represented.

The empty string can be one of the keywords in some cases. For example the contenteditable attribute has two states: true, matching the true keyword and the empty string, false, matching false and all other keywords (it's the invalid value default). It could further be thought of as having a third state inherit, which would be the default when the attribute is not specified at all (the missing value default), but for various reasons that isn't the way this specification actually defines it.

3.2.8. References

A valid hashed ID reference to an element of type type is a string consisting of a U+0023 NUMBER SIGN (#) character followed by a string which exactly matches the value of the id attribute of an element in the document with type type.

The rules for parsing a hashed ID reference to an element of type type are as follows:

  1. If the string being parsed does not contain a U+0023 NUMBER SIGN character, or if the first such character in the string is the last character in the string, then return null and abort these steps.

  2. Let s be the string from the character immediately after the first U+0023 NUMBER SIGN character in the string being parsed up to the end of that string.

  3. Return the first element of type type that has an id or name attribute whose value case-insensitively matches s.

3.3. Documents and document fragments

3.3.1. Semantics

Elements, attributes, and attribute values in HTML are defined (by this specification) to have certain meanings (semantics). For example, the ol element represents an ordered list, and the lang attribute represents the language of the content.

Authors must only use elements, attributes, and attribute values for their appropriate semantic purposes.

For example, the following document is non-conforming, despite being syntactically correct:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-GB">
 <head> <title> Demonstration </title> </head>
 <body>
  <table>
   <tr> <td> My favourite animal is the cat. </td> </tr>
   <tr>
    <td>
     —<a href="http://example.org/~ernest/"><cite>Ernest</cite></a>,
     in an essay from 1992
    </td>
   </tr>
  </table>
 </body>
</html>

...because the data placed in the cells is clearly not tabular data. A corrected version of this document might be:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en-GB">
 <head> <title> Demonstration </title> </head>
 <body>
  <blockquote>
   <p> My favourite animal is the cat. </p>
  </blockquote>
  <p>
   —<a href="http://example.org/~ernest/"><cite>Ernest</cite></a>,
   in an essay from 1992
  </p>
 </body>
</html>

This next document fragment, intended to represent the heading of a corporate site, is similarly non-conforming because the second line is not intended to be a heading of a subsection, but merely a subheading or subtitle (a subordinate heading for the same section).

<body>
 <h1>ABC Company</h1>
 <h2>Leading the way in widget design since 1432</h2>
 ...

The header element should be used in these kinds of situations:

<body>
 <header>
  <h1>ABC Company</h1>
  <h2>Leading the way in widget design since 1432</h2>
 </header>
 ...

Through scripting and using other mechanisms, the values of attributes, text, and indeed the entire structure of the document may change dynamically while a user agent is processing it. The semantics of a document at an instant in time are those represented by the state of the document at that instant in time, and the semantics of a document can therefore change over time. User agents must update their presentation of the document as this occurs.

HTML has a progress element that describes a progress bar. If its "value" attribute is dynamically updated by a script, the UA would update the rendering to show the progress changing.

3.3.2. Structure

All the elements in this specification have a defined content model, which describes what nodes are allowed inside the elements, and thus what the structure of an HTML document or fragment must look like. Authors must only put elements inside an element if that element allows them to be there according to its content model.

As noted in the conformance and terminology sections, for the purposes of determining if an element matches its content model or not, CDATASection nodes in the DOM are treated as equivalent to Text nodes, and entity reference nodes are treated as if they were expanded in place.

The space characters are always allowed between elements. User agents represent these characters between elements in the source markup as text nodes in the DOM. Empty text nodes and text nodes consisting of just sequences of those characters are considered inter-element whitespace.

Inter-element whitespace, comment nodes, and processing instruction nodes must be ignored when establishing whether an element matches its content model or not, and must be ignored when following algorithms that define document and element semantics.

An element A is said to be preceded or followed by a second element B if A and B have the same parent node and there are no other element nodes or text nodes (other than inter-element whitespace) between them.

Authors must only use elements in the HTML namespace in the contexts where they are allowed, as defined for each element. For XML compound documents, these contexts could be inside elements from other namespaces, if those elements are defined as providing the relevant contexts.

The SVG specification defines the SVG foreignObject element as allowing foreign namespaces to be included, thus allowing compound documents to be created by inserting subdocument content under that element. This specification defines the XHTML html element as being allowed where subdocument fragments are allowed in a compound document. Together, these two definitions mean that placing an XHTML html element as a child of an SVG foreignObject element is conforming.

3.3.3. Kinds of content

Each element in HTML falls into zero or more categories that group elements with similar characteristics together. The following categories are used in this specification:

Some elements have unique requirements and do not fit into any particular category.

3.3.3.1. Metadata content

Metadata content is content that sets up the presentation or behaviour of the rest of the content, or that sets up the relationship of the document with other documents, or that conveys other "out of band" information.

Elements from other namespaces whose semantics are primarily metadata-related (e.g. RDF) are also metadata content.

3.3.3.2. Prose content

Most elements that are used in the body of documents and applications are categorised as prose content.

As a general rule, elements whose content model allows any prose content should have either at least one descendant text node that is not inter-element whitespace, or at least one descendant element node that is embedded content. For the purposes of this requirement, del elements and their descendants must not be counted as contributing to the ancestors of the del element.

This requirement is not a hard requirement, however, as there are many cases where an element can be empty legitimately, for example when it is used as a placeholder which will later be filled in by a script, or when the element is part of a template and would on most pages be filled in but on some pages is not relevant.

3.3.3.3. Sectioning content

Sectioning content is content that defines the scope of headers, footers, and contact information.

Each sectioning content element potentially has a heading. See the section on headings and sections for further details.

3.3.3.4. Heading content

Heading content defines the header of a section (whether explicitly marked up using sectioning content elements, or implied by the heading content itself).

3.3.3.5. Phrasing content

Phrasing content is the text of the document, as well as elements that mark up that text at the intra-paragraph level. Runs of phrasing content form paragraphs.

All phrasing content is also prose content. Any content model that expects prose content also expects phrasing content.

As a general rule, elements whose content model allows any phrasing content should have either at least one descendant text node that is not inter-element whitespace, or at least one descendant element node that is embedded content. For the purposes of this requirement, nodes that are descendants of del elements must not be counted as contributing to the ancestors of the del element.

Most elements that are categorised as phrasing content can only contain elements that are themselves categorised as phrasing content, not any prose content.

Text nodes that are not inter-element whitespace are phrasing content.

3.3.3.6. Embedded content

Embedded content is content that imports another resource into the document, or content from another vocabulary that is inserted into the document.

All embedded content is also phrasing content (and prose content). Any content model that expects phrasing content (or prose content) also expects embedded content.

Elements that are from namespaces other than the HTML namespace and that convey content but not metadata, are embedded content for the purposes of the content models defined in this specification. (For example, MathML, or SVG.)

Some embedded content elements can have fallback content: content that is to be used when the external resource cannot be used (e.g. because it is of an unsupported format). The element definitions state what the fallback is, if any.

3.3.3.7. Interactive content

Parts of this section should eventually be moved to DOM3 Events.

Interactive content is content that is specifically intended for user interaction.

Certain elements in HTML can be activated, for instance a elements, button elements, or input elements when their type attribute is set to radio. Activation of those elements can happen in various (UA-defined) ways, for instance via the mouse or keyboard.

When activation is performed via some method other than clicking the pointing device, the default action of the event that triggers the activation must, instead of being activating the element directly, be to fire a click event on the same element.

The default action of this click event, or of the real click event if the element was activated by clicking a pointing device, must be to fire a further DOMActivate event at the same element, whose own default action is to go through all the elements the DOMActivate event bubbled through (starting at the target node and going towards the Document node), looking for an element with an activation behavior; the first element, in reverse tree order, to have one, must have its activation behavior executed.

The above doesn't happen for arbitrary synthetic events dispatched by author script. However, the click() method can be used to make it happen programmatically.

For certain form controls, this process is complicated further by changes that must happen around the click event. [WF2]

Most interactive elements have content models that disallow nesting interactive elements.

3.3.4. Transparent content models

Some elements are described as transparent; they have "transparent" as their content model. Some elements are described as semi-transparent; this means that part of their content model is "transparent" but that is not the only part of the content model that must be satisfied.

When a content model includes a part that is "transparent", those parts must only contain content that would still be conformant if all transparent and semi-transparent elements in the tree were replaced, in their parent element, by the children in the "transparent" part of their content model, retaining order.

When a transparent or semi-transparent element has no parent, then the part of its content model that is "transparent" must instead be treated as accepting any prose content.

3.3.5. Paragraphs

A paragraph is typically a block of text with one or more sentences that discuss a particular topic, as in typography, but can also be used for more general thematic grouping. For instance, an address is also a paragraph, as is a part of a form, a byline, or a stanza in a poem.

Paragraphs in prose content are defined relative to what the document looks like without the ins and del elements complicating matters. Let view be a view of the DOM that replaces all ins and del elements in the document with their contents. Then, in view, for each run of phrasing content uninterrupted by other types of content, in an element that accepts content other than phrasing content, let first be the first node of the run, and let last be the last node of the run. For each run, a paragraph exists in the original DOM from immediately before first to immediately after last. (Paragraphs can thus span across ins and del elements.)

A paragraph is also formed by p elements.

The p element can be used to wrap individual paragraphs when there would otherwise not be any content other than phrasing content to separate the paragraphs from each other.

In the following example, there are two paragraphs in a section. There is also a header, which contains phrasing content that is not a paragraph. Note how the comments and intra-element whitespace do not form paragraphs.

<section>
  <h1>Example of paragraphs</h1>
  This is the <em>first</em> paragraph in this example.
  <p>This is the second.</p>
  <!-- This is not a paragraph. -->
</section>

The following example takes that markup and puts ins and del elements around some of the markup to show that the text was changed (though in this case, the changes don't really make much sense, admittedly). Notice how this example has exactly the same paragraphs as the previous one, despite the ins and del elements.

<section>
  <ins><h1>Example of paragraphs</h1>
  This is the <em>first</em> paragraph in</ins> this example<del>.
  <p>This is the second.</p></del>
  <!-- This is not a paragraph. -->
</section>

3.4. Global attributes

The following attributes are common to and may be specified on all HTML elements (even those not defined in this specification):

Global attributes:
class
contenteditable
contextmenu
dir
draggable
id
irrelevant
lang
ref
registrationmark
tabindex
template
title

In addition, the following event handler content attributes may be specified on any HTML element:

Event handler content attributes:
onabort
onbeforeunload
onblur
onchange
onclick
oncontextmenu
ondblclick
ondrag
ondragend
ondragenter
ondragleave
ondragover
ondragstart
ondrop
onerror
onfocus
onkeydown
onkeypress
onkeyup
onload
onmessage
onmousedown
onmousemove
onmouseout
onmouseover
onmouseup
onmousewheel
onresize
onscroll
onselect
onsubmit
onunload

3.4.1. The id attribute

The id attribute represents its element's unique identifier. The value must be unique in the subtree within which the element finds itself and must contain at least one character. The value must not contain any space characters.

If the value is not the empty string, user agents must associate the element with the given value (exactly, including any space characters) for the purposes of ID matching within the subtree the element finds itself (e.g. for selectors in CSS or for the getElementById() method in the DOM).

Identifiers are opaque strings. Particular meanings should not be derived from the value of the id attribute.

This specification doesn't preclude an element having multiple IDs, if other mechanisms (e.g. DOM Core methods) can set an element's ID in a way that doesn't conflict with the id attribute.

The id DOM attribute must reflect the id content attribute.

3.4.2. The title attribute

The title attribute represents advisory information for the element, such as would be appropriate for a tooltip. On a link, this could be the title or a description of the target resource; on an image, it could be the image credit or a description of the image; on a paragraph, it could be a footnote or commentary on the text; on a citation, it could be further information about the source; and so forth. The value is text.

If this attribute is omitted from an element, then it implies that the title attribute of the nearest ancestor HTML element with a title attribute set is also relevant to this element. Setting the attribute overrides this, explicitly stating that the advisory information of any ancestors is not relevant to this element. Setting the attribute to the empty string indicates that the element has no advisory information.

If the title attribute's value contains U+000A LINE FEED (LF) characters, the content is split into multiple lines. Each U+000A LINE FEED (LF) character represents a line break.

Some elements, such as link and dfn, define additional semantics for the title attribute beyond the semantics described above.

The title DOM attribute must reflect the title content attribute.

3.4.3. The lang (HTML only) and xml:lang (XML only) attributes

The lang attribute specifies the primary language for the element's contents and for any of the element's attributes that contain text. Its value must be a valid RFC 3066 language code, or the empty string. [RFC3066]

The xml:lang attribute is defined in XML. [XML]

If these attributes are omitted from an element, then it implies that the language of this element is the same as the language of the parent element. Setting the attribute to the empty string indicates that the primary language is unknown.

The lang attribute may only be used on elements of HTML documents. Authors must not use the lang attribute in XML documents.

The xml:lang attribute may only be used on elements of XML documents. Authors must not use the xml:lang attribute in HTML documents.

To determine the language of a node, user agents must look at the nearest ancestor element (including the element itself if the node is an element) that has an xml:lang attribute set or is an HTML element and has a lang attribute set. That attribute specifies the language of the node.

If both the xml:lang attribute and the lang attribute are set on an element, user agents must use the xml:lang attribute, and the lang attribute must be ignored for the purposes of determining the element's language.

If no explicit language is given for the root element, then language information from a higher-level protocol (such as HTTP), if any, must be used as the final fallback language. In the absence of any language information, the default value is unknown (the empty string).

User agents may use the element's language to determine proper processing or rendering (e.g. in the selection of appropriate fonts or pronounciations, or for dictionary selection).

The lang DOM attribute must reflect the lang content attribute.

3.4.4. The dir attribute

The dir attribute specifies the element's text directionality. The attribute is an enumerated attribute with the keyword ltr mapping to the state ltr, and the keyword rtl mapping to the state rtl. The attribute has no defaults.

If the attribute has the state ltr, the element's directionality is left-to-right. If the attribute has the state rtl, the element's directionality is right-to-left. Otherwise, the element's directionality is the same as its parent.

The processing of this attribute depends on the presentation layer. For example, CSS 2.1 defines a mapping from this attribute to the CSS 'direction' and 'unicode-bidi' properties, and defines rendering in terms of those properties.

The dir DOM attribute on an element must reflect the dir content attribute of that element, limited to only known values.

The dir DOM attribute on HTMLDocument objects must reflect the dir content attribute of the html element, if any, limited to only known values. If there is no such element, then the attribute must return the empty string and do nothing on setting.

3.4.5. The class attribute

Every HTML element may have a class attribute specified.

The attribute, if specified, must have a value that is an unordered set of unique space-separated tokens representing the various classes that the element belongs to.

The classes that an HTML element has assigned to it consists of all the classes returned when the value of the class attribute is split on spaces.

Assigning classes to an element affects class matching in selectors in CSS, the getElementsByClassName() method in the DOM, and other such features.

Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.

The className and classList DOM attributes must both reflect the class content attribute.

3.4.6. The irrelevant attribute

All elements may have the irrelevant content attribute set. The irrelevant attribute is a boolean attribute. When specified on an element, it indicates that the element is not yet, or is no longer, relevant. User agents should not render elements that have the irrelevant attribute specified.

In the following skeletal example, the attribute is used to hide the Web game's main screen until the user logs in:

  <h1>The Example Game</h1>
  <section id="login">
   <h2>Login</h2>
   <form>
    ...
    <!-- calls login() once the user's credentials have been checked -->
   </form>
   <script>
    function login() {
      // switch screens
      document.getElementById('login').irrelevant = true;
      document.getElementById('game').irrelevant = false;
    }
   </script>
  </section>
  <section id="game" irrelevant>
   ...
  </section>

The irrelevant attribute must not be used to hide content that could legitimately be shown in another presentation. For example, it is incorrect to use irrelevant to hide panels in a tabbed dialog, because the tabbed interface is merely a kind of overflow presentation — showing all the form controls in one big page with a scrollbar would be equivalent, and no less correct.

Elements in a section hidden by the irrelevant attribute are still active, e.g. scripts and form controls in such sections still render execute and submit respectively. Only their presentation to the user changes.

The irrelevant DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

3.5. Interaction

3.5.1. Activation

The click() method must fire a click event at the element, whose default action is the firing of a further DOMActivate event at the same element, whose own default action is to go through all the elements the DOMActivate event bubbled through (starting at the target node and going towards the Document node), looking for an element with an activation behavior; the first element, in reverse tree order, to have one, must have its activation behavior executed.

3.5.2. Focus

When an element is focused, key events received by the document must be targeted at that element. There is always an element focused; in the absence of other elements being focused, the document's root element is it.

Which element within a document currently has focus is independent of whether or not the document itself has the system focus.

Some focusable elements might take part in sequential focus navigation.

3.5.2.1. Focus management

The focus() and blur() methods must focus and unfocus the element respectively, if the element is focusable.

Some elements, most notably area, can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area. When such an element is focused using the focus() method, the first such region in tree order is the one that must be focused.

Well that clearly needs more.

The activeElement attribute must return the element in the document that has focus. If no element specifically has focus, this must return the body element.

The hasFocus attribute must return true if the document, one of its nested browsing contexts, or any element in the document or its browsing contexts currently has the system focus.

3.5.2.2. Sequential focus navigation

This section on the tabindex attribute needs to be checked for backwards-compatibility.

The tabindex attribute specifies the relative order of elements for the purposes of sequential focus navigation. The name "tab index" comes from the common use of the "tab" key to navigate through the focusable elements. The term "tabbing" refers to moving forward through the focusable elements.

The tabindex attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid integer.

If the attribute is specified, it must be parsed using the rules for parsing integers. If parsing the value returns an error, the attribute is ignored for the purposes of focus management (as if it wasn't specified).

A positive integer or zero specifies the index of the element in the current scope's tab order. Elements with the same index are sorted in tree order for the purposes of tabbing.

A negative integer specifies that the element should be removed from the tab order. If the element does normally take focus, it may still be focused using other means (e.g. it could be focused by a click).

If the attribute is absent (or invalid), then the user agent must treat the element as if it had the value 0 or the value -1, based on platform conventions.

For example, a user agent might default textarea elements to 0, and button elements to -1, making text fields part of the tabbing cycle but buttons not.

When an element that does not normally take focus (i.e. whose default value would be -1) has the tabindex attribute specified with a positive value, then it should be added to the tab order and should be made focusable. When focused, the element matches the CSS :focus pseudo-class and key events are dispatched on that element in response to keyboard input.

The tabIndex DOM attribute reflects the value of the tabIndex content attribute. If the attribute is not present (or has an invalid value) then the DOM attribute must return the UA's default value for that element, which will be either 0 (for elements in the tab order) or -1 (for elements not in the tab order).

3.5.3. Scrolling elements into view

The scrollIntoView([top]) method, when called, must cause the element on which the method was called to have the attention of the user called to it.

In a speech browser, this could happen by having the current playback position move to the start of the given element.

In visual user agents, if the argument is present and has the value false, the user agent should scroll the element into view such that both the bottom and the top of the element are in the viewport, with the bottom of the element aligned with the bottom of the viewport. If it isn't possible to show the entire element in that way, or if the argument is omitted or is true, then the user agent must instead simply align the top of the element with the top of the viewport.

Non-visual user agents may ignore the argument, or may treat it in some media-specific manner most useful to the user.

3.6. The root element

3.6.1. The html element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As the root element of a document.
Wherever a subdocument fragment is allowed in a compound document.
Content model:
A head element followed by a body element.
Element-specific attributes:
manifest
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The html element represents the root of an HTML document.

The manifest attribute gives the address of the document's application cache manifest, if there is one. If the attribute is present, the attribute's value must be a valid URI (or IRI).

The manifest attribute only has an effect during the early stages of document load. Changing the attribute dynamically thus has no effect (and thus, no DOM API is provided for this attribute). Furthermore, as it is processed before any base elements are seen, its value is not subject to being made relative to any base URI.

Though it has absolutely no effect and no meaning, the html element, in HTML documents, may have an xmlns attribute specified, if, and only if, it has the exact value "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml". This does not apply to XML documents.

In HTML, the xmlns attribute has absolutely no effect. It is basically a talisman. It is allowed merely to make migration to and from XHTML mildly easier. When parsed by an HTML parser, the attribute ends up in the null namespace, not the "http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/" namespace like namespace declaration attributes in XML do.

In XML, an xmlns attribute is part of the namespace declaration mechanism, and an element cannot actually have an xmlns attribute in the null namespace specified.

3.7. Document metadata

3.7.1. The head element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As the first element in an html element.
Content model:
One or more elements of metadata content, of which exactly one is a title element.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The head element collects the document's metadata.

3.7.2. The title element

Categories
Metadata content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
In a head element containing no other title elements.
Content model:
Text.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The title element represents the document's title or name. Authors should use titles that identify their documents even when they are used out of context, for example in a user's history or bookmarks, or in search results. The document's title is often different from its first header, since the first header does not have to stand alone when taken out of context.

There must be no more than one title element per document.

The title element must not contain any elements.

Here are some examples of appropriate titles, contrasted with the top-level headers that might be used on those same pages.

  <title>Introduction to The Mating Rituals of Bees</title>
    ...
  <h1>Introduction</h1>
  <p>This companion guide to the highly successful
  <cite>Introduction to Medieval Bee-Keeping</cite> book is...

The next page might be a part of the same site. Note how the title describes the subject matter unambiguously, while the first header assumes the reader knowns what the context is and therefore won't wonder if the dances are Salsa or Waltz:

  <title>Dances used during bee mating rituals</title>
    ...
  <h1>The Dances</h1>

The string to use as the document's title is given by the document.title DOM attribute. User agents should use the document's title when referring to the document in their user interface.

3.7.3. The base element

Categories
Metadata content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
In a head element containing no other base elements.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
href
target
DOM interface:
interface HTMLBaseElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString href;
           attribute DOMString target;
};

The base element allows authors to specify the document's base URI for the purposes of resolving relative URIs, and the name of the default browsing context for the purposes of following hyperlinks.

There must be no more than one base element per document.

A base element must have either an href attribute, a target attribute, or both.

The href content attribute, if specified, must contain a URI (or IRI).

A base element, if it has an href attribute, must come before any other elements in the tree that have attributes with URIs (except the html element and its manifest attribute).

User agents must use the value of the href attribute of the first base element that is both a child of the head element and has an href attribute, if there is such an element, as the document entity's base URI for the purposes of section 5.1.1 of RFC 3986 ("Establishing a Base URI": "Base URI Embedded in Content"). This base URI from RFC 3986 is referred to by the algorithm given in XML Base, which is a normative part of this specification. [RFC3986]

If the base URI given by this attribute is a relative URI, it must be resolved relative to the higher-level base URIs (i.e. the base URI from the encapsulating entity or the URI used to retrieve the entity) to obtain an absolute base URI. All xml:base attributes must be ignored when resolving relative URIs in this href attribute.

If there are multiple base elements with href attributes, all but the first are ignored.

The target attribute, if specified, must contain a valid browsing context name. User agents use this name when following hyperlinks.

A base element, if it has a target attribute, must come before any elements in the tree that represent hyperlinks.

The href and target DOM attributes must reflect the content attributes of the same name.

Categories
Metadata content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
In a noscript element that is a child of a head element.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
href
rel
media
hreflang
type
Also, the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLLinkElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute boolean disabled;
           attribute DOMString href;
           attribute DOMString rel;
  readonly attribute DOMTokenList relList;
           attribute DOMString media;
           attribute DOMString hreflang;
           attribute DOMString type;
};

The LinkStyle interface must also be implemented by this element, the styling processing model defines how. [CSSOM]

The link element allows authors to link their document to other resources.

The destination of the link is given by the href attribute, which must be present and must contain a URI (or IRI). If the href attribute is absent, then the element does not define a link.

The type of link indicated (the relationship) is given by the value of the rel attribute, which must be present, and must have a value that is a set of space-separated tokens. The allowed values and their meanings are defined in a later section. If the rel attribute is absent, or if the value used is not allowed according to the definitions in this specification, then the element does not define a link.

Two categories of links can be created using the link element. Links to external resources are links to resources that are to be used to augment the current document, and hyperlink links are links to other documents. The link types section defines whether a particular link type is an external resource or a hyperlink. One element can create multiple links (of which some might be external resource links and some might be hyperlinks). User agents should process the links on a per-link basis, not a per-element basis.

The exact behaviour for links to external resources depends on the exact relationship, as defined for the relevant link type. Some of the attributes control whether or not the external resource is to be applied (as defined below). For external resources that are represented in the DOM (for example, style sheets), the DOM representation must be made available even if the resource is not applied. (However, user agents may opt to only fetch such resources when they are needed, instead of pro-actively downloading all the external resources that are not applied.)

Interactive user agents should provide users with a means to follow the hyperlinks created using the link element, somewhere within their user interface. The exact interface is not defined by this specification, but it should include the following information (obtained from the element's attributes, again as defined below), in some form or another (possibly simplified), for each hyperlink created with each link element in the document:

User agents may also include other information, such as the type of the resource (as given by the type attribute).

The media attribute says which media the resource applies to. The value must be a valid media query. [MQ]

If the link is a hyperlink then the media attribute is purely advisory, and describes for which media the document in question was designed.

However, if the link is an external resource link, then the media attribute is prescriptive. The user agent must only apply the external resource to views while their state match the listed media.

The default, if the media attribute is omitted, is all, meaning that by default links apply to all media.

The hreflang attribute on the link element has the same semantics as the hreflang attribute on hyperlink elements.

The type attribute gives the MIME type of the linked resource. It is purely advisory. The value must be a valid MIME type, optionally with parameters. [RFC2046]

For external resource links, user agents may use the type given in this attribute to decide whether or not to consider using the resource at all. If the UA does not support the given MIME type for the given link relationship, then the UA may opt not to download and apply the resource.

User agents must not consider the type attribute authoritative — upon fetching the resource, user agents must not use metadata included in the link to the resource to determine its type.

If the attribute is omitted, then the UA must fetch the resource to determine its type and thus determine if it supports (and can apply) that external resource.

If a document contains three style sheet links labelled as follows:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="A" type="text/css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="B" type="text/plain">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="C">

...then a compliant UA that supported only CSS style sheets would fetch the A and C files, and skip the B file (since text/plain is not the MIME type for CSS style sheets). For these two files, it would then check the actual types returned by the UA. For those that are sent as text/css, it would apply the styles, but for those labelled as text/plain, or any other type, it would not.

The title attribute gives the title of the link. With one exception, it is purely advisory. The value is text. The exception is for style sheet links, where the title attribute defines alternative style sheet sets.

The title attribute on link elements differs from the global title attribute of most other elements in that a link without a title does not inherit the title of the parent element: it merely has no title.

Some versions of HTTP defined a Link: header, to be processed like a series of link elements. When processing links, those must be taken into consideration as well. For the purposes of ordering, links defined by HTTP headers must be assumed to come before any links in the document, in the order that they were given in the HTTP entity header. Relative URIs in these headers must be resolved according to the rules given in HTTP, not relative to base URIs set by the document (e.g. using a base element or xml:base attributes). [RFC2616] [RFC2068]

The DOM attributes href, rel, media, hreflang, and type each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM attribute relList must reflect the rel content attribute.

The DOM attribute disabled only applies to style sheet links. When the link element defines a style sheet link, then the disabled attribute behaves as defined for the alternative style sheets DOM. For all other link elements it always return false and does nothing on setting.

3.7.5. The meta element

Categories
Metadata content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
If the charset attribute is present: as the first element in a head element.
If the http-equiv attribute is present: in a head element.
If the http-equiv attribute is present: in a noscript element that is a child of a head element.
If the name attribute is present: where metadata content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
name
http-equiv
content
charset (HTML only)
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMetaElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString content;
           attribute DOMString name;
           attribute DOMString httpEquiv;
};

The meta element represents various kinds of metadata that cannot be expressed using the title, base, link, style, and script elements.

The meta element can represent document-level metadata with the name attribute, pragma directives with the http-equiv attribute, and the file's character encoding declaration when an HTML document is serialised to string form (e.g. for transmission over the network or for disk storage) with the charset attribute.

Exactly one of the name, http-equiv, and charset attributes must be specified.

If either name or http-equiv is specified, then the content attribute must also be specified. Otherwise, it must be omitted.

The charset attribute may only be specified in HTML documents, it must not be used in XML documents. If the charset attribute is specified, the element must be the first element in the head element of the file.

The content attribute gives the value of the document metadata or pragma directive when the element is used for those purposes. The allowed values depend on the exact context, as described in subsequent sections of this specification.

If a meta element has a name attribute, it sets document metadata. Document metadata is expressed in terms of name/value pairs, the name attribute on the meta element giving the name, and the content attribute on the same element giving the value. The name specifies what aspect of metadata is being set; valid names and the meaning of their values are described in the following sections. If a meta element has no content attribute, then the value part of the metadata name/value pair is the empty string.

If a meta element has the http-equiv attribute specified, it must be either in a head element or in a noscript element that itself is in a head element. If a meta element does not have the http-equiv attribute specified, it must be in a head element.

The DOM attributes name and content must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name. The DOM attribute httpEquiv must reflect the content attribute http-equiv.

3.7.5.1. Standard metadata names

This specification defines a few names for the name attribute of the meta element.

generator

The value must be a free-form string that identifies the software used to generate the document. This value must not be used on hand-authored pages. WYSIWYG editors have additional constraints on the value used with this metadata name.

dns

The value must be an ordered set of unique space-separated tokens, each word of which is a host name. The list allows authors to provide a list of host names that the user is expected to subsequently need. User agents may, according to user preferences and prevailing network conditions, pre-emptively resolve the given DNS names (extracting the names from the value using the rules for splitting a string on spaces), thus precaching the DNS information for those hosts and potentially reducing the time between page loads for subsequent user interactions. Higher priority should be given to host names given earlier in the list.

3.7.5.2. Other metadata names

Extensions to the predefined set of metadata names may be registered in the WHATWG Wiki MetaExtensions page.

Anyone is free to edit the WHATWG Wiki MetaExtensions page at any time to add a type. These new names must be specified with the following information:

Keyword

The actual name being defined. The name should not be confusingly similar to any other defined name (e.g. differing only in case).

Brief description

A short description of what the metadata name's meaning is, including the format the value is required to be in.

Link to more details
A link to a more detailed description of the metadata name's semantics and requirements. It could be another page on the Wiki, or a link to an external page.
Synonyms

A list of other names that have exactly the same processing requirements. Authors should not use the names defined to be synonyms, they are only intended to allow user agents to support legacy content.

Status

One of the following:

Proposal
The name has not received wide peer review and approval. Someone has proposed it and is using it.
Accepted
The name has received wide peer review and approval. It has a specification that unambiguously defines how to handle pages that use the name, including when they use it in incorrect ways.
Unendorsed
The metadata name has received wide peer review and it has been found wanting. Existing pages are using this keyword, but new pages should avoid it. The "brief description" and "link to more details" entries will give details of what authors should use instead, if anything.

If a metadata name is added with the "proposal" status and found to be redundant with existing values, it should be removed and listed as a synonym for the existing value.

Conformance checkers must use the information given on the WHATWG Wiki MetaExtensions page to establish if a value not explicitly defined in this specification is allowed or not. When an author uses a new type not defined by either this specification or the Wiki page, conformance checkers should offer to add the value to the Wiki, with the details described above, with the "proposal" status.

This specification does not define how new values will get approved. It is expected that the Wiki will have a community that addresses this.

Metadata names whose values are to be URIs must not be proposed or accepted. Links must be represented using the link element, not the meta element.

3.7.5.3. Pragma directives

When the http-equiv attribute is specified on a meta element, the element is a pragma directive.

The http-equiv attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords defined for this attribute. The states given in the first cell of the the rows with keywords give the states to which those keywords map.

State Keywords
Refresh refresh
Default style default-style

When a meta element is inserted into the document, if its http-equiv attribute is present and represents one of the above states, then the user agent must run the algorithm appropriate for that state, as described in the following list:

Refresh state
  1. If another meta element in the Refresh state has already been successfully processed (i.e. when it was inserted the user agent processed it and reached the last step of this list of steps), then abort these steps.

  2. If the meta element has no content attribute, or if that attribute's value is the empty string, then abort these steps.

  3. Let input be the value of the element's content attribute.

  4. Let position point at the first character of input.

  5. Skip whitespace.

  6. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE, and parse the resulting string using the rules for parsing non-negative integers. If the sequence of characters collected is the empty string, then no number will have been parsed; abort these steps. Otherwise, let time be the parsed number.

  7. Collect a sequence of characters in the range U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE and U+002E FULL STOP ("."). Ignore any collected characters.

  8. Skip whitespace.

  9. Let url be the address of the current page.

  10. If the character in input pointed to by position is a U+003B SEMICOLON (";"), then advance position to the next character. Otherwise, jump to the last step.

  11. Skip whitespace.

  12. If the character in input pointed to by position is one of U+0055 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U or U+0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U, then advance position to the next character. Otherwise, jump to the last step.

  13. If the character in input pointed to by position is one of U+0052 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R or U+0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R, then advance position to the next character. Otherwise, jump to the last step.

  14. If the character in input pointed to by position is one of U+004C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L or U+006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L, then advance position to the next character. Otherwise, jump to the last step.

  15. Skip whitespace.

  16. If the character in input pointed to by position is a U+003D EQUALS SIGN ("="), then advance position to the next character. Otherwise, jump to the last step.

  17. Skip whitespace.

  18. Let url be equal to the substring of input from the character at position to the end of the string.

  19. Strip any trailing space characters from the end of url.

  20. Strip any U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION, U+000A LINE FEED (LF), and U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) characters from url.

  21. Resolve the url value to an absolute URI using the base URI of the meta element.

  22. Set a timer so that in time seconds, if the user has not canceled the redirect, the user agent navigates to url, with replacement enabled.

For meta elements in the Refresh state, the content attribute must have a value consisting either of:

In the former case, the integer represents a number of seconds before the page is to be reloaded; in the latter case the integer represents a number of seconds before the page is to be replaced by the page at the given URI.

Default style state
  1. ...
3.7.5.4. Specifying the document's character encoding

The meta element may also be used to provide UAs with character encoding information for HTML files, by setting the charset attribute to the name of a character encoding. This is called a character encoding declaration.

The following restrictions apply to character encoding declarations:

If the document does not start with a BOM, and if its encoding is not explicitly given by Content-Type metadata, then the character encoding used must be a superset of US-ASCII (specifically, ANSI_X3.4-1968) for bytes in the range 0x09 - 0x0D, 0x20, 0x21, 0x22, 0x26, 0x27, 0x2C - 0x3F, 0x41 - 0x5A, and 0x61 - 0x7A , and, in addition, if that encoding isn't US-ASCII itself, then the encoding must be specified using a meta element with a charset attribute.

Authors should not use JIS_X0212-1990, x-JIS0208, and encodings based on EBCDIC. Authors should not use UTF-32. Authors must not use the CESU-8, UTF-7, BOCU-1 and SCSU encodings. [CESU8] [UTF7] [BOCU1] [SCSU]

Authors are encouraged to use UTF-8. Conformance checkers may advise against authors using legacy encodings.

In XHTML, the XML declaration should be used for inline character encoding information, if necessary.

3.7.6. The style element

Categories
Metadata content.
If the scoped attribute is present: prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
If the scoped attribute is absent: where metadata content is expected.
If the scoped attribute is absent: in a noscript element that is a child of a head element.
If the scoped attribute is present: where prose content is expected, but before any sibling elements other than style elements and before any text nodes other than inter-element whitespace.
Content model:
Depends on the value of the type attribute.
Element-specific attributes:
media
type
scoped
Also, the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLStyleElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute boolean disabled;
           attribute DOMString media;
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute boolean scoped;
};

The LinkStyle interface must also be implemented by this element, the styling processing model defines how. [CSSOM]

The style element allows authors to embed style information in their documents. The style element is one of several inputs to the styling processing model.

If the type attribute is given, it must contain a valid MIME type, optionally with parameters, that designates a styling language. [RFC2046] If the attribute is absent, the type defaults to text/css. [RFC2138]

When examining types to determine if they support the language, user agents must not ignore unknown MIME parameters — types with unknown parameters must be assumed to be unsupported.

The media attribute says which media the styles apply to. The value must be a valid media query. [MQ] User agents must only apply the styles to views while their state match the listed media. [DOM3VIEWS]

The default, if the media attribute is omitted, is all, meaning that by default styles apply to all media.

The scoped attribute is a boolean attribute. If the attribute is present, then the user agent must only apply the specified style information to the style element's parent element (if any), and that element's child nodes. Otherwise, the specified styles must, if applied, be applied to the entire document.

If the scoped attribute is not specified, the style element must be the child of a head element or of a noscript element that is a child of a head element.

If the scoped attribute is specified, then the style element must be the child of a prose content element, before any text nodes other than inter-element whitespace, and before any elements other than other style elements.

The title attribute on style elements defines alternative style sheet sets. If the style element has no title attribute, then it has no title; the title attribute of ancestors does not apply to the style element.

The title attribute on style elements, like the title attribute on link elements, differs from the global title attribute in that a style block without a title does not inherit the title of the parent element: it merely has no title.

All descendant elements must be processed, according to their semantics, before the style element itself is evaluated. For styling languages that consist of pure text, user agents must evaluate style elements by passing the concatenation of the contents of all the text nodes that are direct children of the style element (not any other nodes such as comments or elements), in tree order, to the style system. For XML-based styling languages, user agents must pass all the children nodes of the style element to the style system.

This specification does not specify a style system, but CSS is expected to be supported by most Web browsers. [CSS21]

The media, type and scoped DOM attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM disabled attribute behaves as defined for the alternative style sheets DOM.

3.7.7. Styling

The link and style elements can provide styling information for the user agent to use when rendering the document. The DOM Styling specification specifies what styling information is to be used by the user agent and how it is to be used. [CSSOM]

The style and link elements implement the LinkStyle interface. [CSSOM]

For style elements, if the user agent does not support the specified styling language, then the sheet attribute of the element's LinkStyle interface must return null. Similarly, link elements that do not represent external resource links that contribute to the styling processing model (i.e. that do not have a stylesheet keyword in their rel attribute), and link elements whose specified resource has not yet been downloaded, or is not in a supported styling language, must have their LinkStyle interface's sheet attribute return null.

Otherwise, the LinkStyle interface's sheet attribute must return a StyleSheet object with the attributes implemented as follows: [CSSOM]

The content type (type DOM attribute)

The content type must be the same as the style's specified type. For style elements, this is the same as the type content attribute's value, or text/css if that is omitted. For link elements, this is the Content-Type metadata of the specified resource.

The location (href DOM attribute)

For link elements, the location must be the URI given by the element's href content attribute. For style elements, there is no location.

The intended destination media for style information (media DOM attribute)

The media must be the same as the value of the element's media content attribute.

The style sheet title (title DOM attribute)

The title must be the same as the value of the element's title content attribute. If the attribute is absent, then the style sheet does not have a title. The title is used for defining alternative style sheet sets.

The disabled DOM attribute on link and style elements must return false and do nothing on setting, if the sheet attribute of their LinkStyle interface is null. Otherwise, it must return the value of the StyleSheet interface's disabled attribute on getting, and forward the new value to that same attribute on setting.

3.8. Sections

Some elements, for example address elements, are scoped to their nearest ancestor sectioning content. For such elements x, the elements that apply to a sectioning content element e are all the x elements whose nearest sectioning content ancestor is e.

3.8.1. The body element

Categories
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As the second element in an html element.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The body element represents the main content of the document.

In conforming documents, there is only one body element. The document.body DOM attribute provides scripts with easy access to a document's body element.

Some DOM operations (for example, parts of the drag and drop model) are defined in terms of "the body element". This refers to a particular element in the DOM, as per the definition of the term, and not any arbitrary body element.

3.8.2. The section element

Categories
Prose content.
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The section element represents a generic document or application section. A section, in this context, is a thematic grouping of content, typically with a header, possibly with a footer.

Examples of sections would be chapters, the various tabbed pages in a tabbed dialog box, or the numbered sections of a thesis. A Web site's home page could be split into sections for an introduction, news items, contact information.

3.8.3. The nav element

Categories
Prose content.
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The nav element represents a section of a page that links to other pages or to parts within the page: a section with navigation links.

3.8.4. The article element

Categories
Prose content.
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The article element represents a section of a page that consists of a composition that forms an independent part of a document, page, or site. This could be a forum post, a magazine or newspaper article, a Web log entry, a user-submitted comment, or any other independent item of content.

An article element is "independent" in that its contents could stand alone, for example in syndication. However, the element is still associated with its ancestors; for instance, contact information that applies to a parent body element still covers the article as well.

When article elements are nested, the inner article elements represent articles that are in principle related to the contents of the outer article. For instance, a Web log entry on a site that accepts user-submitted comments could represent the comments as article elements nested within the article element for the Web log entry.

Author information associated with an article element (q.v. the address element) does not apply to nested article elements.

3.8.5. The blockquote element

Categories
Prose content.
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
cite
DOM interface:
interface HTMLQuoteElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString cite;
};

The HTMLQuoteElement interface is also used by the q element.

The blockquote element represents a section that is quoted from another source.

Content inside a blockquote must be quoted from another source, whose URI, if it has one, should be cited in the cite attribute.

If the cite attribute is present, it must be a URI (or IRI). User agents should allow users to follow such citation links.

If a blockquote element is preceded or followed by a paragraph that contains a single cite element and is itself not preceded or followed by another blockquote element and does not itself have a q element descendant, then, the citation given by that cite element gives the source of the quotation contained in the blockquote element.

The cite DOM attribute reflects the element's cite content attribte.

The best way to represent a conversation is not with the cite and blockquote elements, but with the dialog element.

3.8.6. The aside element

Categories
Prose content.
Sectioning content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The aside element represents a section of a page that consists of content that is tangentially related to the content around the aside element, and which could be considered separate from that content. Such sections are often represented as sidebars in printed typography.

3.8.7. The h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, and h6 elements

Categories
Prose content.
Heading content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

These elements define headers for their sections.

The semantics and meaning of these elements are defined in the section on headings and sections.

These elements have a rank given by the number in their name. The h1 element is said to have the highest rank, the h6 element has the lowest rank, and two elements with the same name have equal rank.

3.8.8. The header element

Categories
Prose content.
Heading content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content, including at least one descendant that is heading content, but no sectioning content descendants, no header element descendants, and no footer element descendants.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The header element represents the header of a section. Headers may contain more than just the section's heading — for example it would be reasonable for the header to include version history information.

For the purposes of document summaries, outlines, and the like, header elements are equivalent to the highest ranked h1-h6 element descendant of the header element (the first such element if there are multiple elements with that rank).

Other heading elements in the header element indicate subheadings or subtitles.

Here are some examples of valid headers. In each case, the emphasised text represents the text that would be used as the header in an application extracting header data and ignoring subheadings.

<header>
 <h1>The reality dysfunction</h1>
 <h2>Space is not the only void</h2>
</header>
<header>
 <p>Welcome to...</p>
 <h1>Voidwars!</h1>
</header>
<header>
 <h1>Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.2</h1>
 <h2>W3C Working Draft 27 October 2004</h2>
 <dl>
  <dt>This version:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20041027/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20041027/</a></dd>
  <dt>Previous version:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20040510/">http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20040510/</a></dd>
  <dt>Latest version of SVG 1.2:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG12/">http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG12/</a></dd>
  <dt>Latest SVG Recommendation:</dt>
  <dd><a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/">http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/</a></dd>
  <dt>Editor:</dt>
  <dd>Dean Jackson, W3C, <a href="mailto:dean@w3.org">dean@w3.org</a></dd>
  <dt>Authors:</dt>
  <dd>See <a href="#authors">Author List</a></dd>
 </dl>
 <p class="copyright"><a href="http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Legal/ipr-notic ...
</header>

The section on headings and sections defines how header elements are assigned to individual sections.

The rank of a header element is the same as for an h1 element (the highest rank).

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content, but with no heading content descendants, no sectioning content descendants, and no footer element descendants.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The footer element represents the footer for the section it applies to. A footer typically contains information about its section such as who wrote it, links to related documents, copyright data, and the like.

Contact information for the section given in a footer should be marked up using the address element.

3.8.10. The address element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content, but with no heading content descendants, no sectioning content descendants, no footer element descendants, and no address element descendants.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The address element represents the contact information for the section it applies to.

For example, a page at the W3C Web site related to HTML might include the following contact information:

<ADDRESS>
 <A href="../People/Raggett/">Dave Raggett</A>, 
 <A href="../People/Arnaud/">Arnaud Le Hors</A>, 
 contact persons for the <A href="Activity">W3C HTML Activity</A>
</ADDRESS>

The address element must not be used to represent arbitrary addresses (e.g. postal addresses), unless those addresses are contact information for the section. (The p element is the appropriate element for marking up such addresses.)

The address element must not contain information other than contact information.

For example, the following is non-conforming use of the address element:

<ADDRESS>Last Modified: 1999/12/24 23:37:50</ADDRESS>

Typically, the address element would be included with other information in a footer element.

To determine the contact information for a sectioning element (such as a document's body element, which would give the contact information for the page), UAs must collect all the address elements that apply to that sectioning element and its ancestor sectioning elements. The contact information is the collection of all the information given by those elements.

Contact information for one sectioning element, e.g. an aside element, does not apply to its ancestor elements, e.g. the page's body.

3.8.11. Headings and sections

The h1-h6 elements and the header element are headings.

The first element of heading content in an element of sectioning content gives the header for that section. Subsequent headers of equal or higher rank start new (implied) sections, headers of lower rank start subsections that are part of the previous one.

Sectioning elements other than blockquote are always considered subsections of their nearest ancestor element of sectioning content, regardless of what implied sections other headings may have created. However, blockquote elements are associated with implied sections. Effectively, blockquote elements act like sections on the inside, and act opaquely on the outside.

For the following fragment:

<body>
 <h1>Foo</h1>
 <h2>Bar</h2>
 <blockquote>
  <h3>Bla</h3>
 </blockquote>
 <p>Baz</p>
 <h2>Quux</h2>
 <section>
  <h3>Thud</h3>
 </section>
 <p>Grunt</p>
</body>

...the structure would be:

  1. Foo (heading of explicit body section)
    1. Bar (heading starting implied section)
      1. Bla (heading of explicit blockquote section)
      Baz (paragraph)
    2. Quux (heading starting implied section)
    3. Thud (heading of explicit section section)
    Grunt (paragraph)

Notice how the blockquote nests inside an implicit section while the section does not (and in fact, ends the earlier implicit section so that a later paragraph is back at the top level).

Sections may contain headers of any rank, but authors are strongly encouraged to either use only h1 elements, or to use elements of the appropriate rank for the section's nesting level.

Authors are also encouraged to explictly wrap sections in elements of sectioning content, instead of relying on the implicit sections generated by having multiple heading in one element of sectioning content.

For example, the following is correct:

<body>
 <h4>Apples</h4>
 <p>Apples are fruit.</p>
 <section>
  <h2>Taste</h2>
  <p>They taste lovely.</p>
  <h6>Sweet</h6>
  <p>Red apples are sweeter than green ones.</p>
  <h1>Color</h1>
  <p>Apples come in various colors.</p>
 </section>
</body>

However, the same document would be more clearly expressed as:

<body>
 <h1>Apples</h1>
 <p>Apples are fruit.</p>
 <section>
  <h2>Taste</h2>
  <p>They taste lovely.</p>
  <section>
   <h3>Sweet</h3>
   <p>Red apples are sweeter than green ones.</p>
  </section>
 </section>
 <section>
  <h2>Color</h2>
  <p>Apples come in various colors.</p>
 </section>
</body>

Both of the documents above are semantically identical and would produce the same outline in compliant user agents.

3.8.11.1. Creating an outline

This section will be rewritten at some point. The algorithm likely won't change, but its description will be dramatically simplified.

Documents can be viewed as a tree of sections, which defines how each element in the tree is semantically related to the others, in terms of the overall section structure. This tree is related to the document tree, but there is not a one-to-one relationship between elements in the DOM and the document's sections.

The tree of sections should be used when generating document outlines, for example when generating tables of contents.

To derive the tree of sections from the document tree, a hypothetical tree is used, consisting of a view of the document tree containing only the elements of heading content and the elements of sectioning content other than blockquote. Descendants of h1-h6, header, and blockquote elements must be removed from this view.

The hypothetical tree must be rooted at the root element or at an element of sectioning content. In particular, while the sections inside blockquotes do not contribute to the document's tree of sections, blockquotes can have outlines of their own.

UAs must take this hypothetical tree (which will become the outline) and mutate it by walking it depth first in tree order and, for each element of heading content that is not the first element of its parent sectioning content element, inserting a new element of sectioning content, as follows:

If the element is a header element, or if it is an h1-h6 node of rank equal to or higher than the first element in the parent element of sectioning content (assuming that is also an h1-h6 node), or if the first element of the parent element of sectioning content is an element of sectioning content:
Insert the new element of sectioning content as the immediately following sibling of the parent element of sectioning content, and move all the elements from the current element of heading content up to the end of the parent element of sectioning content into the new element of sectioning content.
Otherwise:
Move the current heading element, and all subsequent siblings up to but excluding the next element of sectioning content, header element, or h1-h6 of equal or higher rank, whichever comes first, into the new element of sectioning content, then insert the new element of sectioning content where the current header was.

The outline is then the resulting hypothetical tree. The ranks of the headers become irrelevant at this point: each element of sectioning content in the hypothetical tree contains either no or one heading element child. If there is one, then it gives the section's heading, of there isn't, the section has no heading.

Sections are nested as in the hypothetical tree. If a sectioning element is a child of another, that means it is a subsection of that other section.

When creating an interactive table of contents, entries should jump the user to the relevant section element, if it was a real element in the original document, or to the heading, if the section element was one of those created during the above process.

Selecting the first section of the document therefore always takes the user to the top of the document, regardless of where the first header in the body is to be found.

The hypothetical tree (before mutations) could be generated by creating a TreeWalker with the following NodeFilter (described here as an anonymous ECMAScript function). [DOMTR] [ECMA262]

function (n) {
  // This implementation only knows about HTML elements.
  // An implementation that supports other languages might be
  // different.

  // Reject anything that isn't an element.
  if (n.nodeType != Node.ELEMENT_NODE)
    return NodeFilter.FILTER_REJECT;

  // Skip any descendants of headings.
  if ((n.parentNode && n.parentNode.namespaceURI == 'http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml') &&
      (n.parentNode.localName == 'h1' || n.parentNode.localName == 'h2' ||
       n.parentNode.localName == 'h3' || n.parentNode.localName == 'h4' ||
       n.parentNode.localName == 'h5' || n.parentNode.localName == 'h6' ||
       n.parentNode.localName == 'header'))
    return NodeFilter.FILTER_REJECT;

  // Skip any blockquotes.
  if ((n.namespaceURI == 'http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml') &&
      (n.localName == 'blockquote'))
    return NodeFilter.FILTER_REJECT;

  // Accept HTML elements in the list given in the prose above.
  if ((n.namespaceURI == 'http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml') &&
      (n.localName == 'body' || /*n.localName == 'blockquote' ||*/
       n.localName == 'section' || n.localName == 'nav' ||
       n.localName == 'article' || n.localName == 'aside' ||
       n.localName == 'h1' || n.localName == 'h2' ||
       n.localName == 'h3' || n.localName == 'h4' ||
       n.localName == 'h5' || n.localName == 'h6' ||
       n.localName == 'header'))
    return NodeFilter.FILTER_ACCEPT;

  // Skip the rest.
  return NodeFilter.FILTER_SKIP;
}
3.8.11.2. Determining which heading and section applies to a particular node

This section will be rewritten at some point. The algorithm likely won't change, but its description will be dramatically simplified.

Given a particular node, user agents must use the following algorithm, in the given order, to determine which heading and section the node is most closely associated with. The processing of this algorithm must stop as soon as the associated section and heading are established (even if they are established to be nothing).

  1. If the node has an ancestor that is a header element, then the associated heading is the most distant such ancestor. The associated section is that header's associated section (i.e. repeat this algorithm for that header).
  2. If the node has an ancestor that is an h1-h6 element, then the associated heading is the most distant such ancestor. The associated section is that heading's section (i.e. repeat this algorithm for that heading element).
  3. If the node is an h1-h6 element or a header element, then the associated heading is the element itself. The UA must then generate the hypothetical section tree described in the previous section, rooted at the nearest section ancestor (or the root element if there is no such ancestor). If the parent of the heading in that hypothetical tree is an element in the real document tree, then that element is the associated section. Otherwise, there is no associated section element.
  4. If the node is an element of sectioning content, then the associated section is itself. The UA must then generate the hypothetical section tree described in the previous section, rooted at the section itself. If the section element, in that hypothetical tree, has a child element that is an h1-h6 element or a header element, then that element is the associated heading. Otherwise, there is no associated heading element.
  5. If the node is a footer or address element, then the associated section is the nearest ancestor element of sectioning content, if there is one. The node's associated heading is the same as that element of sectioning content's associated heading (i.e. repeat this algorithm for that element of sectioning content). If there is no ancestor element of sectioning content, the element has no associated section nor an associated heading.
  6. Otherwise, the node is just a normal node, and the document has to be examined more closely to determine its section and heading. Create a view rooted at the nearest ancestor element of sectioning content (or the root element if there is none) that has just h1-h6 elements, header elements, the node itself, and elements of sectioning content other than blockquote elements. (Descendants of any of the nodes in this view can be ignored, as can any node later in the tree than the node in question, as the algorithm below merely walks backwards up this view.)
  7. Let n be an iterator for this view, initialised at the node in question.
  8. Let c be the current best candidate heading, initially null, and initially not used. It is used when top-level heading candidates are to be searched for (see below).
  9. Repeat these steps (which effectively goes backwards through the node's previous siblings) until an answer is found:
    1. If n points to a node with no previous sibling, and c is null, then return the node's parent node as the answer. If the node has no parent node, return null as the answer.
    2. Otherwise, if n points to a node with no previous sibling, return c as the answer.
    3. Adjust n so that it points to the previous sibling of the current position.
    4. If n is pointing at an h1 or header element, then return that element as the answer.
    5. If n is pointing at an h2-h6 element, and heading candidates are not being searched for, then return that element as the answer.
    6. Otherwise, if n is pointing at an h2-h6 element, and either c is still null, or c is a heading of lower rank than this one, then set c to be this element, and continue going backwards through the previous siblings.
    7. If n is pointing at an element of sectioning content, then from this point on top-level heading candidates are being searched for. (Specifically, we are looking for the nearest top-level header for the current section.) Continue going backwards through the previous siblings.
  10. If the answer from the previous step (the loop) is null, which can only happen if the node has no preceeding headings and is not contained in an element of sectioning content, then there is no associated heading and no associated section.
  11. Otherwise, if the answer from the earlier loop step is an element of sectioning content, then the associated section is that element and the associated heading is that element of sectioning content's associated heading (i.e. repeat this algorithm for that section).
  12. Otherwise, if the answer from that same earlier step is an h1-h6 element or a header element, then the associated heading is that element and the associated section is that heading element's associated section (i.e. repeat this algorithm for that heading).

Not all nodes have an associated header or section. For example, if a section is implied, as when multiple headers are found in one element of sectioning content, then a node in that section has an anonymous associated section (its section is not represented by a real element), and the algorithm above does not associate that node with any particular element of sectioning content.

For the following fragment:

<body>
 <h1>X</h1>
 <h2>X</h2>
 <blockquote>
  <h3>X</h3>
 </blockquote>
 <p id="a">X</p>
 <h4>Text Node A</h4>
 <section>
  <h5>X</h5>
 </section>
 <p>Text Node B</p>
</body>

The associations are as follows (not all associations are shown):

Node Associated heading Associated section
<body> <h1> <body>
<h1> <h1> <body>
<h2> <h2> None.
<blockquote> <h2> None.
<h3> <h3> <blockquote>
<p id="a"> <h2> None.
Text Node A <h4> None.
Text Node B <h1> <body>
3.8.11.3. Distinguishing site-wide headers from page headers

Given the hypothetical section tree, but ignoring any sections created for nav and aside elements, and any of their descendants, if the root of the tree is the body element's section, and it has only a single subsection which is created by an article element, then the header of the body element should be assumed to be a site-wide header, and the header of the article element should be assumed to be the page's header.

If a page starts with a heading that is common to the whole site, the document must be authored such that, in the document's hypothetical section tree, ignoring any sections created for nav and aside elements and any of their descendants, the root of the tree is the body element's section, its heading is the site-wide heading, the body element has just one subsection, that subsection is created by an article element, and that article's header is the page heading.

If a page does not contain a site-wide heading, then the page must be authored such that, in the document's hypothetical section tree, ignoring any sections created for nav and aside elements and any of their descendants, either the body element has no subsections, or it has more than one subsection, or it has a single subsection but that subsection is not created by an article element.

Conceptually, a site is thus a document with many articles — when those articles are split into many pages, the heading of the original single page becomes the heading of the site, repeated on every page.

3.9. Prose

3.9.1. The p element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The p element represents a paragraph.

The following examples are conforming HTML fragments:

<p>The little kitten gently seated himself on a piece of
carpet. Later in his life, this would be referred to as the time the
cat sat on the mat.</p>
<fieldset>
 <legend>Personal information</legend>
 <p>
   <label>Name: <input name="n"></label>
   <label><input name="anon" type="checkbox"> Hide from other users</label>
 </p>
 <p><label>Address: <textarea name="a"></textarea></label></p>
</fieldset>
<p>There was once an example from Femley,<br>
Whose markup was of dubious quality.<br>
The validator complained,<br>
So the author was pained,<br>
To move the error from the markup to the rhyming.</p>

The p element should not be used when a more specific element is more appropriate.

The following example is technically correct:

<section>
 <!-- ... -->
 <p>Last modified: 2001-04-23</p>
 <p>Author: fred@example.com</p>
</section>

However, it would be better marked-up as:

<section>
 <!-- ... -->
 <footer>Last modified: 2001-04-23</footer>
 <address>Author: fred@example.com</address>
</section>

Or:

<section>
 <!-- ... -->
 <footer>
  <p>Last modified: 2001-04-23</p>
  <address>Author: fred@example.com</address>
 </footer>
</section>

3.9.2. The hr element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The hr element represents a paragraph-level thematic break, e.g. a scene change in a story, or a transition to another topic within a section of a reference book.

3.9.3. The br element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The br element represents a line break.

br elements must be empty. Any content inside br elements must not be considered part of the surrounding text.

br elements must only be used for line breaks that are actually part of the content, as in poems or addresses.

The following example is correct usage of the br element:

<p>P. Sherman<br>
42 Wallaby Way<br>
Sydney</p>

br elements must not be used for separating thematic groups in a paragraph.

The following examples are non-conforming, as they abuse the br element:

<p><a ...>34 comments.</a><br>
<a ...>Add a comment.<a></p>
<p>Name: <input name="name"><br>
Address: <input name="address"></p>

Here are alternatives to the above, which are correct:

<p><a ...>34 comments.</a></p>
<p><a ...>Add a comment.<a></p>
<p>Name: <input name="name"></p>
<p>Address: <input name="address"></p>

If a paragraph consists of nothing but a single br element, it represents a placeholder blank line (e.g. as in a template). Such blank lines must not be used for presentation purposes.

3.9.4. The dialog element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Zero or more pairs of dt and dd elements.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The dialog element represents a conversation.

Each part of the conversation must have an explicit talker (or speaker) given by a dt element, and a discourse (or quote) given by a dd element.

This example demonstrates this using an extract from Abbot and Costello's famous sketch, Who's on first:

<dialog>
 <dt> Costello
 <dd> Look, you gotta first baseman?
 <dt> Abbott
 <dd> Certainly.
 <dt> Costello
 <dd> Who's playing first?
 <dt> Abbott
 <dd> That's right.
 <dt> Costello
 <dd> When you pay off the first baseman every month, who gets the money?
 <dt> Abbott
 <dd> Every dollar of it. 
</dialog>

Text in a dt element in a dialog element is implicitly the source of the text given in the following dd element, and the contents of the dd element are implicitly a quote from that speaker. There is thus no need to include cite, q, or blockquote elements in this markup. Indeed, a q element inside a dd element in a conversation would actually imply the people talking were themselves quoting someone else. See the cite, q, and blockquote elements for other ways to cite or quote.

3.10. Preformatted text

3.10.1. The pre element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The pre element represents a block of preformatted text, in which structure is represented by typographic conventions rather than by elements.

Some examples of cases where the pre element could be used:

To represent a block of computer code, the pre element can be used with a code element; to represent a block of computer output the pre element can be used with a samp element. Similarly, the kbd element can be used within a pre element to indicate text that the user is to enter.

In the following snippet, a sample of computer code is presented.

<p>This is the <code>Panel</code> constructor:</p>
<pre><code>function Panel(element, canClose, closeHandler) {
  this.element = element;
  this.canClose = canClose;
  this.closeHandler = function () { if (closeHandler) closeHandler() };
}</code></pre>

In the following snippet, samp and kbd elements are mixed in the contents of a pre element to show a session of Zork I.

<pre><samp>You are in an open field west of a big white house with a boarded
front door.
There is a small mailbox here.

></samp> <kbd>open mailbox</kbd>

<samp>Opening the mailbox reveals:
A leaflet.

></samp></pre>

The following shows a contemporary poem that uses the pre element to preserve its unusual formatting, which forms an intrinsic part of the poem itself.

<pre>                maxling

it is with a     heart
            heavy

that i admit loss of a feline
        so           loved

a friend lost to the
        unknown
                                (night)

~cdr 11dec07</pre>

3.11. Lists

3.11.1. The ol element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Zero or more li elements.
Element-specific attributes:
start
DOM interface:
interface HTMLOListElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute long start;
};

The ol element represents an ordered list of items (which are represented by li elements).

The start attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the first list item.

If the start attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer, in order to determine the attribute's value. The default value, used if the attribute is missing or if the value cannot be converted to a number according to the referenced algorithm, is 1.

The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ol element, in tree order.

The first item in the list has the ordinal value given by the ol element's start attribute, unless that li element has a value attribute with a value that can be successfully parsed, in which case it has the ordinal value given by that value attribute.

Each subsequent item in the list has the ordinal value given by its value attribute, if it has one, or, if it doesn't, the ordinal value of the previous item, plus one.

The start DOM attribute must reflect the value of the start content attribute.

3.11.2. The ul element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Zero or more li elements.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The ul element represents an unordered list of items (which are represented by li elements).

The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ul element.

3.11.3. The li element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Inside ol elements.
Inside ul elements.
Inside menu elements.
Content model:
When the element is a child of a menu element: phrasing content.
Otherwise: prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
If the element is a child of an ol element: value
If the element is not the child of an ol element: None.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLLIElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute long value;
};

The li element represents a list item. If its parent element is an ol, ul, or menu element, then the element is an item of the parent element's list, as defined for those elements. Otherwise, the list item has no defined list-related relationship to any other li element.

The value attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the first list item.

If the value attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer, in order to determine the attribute's value. If the attribute's value cannot be converted to a number, the attribute must be treated as if it was absent. The attribute has no default value.

The value attribute is processed relative to the element's parent ol element (q.v.), if there is one. If there is not, the attribute has no effect.

The value DOM attribute must reflect the value of the value content attribute.

3.11.4. The dl element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Zero or more groups each consisting of one or more dt elements followed by one or mode dd elements.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The dl element introduces an unordered association list consisting of zero or more name-value groups (a description list). Each group must consist of one or more names (dt elements) followed by one or more values (dd elements).

Name-value groups may be terms and definitions, metadata topics and values, or any other groups of name-value data.

The following are all conforming HTML fragments.

In the following example, one entry ("Authors") is linked to two values ("John" and "Luke").

<dl>
 <dt> Authors
 <dd> John
 <dd> Luke
 <dt> Editor
 <dd> Frank
</dl>

In the following example, one definition is linked to two terms.

<dl>
 <dt lang="en-US"> <dfn>color</dfn> </dt>
 <dt lang="en-GB"> <dfn>colour</dfn> </dt>
 <dd> A sensation which (in humans) derives from the ability of
 the fine structure of the eye to distinguish three differently
 filtered analyses of a view. </dd>
</dl>

The following example illustrates the use of the dl element to mark up metadata of sorts. At the end of the example, one group has two metadata labels ("Authors" and "Editors") and two values ("Robert Rothman" and "Daniel Jackson").

<dl>
 <dt> Last modified time </dt>
 <dd> 2004-12-23T23:33Z </dd>
 <dt> Recommended update interval </dt>
 <dd> 60s </dd>
 <dt> Authors </dt>
 <dt> Editors </dt>
 <dd> Robert Rothman </dd>
 <dd> Daniel Jackson </dd>
</dl>

If a dl element is empty, it contains no groups.

If a dl element contains non-whitespace text nodes, or elements other than dt and dd, then those elements or text nodes do not form part of any groups in that dl, and the document is non-conforming.

If a dl element contains only dt elements, then it consists of one group with names but no values, and the document is non-conforming.

If a dl element contains only dd elements, then it consists of one group with values but no names, and the document is non-conforming.

The dl element is inappropriate for marking up dialogue, since dialogue is ordered (each speaker/line pair comes after the next). For an example of how to mark up dialogue, see the dialog element.

3.11.5. The dt element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Before dd or dt elements inside dl elements.
Before a dd element inside a dialog element.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The dt element represents the term, or name, part of a term-description group in a description list (dl element), and the talker, or speaker, part of a talker-discourse pair in a conversation (dialog element).

The dt element itself, when used in a dl element, does not indicate that its contents are a term being defined, but this can be indicated using the dfn element.

3.11.6. The dd element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
After dt or dd elements inside dl elements.
After a dt element inside a dialog element.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The dd element represents the description, definition, or value, part of a term-description group in a description list (dl element), and the discourse, or quote, part in a conversation (dialog element).

3.12. Phrase elements

3.12.1. The a element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Interactive content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content, but there must be no interactive content descendant.
Element-specific attributes:
href
target
ping
rel
media
hreflang
type
DOM interface:
interface HTMLAnchorElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString href;
           attribute DOMString target;
           attribute DOMString ping;
           attribute DOMString rel;
  readonly attribute DOMTokenList relList;
           attribute DOMString media;
           attribute DOMString hreflang;
           attribute DOMString type;
};

The Command interface must also be implemented by this element.

If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink.

If the a element has no href attribute, then the element is a placeholder for where a link might otherwise have been placed, if it had been relevant.

The target, ping, rel, media, hreflang, and type attributes must be omitted if the href attribute is not present.

If a site uses a consistent navigation toolbar on every page, then the link that would normally link to the page itself could be marked up using an a element:

<nav>
 <ul>
  <li> <a href="/">Home</a> </li>
  <li> <a href="/news">News</a> </li>
  <li> <a>Examples</a> </li>
  <li> <a href="/legal">Legal</a> </li>
 </ul>
</nav>

Interactive user agents should allow users to follow hyperlinks created using the a element. The href, target and ping attributes decide how the link is followed. The rel, media, hreflang, and type attributes may be used to indicate to the user the likely nature of the target resource before the user follows the link.

The activation behavior of a elements that represent hyperlinks is to run the following steps:

  1. If the DOMActivate event in question is not trusted (i.e. a click() method call was the reason for the event being dispatched), and the a element's target attribute is ... then raise an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception and abort these steps.

  2. If the target of the DOMActivate event is an img element with an ismap attribute specified, then server-side image map processing must be performed, as follows:

    1. If the DOMActivate event was dispatched as the result of a real pointing-device-triggered click event on the img element, then let x be the distance in CSS pixels from the left edge of the image to the location of the click, and let y be the distance in CSS pixels from the top edge of the image to the location of the click. Otherwise, let x and y be zero.
    2. Let the hyperlink suffix be a U+003F QUESTION MARK character, the value of x expressed as a base-ten integer using ASCII digits (U+0030 DIGIT ZERO to U+0039 DIGIT NINE), a U+002C COMMA character, and the value of y expressed as a base-ten integer using ASCII digits.
  3. Finally, the user agent must follow the hyperlink defined by the a element. If the steps above defined a hyperlink suffix, then take that into account when following the hyperlink.

One way that a user agent can enable users to follow hyperlinks is by allowing a elements to be clicked, or focussed and activated by the keyboard. This will cause the aforementioned activation behavior to be invoked.

The DOM attributes href, ping, target, rel, media, hreflang, and type, must each reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM attribute relList must reflect the rel content attribute.

3.12.2. The q element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
cite
DOM interface:
The q element uses the HTMLQuoteElement interface.

The q element represents a part of a paragraph quoted from another source.

Content inside a q element must be quoted from another source, whose URI, if it has one, should be cited in the cite attribute.

If the cite attribute is present, it must be a URI (or IRI). User agents should allow users to follow such citation links.

If a q element is contained (directly or indirectly) in a paragraph that contains a single cite element and has no other q element descendants, then, the citation given by that cite element gives the source of the quotation contained in the q element.

3.12.3. The cite element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The cite element represents a citation: the source, or reference, for a quote or statement made in the document.

A citation is not a quote (for which the q element is appropriate).

This is incorrect usage:

<p><cite>This is wrong!</cite>, said Ian.</p>

This is the correct way to do it:

<p><q>This is correct!</q>, said <cite>Ian</cite>.</p>

This is also wrong, because the title and the name are not references or citations:

<p>My favourite book is <cite>The Reality Dysfunction</cite>
by <cite>Peter F. Hamilton</cite>.</p>

This is correct, because even though the source is not quoted, it is cited:

<p>According to <cite>the Wikipedia article on
HTML</cite>, HTML is defined in formal specifications that were
developed and published throughout the 1990s.</p>

The cite element can apply to blockquote and q elements in certain cases described in the definitions of those elements.

3.12.4. The em element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The em element represents stress emphasis of its contents.

The level of emphasis that a particlar piece of content has is given by its number of ancestor em elements.

The placement of emphasis changes the meaning of the sentence. The element thus forms an integral part of the content. The precise way in which emphasis is used in this way depends on the language.

These examples show how changing the emphasis changes the meaning. First, a general statement of fact, with no emphasis:

<p>Cats are cute animals.</p>

By emphasising the first word, the statement implies that the kind of animal under discussion is in question (maybe someone is asserting that dogs are cute):

<p><em>Cats</em> are cute animals.</p>

Moving the emphasis to the verb, one highlights that the truth of the entire sentence is in question (maybe someone is saying cats are not cute):

<p>Cats <em>are</em> cute animals.</p>

By moving it to the adjective, the exact nature of the cats is reasserted (maybe someone suggested cats were mean animals):

<p>Cats are <em>cute</em> animals.</p>

Similarly, if someone asserted that cats were vegetables, someone correcting this might emphasise the last word:

<p>Cats are cute <em>animals</em>.</p>

By emphasising the entire sentence, it becomes clear that the speaker is fighting hard to get the point across. This kind of emphasis also typically affects the punctuation, hence the exclamation mark here.

<p><em>Cats are cute animals!</em></p>

Anger mixed with emphasising the cuteness could lead to markup such as:

<p><em>Cats are <em>cute</em> animals!</em></p>

3.12.5. The strong element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The strong element represents strong importance for its contents.

The relative level of importance of a piece of content is given by its number of ancestor strong elements; each strong element increases the importance of its contents.

Changing the importance of a piece of text with the strong element does not change the meaning of the sentence.

Here is an example of a warning notice in a game, with the various parts marked up according to how important they are:

<p><strong>Warning.</strong> This dungeon is dangerous.
<strong>Avoid the ducks.</strong> Take any gold you find.
<strong><strong>Do not take any of the diamonds</strong>,
they are explosive and <strong>will destroy anything within
ten meters.</strong></strong> You have been warned.</p>

3.12.6. The small element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The small element represents small print (part of a document often describing legal restrictions, such as copyrights or other disadvantages), or other side comments.

The small element does not "de-emphasise" or lower the importance of text emphasised by the em element or marked as important with the strong element.

In this example the footer contains contact information and a copyright.

<footer>
 <address>
  For more details, contact
  <a href="mailto:js@example.com">John Smith</a>.
 </address>
 <p><small>© copyright 2038 Example Corp.</small></p>
</footer>

In this second example, the small element is used for a side comment.

<p>Example Corp today announced record profits for the
second quarter <small>(Full Disclosure: Foo News is a subsidiary of
Example Corp)</small>, leading to speculation about a third quarter
merger with Demo Group.</p>

In this last example, the small element is marked as being important small print.

<p><strong><small>Continued use of this service will result in a kiss.</small></strong></p>

3.12.7. The m element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

This section has a large number of outstanding comments and will likely be rewritten or removed from the spec.

The m element represents a run of text marked or highlighted.

In the following snippet, a paragraph of text refers to a specific part of a code fragment.

<p>The highlighted part below is where the error lies:</p>
<pre><code>var i: Integer;
begin
   i := <m>1.1</m>;
end.</code></pre>

Another example of the m element is highlighting parts of a document that are matching some search string. If someone looked at a document, and the server knew that the user was searching for the word "kitten", then the server might return the document with one paragraph modified as follows:

<p>I also have some <m>kitten</m>s who are visiting me
these days. They're really cute. I think they like my garden!</p>

3.12.8. The dfn element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content, but there must be no descendant dfn elements.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The dfn element represents the defining instance of a term. The paragraph, description list group, or section that contains the dfn element contains the definition for the term given by the contents of the dfn element.

Defining term: If the dfn element has a title attribute, then the exact value of that attribute is the term being defined. Otherwise, if it contains exactly one element child node and no child text nodes, and that child element is an abbr element with a title attribute, then the exact value of that attribute is the term being defined. Otherwise, it is the exact textContent of the dfn element that gives the term being defined.

If the title attribute of the dfn element is present, then it must only contain the term being defined.

There must only be one dfn element per document for each term defined (i.e. there must not be any duplicate terms).

The title attribute of ancestor elements does not affect dfn elements.

The dfn element enables automatic cross-references. Specifically, any span, abbr, code, var, samp, or i element that has a non-empty title attribute whose value exactly equals the term of a dfn element in the same document, or which has no title attribute but whose textContent exactly equals the term of a dfn element in the document, and that has no interactive elements or dfn elements either as ancestors or descendants, and has no other elements as ancestors that are themselves matching these conditions, should be presented in such a way that the user can jump from the element to the first dfn element giving the defining instance of that term.

In the following fragment, the term "GDO" is first defined in the first paragraph, then used in the second. A compliant UA could provide a link from the abbr element in the second paragraph to the dfn element in the first.

<p>The <dfn><abbr title="Garage Door Opener">GDO</abbr></dfn>
is a device that allows off-world teams to open the iris.</p>
<!-- ... later in the document: -->
<p>Teal'c activated his <abbr title="Garage Door Opener">GDO</abbr>
and so Hammond ordered the iris to be opened.</p>

3.12.9. The abbr element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The abbr element represents an abbreviation or acronym. The title attribute should be used to provide an expansion of the abbreviation. If present, the attribute must only contain an expansion of the abbreviation.

The paragraph below contains an abbreviation marked up with the abbr element.

<p>The <abbr title="Web Hypertext Application Technology
Working Group">WHATWG</abbr> is a loose unofficial collaboration of
Web browser manufacturers and interested parties who wish to develop
new technologies designed to allow authors to write and deploy
Applications over the World Wide Web.</p>

The title attribute may be omitted if there is a dfn element in the document whose defining term is the abbreviation (the textContent of the abbr element).

In the example below, the word "Zat" is used as an abbreviation in the second paragraph. The abbreviation is defined in the first, so the explanatory title attribute has been omitted. Because of the way dfn elements are defined, the second abbr element in this example would be connected (in some UA-specific way) to the first.

<p>The <dfn><abbr>Zat</abbr></dfn>, short for Zat'ni'catel, is a weapon.</p>
<p>Jack used a <abbr>Zat</abbr> to make the boxes of evidence disappear.</p>

3.12.10. The time element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
datetime
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTimeElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString dateTime;
  readonly attribute DOMTimeStamp date;
  readonly attribute DOMTimeStamp time;
  readonly attribute DOMTimeStamp timezone;
};

The time element represents a date and/or a time.

The datetime attribute, if present, must contain a date or time string that identifies the date or time being specified.

If the datetime attribute is not present, then the date or time must be specified in the content of the element, such that parsing the element's textContent according to the rules for parsing date or time strings in content successfully extracts a date or time.

The dateTime DOM attribute must reflect the datetime content attribute.

User agents, to obtain the date, time, and timezone represented by a time element, must follow these steps:

  1. If the datetime attribute is present, then parse it according to the rules for parsing date or time strings in attributes, and let the result be result.
  2. Otherwise, parse the element's textContent according to the rules for parsing date or time strings in content, and let the result be result.
  3. If result is empty (because the parsing failed), then the date is unknown, the time is unknown, and the timezone is unknown.
  4. Otherwise: if result contains a date, then that is the date; if result contains a time, then that is the time; and if result contains a timezone, then the timezone is the element's timezone. (A timezone can only be present if both a date and a time are also present.)

The date DOM attribute must return null if the date is unknown, and otherwise must return the time corresponding to midnight UTC (i.e. the first second) of the given date.

The time DOM attribute must return null if the time is unknown, and otherwise must return the time corresponding to the given time of 1970-01-01, with the timezone UTC.

The timezone DOM attribute must return null if the timezone is unknown, and otherwise must return the time corresponding to 1970-01-01 00:00 UTC in the given timezone, with the timezone set to UTC (i.e. the time corresponding to 1970-01-01 at 00:00 UTC plus the offset corresponding to the timezone).

In the following snippet:

<p>Our first date was <time datetime="2006-09-23">a saturday</time>.</p>

...the time element's date attribute would have the value 1,158,969,600,000ms, and the time and timezone attributes would return null.

In the following snippet:

<p>We stopped talking at <time datetime="2006-09-24 05:00 -7">5am the next morning</time>.</p>

...the time element's date attribute would have the value 1,159,056,000,000ms, the time attribute would have the value 18,000,000ms, and the timezone attribute would return -25,200,000ms. To obtain the actual time, the three attributes can be added together, obtaining 1,159,048,800,000, which is the specified date and time in UTC.

Finally, in the following snippet:

<p>Many people get up at <time>08:00</time>.</p>

...the time element's date attribute would have the value null, the time attribute would have the value 28,800,000ms, and the timezone attribute would return null.

These APIs may be suboptimal. Comments on making them more useful to JS authors are welcome. The primary use cases for these elements are for marking up publication dates e.g. in blog entries, and for marking event dates in hCalendar markup. Thus the DOM APIs are likely to be used as ways to generate interactive calendar widgets or some such.

3.12.11. The progress element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
value
max
DOM interface:
interface HTMLProgressElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute float value;
           attribute float max;
  readonly attribute float position;
};

The progress element represents the completion progress of a task. The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g. because the task is waiting for a remote host to respond), or the progress is a number in the range zero to a maximum, giving the fraction of work that has so far been completed.

There are two attributes that determine the current task completion represented by the element.

The value attribute specifies how much of the task has been completed, and the max attribute specifies how much work the task requires in total. The units are arbitrary and not specified.

Instead of using the attributes, authors are recommended to simply include the current value and the maximum value inline as text inside the element.

Here is a snippet of a Web application that shows the progress of some automated task:

<section>
 <h2>Task Progress</h2>
 <p><label>Progress: <progress><span id="p">0</span>%</progress></p>
 <script>
  var progressBar = document.getElementById('p');
  function updateProgress(newValue) {
    progressBar.textContent = newValue;
  }
 </script>
</section>

(The updateProgress() method in this example would be called by some other code on the page to update the actual progress bar as the task progressed.)

Author requirements: The max and value attributes, when present, must have values that are valid floating point numbers. The max attribute, if present, must have a value greater than zero. The value attribute, if present, must have a value equal to or greater than zero, and less than or equal to the value of the max attribute, if present.

User agent requirements: User agents must parse the max and value attributes' values according to the rules for parsing floating point number values.

If the value attribute is omitted, then user agents must also parse the textContent of the progress element in question using the steps for finding one or two numbers of a ratio in a string. These steps will return nothing, one number, one number with a denominator punctuation character, or two numbers.

Using the results of this processing, user agents must determine whether the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, or whether it is a determinate progress bar, and in the latter case, what its current and maximum values are, all as follows:

  1. If the max attribute is omitted, and the value is omitted, and the results of parsing the textContent was nothing, then the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar. Abort these steps.
  2. Otherwise, it is a determinate progress bar.
  3. If the max attribute is included, then, if a value could be parsed out of it, then the maximum value is that value.
  4. Otherwise, if the max attribute is absent but the value attribute is present, or, if the max attribute is present but no value could be parsed from it, then the maximum is 1.
  5. Otherwise, if neither attribute is included, then, if the textContent contained one number with an associated denominator punctuation character, then the maximum value is the value associated with that denominator punctuation character; otherwise, if the textContent contained two numbers, the maximum value is the higher of the two values; otherwise, the maximum value is 1.
  6. If the value attribute is present on the element and a value could be parsed out of it, that value is the current value of the progress bar. Otherwise, if the attribute is present but no value could be parsed from it, the current value is zero.
  7. Otherwise if the value attribute is absent and the max attribute is present, then, if the textContent was parsed and found to contain just one number, with no associated denominator punctuation character, then the current value is that number. Otherwise, if the value attribute is absent and the max attribute is present then the current value is zero.
  8. Otherwise, if neither attribute is present, then the current value is the lower of the one or two numbers that were found in the textContent of the element.
  9. If the maximum value is less than or equal to zero, then it is reset to 1.
  10. If the current value is less than zero, then it is reset to zero.
  11. Finally, if the current value is greater than the maximum value, then the current value is reset to the maximum value.

UA requirements for showing the progress bar: When representing a progress element to the user, the UA should indicate whether it is a determinate or indeterminate progress bar, and in the former case, should indicate the relative position of the current value relative to the maximum value.

The max and value DOM attributes must reflect the elements' content attributes of the same name. When the relevant content attributes are absent, the DOM attributes must return zero. The value parsed from the textContent never affects the DOM values.

Would be cool to have the value DOM attribute update the textContent in-line...

If the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, then the position DOM attribute must return -1. Otherwise, it must return the result of dividing the current value by the maximum value.

3.12.12. The meter element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
value
min
low
high
max
optimum
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMeterElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute long value;
           attribute long min;
           attribute long max;
           attribute long low;
           attribute long high;
           attribute long optimum;
};

The meter element represents a scalar measurement within a known range, or a fractional value; for example disk usage, the relevance of a query result, or the fraction of a voting population to have selected a particular candidate.

This is also known as a gauge.

The meter element should not be used to indicate progress (as in a progress bar). For that role, HTML provides a separate progress element.

The meter element also does not represent a scalar value of arbitrary range — for example, it would be wrong to use this to report a weight, or height, unless there is a known maximum value.

There are six attributes that determine the semantics of the gauge represented by the element.

The min attribute specifies the lower bound of the range, and the max attribute specifies the upper bound. The value attribute specifies the value to have the gauge indicate as the "measured" value.

The other three attributes can be used to segment the gauge's range into "low", "medium", and "high" parts, and to indicate which part of the gauge is the "optimum" part. The low attribute specifies the range that is considered to be the "low" part, and the high attribute specifies the range that is considered to be the "high" part. The optimum attribute gives the position that is "optimum"; if that is higher than the "high" value then this indicates that the higher the value, the better; if it's lower than the "low" mark then it indicates that lower values are better, and naturally if it is in between then it indicates that neither high nor low values are good.

Authoring requirements: The recommended way of giving the value is to include it as contents of the element, either as two numbers (the higher number represents the maximum, the other number the current value), or as a percentage or similar (using one of the characters such as "%"), or as a fraction.

The value, min, low, high, max, and optimum attributes are all optional. When present, they must have values that are valid floating point numbers.

The following examples all represent a measurement of three quarters (of the maximum of whatever is being measured):

<meter>75%</meter>
<meter>750‰</meter>
<meter>3/4</meter>
<meter>6 blocks used (out of 8 total)</meter>
<meter>max: 100; current: 75</meter>
<meter><object data="graph75.png">0.75</object></meter>
<meter min="0" max="100" value="75"></meter>

The following example is incorrect use of the element, because it doesn't give a range (and since the default maximum is 1, both of the gauges would end up looking maxed out):

<p>The grapefruit pie had a radius of <meter>12cm</meter>
and a height of <meter>2cm</meter>.</p> <!-- BAD! -->

Instead, one would either not include the meter element, or use the meter element with a defined range to give the dimensions in context compared to other pies:

<p>The grapefruit pie had a radius of 12cm and a height of
2cm.</p>
<dl>
 <dt>Radius: <dd> <meter min=0 max=20 value=12>12cm</meter>
 <dt>Height: <dd> <meter min=0 max=10 value=2>2cm</meter>
</dl>

There is no explicit way to specify units in the meter element, but the units may be specified in the title attribute in freeform text.

The example above could be extended to mention the units:

<dl>
 <dt>Radius: <dd> <meter min=0 max=20 value=12 title="centimeters">12cm</meter>
 <dt>Height: <dd> <meter min=0 max=10 value=2 title="centimeters">2cm</meter>
</dl>

User agent requirements: User agents must parse the min, max, value, low, high, and optimum attributes using the rules for parsing floating point number values.

If the value attribute has been omitted, the user agent must also process the textContent of the element according to the steps for finding one or two numbers of a ratio in a string. These steps will return nothing, one number, one number with a denominator punctuation character, or two numbers.

User agents must then use all these numbers to obtain values for six points on the gauge, as follows. (The order in which these are evaluated is important, as some of the values refer to earlier ones.)

The minimum value

If the min attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, then the minimum value is that value. Otherwise, the minimum value is zero.

The maximum value

If the max attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, the maximum value is that value.

Otherwise, if the max attribute is specified but no value could be parsed out of it, or if it was not specified, but either or both of the min or value attributes were specified, then the maximum value is 1.

Otherwise, none of the max, min, and value attributes were specified. If the result of processing the textContent of the element was either nothing or just one number with no denominator punctuation character, then the maximum value is 1; if the result was one number but it had an associated denominator punctuation character, then the maximum value is the value associated with that denominator punctuation character; and finally, if there were two numbers parsed out of the textContent, then the maximum is the higher of those two numbers.

If the above machinations result in a maximum value less than the minimum value, then the maximum value is actually the same as the minimum value.

The actual value

If the value attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, then that value is the actual value.

If the value attribute is not specified but the max attribute is specified and the result of processing the textContent of the element was one number with no associated denominator punctuation character, then that number is the actual value.

If neither of the value and max attributes are specified, then, if the result of processing the textContent of the element was one number (with or without an associated denominator punctuation character), then that is the actual value, and if the result of processing the textContent of the element was two numbers, then the actual value is the lower of the two numbers found.

Otherwise, if none of the above apply, the actual value is zero.

If the above procedure results in an actual value less than the minimum value, then the actual value is actually the same as the minimum value.

If, on the other hand, the result is an actual value greater than the maximum value, then the actual value is the maximum value.

The low boundary

If the low attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, then the low boundary is that value. Otherwise, the low boundary is the same as the minimum value.

If the above results in a low boundary that is less than the minimum value, the low boundary is the minimum value.

The high boundary

If the high attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, then the high boundary is that value. Otherwise, the high boundary is the same as the maximum value.

If the above results in a high boundary that is higher than the maximum value, the high boundary is the maximum value.

The optimum point

If the optimum attribute is specified and a value could be parsed out of it, then the optimum point is that value. Otherwise, the optimum point is the midpoint between the minimum value and the maximum value.

If the optimum point is then less than the minimum value, then the optimum point is actually the same as the minimum value. Similarly, if the optimum point is greater than the maximum value, then it is actually the maximum value instead.

All of which should result in the following inequalities all being true:

UA requirements for regions of the gauge: If the optimum point is equal to the low boundary or the high boundary, or anywhere in between them, then the region between the low and high boundaries of the gauge must be treated as the optimum region, and the low and high parts, if any, must be treated as suboptimal. Otherwise, if the optimum point is less than the low boundary, then the region between the minimum value and the low boundary must be treated as the optimum region, the region between the low boundary and the high boundary must be treated as a suboptimal region, and the region between the high boundary and the maximum value must be treated as an even less good region. Finally, if the optimum point is higher than the high boundary, then the situation is reversed; the region between the high boundary and the maximum value must be treated as the optimum region, the region between the high boundary and the low boundary must be treated as a suboptimal region, and the remaining region between the low boundary and the minimum value must be treated as an even less good region.

UA requirements for showing the gauge: When representing a meter element to the user, the UA should indicate the relative position of the actual value to the minimum and maximum values, and the relationship between the actual value and the three regions of the gauge.

The following markup:

<h3>Suggested groups</h3>
<menu type="toolbar">
 <a href="?cmd=hsg" onclick="hideSuggestedGroups()">Hide suggested groups</a>
</menu>
<ul>
 <li>
  <p><a href="/group/comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets/view">comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets</a> -
     <a href="/group/comp.infosystems.www.authoring.stylesheets/subscribe">join</a></p>
  <p>Group description: <strong>Layout/presentation on the WWW.</strong></p>
  <p><meter value="0.5">Moderate activity,</meter> Usenet, 618 subscribers</p>
 </li>
 <li>
  <p><a href="/group/netscape.public.mozilla.xpinstall/view">netscape.public.mozilla.xpinstall</a> -
     <a href="/group/netscape.public.mozilla.xpinstall/subscribe">join</a></p>
  <p>Group description: <strong>Mozilla XPInstall discussion.</strong></p>
  <p><meter value="0.25">Low activity,</meter> Usenet, 22 subscribers</p>
 </li>
 <li>
  <p><a href="/group/mozilla.dev.general/view">mozilla.dev.general</a> -
     <a href="/group/mozilla.dev.general/subscribe">join</a></p>
  <p><meter value="0.25">Low activity,</meter> Usenet, 66 subscribers</p>
 </li>
</ul>

Might be rendered as follows:

With the <meter> elements rendered as inline green bars of
    varying lengths.

User agents may combine the value of the title attribute and the other attributes to provide context-sensitive help or inline text detailing the actual values.

For example, the following snippet:

<meter min=0 max=60 value=23.2 title=seconds></meter>

...might cause the user agent to display a gauge with a tooltip saying "Value: 23.2 out of 60." on one line and "seconds" on a second line.

The min, max, value, low, high, and optimum DOM attributes must reflect the elements' content attributes of the same name. When the relevant content attributes are absent, the DOM attributes must return zero. The value parsed from the textContent never affects the DOM values.

Would be cool to have the value DOM attribute update the textContent in-line...

3.12.13. The code element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element when used with the dfn element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The code element represents a fragment of computer code. This could be an XML element name, a filename, a computer program, or any other string that a computer would recognise.

Although there is no formal way to indicate the language of computer code being marked up, authors who wish to mark code elements with the language used, e.g. so that syntax highlighting scripts can use the right rules, may do so by adding a class prefixed with "language-" to the element.

The following example shows how a block of code could be marked up using the pre and code elements.

<pre><code class="language-pascal">var i: Integer;
begin
   i := 1;
end.</code></pre>

A class is used in that example to indicate the language used.

See the pre element for more detais.

3.12.14. The var element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element when used with the dfn element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The var element represents a variable. This could be an actual variable in a mathematical expression or programming context, or it could just be a term used as a placeholder in prose.

In the paragraph below, the letter "n" is being used as a variable in prose:

<p>If there are <var>n</var> pipes leading to the ice
cream factory then I expect at <em>least</em> <var>n</var>
flavours of ice cream to be available for purchase!</p>

3.12.15. The samp element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element when used with the dfn element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The samp element represents (sample) output from a program or computing system.

See the pre and kbd elements for more detais.

This example shows the samp element being used inline:

<p>The computer said <samp>Too much cheese in tray
two</samp> but I didn't know what that meant.</p>

This second example shows a block of sample output. Nested samp and kbd elements allow for the styling of specific elements of the sample output using a style sheet.

<pre><samp><samp class="prompt">jdoe@mowmow:~$</samp> <kbd>ssh demo.example.com</kbd>
Last login: Tue Apr 12 09:10:17 2005 from mowmow.example.com on pts/1
Linux demo 2.6.10-grsec+gg3+e+fhs6b+nfs+gr0501+++p3+c4a+gr2b-reslog-v6.189 #1 SMP Tue Feb 1 11:22:36 PST 2005 i686 unknown

<samp class="prompt">jdoe@demo:~$</samp> <samp class="cursor">_</samp></samp></pre>

3.12.16. The kbd element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The kbd element represents user input (typically keyboard input, although it may also be used to represent other input, such as voice commands).

When the kbd element is nested inside a samp element, it represents the input as it was echoed by the system.

When the kbd element contains a samp element, it represents input based on system output, for example invoking a menu item.

When the kbd element is nested inside another kbd element, it represents an actual key or other single unit of input as appropriate for the input mechanism.

Here the kbd element is used to indicate keys to press:

<p>To make George eat an apple, press <kbd><kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>F3</kbd></kbd></p>

In this second example, the user is told to pick a particular menu item. The outer kbd element marks up a block of input, with the inner kbd elements representing each individual step of the input, and the samp elements inside them indicating that the steps are input based on something being displayed by the system, in this case menu labels:

<p>To make George eat an apple, select
    <kbd><kbd><samp>File</samp></kbd>|<kbd><samp>Eat Apple...</samp></kbd></kbd>
</p>

3.12.17. The sub and sup elements

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which these elements may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The sup element represents a superscript and the sub element represents a subscript.

These elements must only be used to mark up typographical conventions with specific meanings, not for typographical presentation for presentation's sake. For example, it would be inappropriate for the sub and sup elements to be used in the name of the LaTeX document preparation system. In general, authors should only use these elements if the absence of those elements would change the meaning of the content.

When the sub element is used inside a var element, it represents the subscript that identifies the variable in a family of variables.

<p>The coordinate of the <var>i</var>th point is
(<var>x<sub><var>i</var></sub></var>, <var>y<sub><var>i</var></sub></var>).
For example, the 10th point has coordinate
(<var>x<sub>10</sub></var>, <var>y<sub>10</sub></var>).</p>

In certain languages, superscripts are part of the typographical conventions for some abbreviations.

<p>The most beautiful women are
<span lang="fr"><abbr>M<sup>lle</sup></abbr> Gwendoline</span> and 
<span lang="fr"><abbr>M<sup>me</sup></abbr> Denise</span>.</p>

Mathematical expressions often use subscripts and superscripts.

<var>E</var>=<var>m</var><var>c</var><sup>2</sup>
f(<var>x</var>, <var>n</var>) = log<sub>4</sub><var>x</var><sup><var>n</var></sup>

3.12.18. The span element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element when used with the dfn element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The span element doesn't mean anything on its own, but can be useful when used together with other attributes, e.g. class, lang, or dir, or when used in conjunction with the dfn element.

3.12.19. The i element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the title attribute has special semantics on this element when used with the dfn element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The i element represents a span of text in an alternate voice or mood, or otherwise offset from the normal prose, such as a taxonomic designation, a technical term, an idiomatic phrase from another language, a thought, a ship name, or some other prose whose typical typographic presentation is italicized.

Terms in languages different from the main text should be annotated with lang attributes (xml:lang in XML).

The examples below show uses of the i element:

<p>The <i>felis silvestris catus</i> is cute.</p>
<p>The term <i>prose content</i> is defined above.</p>
<p>There is a certain <i lang="fr">je ne sais quoi</i> in the air.</p>

In the following example, a dream sequence is marked up using i elements.

<p>Raymond tried to sleep.</p>
<p><i>The ship sailed away on Thursday</i>, he
dreamt. <i>The ship had many people aboard, including a beautiful
princess called Carey. He watched her, day-in, day-out, hoping she
would notice him, but she never did.</i></p>
<p><i>Finally one night he picked up the courage to speak with
her—</i></p>
<p>Raymond woke with a start as the fire alarm rang out.</p>

The i element should be used as a last resort when no other element is more appropriate. In particular, citations should use the cite element, defining instances of terms should use the dfn element, stress emphasis should use the em element, importance should be denoted with the strong element, quotes should be marked up with the q element, and small print should use the small element.

Style sheets can be used to format i elements, just like any other element can be restyled. Thus, it is not the case that content in i elements will necessarily be italicised.

3.12.20. The b element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The b element represents a span of text to be stylistically offset from the normal prose without conveying any extra importance, such as key words in a document abstract, product names in a review, or other spans of text whose typical typographic presentation is boldened.

The following example shows a use of the b element to highlight key words without marking them up as important:

<p>The <b>frobonitor</b> and <b>barbinator</b> components are fried.</p>

The following would be incorrect usage:

<p><b>WARNING!</b> Do not frob the barbinator!</p>

In the previous example, the correct element to use would have been strong, not b.

In the following example, objects in a text adventure are highlighted as being special by use of the b element.

<p>You enter a small room. Your <b>sword</b> glows
brighter. A <b>rat</b> scurries past the corner wall.</p>

Another case where the b element is appropriate is in marking up the lede (or lead) sentence or paragraph. The following example shows how a BBC article about kittens adopting a rabbit as their own could be marked up using HTML5 elements:

<article>
 <h2>Kittens 'adopted' by pet rabbit</h2>
 <p><b>Six abandoned kittens have found an unexpected new
 mother figure — a pet rabbit.</b></p>
 <p>Veterinary nurse Melanie Humble took the three-week-old
 kittens to her Aberdeen home.</p>
[...]

The b element should be used as a last resort when no other element is more appropriate. In particular, headers should use the h1 to h6 elements, stress emphasis should use the em element, importance should be denoted with the strong element, and text marked or highlighted should use the m element.

Style sheets can be used to format b elements, just like any other element can be restyled. Thus, it is not the case that content in b elements will necessarily be boldened.

3.12.21. The bdo element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the dir global attribute has special requirements on this element.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The bdo element allows authors to override the Unicode bidi algorithm by explicitly specifying a direction override. [BIDI]

Authors must specify the dir attribute on this element, with the value ltr to specify a left-to-right override and with the value rtl to specify a right-to-left override.

If the element has the dir attribute set to the exact value ltr, then for the purposes of the bidi algorithm, the user agent must act as if there was a U+202D LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE character at the start of the element, and a U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING at the end of the element.

If the element has the dir attribute set to the exact value rtl, then for the purposes of the bidi algorithm, the user agent must act as if there was a U+202E RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE character at the start of the element, and a U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING at the end of the element.

The requirements on handling the bdo element for the bidi algorithm may be implemented indirectly through the style layer. For example, an HTML+CSS user agent should implement these requirements by implementing the CSS unicode-bidi property. [CSS21]

3.13. Edits

The ins and del elements represent edits to the document.

Since the ins and del elements do not affect paragraphing, it is possible, in some cases where paragraphs are implied (without explicit p elements), for an ins or del element to span both an entire paragraph or other non-phrasing content elements and part of another paragraph.

For example:

<section>
 <ins>
  <p>
   This is a paragraph that was inserted.
  </p>
  This is another paragraph whose first sentence was inserted
  at the same time as the paragraph above.
 </ins>
 This is a second sentence, which was there all along.
</section>

By only wrapping some paragraphs in p elements, one can even get the end of one paragraph, a whole second paragraph, and the start of a third paragraph to be covered by the same ins or del element (though this is very confusing, and not considered good practice):

<section>
 This is the first paragraph. <ins>This sentence was
 inserted.
 <p>This second paragraph was inserted.</p>
 This sentence was inserted too.</ins> This is the
 third paragraph in this example.</p>
</section>

However, due to the way implied paragraphs are defined, it is not possible to mark up the end of one paragraph and the start of the very next one using the same ins or del element. You instead have to use one (or two) p element(s) and two ins or del elements:

For example:

<section>
 <p>This is the first paragraph. <del>This sentence was
 deleted.</p>
 <p><del>This sentence was deleted too.</del> That
 sentence needed a separate &lt;del> element.</p>
</section>

Partly because of the confusion described above, authors are strongly recommended to always mark up all paragraphs with the p element, and to not have any ins or del elements that cross across any implied paragraphs.

3.13.1. The ins element

Categories
When the element only contains phrasing content: phrasing content.
Otherwise: prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
When the element only contains phrasing content: where phrasing content is expected.
Otherwise: where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
cite
datetime
DOM interface:
Uses the HTMLModElement interface.

The ins element represents an addition to the document.

The following represents the addition of a single paragraph:

<aside>
 <ins>
  <p> I like fruit. </p>
 </ins>
</aside>

As does this, because everything in the aside element here counts as phrasing content and therefore there is just one paragraph:

<aside>
 <ins>
  Apples are <em>tasty</em>.
 </ins>
 <ins>
  So are pears.
 </ins>
</aside>

ins elements should not cross implied paragraph boundaries.

The following example represents the addition of two paragraphs, the second of which was inserted in two parts. The first ins element in this example thus crosses a paragraph boundary, which is considered poor form.

<aside>
 <ins datetime="2005-03-16T00:00Z">
  <p> I like fruit. </p>
  Apples are <em>tasty</em>.
 </ins>
 <ins datetime="2007-12-19T00:00Z">
  So are pears.
 </ins>
</aside>

Here is a better way of marking this up. It uses more elements, but none of the elements cross implied paragraph boundaries.

<aside>
 <ins datetime="2005-03-16T00:00Z">
  <p> I like fruit. </p>
 </ins>
 <ins datetime="2005-03-16T00:00Z">
  Apples are <em>tasty</em>.
 </ins>
 <ins datetime="2007-12-19T00:00Z">
  So are pears.
 </ins>
</aside>

3.13.2. The del element

Categories
When the element only contains phrasing content: phrasing content.
Otherwise: prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
When the element only contains phrasing content: where phrasing content is expected.
Otherwise: where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
cite
datetime
DOM interface:
Uses the HTMLModElement interface.

The del element represents a removal from the document.

del elements should not cross implied paragraph boundaries.

3.13.3. Attributes common to ins and del elements

The cite attribute may be used to specify a URI that explains the change. When that document is long, for instance the minutes of a meeting, authors are encouraged to include a fragment identifier pointing to the specific part of that document that discusses the change.

If the cite attribute is present, it must be a URI (or IRI) that explains the change. User agents should allow users to follow such citation links.

The datetime attribute may be used to specify the time and date of the change.

If present, the datetime attribute must be a valid datetime value.

User agents must parse the datetime attribute according to the parse a string as a datetime value algorithm. If that doesn't return a time, then the modification has no associated timestamp (the value is non-conforming; it is not a valid datetime). Otherwise, the modification is marked as having been made at the given datetime. User agents should use the associated timezone information to determine which timezone to present the given datetime in.

The ins and del elements must implement the HTMLModElement interface:

interface HTMLModElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString cite;
           attribute DOMString dateTime;
};

The cite DOM attribute must reflect the element's >cite content attribute. The dateTime DOM attribute must reflect the element's datetime content attribute.

3.14. Embedded content

3.14.1. The figure element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Either one legend element followed by prose content.
Or: Prose content followed by one legend element.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The figure element represents some prose content with a caption.

The first legend element child of the element, if any, represents the caption of the figure element's contents. If there is no child legend element, then there is no caption.

The remainder of the element's contents, if any, represents the captioned content.

3.14.2. The img element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
alt
src
usemap
ismap
width
height
DOM interface:
interface HTMLImageElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString alt;
           attribute DOMString src;
           attribute DOMString useMap;
           attribute boolean isMap;
           attribute long width;
           attribute long height;
  readonly attribute boolean complete;
};

An instance of HTMLImageElement can be obtained using the Image constructor.

An img element represents an image.

The image given by the src attribute is the embedded content, and the value of the alt attribute is the img element's fallback content.

Authoring requirements: The src attribute must be present, and must contain a URI (or IRI).

Should we restrict the URI to pointing to an image? What's an image? Is PDF an image? (Safari supports PDFs in <img> elements.) How about SVG? (Opera supports those). WMFs? XPMs? HTML?

The requirements for the alt attribute depend on what the image is intended to represent:

A phrase or paragraph with an alternative graphical representation

Sometimes something can be more clearly stated in graphical form, for example as a flowchart, a diagram, a graph, or a simple map showing directions. In such cases, an image can be given using the img element, but the lesser textual version must still be given, so that users who are unable to view the image (e.g. because they have a very slow connection, or because they are using a text-only browser, or because they are listening to the page being read out by a hands-free automobile voice Web browser, or simply because they are blind) are still able to understand the message being conveyed.

The text must be given in the alt attribute, and must convey the same message as the the image specified in the src attribute.

In the following example we have a flowchart in image form, with text in the alt attribute rephrasing the flowchart in prose form:

<p>In the common case, the data handled by the tokenisation stage
comes from the network, but it can also come from script.</p>
<p><img src="images/parsing-model-overview.png" alt="The network
passes data to the Tokeniser stage, which passes data to the Tree
Construction stage. From there, data goes to both the DOM and to
Script Execution. Script Execution is linked to the DOM, and, using
document.write(), passes data to the Tokeniser."></p>

Here's another example, showing a good solution and a bad solution to the problem of including an image in a description.

First, here's the good solution. This sample shows how the alternative text should just be what you would have put in the prose if the image had never existed.

<!-- This is the correct way to do things. -->
<p>
 You are standing in an open field west of a house.
 <img src="house.jpeg" alt="The house is white, with a boarded front door.">
 There is a small mailbox here.
</p>

Second, here's the bad solution. In this incorrect way of doing things, the alternative text is simply a description of the image, instead of a textual replacement for the image. It's bad because when the image isn't shown, the text doesn't flow as well as in the first example.

<!-- This is the wrong way to do things. -->
<p>
 You are standing in an open field west of a house.
 <img src="house.jpeg" alt="A white house, with a boarded front door.">
 There is a small mailbox here.
</p>

It is important to realise that the alternative text is a replacement for the image, not a description of the image.

Icons: a short phrase or label with an alternative graphical representation

A document can contain information in iconic form. The icon is intended to help users of visual browsers to recognise features at a glance.

In some cases, the icon is supplemental to a text label conveying the same meaning. In those cases, the alt attribute must be present but must be empty.

Here the icons are next to text that conveys the same meaning, so they have an empty alt attribute:

<nav>
 <p><a href="/help/"><img src="/icons/help.png" alt=""> Help</a></p>
 <p><a href="/configure/"><img src="/icons/configuration.png" alt="">
 Configuration Tools</a></p>
</nav>

In other cases, the icon has no text next to it describing what it means; the icon is supposed to be self-explanatory. In those cases, an equivalent textual label must be given in the alt attribute.

Here, posts on a news site are labelled with an icon indicating their topic.

<body>
 <article>
  <header>
   <h1>Ratatouille wins <i>Best Movie of the Year</i> award</h1>
   <p><img src="movies.png" alt="Movies"></p>
  </header>
  <p>Pixar has won yet another <i>Best Movie of the Year</i> award,
  making this its 8th win in the last 12 years.</p>
 </article>
 <article>
  <header>
   <h1>Latest TWiT episode is online</h1>
   <p><img src="podcasts.png" alt="Podcasts"></p>
  </header>
  <p>The latest TWiT episode has been posted, in which we hear
  several tech news stories as well as learning much more about the
  iPhone. This week, the panelists compare how reflective their
  iPhones' Apple logos are.</p>
 </article>
</body>

Many pages include logos, insignia, flags, or emblems, which stand for a particular entity such as a company, organisation, project, band, software package, country, or some such.

If the logo is being used to represent the entity, the alt attribute must contain the name of the entity being represented by the logo. The alt attribute must not contain text like the word "logo", as it is not the fact that it is a logo that is being conveyed, it's the entity itself.

If the logo is being used next to the name of the entity that it represents, then the logo is supplemental, and its alt attribute must instead be empty.

If the logo is merely used as decorative material (as branding, or, for example, as a side image in an article that mentions the entity to which the logo belongs), then the entry below on purely decorative images applies. If the logo is actually being discussed, then it is being used as a phrase or paragraph (the description of the logo) with an alternative graphical representation (the logo itself), and the first entry above applies.

In the following snippets, all four of the above cases are present. First, we see a logo used to represent a company:

<h1><img src="XYZ.gif" alt="The XYZ company"></h1>

Next, we see a paragraph which uses a logo right next to the company name, and so doesn't have any alternative text:

<article>
 <h2>News</h2>
 <p>We have recently been looking at buying the <img src="alpha.gif"
 alt=""> ΑΒΓ company, a small Greek company
 specialising in our type of product.</p>

In this third snippet, we have a logo being used in an aside, as part of the larger article discussing the acquisition:

 <aside><p><img src="alpha-large.gif" alt=""></p></aside>
 <p>The ΑΒΓ company has had a good quarter, and our
 pie chart studies of their accounts suggest a much bigger blue slice
 than its green and orange slices, which is always a good sign.</p>
</article>

Finally, we have an opinion piece talking about a logo, and the logo is therefore described in detail in the alternative text.

<p>Consider for a moment their logo:</p>

<p><img src="/images/logo" alt="It consists of a green circle with a
green question mark centered inside it."></p>

<p>How unoriginal can you get? I mean, oooooh, a question mark, how
<em>revolutionary</em>, how utterly <em>ground-breaking</em>, I'm
sure everyone will rush to adopt those specifications now! They could
at least have tried for some sort of, I don't know, sequence of
rounded squares with varying shades of green and bold white outlines,
at least that would look good on the cover of a blue book.</p>

This example shows how the alternative text should be written such that if the image isn't available, and the text is used instead, the text flows seamlessly into the surrounding text, as if the image had never been there in the first place.

A graphical representation of some of the surrounding text

In many cases, the image is actually just supplementary, and its presence merely reinforces the surrounding text. In these cases, the alt attribute must be present but its value must be the empty string.

A flowchart that repeats the previous paragraph in graphical form:

<p>The network passes data to the Tokeniser stage, which
passes data to the Tree Construction stage. From there, data goes
to both the DOM and to Script Execution. Script Execution is
linked to the DOM, and, using document.write(), passes data to
the Tokeniser.</p>
<p><img src="images/parsing-model-overview.png" alt=""></p>

A graph that repeats the previous paragraph in graphical form:

<p>According to a study covering several billion pages,
about 62% of documents on the Web in 2007 triggered the Quirks
rendering mode of Web browsers, about 30% triggered the Almost
Standards mode, and about 9% triggered the Standards mode.</p>
<p><img src="rendering-mode-pie-chart.png" alt=""></p>

In general, an image falls into this category if removing the image doesn't make the page any less useful, but including the image makes it a lot easier for users of visual browsers to understand the concept.

A purely decorative image that doesn't add any information but is still specific to the surrounding content

In some cases, the image isn't discussed by the surrounding text, but it has some relevance. Such images are decorative, but still form part of the content. In these cases, the alt attribute must be present but its value must be the empty string.

Examples where the image is purely decorative despite being relevant would include things like a photo of the Black Rock City landscape in a blog post about an event at Burning Man, or an image of a painting inspired by a poem, on a page reciting that poem. The following snippet shows an example of the latter case (only the first verse is included in this snippet):

<h1>The Lady of Shalott</h1>
<p><img src="shalott.jpeg" alt=""></p>
<p>On either side the river lie<br>
Long fields of barley and of rye,<br>
That clothe the wold and meet the sky;<br>
And through the field the road run by<br>
To many-tower'd Camelot;<br>
And up and down the people go,<br>
Gazing where the lilies blow<br>
Round an island there below,<br>
The island of Shalott.</p>

In general, if an image is decorative but isn't especially page-specific, for example an image that forms part of a site-wide design scheme, the image should be specified in the site's CSS, not in the markup of the document.

A key part of the content that doesn't have an obvious textual alternative

In certain rare cases, the image is simply a critical part of the content, and there might even be no alternative text available. This could be the case, for instance, in a photo gallery, where a user has uploaded 3000 photos from a vacation trip, without providing any descriptions of the images. The images are the whole point of the pages containing them.

In such cases, the alt attribute may be omitted, but the alt attribute should be included, with a useful value, if at all possible. If an image is a key part of the content, the alt attribute must not be specified with an empty value.

A photo on a photo-sharing site:

<figure>
 <img src="1100670787_6a7c664aef.jpg">
 <legend>Bubbles traveled everywhere with us.</legend>
</figure>

A screenshot in a gallery of screenshots for a new OS:

<figure>
 <img src="KDE%20Light%20desktop.png">
 <legend>Screenshot of a KDE desktop.</legend>
</figure>

In both cases, though, it would be better if a detailed description of the important parts of the image were included.

Sometimes there simply is no text that can do justice to an image. For example, there is little that can be said to usefully describe a Rorschach inkblot test.

<figure>
 <img src="/commons/a/a7/Rorschach1.jpg">
 <legend>A black outline of the first of the ten cards
 in the Rorschach inkblot test.</legend>
</figure>

Note that the following would be a very bad use of alternative text:

<!-- This example is wrong. Do not copy it. -->
<figure>
 <img src="/commons/a/a7/Rorschach1.jpg" alt="A black outline
 of the first of the ten cards in the Rorschach inkblot test.">
 <legend>A black outline of the first of the ten cards
 in the Rorschach inkblot test.</legend>
</figure>

Including the caption in the alternative text like this isn't useful because it effectively duplicates the caption for users who don't have images, taunting them twice yet not helping them any more than if they had only read or heard the caption once.

Since some users cannot use images at all (e.g. because they have a very slow connection, or because they are using a text-only browser, or because they are listening to the page being read out by a hands-free automobile voice Web browser, or simply because they are blind), the alt attribute should only be omitted when no alternative text is available and none can be made available, e.g. on automated image gallery sites.

An image in an e-mail or document intended for a specific person who is known to be able to view images

When an image is included in a communication (such as an HTML e-mail) aimed at someone who is known to be able to view images, the alt attribute may be omitted. However, even in such cases it is stongly recommended that alternative text be included (as appropriate according to the kind of image involved, as described in the above entries), so that the e-mail is still usable should the user use a mail client that does not support images, or should the e-mail be forwarded on to other users whose abilities might not include easily seeing images.

The img must not be used as a layout tool. In particular, img elements should not be used to display fully transparent images, as they rarely convey meaning and rarely add anything useful to the document.

There has been some suggestion that the longdesc attribute from HTML4, or some other mechanism that is more powerful than alt="", should be included. This has not yet been considered.

User agent requirements: When the alt attribute is present and its value is the empty string, the image supplements the surrounding content. In such cases, the image may be omitted without affecting the meaning of the document.

When the alt attribute is present and its value is not the empty string, the image is a graphical equivalent of the string given in the alt attribute. In such cases, the image may be replaced in the rendering by the string given in the attribute without significantly affecting the meaning of the document.

When the alt attribute is missing, the image represents a key part of the content. Non-visual user agents should apply image analysis heuristics to help the user make sense of the image.

The alt attribute does not represent advisory information. User agents must not present the contents of the alt attribute in the same way as content of the title attribute.

If the src attribute is omitted, the image represents whatever string is given by the element's alt attribute, if any, or nothing, if that attribute is empty or absent.

When the src attribute is set, the user agent must immediately begin to download the specified resource, unless the user agent cannot support images, or its support for images has been disabled.

The download of the image must delay the load event.

This, unfortunately, can be used to perform a rudimentary port scan of the user's local network (especially in conjunction with scripting, though scripting isn't actually necessary to carry out such an attack). User agents may implement cross-origin access control policies that mitigate this attack.

Once the download has completed, if the image is a valid image, the user agent must fire a load event on the img element. If the download fails or it completes but the image is not a valid or supported image, the user agent must fire an error event on the img element.

The remote server's response metadata (e.g. an HTTP 404 status code, or associated Content-Type headers) must be ignored when determining whether the resource obtained is a valid image or not.

This allows servers to return images with error responses.

User agents must not support non-image resources with the img element.

The usemap attribute, if present, can indicate that the image has an associated image map.

The ismap attribute, when used on an element that is a descendant of an a element with an href attribute, indicates by its presence that the element provides access to a server-side image map. This affects how events are handled on the corresponding a element.

The ismap attribute is a boolean attribute. The attribute must not be specified on an element that does not have an ancestor a element with an href attribute.

The img element supports dimension attributes.

The DOM attributes alt, src, useMap, and isMap each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM attributes height and width must return the rendered height and width of the image, in CSS pixels, if the image is being rendered, and is being rendered to a visual medium, or 0 otherwise. [CSS21]

The DOM attribute complete must return true if the user agent has downloaded the image specified in the src attribute, and it is a valid image, and false otherwise.

3.14.3. The iframe element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Text that conforms to the requirements given in the prose.
Element-specific attributes:
src
DOM interface:
interface HTMLIFrameElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString src;
};

Objects implementing the HTMLIFrameElement interface must also implement the EmbeddingElement interface defined in the Window Object specification. [WINDOW]

The iframe element introduces a new nested browsing context.

The src attribute, if present, must be a URI (or IRI) to a page that the nested browsing context is to contain. When the browsing context is created, if the attribute is present, the user agent must navigate this browsing context to the given URI, with replacement enabled. If the user navigates away from this page, the iframe's corresponding Window object will reference new Document objects, but the src attribute will not change.

Whenever the src attribute is set, the nested browsing context must be navigated to the given URI.

If the src attribute is not set when the element is created, the browsing context will remain at the initial about:blank page.

When content loads in an iframe, after any load events are fired within the content itself, the user agent must fire a load event at the iframe element. When content fails to load (e.g. due to a network error), then the user agent must fire an error event at the element instead.

When there is an active parser in the iframe, and when anything in the iframe that is delaying the load event in the iframe's browsing context, the iframe must delay the load event.

If, during the handling of the load event, the browsing context in the iframe is again navigated, that will further delay the load event.

An iframe element never has fallback content, as it will always create a nested browsing context, regardless of whether the specified initial contents are successfully used.

Descendants of iframe elements represent nothing. (In legacy user agents that do not support iframe elements, the contents would be parsed as markup that could act as fallback content.)

The content model of iframe elements is text, except that the text must be such that ... anyone have any bright ideas?

The HTML parser treats markup inside iframe elements as text.

The DOM attribute src must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

3.14.4. The embed element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
src
type
width
height
Any other attribute that has no namespace (see prose).
DOM interface:
interface HTMLEmbedElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString src;
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute long width;
           attribute long height;
};

Depending on the type of content instantiated by the embed element, the node may also support other interfaces.

The embed element represents an integration point for an external (typically non-HTML) application or interactive content.

The src attribute gives the address of the resource being embedded. The attribute must be present and contain a URI (or IRI).

If the src attribute is missing, then the embed element must be ignored.

When the src attribute is set, user agents are expected to find an appropriate handler for the specified resource, based on the content's type, and hand that handler the content of the resource. If the handler supports a scriptable interface, the HTMLEmbedElement object representing the element should expose that interfaces.

The download of the resource must delay the load event.

The user agent should pass the names and values of all the attributes of the embed element that have no namespace to the handler used. Any (namespace-less) attribute may be specified on the embed element.

This specification does not define a mechanism for interacting with third-party handlers, as it is expected to be user-agent-specific. Some UAs might opt to support a plugin mechanism such as the Netscape Plugin API; others may use remote content convertors or have built-in support for certain types. [NPAPI]

The embed element has no fallback content. If the user agent can't display the specified resource, e.g. because the given type is not supported, then the user agent must use a default handler for the content. (This default could be as simple as saying "Unsupported Format", of course.)

The type attribute, if present, gives the MIME type of the linked resource. The value must be a valid MIME type, optionally with parameters. [RFC2046]

The type of the content being embedded is defined as follows:

  1. If the element has a type attribute, then the value of the type attribute is the content's type.
  2. Otherwise, if the specified resource has explicit Content-Type metadata, then that is the content's type.
  3. Otherwise, the content has no type and there can be no appropriate handler for it.

Should we instead say that the content-sniffing that we're going to define for top-level browsing contexts should apply here?

Should we require the type attribute to match the server information?

We should say that 404s, etc, don't affect whether the resource is used or not. Not sure how to say it here though.

Browsers should take extreme care when interacting with external content intended for third-party renderers. When third-party software is run with the same privileges as the user agent itself, vulnerabilities in the third-party software become as dangerous as those in the user agent.

The embed element supports dimension attributes.

The DOM attributes src and type each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

3.14.5. The object element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Zero or more param elements, then, transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
data
type
usemap
width
height
DOM interface:
interface HTMLObjectElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString data;
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString useMap;
           attribute long width;
           attribute long height;
};

Objects implementing the HTMLObjectElement interface must also implement the EmbeddingElement interface defined in the Window Object specification. [WINDOW]

Depending on the type of content instantiated by the object element, the node may also support other interfaces.

The object element can represent an external resource, which, depending on the type of the resource, will either be treated as an image, as a nested browsing context, or as an external resource to be processed by a third-party software package.

The data attribute, if present, specifies the address of the resource. If present, the attribute must be a URI (or IRI).

The type attribute, if present, specifies the type of the resource. If present, the attribute must be a valid MIME type, optionally with parameters. [RFC2046]

One or both of the data and type attributes must be present.

Whenever the data attribute changes, or, if the data attribute is not present, whenever the type attribute changes, the user agent must run the following steps to determine what the object element represents:

  1. If the data attribute is present, then:

    1. Begin a load for the resource.

      The download of the resource must delay the load event.

    2. If the resource is not yet available (e.g. because the resource was not available in the cache, so that loading the resource required making a request over the network), then jump to step 3 in the overall set of steps (fallback). When the resource becomes available, or if the load fails, restart this algorithm from this step. Resources can load incrementally; user agents may opt to consider a resource "available" whenever enough data has been obtained to begin processing the resource.

    3. If the load failed (e.g. DNS error), fire an error event at the element, then jump to step 3 in the overall set of steps (fallback).

    4. Determine the resource type, as follows:

      This says to trust the type. Should we instead use the same mechanism as for browsing contexts?

      If the resource has associated Content-Type metadata
      The type is the type specified in the resource's Content-Type metadata.
      Otherwise, if the type attribute is present
      The type is the type specified in the type attribute.
      Otherwise, there is no explicit type information
      The type is the sniffed type of the resource.
    5. Handle the content as given by the first of the following cases that matches:

      If the resource requires a special handler (e.g. a plugin)

      The user agent should find an appropriate handler for the specified resource, based on the resource type found in the previous step, and pass the content of the resource to that handler. If the handler supports a scriptable interface, the HTMLObjectElement object representing the element should expose that interface. The handler is not a nested browsing context. If no appropriate handler can be found, then jump to step 3 in the overall set of steps (fallback).

      The user agent should pass the names and values of all the parameters given by param elements that are children of the object element to the handler used.

      This specification does not define a mechanism for interacting with third-party handlers, as it is expected to be user-agent-specific. Some UAs might opt to support a plugin mechanism such as the Netscape Plugin API; others may use remote content convertors or have built-in support for certain types. [NPAPI]

      this doesn't completely duplicate the navigation section, since it handles <param>, etc, but surely some work should be done to work with it

      If the type of the resource is an XML MIME type
      If the type of the resource is HTML
      If the type of the resource does not start with "image/"

      The object element must be associated with a nested browsing context, if it does not already have one. The element's nested browsing context must then be navigated to the given resource, with replacement enabled. (The data attribute of the object element doesn't get updated if the browsing context gets further navigated to other locations.)

      navigation might end up treating it as something else, because it can do sniffing. how should we handle that?

      If the resource is a supported image format, and support for images has not been disabled

      The object element represents the specified image. The image is not a nested browsing context.

      shouldn't we use the image-sniffing stuff here?

      Otherwise

      The object element represents the specified image, but the image cannot be shown. Jump to step 3 below in the overall set of steps (fallback).

    6. The element's contents are not part of what the object element represents.

    7. Once the resource is completely loaded, fire a load event at the element.

  2. If the data attribute is absent but the type attribute is present, and if the user agent can find a handler suitable according to the value of the type attribute, then that handler should be used. If the handler supports a scriptable interface, the HTMLObjectElement object representing the element should expose that interface. The handler is not a nested browsing context. If no suitable handler can be found, jump to the next step (fallback).

  3. (Fallback.) The object element doesn't represent anything except what the element's contents represent, ignoring any leading param element children. This is the element's fallback content.

In the absence of other factors (such as style sheets), user agents must show the user what the object element represents. Thus, the contents of object elements act as fallback content, to be used only when referenced resources can't be shown (e.g. because it returned a 404 error). This allows multiple object elements to be nested inside each other, targeting multiple user agents with different capabilities, with the user agent picking the best one it supports.

The usemap attribute, if present while the object element represents an image, can indicate that the object has an associated image map. The attribute must be ignored if the object element doesn't represent an image.

The object element supports dimension attributes.

The DOM attributes data, type, and useMap each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

3.14.6. The param element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of an object element, before any prose content.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
name
value
DOM interface:
interface HTMLParamElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString name;
           attribute DOMString value;
};

The param element defines parameters for handlers invoked by object elements.

The name attribute gives the name of the parameter.

The value attribute gives the value of the parameter.

Both attributes must be present. They may have any value.

If both attributes are present, and if the parent element of the param is an object element, then the element defines a parameter with the given name/value pair.

The DOM attributes name and value must both reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

3.14.7. The video element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
If the element has a src attribute: transparent.
If the element does not have a src attribute: one or more source elements, then, transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
src
poster
autoplay
start
loopstart
loopend
end
playcount
controls
width
height
DOM interface:
interface HTMLVideoElement : HTMLMediaElement {
           attribute long width;
           attribute long height;
  readonly attribute unsigned long videoWidth;
  readonly attribute unsigned long videoHeight;
           attribute DOMString poster;
};

A video element represents a video or movie.

Content may be provided inside the video element. User agents should not show this content to the user; it is intended for older Web browsers which do not support video, so that legacy video plugins can be tried, or to show text to the users of these older browser informing them of how to access the video contents.

In particular, this content is not fallback content intended to address accessibility concerns. To make video content accessible to the blind, deaf, and those with other physical or cognitive disabilities, authors are expected to provide alternative media streams and/or to embed accessibility aids (such as caption or subtitle tracks) into their media streams.

The video element is a media element whose media data is ostensibly video data, possibly with associated audio data.

The src, autoplay, start, loopstart, loopend, end, playcount, and controls attributes are the attributes common to all media elements.

The video element supports dimension attributes.

The poster attribute gives the address of an image file that the user agent can show while no video data is available. The attribute, if present, must contain a URI (or IRI).

The poster DOM attribute must reflect the poster content attribute.

The videoWidth DOM attribute must return the native width of the video in CSS pixels. The videoHeight DOM attribute must return the native height of the video in CSS pixels. In the absence of resolution information defining the mapping of pixels in the video to physical dimensions, user agents may assume that one pixel in the video corresponds to one CSS pixel. If no video data is available, then the attributes must return 0.

When no video data is available (the element's networkState attribute is either EMPTY, LOADING, or LOADED_METADATA), video elements represent either the image given by the poster attribute, or nothing.

When a video element is actively playing, it represents the frame of video at the continuously increasing "current" position. When the current playback position changes such that the last frame rendered is no longer the frame corresponding to the current playback position in the video, the new frame must be rendered. Similarly, any audio associated with the video must, if played, be played synchronised with the current playback position, at the specified volume with the specified mute state.

When a video element is paused, the element represents the frame of video corresponding to the current playback position, or, if that is not available yet (e.g. because the video is seeking or buffering), the last rendered frame of video.

When a video element is neither actively playing nor paused (e.g. when seeking or stalled), the element represents the last frame of the video to have been rendered.

Which frame in a video stream corresponds to a particular playback position is defined by the video stream's format.

Video content should be rendered inside the element's playback area such that the video content is shown centered in the playback area at the largest possible size that fits completely within it, with the video content's aspect ratio being preserved. Thus, if the aspect ratio of the playback area does not match the aspect ratio of the video, the video will be shown letterboxed. Areas of the element's playback area that do not contain the video represent nothing.

In addition to the above, the user agent may provide messages to the user (such as "buffering", "no video loaded", "error", or more detailed information) by overlaying text or icons on the video or other areas of the element's playback area, or in another appropriate manner.

User agents that cannot render the video may instead make the element represent a link to an external video playback utility or to the video data itself.

User agents should provide controls to enable or disable the display of closed captions associated with the video stream, though such features should, again, not interfere with the page's normal rendering.

User agents may allow users to view the video content in manners more suitable to the user (e.g. full-screen or in an independent resizable window). As for the other user interface features, controls to enable this should not interfere with the page's normal rendering unless the user agent is exposing a user interface. In such an independent context, however, user agents may make full user interfaces visible, with, e.g., play, pause, seeking, and volume controls, even if the controls attribute is absent.

User agents may allow video playback to affect system features that could interfere with the user's experience; for example, user agents could disable screensavers while video playback is in progress.

User agents should not provide a public API to cause videos to be shown full-screen. A script, combined with a carefully crafted video file, could trick the user into thinking a system-modal dialog had been shown, and prompt the user for a password. There is also the danger of "mere" annoyance, with pages launching full-screen videos when links are clicked or pages navigated. Instead, user-agent specific interface features may be provided to easily allow the user to obtain a full-screen playback mode.

3.14.7.1. Video and audio codecs for video elements

User agents may support any video and audio codecs and container formats.

It would be helpful for interoperability if all browsers could support the same codecs. However, there are no known codecs that satisfy all the current players: we need a codec that is known to not require per-unit or per-distributor licensing, that is compatible with the open source development model, that is of sufficient quality as to be usable, and that is not an additional submarine patent risk for large companies. This is an ongoing issue and this section will be updated once more information is available.

Certain user agents might support no codecs at all, e.g. text browsers running over SSH connections.

3.14.8. The audio element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
If the element has a src attribute: transparent.
If the element does not have a src attribute: one or more source elements, then, transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
src
autoplay
start
loopstart
loopend
end
playcount
controls
DOM interface:
interface HTMLAudioElement : HTMLMediaElement {
  // no members
};

An audio element represents a sound or audio stream.

Content may be provided inside the audio element. User agents should not show this content to the user; it is intended for older Web browsers which do not support audio, so that legacy audio plugins can be tried, or to show text to the users of these older browser informing them of how to access the audio contents.

In particular, this content is not fallback content intended to address accessibility concerns. To make audio content accessible to the deaf or to those with other physical or cognitive disabilities, authors are expected to provide alternative media streams and/or to embed accessibility aids (such as transcriptions) into their media streams.

The audio element is a media element whose media data is ostensibly audio data.

The src, autoplay, start, loopstart, loopend, end, playcount, and controls attributes are the attributes common to all media elements.

When an audio element is actively playing, it must have its audio data played synchronised with the current playback position, at the specified volume with the specified mute state.

When an audio element is not actively playing, audio must not play for the element.

3.14.8.1. Audio codecs for audio elements

User agents may support any audio codecs and container formats.

User agents must support the WAVE container format with audio encoded using the PCM format.

3.14.9. Media elements

Media elements implement the following interface:

interface HTMLMediaElement : HTMLElement {

  // error state
  readonly attribute MediaError error;

  // network state
           attribute DOMString src;
  readonly attribute DOMString currentSrc;
  const unsigned short EMPTY = 0;
  const unsigned short LOADING = 1;
  const unsigned short LOADED_METADATA = 2;
  const unsigned short LOADED_FIRST_FRAME = 3;
  const unsigned short LOADED = 4;
  readonly attribute unsigned short networkState;
  readonly attribute float bufferingRate;
  readonly attribute TimeRanges buffered;
  void load();

  // ready state
  const unsigned short DATA_UNAVAILABLE = 0;
  const unsigned short CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME = 1;
  const unsigned short CAN_PLAY = 2;
  const unsigned short CAN_PLAY_THROUGH = 3;
  readonly attribute unsigned short readyState;
  readonly attribute boolean seeking;

  // playback state
           attribute float currentTime;
  readonly attribute float duration;
  readonly attribute boolean paused;
           attribute float defaultPlaybackRate;
           attribute float playbackRate;
  readonly attribute TimeRanges played;
  readonly attribute TimeRanges seekable;
  readonly attribute boolean ended;
           attribute boolean autoplay;
  void play();
  void pause();

  // looping
           attribute float start;
           attribute float end;
           attribute float loopStart;
           attribute float loopEnd;
           attribute unsigned long playCount;
           attribute unsigned long currentLoop;

  // cue ranges
  void addCueRange(in DOMString className, in float start, in float end, in boolean pauseOnExit, in VoidCallback enterCallback, in VoidCallback exitCallback);
  void removeCueRanges(in DOMString className);

  // controls
           attribute boolean controls;
           attribute float volume;
           attribute boolean muted;
};

The media element attributes, src, autoplay, start, loopstart, loopend, end, playcount, and controls, apply to all media elements. They are defined in this section.

Media elements are used to present audio data, or video and audio data, to the user. This is referred to as media data in this section, since this section applies equally to media elements for audio or for video. The term media resource is used to refer to the complete set of media data, e.g. the complete video file, or complete audio file.

3.14.9.1. Error codes

All media elements have an associated error status, which records the last error the element encountered since the load() method was last invoked. The error attribute, on getting, must return the MediaError object created for this last error, or null if there has not been an error.

interface MediaError {
  const unsigned short MEDIA_ERR_ABORTED = 1;
  const unsigned short MEDIA_ERR_NETWORK = 2;
  const unsigned short MEDIA_ERR_DECODE = 3;
  readonly attribute unsigned short code;
};

The code attribute of a MediaError object must return the code for the error, which must be one of the following:

MEDIA_ERR_ABORTED (numeric value 1)
The download of the media resource was aborted by the user agent at the user's request.
MEDIA_ERR_NETWORK (numeric value 2)
A network error of some description caused the user agent to stop downloading the media resource.
MEDIA_ERR_DECODE (numeric value 3)
An error of some description occurred while decoding the media resource.
3.14.9.2. Location of the media resource

The src content attribute on media elements gives the address of the media resource (video, audio) to show. The attribute, if present, must contain a URI (or IRI).

If the src attribute of a media element that is already in a document and whose networkState is in the EMPTY state is added, changed, or removed, the user agent must implicitly invoke the load() method on the media element as soon as all other scripts have finished executing. Any exceptions raised must be ignored.

If a src attribute is specified, the resource it specifies is the media resource that will be used. Otherwise, the resource specified by the first suitable source element child of the media element is the one used.

The src DOM attribute on media elements must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

To pick a media resource for a media element, a user agent must use the following steps:

  1. If the media element has a src, then the address given in that attribute is the address of the media resource; jump to the last step.

  2. Otherwise, let candidate be the first source element child in the media element, or null if there is no such child.

  3. If either:

    ...then the candidate is not suitable; go to the next step.

    Otherwise, the address given in that candidate element's src attribute is the address of the media resource; jump to the last step.

  4. Let candidate be the next source element child in the media element, or null if there are no more such children.

  5. If candidate is not null, return to step 3.

  6. There is no media resource. Abort these steps.

  7. Let the address of the chosen media resource be the one that was found before jumping to this step.

A source element with no src attribute is assumed to be the last source element — any source elements after it are ignored (and are invalid).

The currentSrc DOM attribute must return the empty string if the media element's networkState has the value EMPTY, and the absolute URL of the chosen media resource otherwise.

3.14.9.3. Network states

As media elements interact with the network, they go through several states. The networkState attribute, on getting, must return the current network state of the element, which must be one of the following values:

EMPTY (numeric value 0)
The element has not yet been initialised. All attributes are in their initial states.
LOADING (numeric value 1)
The element has picked a media resource (the chosen media resource is available from the currentSrc attribute), but none of the metadata has yet been obtained and therefore all the other attributes are still in their initial states.
LOADED_METADATA (numeric value 2)
Enough of the resource has been obtained that the metadata attributes are initialized (e.g. the length is known). The API will no longer raise exceptions when used.
LOADED_FIRST_FRAME (numeric value 3)
Actual media data has been obtained. In the case of video, this specifically means that a frame of video is available and can be shown.
LOADED (numeric value 4)
The entire media resource has been obtained and is available to the user agent locally. Network connectivity could be lost without affecting the media playback.

The algorithm for the load() method defined below describes exactly when the networkState attribute changes value.

3.14.9.4. Loading the media resource

All media elements have a begun flag, which must begin in the false state, a loaded-first-frame flag, which must begin in the false state, and an autoplaying flag, which must begin in the true state.

When the load() method on a media element is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps. Note that this algorithm might get aborted, e.g. if the load() method itself is invoked again.

  1. Any already-running instance of this algorithm for this element must be aborted. If those method calls have not yet returned, they must finish the step they are on, and then immediately return.

  2. If the element's begun flag is true, then the begun flag must be set to false, the error attribute must be set to a new MediaError object whose code attribute is set to MEDIA_ERR_ABORTED, and the user agent must synchronously fire a progress event called abort at the media element.

  3. The error attribute must be set to null, the loaded-first-frame flag must be set to false, and the autoplaying flag must be set to true.

  4. The playbackRate attribute must be set to the value of the defaultPlaybackRate attribute.

  5. If the media element's networkState is not set to EMPTY, then the following substeps must be followed:

    1. The networkState attribute must be set to EMPTY.
    2. If readyState is not set to DATA_UNAVAILABLE, it must be set to that state.
    3. If the paused attribute is false, it must be set to true.
    4. If seeking is true, it must be set to false.
    5. The current playback position must be set to 0.
    6. The currentLoop DOM attribute must be set to 0.
    7. The user agent must synchronously fire a simple event called emptied at the media element.
  6. The user agent must pick a media resource for the media element. If that fails, the method must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception, and abort these steps.

  7. The networkState attribute must be set to LOADING.

  8. The currentSrc attribute starts returning the new value.

  9. The user agent must then set the begun flag to true and fire a progress event called begin at the media element.

  10. The method must return, but these steps must continue.

  11. Playback of any previously playing media resource for this element stops.

  12. If a download is in progress for the media element, the user agent should stop the download.

  13. The user agent must then begin to download the chosen media resource. The rate of the download may be throttled, however, in response to user preferences (including throttling it to zero until the user indicates that the download can start), or to balance the download with other connections sharing the same bandwidth.

  14. While the download is progressing, the user agent must fire a progress event called progress at the element every 350ms (±200ms) or for every byte received, whichever is least frequent.

    If at any point the user agent has received no data for more than about three seconds, the user agent must fire a progress event called stalled at the element.

    User agents may allow users to selectively block or slow media data downloads. When a media element's download has been blocked, the user agent must act as if it was stalled (as opposed to acting as if the connection was closed).

    The user agent may use whatever means necessary to download the resource (within the constraints put forward by this and other specifications); for example, reconnecting to the server in the face of network errors, using HTTP partial range requests, or switching to a streaming protocol. The user agent must only consider a resource erroneous if it has given up trying to download it.

    If the media data cannot be downloaded at all, due to network errors, causing the user agent to give up trying to download the resource

    DNS errors and HTTP 4xx and 5xx errors (and equivalents in other protocols) must cause the user agent to execute the following steps. User agents may also follow these steps in response to other network errors of similar severity.

    1. The user agent should cancel the download.
    2. The error attribute must be set to a new MediaError object whose code attribute is set to MEDIA_ERR_NETWORK.
    3. The begun flag must be set to false and the user agent must fire a progress event called error at the media element.
    4. The element's networkState attribute must be switched to the EMPTY value and the user agent must fire a simple event called emptied at the element.
    5. These steps must be aborted.
    If the media data can be downloaded but is in an unsupported format, or can otherwise not be rendered at all

    The server returning a file of the wrong kind (e.g. one that that turns out to not be pure audio when the media element is an audio element), or the file using unsupported codecs for all the data, must cause the user agent to execute the following steps. User agents may also execute these steps in response to other codec-related fatal errors, such as the file requiring more resources to process than the user agent can provide in real time.

    1. The user agent should cancel the download.
    2. The error attribute must be set to a new MediaError object whose code attribute is set to MEDIA_ERR_DECODE.
    3. The begun flag must be set to false and the user agent must fire a progress event called error at the media element.
    4. The element's networkState attribute must be switched to the EMPTY value and the user agent must fire a simple event called emptied at the element.
    5. These steps must be aborted.
    If the media data download is aborted by the user

    The download is aborted by the user, e.g. because the user navigated the browsing context to another page, the user agent must execute the following steps. These steps are not followed if the load() method itself is reinvoked, as the steps above handle that particular kind of abort.

    1. The user agent should cancel the download.
    2. The error attribute must be set to a new MediaError object whose code attribute is set to MEDIA_ERR_ABORT.
    3. The begun flag must be set to false and the user agent must fire a progress event called abort at the media element.
    4. If the media element's networkState attribute has the value LOADING, the element's networkState attribute must be switched to the EMPTY value and the user agent must fire a simple event called emptied at the element. (If the networkState attribute has a value greater than LOADING, then this doesn't happen; the available data, if any, will be playable.)
    5. These steps must be aborted.
    If the media data can be downloaded but has non-fatal errors or uses, in part, codecs that are unsupported, preventing the user agent from rendering the content completely correctly but not preventing playback altogether

    The server returning data that is partially usable but cannot be optimally rendered must cause the user agent to execute the following steps.

    1. Should we fire a 'warning' event? Set the 'error' flag to 'MEDIA_ERR_SUBOPTIMAL' or something?
    Once enough of the media data has been downloaded to determine the duration of the media resource, its dimensions, and other metadata

    The user agent must follow these substeps:

    1. The current playback position must be set to the effective start.

    2. The networkState attribute must be set to LOADED_METADATA.

    3. A number of attributes, including duration, buffered, and played, become available.

    4. The user agent will fire a simple event called durationchange at the element at this point.

    5. The user agent must fire a simple event called loadedmetadata at the element.

    Once enough of the media data has been downloaded to enable the user agent to display the frame at the effective start of the media resource

    The user agent must follow these substeps:

    1. The networkState attribute must be set to LOADED_FIRST_FRAME.

    2. The readyState attribute must change to CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME.

    3. The loaded-first-frame flag must be set to true.

    4. The user agent must fire a simple event called loadedfirstframe at the element.

    5. The user agent must fire a simple event called canshowcurrentframe at the element.

    When the user agent has completed the download of the entire media resource, it must move on to the next step.

  15. If the download completes without errors, the begun flag must be set to false, the networkState attribute must be set to LOADED, and the user agent must fire a progress event called load at the element.

If a media element whose networkState has the value EMPTY is inserted into a document, user agents must implicitly invoke the load() method on the media element as soon as all other scripts have finished executing. Any exceptions raised must be ignored.

The bufferingRate attribute must return the average number of bits received per second for the current download over the past few seconds. If there is no download in progress, the attribute must return 0.

The buffered attribute must return a static normalised TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource, if any, that the user agent has downloaded, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

Typically this will be a single range anchored at the zero point, but if, e.g. the user agent uses HTTP range requests in response to seeking, then there could be multiple ranges.

3.14.9.5. Offsets into the media resource

The duration attribute must return the length of the media resource, in seconds. If no media data is available, then the attributes must return 0. If media data is available but the length is not known, the attribute must return the Not-a-Number (NaN) value. If the media resource is known to be unbounded (e.g. a streaming radio), then the attribute must return the positive Infinity value.

When the length of the media resource changes (e.g. from being unknown to known, or from indeterminate to known, or from a previously established length to a new length) the user agent must, once any running scripts have finished, fire a simple event called durationchange at the media element.

Media elements have a current playback position, which must initially be zero. The current position is a time.

The currentTime attribute must, on getting, return the current playback position, expressed in seconds. On setting, the user agent must seek to the new value (which might raise an exception).

The start content attribute gives the offset into the media resource at which playback is to begin. The default value is the default start position of the media resource, or 0 if not enough media data has been obtained yet to determine the default start position or if the resource doesn't specify a default start position.

The effective start is the smaller of the start DOM attribute and the end of the media resource.

The loopstart content attribute gives the offset into the media resource at which playback is to begin when looping a clip. The default value of the loopstart content attribute is the value of the start DOM attribute.

The effective loop start is the smaller of the loopStart DOM attribute and the end of the media resource.

The loopend content attribute gives an offset into the media resource at which playback is to jump back to the loopstart, when looping the clip. The default value of the loopend content attribute is the value of the end DOM attribute.

The effective loop end is the greater of the start, loopStart, and loopEnd DOM attributes, except if that is greater than the end of the media resource, in which case that's its value.

The end content attribute gives an offset into the media resource at which playback is to end. The default value is infinity.

The effective end is the greater of the start, loopStart, and end DOM attributes, except if that is greater than the end of the media resource, in which case that's its value.

The start, loopstart, loopend, and end attributes must, if specified, contain value time offsets. To get the time values they represent, user agents must use the rules for parsing time offsets.

The start, loopStart, loopEnd, and end DOM attributes must reflect the start, loopstart, loopend, and end content attributes on the media element respectively.

The playcount content attribute gives the number of times to play the clip. The default value is 1.

The playCount DOM attribute must reflect the playcount content attribute on the media element. The value must be limited to only positive non-zero numbers.

The currentLoop attribute must initially have the value 0. It gives the index of the current loop. It is changed during playback as described below.

When any of the start, loopStart, loopEnd, end, and playCount DOM attributes change value (either through content attribute mutations reflecting into the DOM attribute, or direct mutations of the DOM attribute), the user agent must apply the following steps:

  1. If the playCount DOM attribute's value is less than or equal to the currentLoop DOM attribute's value, then the currentLoop DOM attribute's value must be set to playCount-1 (which will make the current loop the last loop).

  2. If the media element's networkState is in the EMPTY state or the LOADING state, then the user agent must at this point abort these steps.

  3. If the currentLoop is zero, and the current playback position is before the effective start, the user agent must seek to the effective start.

  4. If the currentLoop is greater than zero, and the current playback position is before the effective loop start, the user agent must seek to the effective loop start.

  5. If the currentLoop is less than playCount-1, and the current playback position is after the effective loop end, the user agent must seek to the effective loop start, and increase currentLoop by 1.

  6. If the currentLoop is equal to playCount-1, and the current playback position is after the effective end, the user agent must seek to the effective end and then the looping will end.

3.14.9.6. The ready states

Media elements have a ready state, which describes to what degree they are ready to be rendered at the current playback position. The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element:

DATA_UNAVAILABLE (numeric value 0)
No data for the current playback position is available. Media elements whose networkState attribute is less than LOADED_FIRST_FRAME are always in the DATA_UNAVAILABLE state.
CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME (numeric value 1)
Data for the immediate current playback position is available, but not enough data is available that the user agent could successfully advance the current playback position at all without immediately reverting to the DATA_UNAVAILABLE state. In video, this corresponds to the user agent having data from the current frame, but not the next frame. In audio, this corresponds to the user agent only having audio up to the current playback position, but no further.
CAN_PLAY (numeric value 2)
Data for the immediate current playback position is available, as well as enough data for the user agent to advance the current playback position at least a little without immediately reverting to the DATA_UNAVAILABLE state. In video, this corresponds to the user agent having data for the current frame and the next frame. In audio, this corresponds ot the user agent having data beyond the current playback position.
CAN_PLAY_THROUGH (numeric value 3)
Data for the immediate current playback position is available, as well as enough data for the user agent to advance the current playback position at least a little without immediately reverting to the DATA_UNAVAILABLE state, and, in addition, the user agent estimates that data is being downloaded at a rate where the current playback position, if it were to advance at the rate given by the defaultPlaybackRate attribute, would not overtake the available data before playback reaches the effective end of the media resource on the last loop.

When the ready state of a media element whose networkState is not EMPTY changes, the user agent must follow the steps given below:

If the new ready state is DATA_UNAVAILABLE

The user agent must fire a simple event called dataunavailable at the element.

If the new ready state is CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME

If the element's loaded-first-frame flag is true, the user agent must fire a simple event called canshowcurrentframe event.

The first time the networkState attribute switches to this value, the loaded-first-frame flag is false, and the event is fired by the algorithm described above for the load() method, in conjunction with other steps.

If the new ready state is CAN_PLAY

The user agent must fire a simple event called canplay.

If the new ready state is CAN_PLAY_THROUGH

The user agent must fire a simple event called canplaythrough event. If the autoplaying flag is true, and the paused attribute is true, and the media element has an autoplay attribute specified, then the user agent must also set the paused attribute to false and fire a simple event called play.

It is possible for the ready state of a media element to jump between these states discontinuously. For example, the state of a media element whose leaded-first-frame flag is false can jump straight from DATA_UNAVAILABLE to CAN_PLAY_THROUGH without passing through the CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME and CAN_PLAY states, and thus without firing the canshowcurrentframe and canplay events. The only state that is guarenteed to be reached is the CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME state, which is reached as part of the load() method's processing.

The readyState DOM attribute must, on getting, return the value described above that describes the current ready state of the media element.

The autoplay attribute is a boolean attribute. When present, the algorithm described herein will cause the user agent to automatically begin playback of the media resource as soon as it can do so without stopping.

The autoplay DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

3.14.9.7. Playing the media resource

The paused attribute represents whether the media element is paused or not. The attribute must initially be true.

A media element is said to be actively playing when its paused attribute is false, the readyState attribute is either CAN_PLAY or CAN_PLAY_THROUGH, the element has not ended playback, playback has not stopped due to errors, and the element has not paused for user interaction.

A media element is said to have ended playback when the element's networkState attribute is LOADED_METADATA or greater, the current playback position is equal to the effective end of the media resource, and the currentLoop attribute is equal to playCount-1.

A media element is said to have stopped due to errors when the element's networkState attribute is LOADED_METADATA or greater, and the user agent encounters a non-fatal error during the processing of the media data, and due to that error, is not able to play the content at the current playback position.

A media element is said to have paused for user interaction when its paused attribute is false, the readyState attribute is either CAN_PLAY or CAN_PLAY_THROUGH and the user agent has reached a point in the media resource where the user has to make a selection for the resource to continue.

It is possible for a media element to have both ended playback and paused for user interaction at the same time.

When a media element is actively playing and its owner Document is an active document, its current playback position must increase monotonically at playbackRate units of media time per unit time of wall clock time. If this value is not 1, the user agent may apply pitch adjustments to any audio component of the media resource.

Media resources might be internally scripted or interactive. Thus, a media element could play in a non-linear fashion. If this happens, the user agent must act as if the algorithm for seeking was used whenever the current playback position changes in a discontinuous fashion (so that the relevant events fire).

When a media element that is actively playing stops playing because its readyState attribute changes to a value lower than CAN_PLAY, without the element having ended playback, or playback having stopped due to errors, or playback having paused for user interaction, the user agent must fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element, and then must fire a simple event called waiting at the element.

When a media element that is actively playing stops playing because it has paused for user interaction, the user agent must fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element.

When currentLoop is less than playCount-1 and the current playback position reaches the effective loop end, then the user agent must seek to the effective loop start, increase currentLoop by 1, and fire a simple event called timeupdate.

When currentLoop is equal to the playCount-1 and the current playback position reaches the effective end, then the user agent must follow these steps:

  1. The user agent must stop playback.

  2. The ended attribute becomes true.

  3. The user agent must fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element.

  4. The user agent must fire a simple event called ended at the element.

The defaultPlaybackRate attribute gives the desired speed at which the media resource is to play, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed. The attribute is mutable, but on setting, if the new value is 0.0, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised instead of the value being changed. It must initially have the value 1.0.

The playbackRate attribute gives the speed at which the media resource plays, as a multiple of its intrinsic speed. If it is not equal to the defaultPlaybackRate, then the implication is that the user is using a feature such as fast forward or slow motion playback. The attribute is mutable, but on setting, if the new value is 0.0, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised instead of the value being changed. Otherwise, the playback must change speed (if the element is actively playing). It must initially have the value 1.0.

When the defaultPlaybackRate or playbackRate attributes change value (either by being set by script or by being changed directly by the user agent, e.g. in response to user control) the user agent must, once any running scripts have finished, fire a simple event called ratechange at the media element.

When the play() method on a media element is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps.

  1. If the media element's networkState attribute has the value EMPTY, then the user agent must invoke the load() method and wait for it to return. If that raises an exception, that exception must be reraised by the play() method.

  2. If the playback has ended, then the user agent must set currentLoop to zero and seek to the effective start.

  3. The playbackRate attribute must be set to the value of the defaultPlaybackRate attribute.

  4. If the media element's paused attribute is true, it must be set to false.

  5. The media element's autoplaying flag must be set to false.

  6. The method must then return.

If the second step above involved a seek, the user agent will fire a simple event called timeupdate at the media element.

If the third step above caused the playbackRate attribute to change value, the user agent will fire a simple event called ratechange at the media element.

If the fourth step above changed the value of paused, the user agent must fire a simple event called play at the media element.

When the pause() method is invoked, the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. If the media element's networkState attribute has the value EMPTY, then the user agent must invoke the load() method and wait for it to return. If that raises an exception, that exception must be reraised by the pause() method.

  2. If the media element's paused attribute is false, it must be set to true.

  3. The media element's autoplaying flag must be set to false.

  4. The method must then return.

  5. If the second step above changed the value of paused, the user agent must first fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element, and then fire a simple event called pause at the element.

When a media element is removed from a Document, the user agent must act as if the pause() method had been invoked.

Media elements that are actively playing while not in a Document must not play any video, but should play any audio component. Media elements must not stop playing just because all references to them have been removed; only once a media element to which no references exist has reached a point where no further audio remains to be played for that element (e.g. because the element is paused or because the end of the clip has been reached) may the element be garbage collected.

If the media element's ownerDocument stops being an active document, then the playback will stop until the document is active again.

The ended attribute must return true if the media element has ended playback, and false otherwise.

The played attribute must return a static normalised TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource, if any, that the user agent has so far rendered, at the time the attribute is evaluated.

3.14.9.8. Seeking

The seeking attribute must initially have the value false.

When the user agent is required to seek to a particular new playback position in the media resource, it means that the user agent must run the following steps:

  1. If the media element's networkState is less than LOADED_METADATA, then the user agent must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception (if the seek was in response to a DOM method call or setting of a DOM attribute), and abort these steps.

  2. If currentLoop is 0, let min be the effective start. Otherwise, let it be the effective loop start.

  3. If currentLoop is equal to the value of playCount, let max be the effective end. Otherwise, let it be the effective loop end.

  4. If the new playback position is more than max, let it be max.

  5. If the new playback position is less than min, let it be min.

  6. If the (possibly now changed) new playback position is not in one of the ranges given in the seekable attribute, then the user agent must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception (if the seek was in response to a DOM method call or setting of a DOM attribute), and abort these steps.

  7. The current playback position must be set to the given new playback position.

  8. The seeking DOM attribute must be set to true.

  9. The user agent must fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element.

  10. As soon as the user agent has established whether or not the media data for the new playback position is available, and, if it is, decoded enough data to play back that position, the seeking DOM attribute must be set to false.

The seekable attribute must return a static normalised TimeRanges object that represents the ranges of the media resource, if any, that the user agent is able to seek to, at the time the attribute is evaluated, notwithstanding the looping attributes (i.e. the effective start and effective end, etc, don't affect the seeking attribute).

If the user agent can seek to anywhere in the media resource, e.g. because it a simple movie file and the user agent and the server support HTTP Range requests, then the attribute would return an object with one range, whose start is the time of the first frame (typically zero), and whose end is the same as the time of the first frame plus the duration attribute's value (which would equal the time of the last frame).

3.14.9.9. Cue ranges

Media elements have a set of cue ranges. Each cue range is made up of the following information:

A class name
A group of related ranges can be given the same class name so that they can all be removed at the same time.
A start time
An end time
The actual time range, using the same timeline as the media resource itself.
A "pause" boolean
A flag indicating whether to pause playback on exit.
An "enter" callback
A callback that is called when the current playback position enters the range.
An "exit" callback
A callback that is called when the current playback position exits the range.
An "active" boolean
A flag indicating whether the range is active or not.

The addCueRange(className, start, end, pauseOnExit, enterCallback, exitCallback) method must, when called, add a cue range to the media element, that cue range having the class name className, the start time start (in seconds), the end time end (in seconds), the "pause" boolean with the same value as pauseOnExit, the "enter" callback enterCallback, the "exit" callback exitCallback, and an "active" boolean that is true if the current playback position is equal to or greater than the start time and less than the end time, and false otherwise.

The removeCueRanges(className) method must, when called, remove all the cue ranges of the media element which have the class name className.

When the current playback position of a media element changes (e.g. due to playback or seeking), the user agent must run the following steps. If the current playback position changes while the steps are running, then the user agent must wait for the steps to complete, and then must immediately rerun the steps. (These steps are thus run as often as possible or needed — if one iteration takes a long time, this can cause certain ranges to be skipped over as the user agent rushes ahead to "catch up".)

  1. Let current ranges be an ordered list of cue ranges, initialised to contain all the cue ranges of the media element whose start times are less than or equal to the current playback position and whose end times are greater than the current playback position, in the order they were added to the element.

  2. Let other ranges be an ordered list of cue ranges, initialised to contain all the cue ranges of the media element that are not present in current ranges, in the order they were added to the element.

  3. If none of the cue ranges in current ranges have their "active" boolean set to "false" (inactive) and none of the cue ranges in other ranges have their "active" boolean set to "true" (active), then abort these steps.

  4. If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, the user agent must then fire a simple event called timeupdate at the element. (In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position.)

  5. If the time was reached through the usual monotonic increase of the current playback position during normal playback, and there are cue ranges in other ranges that have both their "active" boolean and their "pause" boolean set to "true", then immediately act as if the element's pause() method had been invoked. (In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, playback is not paused by exiting a cue range, even if that cue range has its "pause" boolean set to "true".)

  6. Invoke all the non-null "exit" callbacks for all of the cue ranges in other ranges that have their "active" boolean set to "true" (active), in list order.

  7. Invoke all the non-null "enter" callbacks for all of the cue ranges in current ranges that have their "active" boolean set to "false" (inactive), in list order.

  8. Set the "active" boolean of all the cue ranges in the current ranges list to "true" (active), and the "active" boolean of all the cue ranges in the other ranges list to "false" (inactive).

Invoking a callback (an object implementing the VoidCallback interface) means calling its handleEvent() method.

interface VoidCallback {
  void handleEvent();
};

The handleEvent method of objects implementing the VoidCallback interface is the entrypoint for the callback represented by the object.

In the ECMAScript DOM binding, the ECMAScript native Function type must implement the VoidCallback interface such that invoking the handleEvent() method of that interface on the object from another language binding invokes the function itself. In the ECMAScript binding itself, however, the handleEvent() method of the interface is not directly accessible on Function objects. Such functions, when invoked, must be called at the scope of the browsing context.

3.14.9.10. User interface

The controls attribute is a boolean attribute. If the attribute is present, or if scripting is disabled, then the user agent should expose a user interface to the user. This user interface should include features to begin playback, pause playback, seek to an arbitrary position in the content (if the content supports arbitrary seeking), change the volume, and show the media content in manners more suitable to the user (e.g. full-screen video or in an independent resizable window). Other controls may also be made available.

If the attribute is absent, then the user agent should avoid making a user interface available that could conflict with an author-provided user interface. User agents may make the following features available, however, even when the attribute is absent:

User agents may provide controls to affect playback of the media resource (e.g. play, pause, seeking, and volume controls), but such features should not interfere with the page's normal rendering. For example, such features could be exposed in the media element's context menu.

Where possible (specifically, for starting, stopping, pausing, and unpausing playback, for muting or changing the volume of the audio, and for seeking), user interface features exposed by the user agent must be implemented in terms of the DOM API described above, so that, e.g., all the same events fire.

The controls DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The volume attribute must return the playback volume of any audio portions of the media element, in the range 0.0 (silent) to 1.0 (loudest). Initially, the volume must be 0.5, but user agents may remember the last set value across sessions, on a per-site basis or otherwise, so the volume may start at other values. On setting, if the new value is in the range 0.0 to 1.0 inclusive, the attribute must be set to the new value and the playback volume must be correspondingly adjusted as soon as possible after setting the attribute, with 0.0 being silent, and 1.0 being the loudest setting, values in between increasing in loudness. The range need not be linear. The loudest setting may be lower than the system's loudest possible setting; for example the user could have set a maximum volume. If the new value is outside the range 0.0 to 1.0 inclusive, then, on setting, an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised instead.

The muted attribute must return true if the audio channels are muted and false otherwise. On setting, the attribute must be set to the new value; if the new value is true, audio playback for this media resource must then be muted, and if false, audio playback must then be enabled.

Whenever either the muted or volume attributes are changed, after any running scripts have finished executing, the user agent must fire a simple event called volumechange at the media element.

3.14.9.11. Time range

Objects implementing the TimeRanges interface represent a list of ranges (periods) of time.

interface TimeRanges {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  float start(in unsigned long index);
  float end(in unsigned long index);
};

The length DOM attribute must return the number of ranges represented by the object.

The start(index) method must return the position of the start of the indexth range represented by the object, in seconds measured from the start of the timeline that the object covers.

The end(index) method must return the position of the end of the indexth range represented by the object, in seconds measured from the start of the timeline that the object covers.

These methods must raise INDEX_SIZE_ERR exceptions if called with an index argument greater than or equal to the number of ranges represented by the object.

When a TimeRanges object is said to be a normalised TimeRanges object, the ranges it represents must obey the following criteria:

In other words, the ranges in such an object are ordered, don't overlap, and don't touch (adjacent ranges are folded into one bigger range).

The timelines used by the objects returned by the buffered, seekable and played DOM attributes of media elements must be the same as that element's media resource's timeline.

3.14.9.12. Event summary

The following events fire on media elements as part of the processing model described above:

Event name Interface Dispatched when... Preconditions
begin ProgressEvent [PROGRESS] The user agent begins fetching the media data, synchronously during the load() method call. networkState equals LOADING
progress ProgressEvent [PROGRESS] The user agent is fetching media data. networkState is more than EMPTY and less than LOADED
loadedmetadata Event The user agent is fetching media data, and the media resource's metadata has just been received. networkState equals LOADED_METADATA
loadedfirstframe Event The user agent is fetching media data, and the media resource's first frame has just been received. networkState equals LOADED_FIRST_FRAME
load ProgressEvent [PROGRESS] The user agent finishes downloading the entire media resource. networkState equals LOADED
abort ProgressEvent [PROGRESS] The user agent stops fetching the media data before it is completely downloaded. This can be fired synchronously during the load() method call. error is an object with the code MEDIA_ERR_ABORTED. networkState equals either EMPTY or LOADED, depending on when the download was aborted.
error ProgressEvent [PROGRESS] An error occurs while fetching the media data. error is an object with the code MEDIA_ERR_NETWORK_ERROR or higher. networkState equals either EMPTY or LOADED, depending on when the download was aborted.
emptied Event A media element whose networkState was previously not in the EMPTY state has just switched to that state (either because of a fatal error during load that's about to be reported, or because the load() method was reinvoked, in which case it is fired synchronously during the load() method call). networkState is EMPTY; all the DOM attributes are in their initial states.
stalled ProgressEvent The user agent is trying to fetch media data, but data is unexpectedly not forthcoming.
play Event Playback has begun. Fired after the play method has returned. paused is newly false.
pause Event Playback has been paused. Fired after the pause method has returned. paused is newly true.
waiting Event Playback has stopped because the next frame is not available, but the user agent expects that frame to become available in due course. readyState is either DATA_UNAVAILABLE or CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME, and paused is false. Either seeking is true, or the current playback position is not contained in any of the ranges in buffered. It is possible for playback to stop for two other reasons without paused being false, but those two reasons do not fire this event: maybe playback ended, or playback stopped due to errors.
timeupdate Event The current playback position changed in an interesting way, for example discontinuously.
ended Event Playback has stopped because the end of the media resource was reached. currentTime equals the effective end; ended is true.
dataunavailable Event The user agent cannot render the data at the current playback position because data for the current frame is not immediately available. The readyState attribute is newly equal to DATA_UNAVAILABLE.
canshowcurrentframe Event The user agent cannot render the data after the current playback position because data for the next frame is not immediately available. The readyState attribute is newly equal to CAN_SHOW_CURRENT_FRAME.
canplay Event The user agent can resume playback of the media data, but estimates that if playback were to be started now, the media resource could not be rendered at the current playback rate up to its end without having to stop for further buffering of content. The readyState attribute is newly equal to CAN_PLAY.
canplaythrough Event The user agent estimates that if playback were to be started now, the media resource could be rendered at the current playback rate all the way to its end without having to stop for further buffering. The readyState attribute is newly equal to CAN_PLAY_THROUGH.
ratechange Event Either the defaultPlaybackRate or the playbackRate attribute has just been updated.
durationchange Event The duration attribute has just been updated.
volumechange Event Either the volume attribute or the muted attribute has changed. Fired after the relevant attribute's setter has returned.
3.14.9.13. Security and privacy considerations

Talk about making sure interactive media files (e.g. SVG) don't have access to the container DOM (XSS potential); talk about not exposing any sensitive data like metadata from tracks in the media files (intranet snooping risk)

3.14.10. The source element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a media element, before any prose content.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
src
type
media
DOM interface:
interface HTMLSourceElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString src;
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString media;
};

The source element allows authors to specify multiple media resources for media elements.

The src attribute gives the address of the media resource. The value must be a URI (or IRI). This attribute must be present.

The type attribute gives the type of the media resource, to help the user agent determine if it can play this media resource before downloading it. Its value must be a MIME type. The codecs parameter may be specified and might be necessary to specify exactly how the resource is encoded. [RFC2046] [RFC4281]

The following list shows some examples of how to use the codecs= MIME parameter in the type attribute.

H.264 Simple baseline profile video (main and extended video compatible) level 3 and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;avc1.42E01E, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
H.264 Extended profile video (baseline-compatible) level 3 and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;avc1.58A01E, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
H.264 Main profile video level 3 and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;avc1.4D401E, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
H.264 "High" profile video (incompatible with main, baseline, or extended profiles) level 3 and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;avc1.64001E, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile Level 0 video and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;mp4v.20.8, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
MPEG-4 Advanced Simple Profile Level 0 video and Low-Complexity AAC audio in MP4 container
<source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4; codecs=&quot;mp4v.20.240, mp4a.40.2&quot;">
MPEG-4 Visual Simple Profile Level 0 video and AMR audio in 3GPP container
<source src="video.3gp" type="video/3gpp; codecs=&quot;mp4v.20.8, samr&quot;">
Theora video and Vorbis audio in Ogg container
<source src="video.ogv" type="video/ogg; codecs=&quot;theora, vorbis&quot;">
Theora video and Speex audio in Ogg container
<source src="video.ogv" type="video/ogg; codecs=&quot;theora, speex&quot;">
Vorbis audio alone in Ogg container
<source src="audio.oga" type="audio/ogg; codecs=vorbis">
Speex audio alone in Ogg container
<source src="audio.oga" type="audio/ogg; codecs=speex">
Flac audio alone in Ogg container
<source src="audio.oga" type="audio/ogg; codecs=flac">
Dirac video and Vorbis audio in Ogg container
<source src="video.ogv" type="video/ogg; codecs=&quot;dirac, vorbis&quot;">
Theora video and Vorbis audio in Matroska container
<source src="video.mkv" type="video/x-matroska; codecs=&quot;theora, vorbis&quot;">

The media attribute gives the intended media type of the media resource, to help the user agent determine if this media resource is useful to the user before downloading it. Its value must be a valid media query. [MQ]

Either the type attribute, the media attribute or both, must be specified, unless this is the last source element child of the parent element.

If a source element is inserted into a media element that is already in a document and whose networkState is in the EMPTY state, the user agent must implicitly invoke the load() method on the media element as soon as all other scripts have finished executing. Any exceptions raised must be ignored.

The DOM attributes src, type, and media must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

3.14.11. The canvas element

Categories
Embedded content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where embedded content is expected.
Content model:
Transparent.
Element-specific attributes:
width
height
DOM interface:
interface HTMLCanvasElement : HTMLElement {
         attribute unsigned long width;
         attribute unsigned long height;

  DOMString toDataURL();
  DOMString toDataURL(in DOMString type);

  DOMObject getContext(in DOMString contextId);
};

The canvas element represents a resolution-dependent bitmap canvas, which can be used for rendering graphs, game graphics, or other visual images on the fly.

Authors should not use the canvas element in a document when a more suitable element is available. For example, it is inappropriate to use a canvas element to render a page heading: if the desired presentation of the heading is graphically intense, it should be marked up using appropriate elements (typically h1) and then styled using CSS and supporting technologies such as XBL.

When authors use the canvas element, they should also provide content that, when presented to the user, conveys essentially the same function or purpose as the bitmap canvas. This content may be placed as content of the canvas element. The contents of the canvas element, if any, are the element's fallback content.

In interactive visual media with scripting enabled, the canvas element is an embedded element with a dynamically created image.

In non-interactive, static, visual media, if the canvas element has been previously painted on (e.g. if the page was viewed in an interactive visual medium and is now being printed, or if some script that ran during the page layout process painted on the element), then the canvas element must be treated as embedded content with the current image and size. Otherwise, the element's fallback content must be used instead.

In non-visual media, and in visual media with scripting disabled, the canvas element's fallback content must be used instead.

The canvas element has two attributes to control the size of the coordinate space: width and height. These attributes, when specified, must have values that are valid non-negative integers. The rules for parsing non-negative integers must be used to obtain their numeric values. If an attribute is missing, or if parsing its value returns an error, then the default value must be used instead. The width attribute defaults to 300, and the height attribute defaults to 150.

The intrinsic dimensions of the canvas element equal the size of the coordinate space, with the numbers interpreted in CSS pixels. However, the element can be sized arbitrarily by a style sheet. During rendering, the image is scaled to fit this layout size.

The size of the coordinate space does not necessarily represent the size of the actual bitmap that the user agent will use internally or during rendering. On high-definition displays, for instance, the user agent may internally use a bitmap with two device pixels per unit in the coordinate space, so that the rendering remains at high quality throughout.

The canvas must initially be fully transparent black.

Whenever the width and height attributes are set (whether to a new value or to the previous value), the bitmap and any associated contexts must be cleared back to their initial state and reinitialised with the newly specified coordinate space dimensions.

The width and height DOM attributes must reflect the content attributes of the same name.

Only one square appears to be drawn in the following example:

  // canvas is a reference to a <canvas> element
  var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
  context.fillRect(0,0,50,50);
  canvas.setAttribute('width', '300'); // clears the canvas
  context.fillRect(0,100,50,50);
  canvas.width = canvas.width; // clears the canvas
  context.fillRect(100,0,50,50); // only this square remains

To draw on the canvas, authors must first obtain a reference to a context using the getContext(contextId) method of the canvas element.

This specification only defines one context, with the name "2d". If getContext() is called with that exact string for its contextId argument, then the UA must return a reference to an object implementing CanvasRenderingContext2D. Other specifications may define their own contexts, which would return different objects.

Vendors may also define experimental contexts using the syntax vendorname-context, for example, moz-3d.

When the UA is passed an empty string or a string specifying a context that it does not support, then it must return null. String comparisons must be literal and case-sensitive.

A future version of this specification will probably define a 3d context (probably based on the OpenGL ES API).

The toDataURL() method must, when called with no arguments, return a data: URI containing a representation of the image as a PNG file. [PNG].

The toDataURL(type) method (when called with one or more arguments) must return a data: URI containing a representation of the image in the format given by type. The possible values are MIME types with no parameters, for example image/png, image/jpeg, or even maybe image/svg+xml if the implementation actually keeps enough information to reliably render an SVG image from the canvas.

Only support for image/png is required. User agents may support other types. If the user agent does not support the requested type, it must return the image using the PNG format.

User agents must convert the provided type to lower case before establishing if they support that type and before creating the data: URI.

When trying to use types other than image/png, authors can check if the image was really returned in the requested format by checking to see if the returned string starts with one the exact strings "data:image/png," or "data:image/png;". If it does, the image is PNG, and thus the requested type was not supported.

Arguments other than the type must be ignored, and must not cause the user agent to raise an exception (as would normally occur if a method was called with the wrong number of arguments). A future version of this specification will probably allow extra parameters to be passed to toDataURL() to allow authors to more carefully control compression settings, image metadata, etc.

Security: To prevent information leakage, the toDataURL() and getImageData() methods should raise a security exception if the canvas has ever had an image painted on it whose origin is different from that of the script calling the method.

3.14.11.1. The 2D context

When the getContext() method of a canvas element is invoked with 2d as the argument, a CanvasRenderingContext2D object is returned.

There is only one CanvasRenderingContext2D object per canvas, so calling the getContext() method with the 2d argument a second time must return the same object.

The 2D context represents a flat cartesian surface whose origin (0,0) is at the top left corner, with the coordinate space having x values increasing when going right, and y values increasing when going down.

interface CanvasRenderingContext2D {

  // back-reference to the canvas
  readonly attribute HTMLCanvasElement canvas;

  // state
  void save(); // push state on state stack
  void restore(); // pop state stack and restore state

  // transformations (default transform is the identity matrix)
  void scale(in float x, in float y);
  void rotate(in float angle);
  void translate(in float x, in float y);
  void transform(in float m11, in float m12, in float m21, in float m22, in float dx, in float dy);
  void setTransform(in float m11, in float m12, in float m21, in float m22, in float dx, in float dy);

  // compositing
           attribute float globalAlpha; // (default 1.0)
           attribute DOMString globalCompositeOperation; // (default source-over)

  // colors and styles
           attribute DOMObject strokeStyle; // (default black)
           attribute DOMObject fillStyle; // (default black)
  CanvasGradient createLinearGradient(in float x0, in float y0, in float x1, in float y1);
  CanvasGradient createRadialGradient(in float x0, in float y0, in float r0, in float x1, in float y1, in float r1);
  CanvasPattern createPattern(in HTMLImageElement image, DOMString repetition);
  CanvasPattern createPattern(in HTMLCanvasElement image, DOMString repetition);

  // line caps/joins
           attribute float lineWidth; // (default 1)
           attribute DOMString lineCap; // "butt", "round", "square" (default "butt")
           attribute DOMString lineJoin; // "round", "bevel", "miter" (default "miter")
           attribute float miterLimit; // (default 10)

  // shadows
           attribute float shadowOffsetX; // (default 0)
           attribute float shadowOffsetY; // (default 0)
           attribute float shadowBlur; // (default 0)
           attribute DOMString shadowColor; // (default transparent black)

  // rects
  void clearRect(in float x, in float y, in float w, in float h);
  void fillRect(in float x, in float y, in float w, in float h);
  void strokeRect(in float x, in float y, in float w, in float h);

  // path API
  void beginPath();
  void closePath();
  void moveTo(in float x, in float y);
  void lineTo(in float x, in float y);
  void quadraticCurveTo(in float cpx, in float cpy, in float x, in float y);
  void bezierCurveTo(in float cp1x, in float cp1y, in float cp2x, in float cp2y, in float x, in float y);
  void arcTo(in float x1, in float y1, in float x2, in float y2, in float radius);
  void rect(in float x, in float y, in float w, in float h);
  void arc(in float x, in float y, in float radius, in float startAngle, in float endAngle, in boolean anticlockwise);
  void fill();
  void stroke();
  void clip();
  boolean isPointInPath(in float x, in float y);

  // drawing images
  void drawImage(in HTMLImageElement image, in float dx, in float dy);
  void drawImage(in HTMLImageElement image, in float dx, in float dy, in float dw, in float dh);
  void drawImage(in HTMLImageElement image, in float sx, in float sy, in float sw, in float sh, in float dx, in float dy, in float dw, in float dh);
  void drawImage(in HTMLCanvasElement image, in float dx, in float dy);
  void drawImage(in HTMLCanvasElement image, in float dx, in float dy, in float dw, in float dh);
  void drawImage(in HTMLCanvasElement image, in float sx, in float sy, in float sw, in float sh, in float dx, in float dy, in float dw, in float dh);

  // pixel manipulation
  ImageData getImageData(in float sx, in float sy, in float sw, in float sh);
  void putImageData(in ImageData imagedata, in float dx, in float dy);

  // drawing text is not supported in this version of the API
  // (there is no way to predict what metrics the fonts will have,
  // which makes fonts very hard to use for painting)

};

interface CanvasGradient {
  // opaque object
  void addColorStop(in float offset, in DOMString color);
};

interface CanvasPattern {
  // opaque object
};

interface ImageData {
  readonly attribute long int width;
  readonly attribute long int height;
  readonly attribute int[] data;
};

The canvas attribute must return the canvas element that the context paints on.

3.14.11.1.1. The canvas state

Each context maintains a stack of drawing states. Drawing states consist of:

The current path and the current bitmap are not part of the drawing state. The current path is persistent, and can only be reset using the beginPath() method. The current bitmap is a property of the canvas, not the context.

The save() method must push a copy of the current drawing state onto the drawing state stack.

The restore() method must pop the top entry in the drawing state stack, and reset the drawing state it describes. If there is no saved state, the method must do nothing.

3.14.11.1.2. Transformations

The transformation matrix is applied to coordinates when creating shapes and paths.

When the context is created, the transformation matrix must initially be the identity transform. It may then be adjusted using the transformation methods.

The transformation matrix can become infinite, at which point nothing is drawn anymore.

The transformations must be performed in reverse order. For instance, if a scale transformation that doubles the width is applied, followed by a rotation transformation that rotates drawing operations by a quarter turn, and a rectangle twice as wide as it is tall is then drawn on the canvas, the actual result will be a square.

The scale(x, y) method must add the scaling transformation described by the arguments to the transformation matrix. The x argument represents the scale factor in the horizontal direction and the y argument represents the scale factor in the vertical direction. The factors are multiples. If either argument is Infinity the transformation matrix must be marked as infinite instead of the method throwing an exception.

The rotate(angle) method must add the rotation transformation described by the argument to the transformation matrix. The angle argument represents a clockwise rotation angle expressed in radians.

The translate(x, y) method must add the translation transformation described by the arguments to the transformation matrix. The x argument represents the translation distance in the horizontal direction and the y argument represents the translation distance in the vertical direction. The arguments are in coordinate space units. If either argument is Infinity the transformation matrix must be marked as infinite instead of the method throwing an exception.

The transform(m11, m12, m21, m22, dx, dy) method must multiply the current transformation matrix with the matrix described by:

m11 m21 dx
m12 m22 dy
0 0 1

If any of the arguments are Infinity the transformation matrix must be marked as infinite instead of the method throwing an exception.

The setTransform(m11, m12, m21, m22, dx, dy) method must reset the current transform to the identity matrix, and then invoke the transform(m11, m12, m21, m22, dx, dy) method with the same arguments. If any of the arguments are Infinity the transformation matrix must be marked as infinite instead of the method throwing an exception.

3.14.11.1.3. Compositing

All drawing operations are affected by the global compositing attributes, globalAlpha and globalCompositeOperation.

The globalAlpha attribute gives an alpha value that is applied to shapes and images before they are composited onto the canvas. The value must be in the range from 0.0 (fully transparent) to 1.0 (no additional transparency). If an attempt is made to set the attribute to a value outside this range, the attribute must retain its previous value. When the context is created, the globalAlpha attribute must initially have the value 1.0.

The globalCompositeOperation attribute sets how shapes and images are drawn onto the existing bitmap, once they have had globalAlpha and the current transformation matrix applied. It must be set to a value from the following list. In the descriptions below, the source image, A, is the shape or image being rendered, and the destination image, B, is the current state of the bitmap.

source-atop
A atop B. Display the source image wherever both images are opaque. Display the destination image wherever the destination image is opaque but the source image is transparent. Display transparency elsewhere.
source-in
A in B. Display the source image wherever both the source image and destination image are opaque. Display transparency elsewhere.
source-out
A out B. Display the source image wherever the source image is opaque and the destination image is transparent. Display transparency elsewhere.
source-over (default)
A over B. Display the source image wherever the source image is opaque. Display the destination image elsewhere.
destination-atop
B atop A. Same as source-atop but using the destination image instead of the source image and vice versa.
destination-in
B in A. Same as source-in but using the destination image instead of the source image and vice versa.
destination-out
B out A. Same as source-out but using the destination image instead of the source image and vice versa.
destination-over
B over A. Same as source-over but using the destination image instead of the source image and vice versa.
lighter
A plus B. Display the sum of the source image and destination image, with color values approaching 1 as a limit.
copy
A (B is ignored). Display the source image instead of the destination image.
xor
A xor B. Exclusive OR of the source image and destination image.
vendorName-operationName
Vendor-specific extensions to the list of composition operators should use this syntax.

These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown. User agents must only recognise values that exactly match the values given above.

The operators in the above list must be treated as described by the Porter-Duff operator given at the start of their description (e.g. A over B). [PORTERDUFF]

On setting, if the user agent does not recognise the specified value, it must be ignored, leaving the value of globalCompositeOperation unaffected.

When the context is created, the globalCompositeOperation attribute must initially have the value source-over.

3.14.11.1.4. Colors and styles

The strokeStyle attribute represents the color or style to use for the lines around shapes, and the fillStyle attribute represents the color or style to use inside the shapes.

Both attributes can be either strings, CanvasGradients, or CanvasPatterns. On setting, strings must be parsed as CSS <color> values and the color assigned, and CanvasGradient and CanvasPattern objects must be assigned themselves. [CSS3COLOR] If the value is a string but is not a valid color, or is neither a string, a CanvasGradient, nor a CanvasPattern, then it must be ignored, and the attribute must retain its previous value.

On getting, if the value is a color, then the serialisation of the color must be returned. Otherwise, if it is not a color but a CanvasGradient or CanvasPattern, then the respective object must be returned. (Such objects are opaque and therefore only useful for assigning to other attributes or for comparison to other gradients or patterns.)

The serialisation of a color for a color value is a string, computed as follows: if it has alpha equal to 1.0, then the string is a lowercase six-digit hex value, prefixed with a "#" character (U+0023 NUMBER SIGN), with the first two digits representing the red component, the next two digits representing the green component, and the last two digits representing the blue component, the digits being in the range 0-9 a-f (U+0030 to U+0039 and U+0061 to U+0066). Otherwise, the color value has alpha less than 1.0, and the string is the color value in the CSS rgba() functional-notation format: the literal string rgba (U+0072 U+0067 U+0062 U+0061) followed by a U+0028 LEFT PARENTHESIS, a base-ten integer in the range 0-255 representing the red component (using digits 0-9, U+0030 to U+0039, in the shortest form possible), a literal U+002C COMMA and U+0020 SPACE, an integer for the green component, a comma and a space, an integer for the blue component, another comma and space, a U+0030 DIGIT ZERO, a U+002E FULL STOP (representing the decimal point), one or more digits in the range 0-9 (U+0030 to U+0039) representing the fractional part of the alpha value, and finally a U+0029 RIGHT PARENTHESIS.

When the context is created, the strokeStyle and fillStyle attributes must initially have the string value #000000.

There are two types of gradients, linear gradients and radial gradients, both represented by objects implementing the opaque CanvasGradient interface.

Once a gradient has been created (see below), stops are placed along it to define how the colors are distributed along the gradient. The color of the gradient at each stop is the color specified for that stop. Between each such stop, the colors and the alpha component must be linearly interpolated over the RGBA space without premultiplying the alpha value to find the color to use at that offset. Before the first stop, the color must be the color of the first stop. After the last stop, the color must be the color of the last stop. When there are no stops, the gradient is transparent black.

The addColorStop(offset, color) method on the CanvasGradient interface adds a new stop to a gradient. If the offset is less than 0 or greater than 1 then an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised. If the color cannot be parsed as a CSS color, then a SYNTAX_ERR exception must be raised. Otherwise, the gradient must have a new stop placed, at offset offset relative to the whole gradient, and with the color obtained by parsing color as a CSS <color> value. If multiple stops are added at the same offset on a gradient, they must be placed in the order added, with the first one closest to the start of the gradient, and each subsequent one infinitesimally further along towards the end point (in effect causing all but the first and last stop added at each point to be ignored).

The createLinearGradient(x0, y0, x1, y1) method takes four arguments, representing the start point (x0, y0) and end point (x1, y1) of the gradient, in coordinate space units, and must return a linear CanvasGradient initialised with that line.

Linear gradients must be rendered such that at and before the starting point on the canvas the color at offset 0 is used, that at and after the ending point the color at offset 1 is used, and that all points on a line perpendicular to the line that crosses the start and end points have the color at the point where those two lines cross (with the colors coming from the interpolation described above).

If x0 = x1 and y0 = y1, then the linear gradient must paint nothing.

The createRadialGradient(x0, y0, r0, x1, y1, r1) method takes six arguments, the first three representing the start circle with origin (x0, y0) and radius r0, and the last three representing the end circle with origin (x1, y1) and radius r1. The values are in coordinate space units. The method must return a radial CanvasGradient initialised with those two circles. If either of r0 or r1 are negative, an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised.

Radial gradients must be rendered by following these steps:

  1. Let x(ω) = (x1-x0)ω + x0

    Let y(ω) = (y1-y0)ω + y0

    Let r(ω) = (r1-r0)ω + r0

    Let the color at ω be the color of the gradient at offset 0.0 for all values of ω less than 0.0, the color at offset 1.0 for all values of ω greater than 1.0, and the color at the given offset for values of ω in the range 0.0 ≤ ω ≤ 1.0

  2. For all values of ω where r(ω) > 0, starting with the value of ω nearest to positive infinity and ending with the value of ω nearest to negative infinity, draw the circumference of the circle with radius r(ω) at position (x(ω), y(ω)), with the color at ω, but only painting on the parts of the canvas that have not yet been painted on by earlier circles in this step for this rendering of the gradient.

If x0 = x1 and y0 = y1 and r0 = r1, then the radial gradient must paint nothing.

This effectively creates a cone, touched by the two circles defined in the creation of the gradient, with the part of the cone before the start circle (0.0) using the color of the first offset, the part of the cone after the end circle (1.0) using the color of the last offset, and areas outside the cone untouched by the gradient (transparent black).

Gradients must only be painted where the relevant stroking or filling effects requires that they be drawn.

Support for actually painting gradients is optional. Instead of painting the gradients, user agents may instead just paint the first stop's color. However, createLinearGradient() and createRadialGradient() must always return objects when passed valid arguments.

Patterns are represented by objects implementing the opaque CanvasPattern interface.

To create objects of this type, the createPattern(image, repetition) method is used. The first argument gives the image to use as the pattern (either an HTMLImageElement or an HTMLCanvasElement). Modifying this image after calling the createPattern() method must not affect the pattern. The second argument must be a string with one of the following values: repeat, repeat-x, repeat-y, no-repeat. If the empty string or null is specified, repeat must be assumed. If an unrecognised value is given, then the user agent must raise a SYNTAX_ERR exception. User agents must recognise the four values described above exactly (e.g. they must not do case folding). The method must return a CanvasPattern object suitably initialised.

The image argument must be an instance of an HTMLImageElement or HTMLCanvasElement. If the image is of the wrong type, the implementation must raise a TYPE_MISMATCH_ERR exception. If the image argument is an HTMLImageElement object whose complete attribute is false, then the implementation must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception.

Patterns must be painted so that the top left of the first image is anchored at the origin of the coordinate space, and images are then repeated horizontally to the left and right (if the repeat-x string was specified) or vertically up and down (if the repeat-y string was specified) or in all four directions all over the canvas (if the repeat string was specified). The images are not be scaled by this process; one CSS pixel of the image must be painted on one coordinate space unit. Of course, patterns must only actually painted where the stroking or filling effect requires that they be drawn, and are affected by the current transformation matrix.

Support for patterns is optional. If the user agent doesn't support patterns, then createPattern() must return null.

3.14.11.1.5. Line styles

The lineWidth attribute gives the default width of lines, in coordinate space units. On setting, zero and negative values must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged.

When the context is created, the lineWidth attribute must initially have the value 1.0.

The lineCap attribute defines the type of endings that UAs shall place on the end of lines. The three valid values are butt, round, and square. The butt value means that the end of each line is a flat edge perpendicular to the direction of the line. The round value means that a semi-circle with the diameter equal to the width of the line is then added on to the end of the line. The square value means that at the end of each line is a rectangle with the length of the line width and the width of half the line width, placed flat against the edge perpendicular to the direction of the line. On setting, any other value than the literal strings butt, round, and square must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged.

When the context is created, the lineCap attribute must initially have the value butt.

The lineJoin attribute defines the type of corners that that UAs will place where two lines meet. The three valid values are round, bevel, and miter.

On setting, any other value than the literal strings round, bevel and miter must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged.

When the context is created, the lineJoin attribute must initially have the value miter.

The round value means that a filled arc connecting the corners on the outside of the join, with the diameter equal to the line width, and the origin at the point where the inside edges of the lines touch, must be rendered at joins. The bevel value means that a filled triangle connecting those two corners with a straight line, the third point of the triangle being the point where the lines touch on the inside of the join, must be rendered at joins. The miter value means that a filled four- or five-sided polygon must be placed at the join, with two of the lines being the perpendicular edges of the joining lines, and the other two being continuations of the outside edges of the two joining lines, as long as required to intersect without going over the miter limit.

The miter length is the distance from the point where the lines touch on the inside of the join to the intersection of the line edges on the outside of the join. The miter limit ratio is the maximum allowed ratio of the miter length to the line width. If the miter limit would be exceeded, then a fifth line must be added to the polygon, connecting the two outside lines, such that the distance from the inside point of the join to the point in the middle of this fifth line is the maximum allowed value for the miter length.

The miter limit ratio can be explicitly set using the miterLimit attribute. On setting, zero and negative values must be ignored, leaving the value unchanged.

When the context is created, the miterLimit attribute must initially have the value 10.0.

3.14.11.1.6. Shadows

All drawing operations are affected by the four global shadow attributes.

The shadowColor attribute sets the color of the shadow.

When the context is created, the shadowColor attribute initially must be fully-transparent black.

On getting, the serialisation of the color must be returned.

On setting, the new value must be parsed as a CSS <color> value and the color assigned. If the value is not a valid color, then it must be ignored, and the attribute must retain its previous value. [CSS3COLOR]

The shadowOffsetX and shadowOffsetY attributes specify the distance that the shadow will be offset in the positive horizontal and positive vertical distance respectively. Their values are in coordinate space units. They are not affected by the current transformation matrix.

When the context is created, the shadow offset attributes initially have the value 0.

On getting, they must return their current value. On setting, the attribute being set must be set to the new value.

The shadowBlur attribute specifies the size of the blurring effect. (The units do not map to coordinate space units, and are not affected by the current transformation matrix.)

When the context is created, the shadowBlur attribute must initially have the value 0.

On getting, the attribute must return its current value. On setting, if the value is greater than or equal to zero, then the attribute must be set to the new value; otherwise, the new value is ignored.

Support for shadows is optional. When they are supported, then, when shadows are drawn, they must be rendered as follows:

  1. Let A be the source image for which a shadow is being created.

  2. Let B be an infinite transparent black bitmap, with a coordinate space and an origin identical to A.

  3. Copy the alpha channel of A to B, offset by shadowOffsetX in the positive x direction, and shadowOffsetY in the positive y direction.

  4. If shadowBlur is greater than 0:

    1. If shadowBlur is less than 8, let σ be half the value of shadowBlur; otherwise, let σ be the square root of multiplying the value of shadowBlur by 2.

    2. Perform a 2D Gaussian Blur on B, using σ as the standard deviation.

    User agents may limit values of σ to an implementation-specific maximum value to avoid exceeding hardware limitations during the Gaussian blur operation.

  5. Set the red, green, and blue components of every pixel in B to the red, green, and blue components (respectively) of the color of shadowColor.

  6. Multiply the alpha component of every pixel in B by the alpha component of the color of shadowColor.

  7. The shadow is in the bitmap B, and is rendered as part of the drawing model described below.

3.14.11.1.7. Simple shapes (rectangles)

There are three methods that immediately draw rectangles to the bitmap. They each take four arguments; the first two give the x and y coordinates of the top left of the rectangle, and the second two give the width w and height h of the rectangle, respectively.

The current transformation matrix must be applied to the following four coordinates, which form the path that must then be closed to get the specified rectangle: (x, y), (x+w, y), (x+w, y+h), (x, y+h).

Shapes are painted without affecting the current path, and are subject to clipping paths, and, with the exception of clearRect(), also shadow effects, global alpha, and global composition operators.

Negative values for width and height must cause the implementation to raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

The clearRect() method must clear the pixels in the specified rectangle that also intersect the current clipping path to a fully transparent black, erasing any previous image. If either height or width are zero, this method has no effect.

The fillRect() method must paint the specified rectangular area using the fillStyle. If either height or width are zero, this method has no effect.

The strokeRect() method must stroke the specified rectangle's path using the strokeStyle, lineWidth, lineJoin, and (if appropriate) miterLimit attributes. If both height and width are zero, this method has no effect, since there is no path to stroke (it's a point). If only one of the two is zero, then the method will draw a line instead (the path for the outline is just a straight line along the non-zero dimension).

3.14.11.1.8. Complex shapes (paths)

The context always has a current path. There is only one current path, it is not part of the drawing state.

A path has a list of zero or more subpaths. Each subpath consists of a list of one or more points, connected by straight or curved lines, and a flag indicating whether the subpath is closed or not. A closed subpath is one where the last point of the subpath is connected to the first point of the subpath by a straight line. Subpaths with fewer than two points are ignored when painting the path.

Initially, the context's path must have zero subpaths.

The coordinates given in the arguments to these methods must be transformed according to the current transformation matrix before applying the calculations described below and before adding any points to the path.

The beginPath() method must empty the list of subpaths so that the context once again has zero subpaths.

The moveTo(x, y) method must create a new subpath with the specified point as its first (and only) point.

The closePath() method must do nothing if the context has no subpaths. Otherwise, it must mark the last subpath as closed, create a new subpath whose first point is the same as the previous subpath's first point, and finally add this new subpath to the path. (If the last subpath had more than one point in its list of points, then this is equivalent to adding a straight line connecting the last point back to the first point, thus "closing" the shape, and then repeating the last moveTo() call.)

New points and the lines connecting them are added to subpaths using the methods described below. In all cases, the methods only modify the last subpath in the context's paths.

The lineTo(x, y) method must do nothing if the context has no subpaths. Otherwise, it must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a straight line, and must then add the given point (x, y) to the subpath.

The quadraticCurveTo(cpx, cpy, x, y) method must do nothing if the context has no subpaths. Otherwise it must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a quadratic Bézier curve with control point (cpx, cpy), and must then add the given point (x, y) to the subpath. [BEZIER]

The bezierCurveTo(cp1x, cp1y, cp2x, cp2y, x, y) method must do nothing if the context has no subpaths. Otherwise, it must connect the last point in the subpath to the given point (x, y) using a cubic Bézier curve with control points (cp1x, cp1y) and (cp2x, cp2y). Then, it must add the point (x, y) to the subpath. [BEZIER]

The arcTo(x1, y1, x2, y2, radius) method must do nothing if the context has no subpaths. If the context does have a subpath, then the behaviour depends on the arguments and the last point in the subpath.

Let the point (x0, y0) be the last point in the subpath. Let The Arc be the shortest arc given by circumference of the circle that has one point tangent to the line defined by the points (x0, y0) and (x1, y1), another point tangent to the line defined by the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), and that has radius radius. The points at which this circle touches these two lines are called the start and end tangent points respectively.

If the point (x2, y2) is on the line defined by the points (x0, y0) and (x1, y1) then the method must do nothing, as no arc would satisfy the above constraints.

Otherwise, the method must connect the point (x0, y0) to the start tangent point by a straight line, then connect the start tangent point to the end tangent point by The Arc, and finally add the start and end tangent points to the subpath.

Negative or zero values for radius must cause the implementation to raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

The arc(x, y, radius, startAngle, endAngle, anticlockwise) method draws an arc. If the context has any subpaths, then the method must add a straight line from the last point in the subpath to the start point of the arc. In any case, it must draw the arc between the start point of the arc and the end point of the arc, and add the start and end points of the arc to the subpath. The arc and its start and end points are defined as follows:

Consider a circle that has its origin at (x, y) and that has radius radius. The points at startAngle and endAngle along the circle's circumference, measured in radians clockwise from the positive x-axis, are the start and end points respectively. The arc is the path along the circumference of this circle from the start point to the end point, going anti-clockwise if the anticlockwise argument is true, and clockwise otherwise.

Negative or zero values for radius must cause the implementation to raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

The rect(x, y, w, h) method must create a new subpath containing just the four points (x, y), (x+w, y), (x+w, y+h), (x, y+h), with those four points connected by straight lines, and must then mark the subpath as closed. It must then create a new subpath with the point (x, y) as the only point in the subpath.

Negative values for w and h must cause the implementation to raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

The fill() method must fill each subpath of the current path in turn, using fillStyle, and using the non-zero winding number rule. Open subpaths must be implicitly closed when being filled (without affecting the actual subpaths).

The stroke() method must stroke each subpath of the current path in turn, using the strokeStyle, lineWidth, lineJoin, and (if appropriate) miterLimit attributes.

Paths, when filled or stroked, must be painted without affecting the current path, and must be subject to transformations, shadow effects, global alpha, clipping paths, and global composition operators.

The transformation is applied to the path when it is drawn, not when the path is constructed. Thus, a single path can be constructed and then drawn according to different transformations without recreating the path.

The clip() method must create a new clipping path by calculating the intersection of the current clipping path and the area described by the current path, using the non-zero winding number rule. Open subpaths must be implicitly closed when computing the clipping path, without affecting the actual subpaths.

When the context is created, the initial clipping path is the rectangle with the top left corner at (0,0) and the width and height of the coordinate space.

The isPointInPath(x, y) method must return true if the point given by the x and y coordinates passed to the method, when treated as coordinates in the canvas' coordinate space unaffected by the current transformation, is within the area of the canvas that would be filled if the current path was to be filled; and must return false otherwise.

3.14.11.1.9. Images

To draw images onto the canvas, the drawImage method can be used.

This method is overloaded with three variants: drawImage(image, dx, dy), drawImage(image, dx, dy, dw, dh), and drawImage(image, sx, sy, sw, sh, dx, dy, dw, dh). (Actually it is overloaded with six; each of those three can take either an HTMLImageElement or an HTMLCanvasElement for the image argument.) If not specified, the dw and dh arguments default to the values of sw and sh, interpreted such that one CSS pixel in the image is treated as one unit in the canvas coordinate space. If the sx, sy, sw, and sh arguments are omitted, they default to 0, 0, the image's intrinsic width in image pixels, and the image's intrinsic height in image pixels, respectively.

The image argument must be an instance of an HTMLImageElement or HTMLCanvasElement. If the image is of the wrong type, the implementation must raise a TYPE_MISMATCH_ERR exception. If one of the sy, sw, sw, and sh arguments is outside the size of the image, or if one of the dw and dh arguments is negative, the implementation must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception. If the image argument is an HTMLImageElement object whose complete attribute is false, then the implementation must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception.

When drawImage() is invoked, the specified region of the image specified by the source rectangle (sx, sy, sw, sh) must be painted on the region of the canvas specified by the destination rectangle (dx, dy, dw, dh), after applying the current transformation matrix.

When a canvas is drawn onto itself, the drawing model requires the source to be copied before the image is drawn back onto the canvas, so it is possible to copy parts of a canvas onto overlapping parts of itself.

Images are painted without affecting the current path, and are subject to shadow effects, global alpha, clipping paths, and global composition operators.

3.14.11.1.10. Pixel manipulation

The getImageData(sx, sy, sw, sh) method must return an ImageData object representing the underlying pixel data for the area of the canvas denoted by the rectangle which has its top left corner at the (sx, sy) coordinate, and that has width sw and height sh. Pixels outside the canvas must be returned as transparent black. Pixels must be returned as non-premultiplied alpha values.

ImageData objects must be initialised so that their width attribute is set to w, the number of physical device pixels per row in the image data, their height attribute is set to h, the number of rows in the image data, and the data attribute is initialised to an array of h×w×4 integers. The pixels must be represented in this array in left-to-right order, row by row, starting at the top left, with each pixel's red, green, blue, and alpha components being given in that order. Each component of each device pixel represented in this array must be in the range 0..255, representing the 8 bit value for that component. At least one pixel must be returned.

The values of the data array may be changed (the length of the array, and the other attributes in ImageData objects, are all read-only). On setting, JS undefined values must be converted to zero. Other values must first be converted to numbers using JavaScript's ToNumber algorithm, and if the result is not a number, a TYPE_MISMATCH_ERR exception must be raised. If the result is less than 0, it must be clamped to zero. If the result is more than 255, it must be clamped to 255. If the number is not an integer, it must be rounded to the nearest integer using the IEEE 754r roundTiesToEven rounding mode. [ECMA262] [IEEE754R]

The width and height (w and h) might be different from the sw and sh arguments to the function, e.g. if the canvas is backed by a high-resolution bitmap.

If the getImageData(sx, sy, sw, sh) method is called with either the sw or sh arguments set to zero or negative values, the method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

The putImageData(imagedata, dx, dy) method must take the given ImageData structure, and place it at the specified location (dx, dy) in the canvas coordinate space, mapping each pixel represented by the ImageData structure into one device pixel.

If the first argument to the method is not an object whose [[Class]] property is ImageData, but all of the following conditions are true, then the method must treat the first argument as if it was an ImageData object (and thus not raise the TYPE_MISMATCH_ERR exception):

In the data property, undefined values must be treated as zero, any numbers below zero must be clamped to zero, any numbers above 255 must be clamped to 255, and any numbers that are not integers must be rounded to the nearest integer using the IEEE 754r roundTiesToEven rounding mode. [IEEE754R]

The handling of pixel rounding when the specified coordinates do not exactly map to the device coordinate space is not defined by this specification, except that the following must result in no visible changes to the rendering:

context.putImageData(context.getImageData(x, y, w, h), x, y);

...for any value of x and y. In other words, while user agents may round the arguments of the two methods so that they map to device pixel boundaries, any rounding performed must be performed consistently for both the getImageData() and putImageData() operations.

The current path, transformation matrix, shadow attributes, global alpha, clipping path, and global composition operator must not affect the getImageData() and putImageData() methods.

The data returned by getImageData() is at the resolution of the canvas backing store, which is likely to not be one device pixel to each CSS pixel if the display used is a high resolution display. Thus, while one could create an ImageData object, one would not necessarily know what resolution the canvas expected (how many pixels the canvas wants to paint over one coordinate space unit pixel).

In the following example, the script first obtains the size of the canvas backing store, and then generates a few new ImageData objects which can be used.

  // canvas is a reference to a <canvas> element
  // (note: this example uses JavaScript 1.7 features)
  var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
  var backingStore = context.getImageData(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);
  var actualWidth = backingStore.width;
  var actualHeight = backingStore.height;

  function CreateImageData(w, h) {
    return {
      height: h,
      width: w,
      data: [i for (i in function (n) { for (let i = 0; i < n; i += 1) yield 0 }(w*h*4)) ]
    };
  }

  // create a blank slate
  var data = CreateImageData(actualWidth, actualHeight);

  // create some plasma
  FillPlasma(data, 'green'); // green plasma

  // add a cloud to the plasma
  AddCloud(data, actualWidth/2, actualHeight/2); // put a cloud in the middle

  // paint the plasma+cloud on the canvas
  context.putImageData(data, 0, 0);

  // support methods
  function FillPlasma(data, color) { ... }
  function AddCload(data, x, y) { ... }

Here is an example of using getImageData() and putImageData() to implement an edge detection filter.

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<html>
 <head>
  <title>Edge detection demo</title>
  <script>
   var image = new Image();
   function init() {
     image.onload = demo;
     image.src = "image.jpeg";
   }
   function demo() {
     var canvas = document.getElementsByTagName('canvas')[0];
     var context = canvas.getContext('2d');

     // draw the image onto the canvas
     context.drawImage(image, 0, 0);

     // get the image data to manipulate
     var input = context.getImageData(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);

     // edge detection
     // notice that we are using input.width and input.height here
     // as they might not be the same as canvas.width and canvas.height
     // (in particular, they might be different on high-res displays)
     var w = input.width, h = input.height;
     var inputData = input.data;
     var outputData = new Array(w*h*4);
     for (var y = 1; y < h-1; y += 1) {
       for (var x = 1; x < w-1; x += 1) {
         for (var c = 0; c < 3; c += 1) {
           var i = (y*w + x)*4 + c;
           outputData[i] = 127 + -inputData[i - w*4 - 4] -   inputData[i - w*4] - inputData[i - w*4 + 4] +
                                 -inputData[i - 4]       + 8*inputData[i]       - inputData[i + 4] +
                                 -inputData[i + w*4 - 4] -   inputData[i + w*4] - inputData[i + w*4 + 4];
         }
         outputData[(y*w + x)*4 + 3] = 255; // alpha
       }
     }

     // put the image data back after manipulation
     var output = {
       width: w,
       height: h,
       data: outputData
     };
     context.putImageData(output, 0, 0);
   }
  </script>
 </head>
 <body onload="init()">
  <canvas></canvas>
 </body>
</html>
3.14.11.1.11. Drawing model

When a shape or image is painted, user agents must follow these steps, in the order given (or act as if they do):

  1. Render the shape or image, creating image A, as described in the previous sections. For shapes, the current fill, stroke, and line styles must be honoured, and the stroke must itself also be subjected to the current transformation matrix.

  2. If shadows are supported:

    1. Render the shadow from image A, using the current shadow styles, creating image B.

    2. Multiply the alpha component of every pixel in B by globalAlpha.

    3. Within the clipping path, composite B over the current canvas bitmap using the current composition operator.

  3. Multiply the alpha component of every pixel in A by globalAlpha.

  4. Within the clipping path, composite A over the current canvas bitmap using the current composition operator.

3.14.11.2. Color spaces and color correction

The canvas APIs must perform colour correction at only two points: when rendering images with their own gamma correction information onto the canvas, to convert the image to the color space used by the canvas (e.g. using the drawImage() method with an HTMLImageElement object), and when rendering the actual canvas bitmap to the output device.

Thus, in the 2D context, colors used to draw shapes onto the canvas will exactly match colors obtained through the getImageData() method.

The toDataURL() method must not include color space information in the resource returned.

In user agents that support CSS, the color space used by a canvas element must match the color space used for processing any colors for that element in CSS.

3.14.12. The map element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
None, but the id global attribute has special requirements on this element.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMapElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection areas;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection images;
};

The map element, in conjuction with any area element descendants, defines an image map.

There must always be an id attribute present on map elements.

The areas attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the map element, whose filter matches only area elements.

The images attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the Document node, whose filter matches only img and object elements that are associated with this map element according to the image map processing model.

3.14.13. The area element

Categories
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where phrasing content is expected, but only if there is a map element ancestor.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
alt
coords
shape
href
target
ping
rel
media
hreflang
type
DOM interface:
interface HTMLAreaElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString alt;
           attribute DOMString coords;
           attribute DOMString shape;
           attribute DOMString href;
           attribute DOMString target;
           attribute DOMString ping;
           attribute DOMString rel;
  readonly attribute DOMTokenList relList;
           attribute DOMString media;
           attribute DOMString hreflang;
           attribute DOMString type;
};

The area element represents either a hyperlink with some text and a corresponding area on an image map, or a dead area on an image map.

If the area element has an href attribute, then the area element represents a hyperlink; the alt attribute, which must then be present, specifies the text.

However, if the area element has no href attribute, then the area represented by the element cannot be selected, and the alt attribute must be omitted.

In both cases, the shape and coords attributes specify the area.

The shape attribute is an enumerated attribute. The following table lists the keywords defined for this attribute. The states given in the first cell of the the rows with keywords give the states to which those keywords map. Some of the keywords are non-conforming, as noted in the last column.

State Keywords Notes
Circle state circ Non-conforming
circle
Default state default
Polygon state poly
polygon Non-conforming
Rectangle state rect
rectangle Non-conforming

The attribute may be ommited. The missing value default is the rectangle state.

The coords attribute must, if specified, contain a valid list of integers. This attribute gives the coordinates for the shape described by the shape attribute. The processing for this attribute is described as part of the image map processing model.

In the circle state, area elements must have a coords attribute present, with three integers, the last of which must be non-negative. The first integer must be the distance in CSS pixels from the left edge of the image to the center of the circle, the second integer must be the distance in CSS pixels from the top edge of the image to the center of the circle, and the third integer must be the radius of the circle, again in CSS pixels.

In the default state state, area elements must not have a coords attribute.

In the polygon state, area elements must have a coords attribute with at least six integers, and the number of integers must be even. Each pair of integers must represent a coordinate given as the distances from the left and the top of the image in CSS pixels respectively, and all the coordinates together must represent the points of the polygon, in order.

In the rectangle state, area elements must have a coords attribute with exactly four integers, the first of which must be less than the third, and the second of which must be less than the fourth. The four points must represent, respectively, the distance from the left edge of the image to the top left side of the rectangle, the distance from the top edge to the top side, the distance from the left edge to the right side, and the distance from the top edge to the bottom side, all in CSS pixels.

When user agents allow users to follow hyperlinks created using the area element, as described in the next section, the href, target and ping attributes decide how the link is followed. The rel, media, hreflang, and type attributes may be used to indicate to the user the likely nature of the target resource before the user follows the link.

The target, ping, rel, media, hreflang, and type attributes must be omitted if the href attribute is not present.

The activation behavior of area elements is to run the following steps:

  1. If the DOMActivate event in question is not trusted (i.e. a click() method call was the reason for the event being dispatched), and the area element's target attribute is ... then raise an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception.
  2. Otherwise, the user agent must follow the hyperlink defined by the area element, if any.

One way that a user agent can enable users to follow hyperlinks is by allowing area elements to be clicked, or focussed and activated by the keyboard. This will cause the aforementioned activation behavior to be invoked.

The DOM attributes alt, coords, shape, href, target, ping, rel, media, hreflang, and type, each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM attribute relList must reflect the rel content attribute.

3.14.14. Image maps

An image map allows geometric areas on an image to be associated with hyperlinks.

An image, in the form of an img element or an object element representing an image, may be associated with an image map (in the form of a map element) by specifying a usemap attribute on the img or object element. The usemap attribute, if specified, must be a valid hashed ID reference to a map element.

If an img element or an object element representing an image has a usemap attribute specified, user agents must process it as follows:

  1. First, rules for parsing a hashed ID reference to a map element must be followed. This will return either an element (the map) or null.

  2. If that returned null, then abort these steps. The image is not associated with an image map after all.

  3. Otherwise, the user agent must collect all the area elements that are descendants of the map. Let those be the areas.

Having obtained the list of area elements that form the image map (the areas), interactive user agents must process the list in one of two ways.

If the user agent intends to show the text that the img element represents, then it must use the following steps.

In user agents that do not support images, or that have images disabled, object elements cannot represent images, and thus this section never applies (the fallback content is shown instead). The following steps therefore only apply to img elements.

  1. Remove all the area elements in areas that have no href attribute.

  2. Remove all the area elements in areas that have no alt attribute, or whose alt attribute's value is the empty string, if there is another area element in areas with the same value in the href attribute and with a non-empty alt attribute.

  3. Each remaining area element in areas represents a hyperlink. Those hyperlinks should all be made available to the user in a manner associated with the text of the img or input element.

    In this context, user agents may represent area and img elements with no specified alt attributes, or whose alt attributes are the empty string or some other non-visible text, in a user-agent-defined fashion intended to indicate the lack of suitable author-provided text.

If the user agent intends to show the image and allow interaction with the image to select hyperlinks, then the image must be associated with a set of layered shapes, taken from the area elements in areas, in reverse tree order (so the last specified area element in the map is the bottom-most shape, and the first element in the map, in tree order, is the top-most shape).

Each area element in areas must be processed as follows to obtain a shape to layer onto the image:

  1. Find the state that the element's shape attribute represents.

  2. Use the rules for parsing a list of integers to parse the element's coords attribute, if it is present, and let the result be the coords list. If the attribute is absent, let the coords list be the empty list.

  3. If the number of items in the coords list is less than the minimum number given for the area element's current state, as per the following table, then the shape is empty; abort these steps.

    State Minimum number of items
    Circle state 3
    Default state 0
    Polygon state 6
    Rectangle state 4
  4. Check for excess items in the coords list as per the entry in the following list corresponding to the shape attribute's state:

    Circle state
    Drop any items in the list beyond the third.
    Default state
    Drop all items in the list.
    Polygon state
    Drop the last item if there's an odd number of items.
    Rectangle state
    Drop any items in the list beyond the fourth.
  5. If the shape attribute represents the rectangle state, and the first number in the list is numerically less than the third number in the list, then swap those two numbers around.

  6. If the shape attribute represents the rectangle state, and the second number in the list is numerically less than the fourth number in the list, then swap those two numbers around.

  7. If the shape attribute represents the circle state, and the third number in the list is less than or equal to zero, then the shape is empty; abort these steps.

  8. Now, the shape represented by the element is the one described for the entry in the list below corresponding to the state of the shape attribute:

    Circle state

    Let x be the first number in coords, y be the second number, and r be the third number.

    The shape is a circle whose center is x CSS pixels from the left edge of the image and x CSS pixels from the top edge of the image, and whose radius is r pixels.

    Default state

    The shape is a rectangle that exactly covers the entire image.

    Polygon state

    Let xi be the (2i)th entry in coords, and yi be the (2i+1)th entry in coords (the first entry in coords being the one with index 0).

    Let the coordinates be (xi, yi), interpreted in CSS pixels measured from the top left of the image, for all integer values of i from 0 to (N/2)-1, where N is the number of items in coords.

    The shape is a polygon whose vertices are given by the coordinates, and whose interior is established using the even-odd rule. [GRAPHICS]

    Rectangle state

    Let x1 be the first number in coords, y1 be the second number, x2 be the third number, and y2 be the fourth number.

    The shape is a rectangle whose top-left corner is given by the coordinate (x1, y1) and whose bottom right corner is given by the coordinate (x2, y2), those coordinates being interpreted as CSS pixels from the top left corner of the image.

    For historical reasons, the coordinates must be interpreted relative to the displayed image, even if it stretched using CSS or the image element's width and height attributes.

Mouse clicks on an image associated with a set of layered shapes per the above algorithm must be dispatched to the top-most shape covering the point that the pointing device indicated (if any), and then, must be dispatched again (with a new Event object) to the image element itself. User agents may also allow individual area elements representing hyperlinks to be selected and activated (e.g. using a keyboard); events from this are not also propagated to the image.

Because a map element (and its area elements) can be associated with multiple img and object elements, it is possible for an area element to correspond to multiple focusable areas of the document.

Image maps are live; if the DOM is mutated, then the user agent must act as if it had rerun the algorithms for image maps.

3.14.15. Dimension attributes

The width and height attributes on img, embed, object, and video elements may be specified to give the dimensions of the visual content of the element (the width and height respectively, relative to the nominal direction of the output medium), in CSS pixels. The attributes, if specified, must have values that are valid positive non-zero integers.

The specified dimensions given may differ from the dimensions specified in the resource itself, since the resource may have a resolution that differs from the CSS pixel resolution. (On screens, CSS pixels have a resolution of 96ppi, but in general the CSS pixel resolution depends on the reading distance.) If both attributes are specified, then the ratio of the specified width to the specified height must be the same as the ratio of the logical width to the logical height in the resource. The two attributes must be omitted if the resource in question does not have both a logical width and a logical height.

To parse the attributes, user agents must use the rules for parsing dimension values. This will return either an integer length, a percentage value, or nothing. The user agent requirements for processing the values obtained from parsing these attributes are described in the rendering section. If one of these attributes, when parsing, returns no value, it must be treated, for the purposes of those requirements, as if it was not specified.

The width and height DOM attributes on the embed, object, and video elements must reflect the content attributes of the same name.

3.15. Tabular data

3.15.1. The table element

Categories
Prose content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
In this order: optionally a caption element, followed by either zero or more colgroup elements, followed optionally by a thead element, followed optionally by a tfoot element, followed by either zero or more tbody elements or one or more tr elements, followed optionally by a tfoot element (but there can only be one tfoot element child in total).
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute HTMLTableCaptionElement caption;
  HTMLElement createCaption();
  void deleteCaption();
           attribute HTMLTableSectionElement tHead;
  HTMLElement createTHead();
  void deleteTHead();
           attribute HTMLTableSectionElement tFoot;
  HTMLElement createTFoot();
  void deleteTFoot();
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection tBodies;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection rows;
  HTMLElement insertRow(in long index);
  void deleteRow(in long index);
};

The table element represents data with more than one dimension (a table).

we need some editorial text on how layout tables are bad practice and non-conforming

The children of a table element must be, in order:

  1. Zero or one caption elements.

  2. Zero or more colgroup elements.

  3. Zero or one thead elements.

  4. Zero or one tfoot elements, if the last element in the table is not a tfoot element.

  5. Either:

  6. Zero or one tfoot element, if there are no other tfoot elements in the table.

The table element takes part in the table model.

The caption DOM attribute must return, on getting, the first caption element child of the table element. On setting, if the new value is a caption element, the first caption element child of the table element, if any, must be removed, and the new value must be inserted as the first node of the table element. If the new value is not a caption element, then a HIERARCHY_REQUEST_ERR DOM exception must be raised instead.

The createCaption() method must return the first caption element child of the table element, if any; otherwise a new caption element must be created, inserted as the first node of the table element, and then returned.

The deleteCaption() method must remove the first caption element child of the table element, if any.

The tHead DOM attribute must return, on getting, the first thead element child of the table element. On setting, if the new value is a thead element, the first thead element child of the table element, if any, must be removed, and the new value must be inserted immediately before the first element in the table element that is neither a caption element nor a colgroup element, if any, or at the end of the table otherwise. If the new value is not a thead element, then a HIERARCHY_REQUEST_ERR DOM exception must be raised instead.

The createTHead() method must return the first thead element child of the table element, if any; otherwise a new thead element must be created and inserted immediately before the first element in the table element that is neither a caption element nor a colgroup element, if any, or at the end of the table otherwise, and then that new element must be returned.

The deleteTHead() method must remove the first thead element child of the table element, if any.

The tFoot DOM attribute must return, on getting, the first tfoot element child of the table element. On setting, if the new value is a tfoot element, the first tfoot element child of the table element, if any, must be removed, and the new value must be inserted immediately before the first element in the table element that is neither a caption element, a colgroup element, nor a thead element, if any, or at the end of the table if there are no such elements. If the new value is not a tfoot element, then a HIERARCHY_REQUEST_ERR DOM exception must be raised instead.

The createTFoot() method must return the first tfoot element child of the table element, if any; otherwise a new tfoot element must be created and inserted immediately before the first element in the table element that is neither a caption element, a colgroup element, nor a thead element, if any, or at the end of the table if there are no such elements, and then that new element must be returned.

The deleteTFoot() method must remove the first tfoot element child of the table element, if any.

The tBodies attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the table node, whose filter matches only tbody elements that are children of the table element.

The rows attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the table node, whose filter matches only tr elements that are either children of the table element, or children of thead, tbody, or tfoot elements that are themselves children of the table element. The elements in the collection must be ordered such that those elements whose parent is a thead are included first, in tree order, followed by those elements whose parent is either a table or tbody element, again in tree order, followed finally by those elements whose parent is a tfoot element, still in tree order.

The behaviour of the insertRow(index) method depends on the state of the table. When it is called, the method must act as required by the first item in the following list of conditions that describes the state of the table and the index argument:

If index is less than -1 or greater than the number of elements in rows collection:
The method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.
If the rows collection has zero elements in it, and the table has no tbody elements in it:
The method must create a tbody element, then create a tr element, then append the tr element to the tbody element, then append the tbody element to the table element, and finally return the tr element.
If the rows collection has zero elements in it:
The method must create a tr element, append it to the last tbody element in the table, and return the tr element.
If index is equal to -1 or equal to the number of items in rows collection:
The method must create a tr element, and append it to the parent of the last tr element in the rows collection. Then, the newly created tr element must be returned.
Otherwise:
The method must create a tr element, insert it immediately before the indexth tr element in the rows collection, in the same parent, and finally must return the newly created tr element.

The deleteRow(index) method must remove the indexth element in the rows collection from its parent. If index is less than zero or greater than or equal to the number of elements in the rows collection, the method must instead raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

3.15.2. The caption element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As the first element child of a table element.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The caption element represents the title of the table that is its parent, if it has a parent and that is a table element.

The caption element takes part in the table model.

3.15.3. The colgroup element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a table element, after any caption elements and before any thead, tbody, tfoot, and tr elements.
Content model:
Zero or more col elements.
Element-specific attributes:
span
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableColElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute unsigned long span;
};

The colgroup element represents a group of one or more columns in the table that is its parent, if it has a parent and that is a table element.

If the colgroup element contains no col elements, then the element may have a span content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns either an error or zero, is 1.

The colgroup element and its span attribute take part in the table model.

The span DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, with the exception that on setting, if the new value is 0, then an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised.

3.15.4. The col element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a colgroup element that doesn't have a span attribute.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
span
DOM interface:

HTMLTableColElement, same as for colgroup elements. This interface defines one member, span.

If a col element has a parent and that is a colgroup element that itself has a parent that is a table element, then the col element represents one or more columns in the column group represented by that colgroup.

The element may have a span content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns either an error or zero, is 1.

The col element and its span attribute take part in the table model.

The span DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, with the exception that on setting, if the new value is 0, then an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised.

3.15.5. The tbody element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a table element, after any caption, colgroup, and thead elements, but only if there are no tr elements that are children of the table element.
Content model:
One or more tr elements
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableSectionElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection rows;
  HTMLElement insertRow(in long index);
  void deleteRow(in long index);
};

The HTMLTableSectionElement interface is also used for thead and tfoot elements.

The tbody element represents a block of rows that consist of a body of data for the parent table element, if the tbody element has a parent and it is a table.

The tbody element takes part in the table model.

The rows attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the element, whose filter matches only tr elements that are children of the element.

The insertRow(index) method must, when invoked on an element table section, act as follows:

If index is less than -1 or greater than the number of elements in the rows collection, the method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

If index is equal to -1 or equal to the number of items in the rows collection, the method must create a tr element, append it to the element table section, and return the newly created tr element.

Otherwise, the method must create a tr element, insert it as a child of the table section element, immediately before the indexth tr element in the rows collection, and finally must return the newly created tr element.

The deleteRow(index) method must remove the indexth element in the rows collection from its parent. If index is less than zero or greater than or equal to the number of elements in the rows collection, the method must instead raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

3.15.6. The thead element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a table element, after any caption, and colgroup elements and before any tbody, tfoot, and tr elements, but only if there are no other thead elements that are children of the table element.
Content model:
One or more tr elements
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
HTMLTableSectionElement, as defined for tbody elements.

The thead element represents the block of rows that consist of the column labels (headers) for the parent table element, if the thead element has a parent and it is a table.

The thead element takes part in the table model.

3.15.7. The tfoot element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a table element, after any caption, colgroup, and thead elements and before any tbody and tr elements, but only if there are no other tfoot elements that are children of the table element.
As a child of a table element, after any caption, colgroup, thead, tbody, and tr elements, but only if there are no other tfoot elements that are children of the table element.
Content model:
One or more tr elements
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
HTMLTableSectionElement, as defined for tbody elements.

The tfoot element represents the block of rows that consist of the column summaries (footers) for the parent table element, if the tfoot element has a parent and it is a table.

The tfoot element takes part in the table model.

3.15.8. The tr element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a thead element.
As a child of a tbody element.
As a child of a tfoot element.
As a child of a table element, after any caption, colgroup, and thead elements, but only if there are no tbody elements that are children of the table element.
Content model:
One or more td or th elements
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableRowElement : HTMLElement {
  readonly attribute long rowIndex;
  readonly attribute long sectionRowIndex;
  readonly attribute HTMLCollection cells;
  HTMLElement insertCell(in long index);
  void deleteCell(in long index);
};

The tr element represents a row of cells in a table.

The tr element takes part in the table model.

The rowIndex element must, if the element has a parent table element, or a parent tbody, thead, or tfoot element and a grandparent table element, return the index of the tr element in that table element's rows collection. If there is no such table element, then the attribute must return 0.

The sectionRowIndex DOM attribute must, if the element has a parent table, tbody, thead, or tfoot element, return the index of the tr element in the parent element's rows collection (for tables, that's the rows collection; for table sections, that's the rows collection). If there is no such parent element, then the attribute must return 0.

The cells attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the tr element, whose filter matches only td and th elements that are children of the tr element.

The insertCell(index) method must act as follows:

If index is less than -1 or greater than the number of elements in the cells collection, the method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

If index is equal to -1 or equal to the number of items in cells collection, the method must create a td element, append it to the tr element, and return the newly created td element.

Otherwise, the method must create a td element, insert it as a child of the tr element, immediately before the indexth td or th element in the cells collection, and finally must return the newly created td element.

The deleteCell(index) method must remove the indexth element in the cells collection from its parent. If index is less than zero or greater than or equal to the number of elements in the cells collection, the method must instead raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception.

3.15.9. The td element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a tr element.
Content model:
Prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
colspan
rowspan
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableCellElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute long colSpan;
           attribute long rowSpan;
  readonly attribute long cellIndex;
};

The td element represents a data cell in a table.

The td element may have a colspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns either an error or zero, is 1.

The td element may also have a rowspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns an error, is also 1.

The td element and its colspan and rowspan attributes take part in the table model.

The colspan DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, with the exception that on setting, if the new value is 0, then an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception must be raised.

The rowspan DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The cellIndex DOM attribute must, if the element has a parent tr element, return the index of the cell's element in the parent element's cells collection. If there is no such parent element, then the attribute must return 0.

There has been some suggestion that the headers attribute from HTML4, or some other mechanism that is more powerful than scope="", should be included. This has not yet been considered.

3.15.10. The th element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
As a child of a tr element.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
colspan
rowspan
scope
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableHeaderCellElement : HTMLTableCellElement {
           attribute DOMString scope;
};

The th element represents a header cell in a table.

The th element may have a colspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns either an error or zero, is 1.

The th element may also have a rowspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns an error, is also 1.

The th element may have a scope content attribute specified. The scope attribute is an enumerated attribute with five states, four of which have explicit keywords:

The row keyword, which maps to the row state
The row state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the row.
The col keyword, which maps to the column state
The column state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the column.
The rowgroup keyword, which maps to the row group state
The row group state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the row group.
The colgroup keyword, which maps to the column group state
The column group state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the column group.
The auto state
The auto state makes the header cell apply to a set of cells selected based on context.

The scope attribute's missing value default is the auto state.

The exact effect of these values is described in detail in the algorithm for assigning header cells to data cells, which user agents must apply to determine the relationships between data cells and header cells.

The th element and its colspan, rowspan, and scope attributes take part in the table model.

The scope DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

The HTMLTableHeaderCellElement interface inherits from the HTMLTableCellElement interface and therefore also has the DOM attributes defined above in the td section.

3.15.11. Processing model

The various table elements and their content attributes together define the table model.

A table consists of cells aligned on a two-dimensional grid of slots with coordinates (x, y). The grid is finite, and is either empty or has one or more slots. If the grid has one or more slots, then the x coordinates are always in the range 1 ≤ x ≤ xmax, and the y coordinates are always in the range 1 ≤ y ≤ ymax. If one or both of xmax and ymax are zero, then the table is empty (has no slots). Tables correspond to table elements.

A cell is a set of slots anchored at a slot (cellx, celly), and with a particular width and height such that the cell covers all the slots with coordinates (x, y) where cellx ≤ x < cellx+width and celly ≤ y < celly+height. Cell can either be data cells or header cells. Data cells correspond to td elements, and have zero or more associated header cells. Header cells correspond to th elements.

A row is a complete set of slots from x=1 to x=xmax, for a particular value of y. Rows correspond to tr elements.

A column is a complete set of slots from y=1 to y=ymax, for a particular value of x. Columns can correspond to col elements, but in the absense of col elements are implied.

A row group is a set of rows anchored at a slot (1, groupy) with a particular height such that the row group covers all the slots with coordinates (x, y) where 1 ≤ x < xmax and groupy ≤ y < groupy+height. Row groups correspond to tbody, thead, and tfoot elements. Not every row is necessarily in a row group.

A column group is a set of columns anchored at a slot (groupx, 1) with a particular width such that the column group covers all the slots with coordinates (x, y) where groupx ≤ x < groupx+width and 1 ≤ y < ymax. Column groups correspond to colgroup elements. Not every column is necessarily in a column group.

Row groups cannot overlap each other. Similarly, column groups cannot overlap each other.

A cell cannot cover slots that are from two or more row groups. It is, however, possible for a cell to be in multiple column groups. All the slots that form part of one cell are part of zero or one row groups and zero or more column groups.

In addition to cells, columns, rows, row groups, and column groups, tables can have a caption element associated with them. This gives the table a heading, or legend.

A table model error is an error with the data represented by table elements and their descendants. Documents must not have table model errors.

3.15.11.1. Forming a table

To determine which elements correspond to which slots in a table associated with a table element, to determine the dimensions of the table (xmax and ymax), and to determine if there are any table model errors, user agents must use the following algorithm:

  1. Let xmax be zero.

  2. Let ymax be zero.

  3. Let the table be the table represented by the table element. The xmax and ymax variables give the table's extent. The table is initially empty.

  4. If the table element has no table children, then return the table (which will be empty), and abort these steps.

  5. Let the current element be the first element child of the table element.

    If a step in this algorithm ever requires the current element to be advanced to the next child of the table when there is no such next child, then the algorithm must be aborted at that point and the algorithm must return the table.

  6. While the current element is not one of the following elements, advance the current element to the next child of the table:

  7. If the current element is a caption, then that is the caption element associated with the table. Otherwise, it has no associated caption element.

  8. If the current element is a caption, then while the current element is not one of the following elements, advance the current element to the next child of the table:

    (Otherwise, the current element will already be one of those elements.)

  9. If the current element is a colgroup, follow these substeps:

    1. Column groups. Process the current element according to the appropriate one of the following two cases:

      If the current element has any col element children

      Follow these steps:

      1. Let xstart have the value xmax+1.

      2. Let the current column be the first col element child of the colgroup element.

      3. Columns. If the current column col element has a span attribute, then parse its value using the rules for parsing non-negative integers.

        If the result of parsing the value is not an error or zero, then let span be that value.

        Otherwise, if the col element has no span attribute, or if trying to parse the attribute's value resulted in an error, then let span be 1.

      4. Increase xmax by span.

      5. Let the last span columns in the table correspond to the current column col element.

      6. If current column is not the last col element child of the colgroup element, then let the current column be the next col element child of the colgroup element, and return to the third step of this innermost group of steps (columns).

      7. Let all the last columns in the table from x=xstart to x=xmax form a new column group, anchored at the slot (xstart, 1), with width xmax-xstart-1, corresponding to the colgroup element.

      If the current element has no col element children
      1. If the colgroup element has a span attribute, then parse its value using the rules for parsing non-negative integers.

        If the result of parsing the value is not an error or zero, then let span be that value.

        Otherwise, if the colgroup element has no span attribute, or if trying to parse the attribute's value resulted in an error, then let span be 1.

      2. Increase xmax by span.

      3. Let the last span columns in the table form a new column group, anchored at the slot (xmax-span+1, 1), with width span, corresponding to the colgroup element.

    2. Advance the current element to the next child of the table.

    3. While the current element is not one of the following elements, advance the current element to the next child of the table:

    4. If the current element is a colgroup element, jump to step 1 in these substeps (column groups).

  10. Let ycurrent be zero. When the algorithm is aborted, if ycurrent does not equal ymax, then that is a table model error.

  11. Let the list of downward-growing cells be an empty list.

  12. Rows. While the current element is not one of the following elements, advance the current element to the next child of the table:

  13. If the current element is a tr, then run the algorithm for processing rows (defined below), then return to the previous step (rows).

  14. Otherwise, run the algorithm for ending a row group.

  15. Let ystart have the value ymax+1.

  16. For each tr element that is a child of the current element, in tree order, run the algorithm for processing rows (defined below).

  17. If ymax ≥ ystart, then let all the last rows in the table from y=ystart to y=ymax form a new row group, anchored at the slot with coordinate (1, ystart), with height ymax-ystart+1, corresponding to the current element.

  18. Run the algorithm for ending a row group again.

  19. Return to step 12 (rows).

The algorithm for ending a row group, which is invoked by the set of steps above when starting and ending a block of rows, is:

  1. If ycurrent is less than ymax, then this is a table model error.

  2. While ycurrent is less than ymax, follow these steps:

    1. Increase ycurrent by 1.

    2. Run the algorithm for growing downward-growing cells.

  3. Empty the list of downward-growing cells.

The algorithm for processing rows, which is invoked by the set of steps above for processing tr elements, is:

  1. Increase ycurrent by 1.

  2. Run the algorithm for growing downward-growing cells.

  3. Let xcurrent be 1.

  4. If the tr element being processed contains no td or th elements, then abort this set of steps and return to the algorithm above.

  5. Let current cell be the first td or th element in the tr element being processed.

  6. Cells. While xcurrent is less than or equal to xmax and the slot with coordinate (xcurrent, ycurrent) already has a cell assigned to it, increase xcurrent by 1.

  7. If xcurrent is greater than xmax, increase xmax by 1 (which will make them equal).

  8. If the current cell has a colspan attribute, then parse that attribute's value, and let colspan be the result.

    If parsing that value failed, or returned zero, or if the attribute is absent, then let colspan be 1, instead.

  9. If the current cell has a rowspan attribute, then parse that attribute's value, and let rowspan be the result.

    If parsing that value failed or if the attribute is absent, then let rowspan be 1, instead.

  10. If rowspan is zero, then let cell grows downward be true, and set rowspan to 1. Otherwise, let cell grows downward be false.

  11. If xmax < xcurrent+colspan-1, then let xmax be xcurrent+colspan-1.

  12. If ymax < ycurrent+rowspan-1, then let ymax be ycurrent+rowspan-1.

  13. Let the slots with coordinates (x, y) such that xcurrent ≤ x < xcurrent+colspan and ycurrent ≤ y < ycurrent+rowspan be covered by a new cell c, anchored at (xcurrent, ycurrent), which has width colspan and height rowspan, corresponding to the current cell element.

    If the current cell element is a th element, let this new cell c be a header cell; otherwise, let it be a data cell. To establish what header cells apply to a data cell, use the algorithm for assigning header cells to data cells described in the next section.

    If any of the slots involved already had a cell covering them, then this is a table model error. Those slots now have two cells overlapping.

  14. If cell grows downward is true, then add the tuple {c, xcurrent, colspan} to the list of downward-growing cells.

  15. Increase xcurrent by colspan.

  16. If current cell is the last td or th element in the tr element being processed, then abort this set of steps and return to the algorithm above.

  17. Let current cell be the next td or th element in the tr element being processed.

  18. Return to step 5 (cells).

The algorithm for growing downward-growing cells, used when adding a new row, is as follows:

  1. If the list of downward-growing cells is empty, do nothing. Abort these steps; return to the step that invoked this algorithm.

  2. Otherwise, if ymax is less than ycurrent, then increase ymax by 1 (this will make it equal to ycurrent).

  3. For each {cell, cellx, width} tuple in the list of downward-growing cells, extend the cell cell so that it also covers the slots with coordinates (x, ycurrent), where cellx ≤ x < cellx+width-1.

If, after establishing which elements correspond to which slots, there exists a column in the table containing only slots that do not have a cell anchored to them, then this is a table model error.

3.15.11.2. Forming relationships between data cells and header cells

Each data cell can be assigned zero or more header cells. The algorithm for assigning header cells to data cells is as follows.

For each header cell in the table, in tree order:

  1. Let (headerx, headery) be the coordinate of the slot to which the header cell is anchored.

  2. Examine the scope attribute of the th element corresponding to the header cell, and, based on its state, apply the appropriate substep:

    If it is in the row state

    Assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where headerx < datax ≤ xmax and datay = headery.

    If it is in the column state

    Assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where datax = headerx and headery < datay ≤ ymax.

    If it is in the row group state

    If the header cell is not in a row group, then don't assign the header cell to any data cells.

    Otherwise, let (1, groupy) be the slot at which the row group is anchored, let height be the number of rows in the row group, and assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where headerx ≤ datax ≤ xmax and headery ≤ datay < groupy+height.

    If it is in the column group state

    If the header cell is not in a column group, then don't assign the header cell to any data cells.

    Otherwise, let (groupx, 1) be the slot at which the column group is anchored, let width be the number of columns in the column group, and assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where headerx ≤ datax < groupx+width and headery ≤ datay ≤ ymax.

    Otherwise, it is in the auto state

    If the header cell is not in the first row of the table, or not in the first cell of a row, then don't assign the header cell to any data cells.

    Otherwise, if the header cell is in the first row of the table, assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where datax = headerx and headery < datay ≤ ymax.

    Otherwise, the header cell is in the first column of the table; assign the header cell to any data cells anchored at slots with coordinates (datax, datay) where headerx < datax ≤ xmax and datay = headery.

3.16. Forms

This section will contain definitions of the form element and so forth.

This section will be a rewrite of the HTML4 Forms and Web Forms 2.0 specifications, with hopefully no normative changes.

3.16.1. The form element

3.16.2. The fieldset element

3.16.3. The input element

3.16.4. The button element

3.16.5. The label element

3.16.6. The select element

3.16.7. The datalist element

3.16.8. The optgroup element

3.16.9. The option element

3.16.10. The textarea element

3.16.11. The output element

3.16.12. Processing model

See WF2 for now

3.16.12.1. Form submission

See WF2 for now

3.17. Scripting

3.17.1. The script element

Categories
Metadata content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
If there is no src attribute, depends on the value of the type attribute.
If there is a src attribute, the element must be empty.
Element-specific attributes:
src
async
defer
type
DOM interface:
interface HTMLScriptElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString src;
           attribute boolean async;
           attribute boolean defer;
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString text;
};

The script element allows authors to include dynamic script in their documents.

When the src attribute is set, the script element refers to an external file. The value of the attribute must be a URI (or IRI).

If the src attribute is not set, then the script is given by the contents of the element.

The language of the script may be given by the type attribute. If the attribute is present, its value must be a valid MIME type, optionally with parameters. [RFC2046]

The async and defer attributes are boolean attributes that indicate how the script should be executed.

There are three possible modes that can be selected using these attributes. If the async attribute is present, then the script will be executed asynchronously, as soon as it is available. If the async attribute is not present but the defer attribute is present, then the script is executed when the page has finished parsing. If neither attribute is present, then the script is downloaded and executed immediately, before the user agent continues parsing the page. The exact processing details for these attributes is described below.

The defer attribute may be specified even if the async attribute is specified, to cause legacy Web browsers that only support defer (and not async) to fall back to the defer behavior instead of the synchronous blocking behavior that is the default.

Changing the src, type, async, and defer attributes dynamically has no direct effect; these attribute are only used at specific times described below (namely, when the element is inserted into the document).

script elements have three associated pieces of metadata. The first is a flag indicating whether or not the script block has been "already executed". Initially, script elements must have this flag unset (script blocks, when created, are not "already executed"). When a script element is cloned, the "already executed" flag, if set, must be propagated to the clone when it is created. The second is a flag indicating whether the element was "parser-inserted". This flag is set by the HTML parser and is used to handle document.write() calls. The third piece of metadata is the script's type. It is determined when the script is run, based on the attributes on the element at that time.

Running a script: when a script block is inserted into a document, the user agent must act as follows:

  1. If the script element has a type attribute but its value is the empty string, or if the script element has no type attribute but it has a language attribute, and that attribute's value is the empty string, let the script's type for this script element be "text/javascript".

    Otherwise, if the script element has a type attribute, let the script's type for this script element be the value of that attribute.

    Otherwise, if the element has a language attribute, let the script's type for this script element be the concatenation of the string "text/" followed by the value of the language attribute.

  2. If scripting is disabled, or if the Document has designMode enabled, or if the script element was created by an XML parser that itself was created as part of the processing of the innerHTML attribute's setter, or if the user agent does not support the scripting language given by the script's type for this script element, or if the script element has its "already executed" flag set, then the user agent must abort these steps at this point. The script is not executed.

  3. The user agent must set the element's "already executed" flag.

  4. If the element has a src attribute, then a load for the specified content must be started.

    Later, once the load has completed, the user agent will have to complete the steps described below.

    For performance reasons, user agents may start loading the script as soon as the attribute is set, instead, in the hope that the element will be inserted into the document. Either way, once the element is inserted into the document, the load must have started. If the UA performs such prefetching, but the element is never inserted in the document, or the src attribute is dynamically changed, then the user agent will not execute the script, and the load will have been effectively wasted.

  5. Then, the first of the following options that describes the situation must be followed:

    If the document is still being parsed, and the element has a defer attribute, and the element does not have an async attribute
    The element must be added to the end of the list of scripts that will execute when the document has finished parsing. The user agent must begin the next set of steps when the script is ready. This isn't compatible with IE for inline deferred scripts, but then what IE does is pretty hard to pin down exactly. Do we want to keep this like it is? Be more compatible?
    If the element has an async attribute and a src attribute
    The element must be added to the end of the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously. The user agent must jump to the next set of steps once the script is ready.
    If the element has an async attribute but no src attribute, and the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously is not empty
    The element must be added to the end of the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously.
    If the element has a src attribute and has been flagged as "parser-inserted"
    The element is the script that will execute as soon as the parser resumes. (There can only be one such script at a time.)
    If the element has a src attribute
    The element must be added to the end of the list of scripts that will execute as soon as possible. The user agent must jump to the next set of steps when the script is ready.
    Otherwise
    The user agent must immediately execute the script, even if other scripts are already executing.

When a script completes loading: If a script whose element was added to one of the lists mentioned above completes loading while the document is still being parsed, then the parser handles it. Otherwise, when a script completes loading, the UA must run the following steps as soon as as any other scripts that may be executing have finished executing:

If the script's element was added to the list of scripts that will execute when the document has finished parsing:
  1. If the script's element is not the first element in the list, then do nothing yet. Stop going through these steps.

  2. Otherwise, execute the script (that is, the script associated with the first element in the list).

  3. Remove the script's element from the list (i.e. shift out the first entry in the list).

  4. If there are any more entries in the list, and if the script associated with the element that is now the first in the list is already loaded, then jump back to step two to execute it.

If the script's element was added to the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously:
  1. If the script is not the first element in the list, then do nothing yet. Stop going through these steps.

  2. Execute the script (the script associated with the first element in the list).

  3. Remove the script's element from the list (i.e. shift out the first entry in the list).

  4. If there are any more scripts in the list, and the element now at the head of the list had no src attribute when it was added to the list, or had one, but its associated script has finished loading, then jump back to step two to execute the script associated with this element.

If the script's element was added to the list of scripts that will execute as soon as possible:
  1. Execute the script.

  2. Remove the script's element from the list.

If the script is the script that will execute as soon as the parser resumes:

The script will be handled when the parser resumes (amazingly enough).

The download of an external script must delay the load event.

Executing a script block: If the load resulted in an error (for example a DNS error, or an HTTP 404 error), then executing the script must just consist of firing an error event at the element.

If the load was successful, then first the user agent must fire a load event at the element, and then, if scripting is enabled, and the Document does not have designMode enabled, and the Document is the active document in its browsing context, the user agent must execute the script:

If the script is from an external file, then that file must be used as the file to execute.

If the script is inline, then, for scripting languages that consist of pure text, user agents must use the value of the DOM text attribute (defined below) as the script to execute, and for XML-based scripting languages, user agents must use all the child nodes of the script element as the script to execute.

In any case, the user agent must execute the script according to the semantics defined by the language associated with the script's type (see the scripting languages section below).

Scripts must be executed in the scope of the browsing context of the element's Document.

The element's attributes' values might have changed between when the element was inserted into the document and when the script has finished loading, as may its other attributes; similarly, the element itself might have been taken back out of the DOM, or had other changes made. These changes do not in any way affect the above steps; only the values of the attributes at the time the script element is first inserted into the document matter.

The DOM attributes src, type, async, and defer, each must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The DOM attribute text must return a concatenation of the contents of all the text nodes that are direct children of the script element (ignoring any other nodes such as comments or elements), in tree order. On setting, it must act the same way as the textContent DOM attribute.

3.17.1.1. Scripting languages

A user agent is said to support the scripting language if the script's type matches the MIME type of a scripting language that the user agent implements.

The following lists some MIME types and the languages to which they refer:

text/javascript
ECMAScript. [ECMA262]
text/javascript;e4x=1
ECMAScript with ECMAScript for XML. [ECMA357]

User agents may support other MIME types and other languages.

When examining types to determine if they support the language, user agents must not ignore unknown MIME parameters — types with unknown parameters must be assumed to be unsupported.

3.17.2. The noscript element

Categories
Metadata content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
In a head element of an HTML document, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Where phrasing content is expected in HTML documents, if there are no ancestor noscript elements.
Content model:
When scripting is disabled, in a head element: in any order, zero or more link elements, zero or more style elements, and zero or more meta elements.
When scripting is disabled, not in a head element: transparent, but there must be no noscript element descendants.
When scripting is enabled: text that conforms to the requirements given in the prose.
Element-specific attributes:
None.
DOM interface:
No difference from HTMLElement.

The noscript element does not represent anything. It is used to present different markup to user agents that support scripting and those that don't support scripting, by affecting how the document is parsed.

The noscript element must not be used in XML documents.

When used in HTML documents, the allowed content model depends on whether scripting is enabled or not, and whether the element is in a head element or not.

In a head element, if scripting is disabled, then the content model of a noscript element must contain only link, style, and meta elements. If scripting is enabled, then the content model of a noscript element is text, except that invoking the HTML fragment parsing algorithm with the noscript element as the context and the text contents as the input must result in a list of nodes that consists only of link, style, and meta elements.

Outside of head elements, if scripting is disabled, then the content model of a noscript element is transparent, with the additional restriction that a noscript element must not have a noscript element as an ancestor (that is, noscript can't be nested).

Outside of head elements, if scripting is enabled, then the content model of a noscript element is text, except that the text must be such that running the following algorithm results in a conforming document with no noscript elements and no script elements, and such that no step in the algorithm causes an HTML parser to flag a parse error:

  1. Remove every script element from the document.
  2. Make a list of every noscript element in the document. For every noscript element in that list, perform the following steps:
    1. Let the parent element be the parent element of the noscript element.
    2. Take all the children of the parent element that come before the noscript element, and call these elements the before children.
    3. Take all the children of the parent element that come after the noscript element, and call these elements the after children.
    4. Let s be the concatenation of all the text node children of the noscript element.
    5. Set the innerHTML attribute of the parent element to the value of s. (This, as a side-effect, causes the noscript element to be removed from the document.)
    6. Insert the before children at the start of the parent element, preserving their original relative order.
    7. Insert the after children at the end of the parent element, preserving their original relative order.

The noscript element has no other requirements. In particular, children of the noscript element are not exempt from form submission, scripting, and so forth, even when scripting is enabled.

All these contortions are required because, for historical reasons, the noscript element causes the HTML parser to act differently based on whether scripting is enabled or not. The element is not allowed in XML, because in XML the parser is not affected by such state, and thus the element would not have the desired effect.

3.17.3. The event-source element

Categories
Metadata content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
src
DOM interface:
interface HTMLEventSourceElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString src;
};

The event-source element represents a target for events generated by a remote server.

The src attribute, if specified, must give a URI (or IRI) pointing to a resource that uses the application/x-dom-event-stream format.

When the element is inserted into the document, if it has the src attribute specified, the user agent must act as if the addEventSource() method on the event-source element had been invoked with the URI resulting from resolving the src attribute's value to an absolute URI.

While the element is in a document, if its src attribute is mutated, the user agent must act as if first the removeEventSource() method on the event-source element had been invoked with the URI resulting from resolving the old value of the attribute to an absolute URI, and then as if the addEventSource() method on the element had been invoked with the URI resulting from resolving the new value of the src attribute to an absolute URI.

When the element is removed from the document, if it has the src attribute specified, or, when the src attribute is about to be removed, the user agent must act as if the removeEventSource() method on the event-source element had been invoked with the URI resulting from resolving the src attribute's value to an absolute URI.

There can be more than one event-source element per document, but authors should take care to avoid opening multiple connections to the same server as HTTP recommends a limit to the number of simultaneous connections that a user agent can open per server.

The src DOM attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

3.18. Interactive elements

3.18.1. The details element

Categories
Prose element.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
One legend element followed by prose content.
Element-specific attributes:
open
DOM interface:
interface HTMLDetailsElement : HTMLElement {
  attribute boolean open;
};

The details element represents additional information or controls which the user can obtain on demand.

The first element child of a details element, if it is a legend element, represents the summary of the details.

If the first element is not a legend element, the UA should provide its own legend (e.g. "Details").

The open content attribute is a boolean attribute. If present, it indicates that the details should be shown to the user. If the attribute is absent, the details should not be shown.

If the attribute is removed, then the details should be hidden. If the attribute is added, the details should be shown.

The user should be able to request that the details be shown or hidden.

The open attribute must reflect the open content attribute.

Rendering will be described in the Rendering section in due course. Basically CSS :open and :closed match the element, it's a block-level element by default, and when it matches :closed it renders as if it had an XBL binding attached to it whose template was just <template>▶<content includes="legend:first-child">Details</content></template>, and when it's :open it acts as if it had an XBL binding attached to it whose template was just <template>▼<content includes="legend:first-child">Details</content><content/></template> or some such.

Clicking the legend would make it open/close (and would change the content attribute). Question: Do we want the content attribute to reflect the actual state like this? I think we do, the DOM not reflecting state has been a pain in the neck before. But is it semantically ok?

3.18.2. The datagrid element

Categories
Prose element.
Interactive element.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
Content model:
Either: Nothing.
Or: Prose content, but where the first element child node, if any, is not a table element.
Or: A single table element.
Or: A single select element.
Or: A single datalist element.
Element-specific attributes:
multiple
disabled
DOM interface:
interface HTMLDataGridElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DataGridDataProvider data;
  readonly attribute DataGridSelection selection;
           attribute boolean multiple;
           attribute boolean disabled;
  void updateEverything();
  void updateRowsChanged(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long count);
  void updateRowsInserted(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long count);
  void updateRowsRemoved(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long count);
  void updateRowChanged(in RowSpecification row);
  void updateColumnChanged(in unsigned long column);
  void updateCellChanged(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column);
};

One possible thing to be added is a way to detect when a row/selection has been deleted, activated, etc, by the user (delete key, enter key, etc).

This element is defined as interactive, which means it can't contain other interactive elements, despite the fact that we expect it to work with other interactive elements e.g. checkboxes and input fields. It should be called something like a Leaf Interactive Element or something, which counts for ancestors looking in and not descendants looking out.

The datagrid element represents an interactive representation of tree, list, or tabular data.

The data being presented can come either from the content, as elements given as children of the datagrid element, or from a scripted data provider given by the data DOM attribute.

The multiple and disabled attributes are boolean attributes. Their effects are described in the processing model sections below.

The multiple and disabled DOM attributes must reflect the multiple and disabled content attributes respectively.

3.18.2.1. The datagrid data model

This section is non-normative.

In the datagrid data model, data is structured as a set of rows representing a tree, each row being split into a number of columns. The columns are always present in the data model, although individual columns may be hidden in the presentation.

Each row can have child rows. Child rows may be hidden or shown, by closing or opening (respectively) the parent row.

Rows are referred to by the path along the tree that one would take to reach the row, using zero-based indices. Thus, the first row of a list is row "0", the second row is row "1"; the first child row of the first row is row "0,0", the second child row of the first row is row "0,1"; the fourth child of the seventh child of the third child of the tenth row is "9,2,6,3", etc.

The columns can have captions. Those captions are not considered a row in their own right, they are obtained separately.

Selection of data in a datagrid operates at the row level. If the multiple attribute is present, multiple rows can be selected at once, otherwise the user can only select one row at a time.

The datagrid element can be disabled entirely by setting the disabled attribute.

Columns, rows, and cells can each have specific flags, known as classes, applied to them by the data provider. These classes affect the functionality of the datagrid element, and are also passed to the style system. They are similar in concept to the class attribute, except that they are not specified on elements but are given by scripted data providers.

3.18.2.2. How rows are identified

The chains of numbers that give a row's path, or identifier, are represented by objects that implement the RowSpecification interface.

interface RowSpecification {
  // binding-specific interface
};

In ECMAScript, two classes of objects are said to implement this interface: Numbers representing non-negative integers, and homogeneous arrays of Numbers representing non-negative integers. Thus, [1,0,9] is a RowSpecification, as is 1 on its own. However, [1,0.2,9] is not a RowSpecification object, since its second value is not an integer.

User agents must always represent RowSpecifications in ECMAScript by using arrays, even if the path only has one number.

The root of the tree is represented by the empty path; in ECMAScript, this is the empty array ([]). Only the getRowCount() and GetChildAtPosition() methods ever get called with the empty path.

3.18.2.3. The data provider interface

The conformance criteria in this section apply to any implementation of the DataGridDataProvider, including (and most commonly) the content author's implementation(s).

// To be implemented by Web authors as a JS object
interface DataGridDataProvider {
  void initialize(in HTMLDataGridElement datagrid);
  unsigned long getRowCount(in RowSpecification row);
  unsigned long getChildAtPosition(in RowSpecification parentRow, in unsigned long position);
  unsigned long getColumnCount();
  DOMString getCaptionText(in unsigned long column);
  void getCaptionClasses(in unsigned long column, in DOMTokenList classes);
  DOMString getRowImage(in RowSpecification row);
  HTMLMenuElement getRowMenu(in RowSpecification row);
  void getRowClasses(in RowSpecification row, in DOMTokenList classes);
  DOMString getCellData(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column);
  void getCellClasses(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column, in DOMTokenList classes);
  void toggleColumnSortState(in unsigned long column);
  void setCellCheckedState(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column, in long state);
  void cycleCell(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column);
  void editCell(in RowSpecification row, in unsigned long column, in DOMString data);
};

The DataGridDataProvider interface represents the interface that objects must implement to be used as custom data views for datagrid elements.

Not all the methods are required. The minimum number of methods that must be implemented in a useful view is two: the getRowCount() and getCellData() methods.

Once the object is written, it must be hooked up to the datagrid using the data DOM attribute.

The following methods may be usefully implemented:

initialize(datagrid)
Called by the datagrid element (the one given by the datagrid argument) after it has first populated itself. This would typically be used to set the initial selection of the datagrid element when it is first loaded. The data provider could also use this method call to register a select event handler on the datagrid in order to monitor selection changes.
getRowCount(row)
Must return the number of rows that are children of the specified row, including rows that are off-screen. If row is empty, then the number of rows at the top level must be returned. If the value that this method would return for a given row changes, the relevant update methods on the datagrid must be called first. Otherwise, this method must always return the same number. For a list (as opposed to a tree), this method must return 0 whenever it is called with a row identifier that is not empty.
getChildAtPosition(parentRow, position)
Must return the index of the row that is a child of parentRow and that is to be positioned as the positionth row under parentRow when rendering the children of parentRow. If parentRow is empty, then position refers to the positionth row at the top level of the data grid. May be omitted if the rows are always to be sorted in the natural order. (The natural order is the one where the method always returns position.) For a given parentRow, this method must never return the same value for different values of position. The returned value x must be in the range 0 ≤ x < n, where n is the value returned by getRowCount(parentRow).
getColumnCount()
Must return the number of columns currently in the data model (including columns that might be hidden). May be omitted if there is only one column. If the value that this method would return changes, the datagrid's updateEverything() method must be called.
getCaptionText(column)
Must return the caption, or label, for column column. May be omitted if the columns have no captions. If the value that this method would return changes, the datagrid's updateColumnChanged() method must be called with the appropriate column index.
getCaptionClasses(column, classes)
Must add the classes that apply to column column to the classes object. May be omitted if the columns have no special classes. If the classes that this method would add changes, the datagrid's updateColumnChanged() method must be called with the appropriate column index. Some classes have predefined meanings.
getRowImage(row)
Must return a URI to an image that represents row row, or the empty string if there is no applicable image. May be omitted if no rows have associated images. If the value that this method would return changes, the datagrid's update methods must be called to update the row in question.
getRowMenu(row)
Must return an HTMLMenuElement object that is to be used as a context menu for row row, or null if there is no particular context menu. May be omitted if none of the rows have a special context menu. As this method is called immediately before showing the menu in question, no precautions need to be taken if the return value of this method changes.
getRowClasses(row, classes)
Must add the classes that apply to row row to the classes object. May be omitted if the rows have no special classes. If the classes that this method would add changes, the datagrid's update methods must be called to update the row in question. Some classes have predefined meanings.
getCellData(row, column)
Must return the value of the cell on row row in column column. For text cells, this must be the text to show for that cell. For progress bar cells, this must be either a floating point number in the range 0.0 to 1.0 (converted to a string representation), indicating the fraction of the progress bar to show as full (1.0 meaning complete), or the empty string, indicating an indeterminate progress bar. If the value that this method would return changes, the datagrid's update methods must be called to update the rows that changed. If only one cell changed, the updateCellChanged() method may be used.
getCellClasses(row, column, classes)
Must add the classes that apply to the cell on row row in column column to the classes object. May be omitted if the cells have no special classes. If the classes that this method would add changes, the datagrid's update methods must be called to update the rows or cells in question. Some classes have predefined meanings.
toggleColumnSortState(column)
Called by the datagrid when the user tries to sort the data using a particular column column. The data provider must update its state so that the GetChildAtPosition() method returns the new order, and the classes of the columns returned by getCaptionClasses() represent the new sort status. There is no need to tell the datagrid that it the data has changed, as the datagrid automatically assumes that the entire data model will need updating.
setCellCheckedState(row, column, state)
Called by the datagrid when the user changes the state of a checkbox cell on row row, column column. The checkbox should be toggled to the state given by state, which is a positive integer (1) if the checkbox is to be checked, zero (0) if it is to be unchecked, and a negative number (-1) if it is to be set to the indeterminate state. There is no need to tell the datagrid that the cell has changed, as the datagrid automatically assumes that the given cell will need updating.
cycleCell(row, column)
Called by the datagrid when the user changes the state of a cyclable cell on row row, column column. The data provider should change the state of the cell to the new state, as appropriate. There is no need to tell the datagrid that the cell has changed, as the datagrid automatically assumes that the given cell will need updating.
editCell(row, column, data)
Called by the datagrid when the user edits the cell on row row, column column. The new value of the cell is given by data. The data provider should update the cell accordingly. There is no need to tell the datagrid that the cell has changed, as the datagrid automatically assumes that the given cell will need updating.

The following classes (for rows, columns, and cells) may be usefully used in conjunction with this interface:

Class name Applies to Description
checked Cells The cell has a checkbox and it is checked. (The cyclable and progress classes override this, though.)
cyclable Cells The cell can be cycled through multiple values. (The progress class overrides this, though.)
editable Cells The cell can be edited. (The cyclable, progress, checked, unchecked and indeterminate classes override this, though.)
header Rows The row is a heading, not a data row.
indeterminate Cells The cell has a checkbox, and it can be set to an indeterminate state. If neither the checked nor unchecked classes are present, then the checkbox is in that state, too. (The cyclable and progress classes override this, though.)
initially-hidden Columns The column will not be shown when the datagrid is initially rendered. If this class is not present on the column when the datagrid is initially rendered, the column will be visible if space allows.
initially-closed Rows The row will be closed when the datagrid is initially rendered. If neither this class nor the initially-open class is present on the row when the datagrid is initially rendered, the initial state will depend on platform conventions.
initially-open Rows The row will be opened when the datagrid is initially rendered. If neither this class nor the initially-closed class is present on the row when the datagrid is initially rendered, the initial state will depend on platform conventions.
progress Cells The cell is a progress bar.
reversed Columns If the cell is sorted, the sort direction is descending, instead of ascending.
selectable-separator Rows The row is a normal, selectable, data row, except that instead of having data, it only has a separator. (The header and separator classes override this, though.)
separator Rows The row is a separator row, not a data row. (The header class overrides this, though.)
sortable Columns The data can be sorted by this column.
sorted Columns The data is sorted by this column. Unless the reversed class is also present, the sort direction is ascending.
unchecked Cells The cell has a checkbox and, unless the checked class is present as well, it is unchecked. (The cyclable and progress classes override this, though.)
3.18.2.4. The default data provider

The user agent must supply a default data provider for the case where the datagrid's data attribute is null. It must act as described in this section.

The behaviour of the default data provider depends on the nature of the first element child of the datagrid.

While the first element child is a table element

getRowCount(row): The number of rows returned by the default data provider for the root of the tree (when row is empty) must be the total number of tr elements that are children of tbody elements that are children of the table, if there are any such child tbody elements. If there are no such tbody elements then the number of rows returned for the root must be the number of tr elements that are children of the table.

When row is not empty, the number of rows returned must be zero.

The table-based default data provider cannot represent a tree.

Rows in thead elements do not contribute to the number of rows returned, although they do affect the columns and column captions. Rows in tfoot elements are ignored completely by this algorithm.

getChildAtPosition(row, i): The default data provider must return the mapping appropriate to the current sort order.

getColumnCount(): The number of columns returned must be the number of td element children in the first tr element child of the first tbody element child of the table, if there are any such tbody elements. If there are no such tbody elements, then it must be the number of td element children in the first tr element child of the table, if any, or otherwise 1. If the number that would be returned by these rules is 0, then 1 must be returned instead.

getCaptionText(i): If the table has no thead element child, or if its first thead element child has no tr element child, the default data provider must return the empty string for all captions. Otherwise, the value of the textContent attribute of the ith th element child of the first tr element child of the first thead element child of the table element must be returned. If there is no such th element, the empty string must be returned.

getCaptionClasses(i, classes): If the table has no thead element child, or if its first thead element child has no tr element child, the default data provider must not add any classes for any of the captions. Otherwise, each class in the class attribute of the ith th element child of the first tr element child of the first thead element child of the table element must be added to the classes. If there is no such th element, no classes must be added. The user agent must then:

  1. Remove the sorted and reversed classes.
  2. If the table element has a class attribute that includes the sortable class, add the sortable class.
  3. If the column is the one currently being used to sort the data, add the sorted class.
  4. If the column is the one currently being used to sort the data, and it is sorted in descending order, add the reversed class as well.

The various row- and cell- related methods operate relative to a particular element, the element of the row or cell specified by their arguments.

For rows: Since the default data provider for a table always returns 0 as the number of children for any row other than the root, the path to the row passed to these methods will always consist of a single number. In the prose below, this number is referred to as i.

If the table has tbody element children, the element for the ith row is the ith tr element that is a child of a tbody element that is a child of the table element. If the table does not have tbody element children, then the element for the ith real row is the ith tr element that is a child of the table element.

For cells: Given a row and its element, the row's ith cell's element is the ith td element child of the row element.

The colspan and rowspan attributes are ignored by this algorithm.

getRowImage(i): If the row's first cell's element has an img element child, then the URI of the row's image is the URI of the first img element child of the row's first cell's element. Otherwise, the URI of the row's image is the empty string.

getRowMenu(i): If the row's first cell's element has a menu element child, then the row's menu is the first menu element child of the row's first cell's element. Otherwise, the row has no menu.

getRowClasses(i, classes): The default data provider must never add a class to the row's classes.

toggleColumnSortState(i): If the data is already being sorted on the given column, then the user agent must change the current sort mapping to be the inverse of the current sort mapping; if the sort order was ascending before, it is now descending, otherwise it is now ascending. Otherwise, if the current sort column is another column, or the data model is currently not sorted, the user agent must create a new mapping, which maps rows in the data model to rows in the DOM so that the rows in the data model are sorted by the specified column, in ascending order. (Which sort comparison operator to use is left up to the UA to decide.)

When the sort mapping is changed, the values returned by the getChildAtPosition() method for the default data provider will change appropriately.

getCellData(i, j), getCellClasses(i, j, classes), getCellCheckedState(i, j, state), cycleCell(i, j), and editCell(i, j, data): See the common definitions below.

The data provider must call the datagrid's update methods appropriately whenever the descendants of the datagrid mutate. For example, if a tr is removed, then the updateRowsRemoved() methods would probably need to be invoked, and any change to a cell or its descendants must cause the cell to be updated. If the table element stops being the first child of the datagrid, then the data provider must call the updateEverything() method on the datagrid. Any change to a cell that is in the column that the data provider is currently using as its sort column must also cause the sort to be reperformed, with a call to updateEverything() if the change did affect the sort order.

While the first element child is a select or datalist element

The default data provider must return 1 for the column count, the empty string for the column's caption, and must not add any classes to the column's classes.

For the rows, assume the existence of a node filter view of the descendants of the first element child of the datagrid element (the select or datalist element), that skips all nodes other than optgroup and option elements, as well as any descendents of any option elements.

Given a path row, the corresponding element is the one obtained by drilling into the view, taking the child given by the path each time.

Given the following XML markup:

<datagrid>
 <select>
  <!-- the options and optgroups have had their labels and values removed
       to make the underlying structure clearer -->
  <optgroup>
   <option/>
   <option/>
  </optgroup>
  <optgroup>
   <option/>
   <optgroup id="a">
    <option/>
    <option/>
    <bogus/>
    <option id="b"/>
   </optgroup>
   <option/>
  </optgroup>
 </select>
</datagrid>

The path "1,1,2" would select the element with ID "b". In the filtered view, the text nodes, comment nodes, and bogus elements are ignored; so for instance, the element with ID "a" (path "1,1") has only 3 child nodes in the view.

getRowCount(row) must drill through the view to find the element corresponding to the method's argument, and return the number of child nodes in the filtered view that the corresponding element has. (If the row is empty, the corresponding element is the select element at the root of the filtered view.)

getChildAtPosition(row, position) must return position. (The select/datalist default data provider does not support sorting the data grid.)

getRowImage(i) must return the empty string, getRowMenu(i) must return null.

getRowClasses(row, classes) must add the classes from the following list to classes when their condition is met:

The getCellData(row, cell) method must return the value of the label attribute if the row's corresponding element is an optgroup element, otherwise, if the row's corresponding element is an optionelement, its label attribute if it has one, otherwise the value of its textContent DOM attribute.

The getCellClasses(row, cell, classes) method must add no classes.

autoselect some rows when initialised, reflect the selection in the select, reflect the multiple attribute somehow.

The data provider must call the datagrid's update methods appropriately whenever the descendants of the datagrid mutate.

While the first element child is another element

The default data provider must return 1 for the column count, the empty string for the column's caption, and must not add any classes to the column's classes.

For the rows, assume the existence of a node filter view of the descendants of the datagrid that skips all nodes other than li, h1-h6, and hr elements, and skips any descendants of menu elements.

Given this view, each element in the view represents a row in the data model. The element corresponding to a path row is the one obtained by drilling into the view, taking the child given by the path each time. The element of the row of a particular method call is the element given by drilling into the view along the path given by the method's arguments.

getRowCount(row) must return the number of child elements in this view for the given row, or the number of elements at the root of the view if the row is empty.

In the following example, the elements are identified by the paths given by their child text nodes:

<datagrid>
 <ol>
  <li> row 0 </li>
  <li> row 1
   <ol>
    <li> row 1,0 </li>
   </ol>
  </li>
  <li> row 2 </li>
 </ol>
</datagrid>

In this example, only the li elements actually appear in the data grid; the ol element does not affect the data grid's processing model.

getChildAtPosition(row, position) must return position. (The generic default data provider does not support sorting the data grid.)

getRowImage(i) must return the URI of the image given by the first img element descendant (in the real DOM) of the row's element, that is not also a descendant of another element in the filtered view that is a descendant of the row's element.

In the following example, the row with path "1,0" returns "http://example.com/a" as its image URI, and the other rows (including the row with path "1") return the empty string:

<datagrid>
 <ol>
  <li> row 0 </li>
  <li> row 1
   <ol>
    <li> row 1,0 <img src="http://example.com/a" alt=""> </li>
   </ol>
  </li>
  <li> row 2 </li>
 </ol>
</datagrid>

getRowMenu(i) must return the first menu element descendant (in the real DOM) of the row's element, that is not also a descendant of another element in the filtered view that is a decsendant of the row's element. (This is analogous to the image case above.)

getRowClasses(i, classes) must add the classes from the following list to classes when their condition is met:

The getCellData(i, j), getCellClasses(i, j, classes), getCellCheckedState(i, j, state), cycleCell(i, j), and editCell(i, j, data) methods must act as described in the common definitions below, treating the row's element as being the cell's element.

selection handling?

The data provider must call the datagrid's update methods appropriately whenever the descendants of the datagrid mutate.

Otherwise, while there is no element child

The data provider must return 0 for the number of rows, 1 for the number of columns, the empty string for the first column's caption, and must add no classes when asked for that column's classes. If the datagrid's child list changes such that there is a first element child, then the data provider must call the updateEverything() method on the datagrid.

3.18.2.4.1. Common default data provider method definitions for cells

These definitions are used for the cell-specific methods of the default data providers (other than in the select/datalist case). How they behave is based on the contents of an element that represents the cell given by their first two arguments. Which element that is is defined in the previous section.

Cyclable cells

If the first element child of a cell's element is a select element that has a no multiple attribute and has at least one option element descendent, then the cell acts as a cyclable cell.

The "current" option element is the selected option element, or the first option element if none is selected.

The getCellData() method must return the textContent of the current option element (the label attribute is ignored in this context as the optgroups are not displayed).

The getCellClasses() method must add the cyclable class and then all the classes of the current option element.

The cycleCell() method must change the selection of the select element such that the next option element after the current option element is the only one that is selected (in tree order). If the current option element is the last option element descendent of the select, then the first option element descendent must be selected instead.

The setCellCheckedState() and editCell() methods must do nothing.

Progress bar cells

If the first element child of a cell's element is a progress element, then the cell acts as a progress bar cell.

The getCellData() method must return the value returned by the progress element's position DOM attribute.

The getCellClasses() method must add the progress class.

The setCellCheckedState(), cycleCell(), and editCell() methods must do nothing.

Checkbox cells

If the first element child of a cell's element is an input element that has a type attribute with the value checkbox, then the cell acts as a check box cell.

The getCellData() method must return the textContent of the cell element.

The getCellClasses() method must add the checked class if the input element is checked, and the unchecked class otherwise.

The setCellCheckedState() method must set the input element's checkbox state to checked if the method's third argument is 1, and to unchecked otherwise.

The cycleCell() and editCell() methods must do nothing.

Editable cells

If the first element child of a cell's element is an input element that has a type attribute with the value text or that has no type attribute at all, then the cell acts as an editable cell.

The getCellData() method must return the value of the input element.

The getCellClasses() method must add the editable class.

The editCell() method must set the input element's value DOM attribute to the value of the third argument to the method.

The setCellCheckedState() and cycleCell() methods must do nothing.

3.18.2.5. Populating the datagrid element

A datagrid must be disabled until its end tag has been parsed (in the case of a datagrid element in the original document markup) or until it has been inserted into the document (in the case of a dynamically created element). After that point, the element must fire a single load event at itself, which doesn't bubble and cannot be canceled.

The end-tag parsing thing should be moved to the parsing section.

The datagrid must then populate itself using the data provided by the data provider assigned to the data DOM attribute. After the view is populated (using the methods described below), the datagrid must invoke the initialize() method on the data provider specified by the data attribute, passing itself (the HTMLDataGridElement object) as the only argument.

When the data attribute is null, the datagrid must use the default data provider described in the previous section.

To obtain data from the data provider, the element must invoke methods on the data provider object in the following ways:

To determine the total number of columns
Invoke the getColumnCount() method with no arguments. The return value is the number of columns. If the return value is zero or negative, not an integer, or simply not a numeric type, or if the method is not defined, then 1 must be used instead.
To get the captions to use for the columns
Invoke the getCaptionText() method with the index of the column in question. The index i must be in the range 0 ≤ i < N, where N is the total number of columns. The return value is the string to use when referring to that column. If the method returns null or the empty string, the column has no caption. If the method is not defined, then none of the columns have any captions.
To establish what classes apply to a column
Invoke the getCaptionClasses() method with the index of the column in question, and an object implementing the DOMTokenList interface, associated with an anonymous empty string. The index i must be in the range 0 ≤ i < N, where N is the total number of columns. The tokens contained in the string underlying DOMTokenList object when the method returns represent the classes that apply to the given column. If the method is not defined, no classes apply to the column.
To establish whether a column should be initially included in the visible columns
Check whether the initially-hidden class applies to the column. If it does, then the column should not be initially included; if it does not, then the column should be initially included.
To establish whether the data can be sorted relative to a particular column
Check whether the sortable class applies to the column. If it does, then the user should be able to ask the UA to display the data sorted by that column; if it does not, then the user agent must not allow the user to ask for the data to be sorted by that column.
To establish if a column is a sorted column
If the user agent can handle multiple columns being marked as sorted simultaneously: Check whether the sorted class applies to the column. If it does, then that column is the sorted column, otherwise it is not.
If the user agent can only handle one column being marked as sorted at a time: Check each column in turn, starting with the first one, to see whether the sorted class applies to that column. The first column that has that class, if any, is the sorted column. If none of the columns have that class, there is no sorted column.
To establish the sort direction of a sorted column
Check whether the reversed class applies to the column. If it does, then the sort direction is descending (down; first rows have the highest values), otherwise it is ascending (up; first rows have the lowest values).
To determine the total number of rows
Determine the number of rows for the root of the data grid, and determine the number of child rows for each open row. The total number of rows is the sum of all these numbers.
To determine the number of rows for the root of the data grid
Invoke the getRowCount() method with a RowSpecification object representing the empty path as its only argument. The return value is the number of rows at the top level of the data grid. If the return value of the method is negative, not an integer, or simply not a numeric type, or if the method is not defined, then zero must be used instead.
To determine the number of child rows for a row
Invoke the getRowCount() method with a RowSpecification object representing the path to the row in question. The return value is the number of child rows for the given row. If the return value of the method is negative, not an integer, or simply not a numeric type, or if the method is not defined, then zero must be used instead.
To determine what order to render rows in

Invoke the getChildAtPosition() method with a RowSpecification object representing the path to the parent of the rows that are being rendered as the first argument, and the position that is being rendered as the second argument. The return value is the index of the row to render in that position.

If the rows are:

  1. Row "0"
    1. Row "0,0"
    2. Row "0,1"
  2. Row "1"
    1. Row "1,0"
    2. Row "1,1"

...and the getChildAtPosition() method is implemented as follows:

function getChildAtPosition(parent, child) {
  // always return the reverse order
  return getRowCount(parent)-child-1;
}

...then the rendering would actually be:

  1. Row "1"
    1. Row "1,1"
    2. Row "1,0"
  2. Row "0"
    1. Row "0,1"
    2. Row "0,0"

If the return value of the method is negative, larger than the number of rows that the getRowCount() method reported for that parent, not an integer, or simply not a numeric type, then the entire data grid should be disabled. Similarly, if the method returns the same value for two or more different values for the second argument (with the same first argument, and assuming that the data grid hasn't had relevant update methods invoked in the meantime), then the data grid should be disabled. Instead of disabling the data grid, the user agent may act as if the getChildAtPosition() method was not defined on the data provider (thus disabling sorting for that data grid, but still letting the user interact with the data). If the method is not defined, then the return value must be assumed to be the same as the second argument (an indentity transform; the data is rendered in its natural order).

To establish what classes apply to a row
Invoke the getRowClasses() method with a RowSpecification object representing the row in question, and a DOMTokenList associated with an empty string. The tokens contained in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string when the method returns represent the classes that apply to the row in question. If the method is not defined, no classes apply to the row.
To establish whether a row is a data row or a special row
Examine the classes that apply to the row. If the header class applies to the row, then it is not a data row, it is a subheading. The data from the first cell of the row is the text of the subheading, the rest of the cells must be ignored. Otherwise, if the separator class applies to the row, then in the place of the row, a separator should be shown. Otherwise, if the selectable-separator class applies to the row, then the row should be a data row, but represented as a separator. (The difference between a separator and a selectable-separator is that the former is not an item that can be actually selected, whereas the second can be selected and thus has a context menu that applies to it, and so forth.) For both kinds of separator rows, the data of the rows' cells must all be ignored. If none of those three classes apply then the row is a simple data row.
To establish whether a row is openable
Determine the number of child rows for that row. If there are one or more child rows, then the row is openable.
To establish whether a row should be initially open or closed
If the row is openable, examine the classes that apply to the row. If the initially-open class applies to the row, then it should be initially open. Otherwise, if the initially-closed class applies to the row, then it must be initially closed. Otherwise, if neither class applies to the row, or if the row is not openable, then the initial state of the row is entirely up to the UA.
To obtain a URI to an image representing a row
Invoke the getRowImage() method with a RowSpecification object representing the row in question. The return value is a string representing a URI (or IRI) to an image. Relative URIs must be interpreted relative to the datagrid's base URI. If the method returns the empty string, null, or if the method is not defined, then the row has no associated image.
To obtain a context menu appropriate for a particular row
Invoke the getRowMenu() method with a RowSpecification object representing the row in question. The return value is a reference to an object implementing the HTMLMenuElement interface, i.e. a menu element DOM node. (This element must then be interpreted as described in the section on context menus to obtain the actual context menu to use.) If the method returns something that is not an HTMLMenuElement, or if the method is not defined, then the row has no associated context menu. User agents may provide their own default context menu, and may add items to the author-provided context menu. For example, such a menu could allow the user to change the presentation of the datagrid element.
To establish the value of a particular cell
Invoke the getCellData() method with the first argument being a RowSpecification object representing the row of the cell in question and the second argument being the index of the cell's column. The second argument must be a non-negative integer less than the total number of columns. The return value is the value of the cell. If the return value is null or the empty string, or if the method is not defined, then the cell has no data. (For progress bar cells, the cell's value must be further interpreted, as described below.)
To establish what classes apply to a cell
Invoke the getCellClasses() method with the first argument being a RowSpecification object representing the row of the cell in question, the second argument being the index of the cell's column, and the third being an object implementing the DOMTokenList interface, associated with an empty string. The second argument must be a non-negative integer less than the total number of columns. The tokens contained in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string when the method returns represent the classes that apply to that cell. If the method is not defined, no classes apply to the cell.
To establish how the type of a cell
Examine the classes that apply to the cell. If the progress class applies to the cell, it is a progress bar. Otherwise, if the cyclable class applies to the cell, it is a cycling cell whose value can be cycled between multiple states. Otherwise, none of these classes apply, and the cell is a simple text cell.
To establish the value of a progress bar cell
If the value x of the cell is a string that can be converted to a floating-point number in the range 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0, then the progress bar has that value (0.0 means no progress, 1.0 means complete). Otherwise, the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar.
To establish how a simple text cell should be presented
Check whether one of the checked, unchecked, or indeterminate classes applies to the cell. If any of these are present, then the cell has a checkbox, otherwise none are present and the cell does not have a checkbox. If the cell has no checkbox, check whether the editable class applies to the cell. If it does, then the cell value is editable, otherwise the cell value is static.
To establish the state of a cell's checkbox, if it has one
Check whether the checked class applies to the cell. If it does, the cell is checked. Otherwise, check whether the unchecked class applies to the cell. If it does, the cell is unchecked. Otherwise, the indeterminate class appplies to the cell and the cell's checkbox is in an indeterminate state. When the indeterminate class appplies to the cell, the checkbox is a tristate checkbox, and the user can set it to the indeterminate state. Otherwise, only the checked and/or unchecked classes apply to the cell, and the cell can only be toggled betwen those two states.

If the data provider ever raises an exception while the datagrid is invoking one of its methods, the datagrid must act, for the purposes of that particular method call, as if the relevant method had not been defined.

A RowSpecification object p with n path components passed to a method of the data provider must fulfill the constraint 0 ≤ pi < m-1 for all integer values of i in the range 0 ≤ i < n-1, where m is the value that was last returned by the getRowCount() method when it was passed the RowSpecification object q with i-1 items, where pi = qi for all integer values of i in the range 0 ≤ i < n-1, with any changes implied by the update methods taken into account.

The data model is considered stable: user agents may assume that subsequent calls to the data provider methods will return the same data, until one of the update methods is called on the datagrid element. If a user agent is returned inconsistent data, for example if the number of rows returned by getRowCount() varies in ways that do not match the calls made to the update methods, the user agent may disable the datagrid. User agents that do not disable the datagrid in inconsistent cases must honour the most recently returned values.

User agents may cache returned values so that the data provider is never asked for data that could contradict earlier data. User agents must not cache the return value of the getRowMenu method.

The exact algorithm used to populate the data grid is not defined here, since it will differ based on the presentation used. However, the behaviour of user agents must be consistent with the descriptions above. For example, it would be non-conformant for a user agent to make cells have both a checkbox and be editable, as the descriptions above state that cells that have a checkbox cannot be edited.

3.18.2.6. Updating the datagrid

Whenever the data attribute is set to a new value, the datagrid must clear the current selection, remove all the displayed rows, and plan to repopulate itself using the information from the new data provider at the earliest opportunity.

There are a number of update methods that can be invoked on the datagrid element to cause it to refresh itself in slightly less drastic ways:

When the updateEverything() method is called, the user agent must repopulate the entire datagrid. If the number of rows decreased, the selection must be updated appropriately. If the number of rows increased, the new rows should be left unselected.

When the updateRowsChanged(row, count) method is called, the user agent must refresh the rendering of the rows starting from the row specified by row, and including the count next siblings of the row (or as many next siblings as it has, if that is less than count), including all descendant rows.

When the updateRowsInserted(row, count) method is called, the user agent must assume that count new rows have been inserted, such that the first new row is indentified by row. The user agent must update its rendering and the selection accordingly. The new rows should not be selected.

When the updateRowsRemoved(row, count) method is called, the user agent must assume that count rows have been removed starting from the row that used to be identifier by row. The user agent must update its rendering and the selection accordingly.

The updateRowChanged(row) method must be exactly equivalent to calling updateRowsChanged(row, 1).

When the updateColumnChanged(column) method is called, the user agent must refresh the rendering of the specified column column, for all rows.

When the updateCellChanged(row, column) method is called, the user agent must refresh the rendering of the cell on row row, in column column.

Any effects the update methods have on the datagrid's selection is not considered a change to the selection, and must therefore not fire the select event.

These update methods should only be called by the data provider, or code acting on behalf of the data provider. In particular, calling the updateRowsInserted() and updateRowsRemoved() methods without actually inserting or removing rows from the data provider is likely to result in inconsistent renderings, and the user agent is likely to disable the data grid.

3.18.2.7. Requirements for interactive user agents

This section only applies to interactive user agents.

If the datagrid element has a disabled attribute, then the user agent must disable the datagrid, preventing the user from interacting with it. The datagrid element should still continue to update itself when the data provider signals changes to the data, though. Obviously, conformance requirements stating that datagrid elements must react to users in particular ways do not apply when one is disabled.

If a row is openable, then the user should be able to toggle its open/closed state. When a row's open/closed state changes, the user agent must update the rendering to match the new state.

If a cell is a cell whose value can be cycled between multiple states, then the user must be able to activate the cell to cycle its value. When the user activates this "cycling" behaviour of a cell, then the datagrid must invoke the data provider's cycleCell() method, with a RowSpecification object representing the cell's row as the first argument and the cell's column index as the second. The datagrid must act as if the datagrid's updateCellChanged() method had been invoked with those same arguments immediately before the provider's method was invoked.

When a cell has a checkbox, the user must be able to set the checkbox's state. When the user changes the state of a checkbox in such a cell, the datagrid must invoke the data provider's setCellCheckedState() method, with a RowSpecification object representing the cell's row as the first argument, the cell's column index as the second, and the checkbox's new state as the third. The state should be represented by the number 1 if the new state is checked, 0 if the new state is unchecked, and -1 if the new state is indeterminate (which must only be possible if the cell has the indeterminate class set). The datagrid must act as if the datagrid's updateCellChanged() method had been invoked, specifying the same cell, immediately before the provider's method was invoked.

If a cell is editable, the user must be able to edit the data for that cell, and doing so must cause the user agent to invoke the editCell() method of the data provider with three arguments: a RowSpecification object representing the cell's row, the cell's column's index, and the new text entered by the user. The user agent must act as if the updateCellChanged() method had been invoked, with the same row and column specified, immediately before the provider's method was invoked.

3.18.2.8. The selection

This section only applies to interactive user agents. For other user agents, the selection attribute must return null.

interface DataGridSelection {
  readonly attribute unsigned long length;
  RowSpecification item(in unsigned long index);
  boolean isSelected(in RowSpecification row);
  void setSelected(in RowSpecification row, in boolean selected);

  void selectAll();
  void invert();
  void clear();
};

Each datagrid element must keep track of which rows are currently selected. Initially no rows are selected, but this can be changed via the methods described in this section.

The selection of a datagrid is represented by its selection DOM attribute, which must be a DataGridSelection object.

DataGridSelection objects represent the rows in the selection. In the selection the rows must be ordered in the natural order of the data provider (and not, e.g., the rendered order). Rows that are not rendered because one of their ancestors is closed must share the same selection state as their nearest rendered ancestor. Such rows are not considered part of the selection for the purposes of iterating over the selection.

This selection API doesn't allow for hidden rows to be selected because it is trivial to create a data provider that has infinite depth, which would then require the selection to be infinite if every row, including every hidden row, was selected.

The length attribute must return the number of rows currently present in the selection. The item(index) method must return the indexth row in the selection. If the argument is out of range (less than zero or greater than the number of selected rows minus one), then it must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception. [DOM3CORE]

The isSelected() method must return the selected state of the row specified by its argument. If the specified row exists and is selected, it must return true, otherwise it must return false.

The setSelected() method takes two arguments, row and selected. When invoked, it must set the selection state of row row to selected if selected is true, and unselected if it is false. If row is not a row in the data grid, the method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR exception. If the specified row is not rendered because one of its ancestors is closed, the method must do nothing.

The selectAll() method must mark all the rows in the data grid as selected. After a call to selectAll(), the length attribute will return the number of rows in the data grid, not counting children of closed rows.

The invert() method must cause all the rows in the selection that were marked as selected to now be marked as not selected, and vice versa.

The clear() method must mark all the rows in the data grid to be marked as not selected. After a call to clear(), the length attribute will return zero.

If the datagrid element has a multiple attribute, then the user must be able to select any number of rows (zero or more). If the attribute is not present, then the user must only be able to select a single row at a time, and selecting another one must unselect all the other rows.

This only applies to the user. Scripts can select multiple rows even when the multiple attribute is absent.

Whenever the selection of a datagrid changes, whether due to the user interacting with the element, or as a result of calls to methods of the selection object, a select event that bubbles but is not cancelable must be fired on the datagrid element. If changes are made to the selection via calls to the object's methods during the execution of a script, then the select events must be coalesced into one, which must then be fired when the script execution has completed.

The DataGridSelection interface has no relation to the Selection interface.

3.18.2.9. Columns and captions

This section only applies to interactive user agents.

Each datagrid element must keep track of which columns are currently being rendered. User agents should initially show all the columns except those with the initially-hidden class, but may allow users to hide or show columns. User agents should initially display the columns in the order given by the data provider, but may allow this order to be changed by the user.

If columns are not being used, as might be the case if the data grid is being presented in an icon view, or if an overview of data is being read in an aural context, then the text of the first column of each row should be used to represent the row.

If none of the columns have any captions (i.e. if the data provider does not provide a getCaptionText() method), then user agents may avoid showing the column headers at all. This may prevent the user from performing actions on the columns (such as reordering them, changing the sort column, and so on).

Whatever the order used for rendering, and irrespective of what columns are being shown or hidden, the "first column" as referred to in this specification is always the column with index zero, and the "last column" is always the column with the index one less than the value returned by the getColumnCount() method of the data provider.

If a column is sortable, then the user must be able to invoke it to sort the data. When the user does so, then the datagrid must invoke the data provider's toggleColumnSortState() method, with the column's index as the only argument. The datagrid must then act as if the datagrid's updateEverything() method had been invoked.

3.18.3. The command element

Categories
Metadata content.
Phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where metadata content is expected.
Where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Empty.
Element-specific attributes:
type
label
icon
hidden
disabled
checked
radiogroup
default
Also, the title attribute has special semantics on this element.
DOM interface:
interface HTMLCommandElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString label;
           attribute DOMString icon;
           attribute boolean hidden;
           attribute boolean disabled;
           attribute boolean checked;
           attribute DOMString radiogroup;
           attribute boolean default;
 void click(); // shadows HTMLElement.click()
};

The Command interface must also be implemented by this element.

The command element represents a command that the user can invoke.

The type attribute indicates the kind of command: either a normal command with an associated action, or a state or option that can be toggled, or a selection of one item from a list of items.

The attribute's value must be either "command", "checkbox", or "radio", denoting each of these three types of commands respectively. The attribute may also be omitted if the element is to represent the first of these types, a simple command.

The label attribute gives the name of the command, as shown to the user.

The title attribute gives a hint describing the command, which might be shown to the user to help him.

The icon attribute gives a picture that represents the command. If the attribute is specified, the attribute's value must contain a URI (or IRI).

The hidden attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that the command is not relevant and is to be hidden.

The disabled attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that the command is not available in the current state.

The distinction between Disabled State and Hidden State is subtle. A command should be Disabled if, in the same context, it could be enabled if only certain aspects of the situation were changed. A command should be marked as Hidden if, in that situation, the command will never be enabled. For example, in the context menu for a water faucet, the command "open" might be Disabled if the faucet is already open, but the command "eat" would be marked Hidden since the faucet could never be eaten.

The checked attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that the command is selected.

The radiogroup attribute gives the name of the group of commands that will be toggled when the command itself is toggled, for commands whose type attribute has the value "radio". The scope of the name is the child list of the parent element.

If the command element is used when generating a context menu, then the default attribute indicates, if present, that the command is the one that would have been invoked if the user had directly activated the menu's subject instead of using its context menu. The default attribute is a boolean attribute.

Need an example that shows an element that, if double-clicked, invokes an action, but that also has a context menu, showing the various command attributes off, and that has a default command.

The type, label, icon, hidden, disabled, checked, radiogroup, and default DOM attributes must reflect their respective namesake content attributes.

The click() method's behaviour depends on the value of the type attribute of the element, as follows:

If the type attribute has the value checkbox

If the element has a checked attribute, the UA must remove that attribute. Otherwise, the UA must add a checked attribute, with the literal value checked. The UA must then fire a click event at the element.

If the type attribute has the value radio

If the element has a parent, then the UA must walk the list of child nodes of that parent element, and for each node that is a command element, if that element has a radiogroup attribute whose value exactly matches the current element's (treating missing radiogroup attributes as if they were the empty string), and has a checked attribute, must remove that attribute and fire a click event at the element.

Then, the element's checked attribute attribute must be set to the literal value checked and a click event must be fired at the element.

Otherwise

The UA must fire a click event at the element.

Firing a synthetic click event at the element does not cause any of the actions described above to happen.

should change all the above so it actually is just trigged by a click event, then we could remove the shadowing click() method and rely on actual events.

Need to define the command="" attribute

command elements are not rendered unless they form part of a menu.

Categories
Prose content.
If there is a menu element ancestor: phrasing content.
Contexts in which this element may be used:
Where prose content is expected.
If there is a menu element ancestor: where phrasing content is expected.
Content model:
Either: Zero or more li elements.
Or: Phrasing content.
Element-specific attributes:
type
label
autosubmit
DOM interface:
interface HTMLMenuElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute DOMString type;
           attribute DOMString label;
           attribute boolean autosubmit;
};

The menu element represents a list of commands.

The type attribute is an enumerated attribute indicating the kind of menu being declared. The attribute has three states. The context keyword maps to the context menu state, in which the element is declaring a context menu. The toolbar keyword maps to the tool bar state, in which the element is declaraing a tool bar. The attribute may also be omitted. The missing value default is the list state, which indicates that the element is merely a list of commands that is neither declaring a context menu nor defining a tool bar.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the context menu state, then the element represents the commands of a context menu, and the user can only interact with the commands if that context menu is activated.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the tool bar state, then the element represents a list of active commands that the user can immediately interact with.

If a menu element's type attribute is in the list state, then the element either represents an unordered list of items (each represented by an li element), each of which represents a command that the user may perform or activate, or, if the element has no li element children, prose content describing available commands.

The label attribute gives the label of the menu. It is used by user agents to display nested menus in the UI. For example, a context menu containing another menu would use the nested menu's label attribute for the submenu's menu label.

The autosubmit attribute is a boolean attribute that, if present, indicates that selections made to form controls in this menu are to result in the control's form being immediately submitted.

If a change event bubbles through a menu element, then, in addition to any other default action that that event might have, the UA must act as if the following was an additional default action for that event: if (when it comes time to execute the default action) the menu element has an autosubmit attribute, and the target of the event is an input element, and that element has a type attribute whose value is either radio or checkbox, and the input element in question has a non-null form DOM attribute, then the UA must invoke the submit() method of the form element indicated by that DOM attribute.

This section is non-normative.

...

3.18.4.2. Building menus and tool bars

A menu (or tool bar) consists of a list of zero or more of the following components:

The list corresponding to a particular menu element is built by iterating over its child nodes. For each child node in tree order, the required behaviour depends on what the node is, as follows:

An element that defines a command
Append the command to the menu. If the element is a command element with a default attribute, mark the command as being a default command.
An hr element
An option element that has a value attribute set to the empty string, and has a disabled attribute, and whose textContent consists of a string of one or more hyphens (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS)
Append a separator to the menu.
An li element
Iterate over the children of the li element.
A menu element with no label attribute
A select element
Append a separator to the menu, then iterate over the children of the menu or select element, then append another separator.
A menu element with a label attribute
An optgroup element
Append a submenu to the menu, using the value of the element's label attribute as the label of the menu. The submenu must be constructed by taking the element and creating a new menu for it using the complete process described in this section.
Any other node
Ignore the node.

We should support label in the algorithm above -- just iterate through the contents like with li, to support input elements in label elements. Also, optgroup elements without labels should be ignored (maybe? or at least should say they have no label so that they are dropped below), and select elements inside label elements may need special processing.

Once all the nodes have been processed as described above, the user agent must the post-process the menu as follows:

  1. Any menu item with no label, or whose label is the empty string, must be removed.
  2. Any sequence of two or more separators in a row must be collapsed to a single separator.
  3. Any separator at the start or end of the menu must be removed.
3.18.4.3. Context menus

The contextmenu attribute gives the element's context menu. The value must be the ID of a menu element in the DOM. If the node that would be obtained by the invoking the getElementById() method using the attribute's value as the only argument is null or not a menu element, then the element has no assigned context menu. Otherwise, the element's assigned context menu is the element so identified.

When an element's context menu is requested (e.g. by the user right-clicking the element, or pressing a context menu key), the UA must fire a contextmenu event on the element for which the menu was requested.

Typically, therefore, the firing of the contextmenu event will be the default action of a mouseup or keyup event. The exact sequence of events is UA-dependent, as it will vary based on platform conventions.

The default action of the contextmenu event depends on whether the element has a context menu assigned (using the contextmenu attribute) or not. If it does not, the default action must be for the user agent to show its default context menu, if it has one.

If the element does have a context menu assigned, then the user agent must fire a show event on the relevant menu element.

The default action of this event is that the user agent must show a context menu built from the menu element.

The user agent may also provide access to its default context menu, if any, with the context menu shown. For example, it could merge the menu items from the two menus together, or provide the page's context menu as a submenu of the default menu.

If the user dismisses the menu without making a selection, nothing in particular happens.

If the user selects a menu item that represents a command, then the UA must invoke that command's Action.

Context menus must not, while being shown, reflect changes in the DOM; they are constructed as the default action of the show event and must remain like that until dismissed.

User agents may provide means for bypassing the context menu processing model, ensuring that the user can always access the UA's default context menus. For example, the user agent could handle right-clicks that have the Shift key depressed in such a way that it does not fire the contextmenu event and instead always shows the default context menu.

The contextMenu attribute must reflect the contextmenu content attribute.

3.18.4.4. Toolbars

Toolbars are a kind of menu that is always visible.

When a menu element has a type attribute with the value toolbar, then the user agent must build the menu for that menu element and render it in the document in a position appropriate for that menu element.

The user agent must reflect changes made to the menu's DOM immediately in the UI.

3.18.5. Commands

A command is the abstraction behind menu items, buttons, and links. Once a command is defined, other parts of the interface can refer to the same command, allowing many access points to a single feature to share aspects such as the disabled state.

Commands are defined to have the following facets:

Type
The kind of command: "command", meaning it is a normal command; "radio", meaning that triggering the command will, amongst other things, set the Checked State to true (and probably uncheck some other commands); or "checkbox", meaning that triggering the command will, amongst other things, toggle the value of the Checked State.
ID
The name of the command, for referring to the command from the markup or from script. If a command has no ID, it is an anonymous command.
Label
The name of the command as seen by the user.
Hint
A helpful or descriptive string that can be shown to the user.
Icon
A graphical image that represents the action.